1. Michael A. Choma

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    1. Mentioned In 32 Articles

    2. Ex vivo visualization of human ciliated epithelium and quantitative analysis of induced flow dynamics by using optical coherence tomography

      Ex vivo visualization of human ciliated epithelium and quantitative analysis of induced flow dynamics by using optical coherence tomography
      Background and Objective Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. Materials and Methods Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly ...
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    3. Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports

      Analysis of Craniocardiac Malformations in Xenopus using Optical Coherence Tomography : Scientific Reports
      Birth defects affect 3% of children in the United States. Among the birth defects, congenital heart disease and craniofacial malformations are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the genetic mechanisms underlying craniocardiac malformations remain largely uncharacterized. To address this, human genomic studies are identifying sequence variations in patients, resulting in numerous candidate genes. However, the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis for most candidate genes are unknown. Therefore, there is a ...
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    4. Yale University Receives NIH Grant for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow

      Yale University Receives NIH Grant for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow
      Yale University Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $416,250 for Quantitative Optical Imaging of Cilia-Driven Fluid Flow. The principal investigator is Michael Choma. The program began in 2013 and ends in 2018. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Respiratory diseases are major causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. These diseases are incompletely understood, which is a barrier to improving clinical care. Therefore, new mechanisms of disease need ...
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    5. Improved velocimetry in optical coherence tomography using Bayesian analysis

      Improved velocimetry in optical coherence tomography using Bayesian analysis
      OCT is a popular cross-sectional microscale imaging modality in medicine and biology. While structural imaging using OCT is a mature technology in many respects, flow and motion estimation using OCT remains an intense area of research. In particular, there is keen interest in maximizing information extraction from the complex-valued OCT signal. Here, we introduce a Bayesian framework into the data workflow in OCT-based velocimetry. We demonstrate that using prior information ...
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    6. Three-dimensional, three-vector-component velocimetry of cilia-driven fluid flow using correlation-based approaches in optical coherence tomography

      Three-dimensional, three-vector-component velocimetry of cilia-driven fluid flow using correlation-based approaches in optical coherence tomography
      Microscale quantification of cilia-driven fluid flow is an emerging area in medical physiology, including pulmonary and central nervous system physiology. Cilia-driven fluid flow is most completely described by a three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) vector field. Here, we generate 3D3C velocimetry measurements by synthesizing higher dimensional data from lower dimensional measurements obtained using two separate optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based approaches: digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)-OCT ...
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    7. Quantifying hyperoxia-mediated damage to mammalian respiratory cilia-driven fluid flow using particle tracking velocimetry optical coherence tomography

      Quantifying hyperoxia-mediated damage to mammalian respiratory cilia-driven fluid flow using particle tracking velocimetry optical coherence tomography
      Oxygen supplementation [hyperoxia, increased fraction of inspired oxygen ( FiO 2 )] is an indispensable treatment in the intensive care unit for patients in respiratory failure. Like other treatments or drugs, hyperoxia has a risk-benefit profile that guides its clinical use. While hyperoxia is known to damage respiratory epithelium, it is unknown if damage can result in impaired capacity to generate cilia-driven fluid flow. Here, we demonstrate that quantifying cilia-driven fluid flow ...
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    8. Post-doctoral Research Fellowship at Yale in Cardiovascular Molecular and Translational Imaging

      Post-doctoral Research Fellowship at Yale in Cardiovascular Molecular and Translational Imaging
      Post-doctoral research fellowship immediately available at Yale on NIH funded T32 training grant focused on providing multi-disciplinary multi-modality training in molecular and translational cardiovascular imaging for highly qualified fellows holding either a MD or/and PhD, in preparation for academic careers as independent investigators in the highly clinically relevant field of cardiovascular imaging. Post-doctoral fellowship training will be 2-3 years in duration. There are three primary research focuses in the ...
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    9. Low-spatial-coherence broadband fiber source for speckle free imaging

      Low-spatial-coherence broadband fiber source for speckle free imaging
      We designed and demonstrate a fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with low spatial coherence, low temporal coherence, and high power per mode. ASE is produced by optically pumping a large gain core multimode fiber while minimizing optical feedback to avoid lasing. The fiber ASE source provides 270 mW of continuous wave emission, centered at =1055 nm with a full-width half-maximum bandwidth of 74 nm. The emission is distributed among ...
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      Mentions: Michael A. Choma
    10. Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow

      Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow
      Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, rightleft patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied toward quantifying ciliary flow. Here, we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been ...
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    11. Low-spatial coherence electrically-pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging

      Low-spatial coherence electrically-pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging
      The spatial coherence of laser sources has limited their application to parallel imaging and projection due to coherent artifacts, such as speckle. In contrast, traditional incoherent light sources, such as thermal sources or light emitting diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip-scale, electrically-pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much lower spatial coherence than conventional ...
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    12. Yale University Receives NIH Grant for Massively Parallel Interferometric Confocal Microscopy using Degenerate Lasers

      Yale University Receives  NIH Grant  for Massively Parallel Interferometric Confocal Microscopy using Degenerate Lasers
      Yale University Receives 2014 NIH Grant for $209,850 for Massively Parallel Interferometric Confocal Microscopy using Degenerate Lasers. The principal nvestigator is Michael Choma. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Confocal microscopy uses geometric principles to generate cross-sectional images of scattering biological tissue. Traditional reflectance confocal microscopes use serial pixel acquisition, thereby limiting acquisition speeds. Parallelization of pixel acquisition would dramatically increase imaging speeds and enable the study ...
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    13. 1-15 of 32 1 2 »
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  2. About Michael A. Choma

    Michael A. Choma

    Michael A. Choma is an Assistant Professor of Diagnostic Radiology and of Biomedical Engineering at Yale School of Medicine.  Michael A. Choma, MD, PhD is a physician-scientist with expertise in pediatrics, biomedical optics, and biomedical engineering. His research uses innovative optical imaging methods to better understand and treat pediatric disease, including congenital heart disease and ciliary disease. Michael received his BS in Biomedical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, his PhD in Biomedical Engineering from Duke University (thesis advisor: Joseph Izatt, PhD), and his MD from Duke University.  His PhD thesis research into optical coherence tomography (OCT), a non-contact optical imaging method that is the optical analogue of ultrasound imaging, contributed to next-generation OCT technologies that enabled a 100 to 1000-fold increase in clinical imaging speeds without compromising image quality or sensitivity. While Michael was a resident in pediatrics at Children's Hospital Boston, he pursued research in high-speed, high-resolution imaging of embryo hearts as a Visiting Clinical Fellow at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital (research advisors: Guillermo Tearney, MD, PhD and Brett Bouma, PhD). After training in Boston, Michael came to the Yale School of Medicine to start a biomedical optics lab in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology.

  3. Quotes

    1. We know from other disease where the flow of mucus is impaired, we know that really reduces survival of patients.
      In Researchers at Yale Work to Improve Health of Premature Babies