1. Brian E. Applegate

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    1. Mentioned In 52 Articles

    2. Noise and sensitivity in optical coherence tomography based vibrometry

      Noise and sensitivity in optical coherence tomography based vibrometry
      There is growing interest in using the exquisite phase sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the vibratory response in organ systems such as the middle and inner ear. Using frequency domain analysis, it is possible to achieve picometer sensitivity to vibration over a wide frequency band. Here we explore the limits of the frequency domain vibratory sensitivity due to additive noise and consider the implication of phase noise ...
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    3. Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system

      Picometer scale vibrometry in the human middle ear using a surgical microscope based optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system
      We have developed a highly phase stable optical coherence tomography and vibrometry system that attaches directly to the accessory area of a surgical microscope common to both the otology clinic and operating room. Careful attention to minimizing sources of phase noise has enabled a system capable of measuring vibrations of the middle ear with a sensitivity of 5 pm in an awake human patient. The system is shown to be ...
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    4. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Optical Imaging Technologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Optical Imaging Technologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes
      ...ologies to Identify Residual Cholesteatoma and Improve Ossiculoplasty Outcomes. The principal investigator is Brian Applegate. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2022. Below is a summary of the proposed work.

      T...

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    5. Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry

      Organ of Corti vibration within the intact gerbil cochlea measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography and vibrometry
      There is indirect evidence that the mammalian cochlea in the low-frequency apical and the more commonly-studied high-frequency basal regions function in fundamentally different ways. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by measuring sound-induced vibrations of the organ of Corti (OoC) at three turns of the gerbil cochlea using volumetric optical coherence tomography vibrometry (VOCTV), an approach that permits non-invasive imaging through the bone. In the apical turn, there was little ...
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    6. Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma

      Osmotic stabilization prevents cochlear synaptopathy after blast trauma
      Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and ...
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    7. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography enables morphological and subnanometer vibratory imaging of the porcine cochlea through the round window
      A highly phase stable hand-held (HH) endoscopic system has been developed for optical coherence tomography and vibrometry. Designed to transit the ear canal to the middle ear space and peer through the round window (RW), it is capable of imaging the vibratory function of the cochlear soft tissues with subnanometer scale sensitivity. A side-looking, 9 cm long rigid endoscope with a distal diameter of 1.2 mm, was able to ...
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    8. Contrast enhancement of pump-probe optical coherence tomography (PP-OCT) based molecular imaging using methylene blue loaded PLGA particles

      Contrast enhancement of pump-probe optical coherence tomography (PP-OCT) based molecular imaging using methylene blue loaded PLGA particles
      Atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque accumulates on the inner wall of arteries, is often recognized as a precursor to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the most common causes of death in the US. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an intravascular optical diagnosis tool, which can be used to obtain high resolution morphological images of atherosclerotic plaque. However, atherosclerotic plaque components, such as macrophages, can be misclassified due to their signal similarities ...
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    9. ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography

      ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography
      Detection of endolymphatic hydrops is important for diagnosing Menieres disease, and can be performed non-invasively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in animal models as well as potentially in the clinic. Here, we developed ELHnet, a convolutional neural network to classify endolymphatic hydrops in a mouse model using learned features from OCT images of mice cochleae. We trained ELHnet on 2159 training and validation images from 17 mice, using only the ...
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    10. Computer-aided detection and quantification of endolymphatic hydrops within the mouse cochlea in vivo using optical coherence tomography

      Computer-aided detection and quantification of endolymphatic hydrops within the mouse cochlea in vivo using optical coherence tomography
      Diseases that cause hearing loss and/or vertigo in humans such as Menieres disease are often studied using animal models. The volume of endolymph within the inner ear varies with these diseases. Here, we used a mouse model of increased endolymph volume, endolymphatic hydrops, to develop a computer-aided objective approach to measure endolymph volume from images collected in vivo using optical coherence tomography. The displacement of Reissners membrane from its ...
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    11. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence

      Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence
      ...iovasc. Imaging 16(8), 910–918 (2015). [Crossref] [PubMed] H. Y. Lee, P. D. Raphael, J. Park, A. K. Ellerbee, B. E. Applegate, and J. S. Oghalai, “Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membran...
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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo
      The measurement of mechanical vibrations within the living cochlea is critical to understanding the first nonlinear steps in auditory processing, hair cell stimulation, and cochlear amplification. However, it has proven to be a challenging endeavor. This chapter describes how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure vibrations within the tissues of the organ of Corti. These experimental measurements can be performed within the unopened cochlea of living mice ...
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    13. Automated analysis of multimodal fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography data for the diagnosis of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

      Automated analysis of multimodal fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography data for the diagnosis of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model
      ...(2011). [CrossRef] P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y.-S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagno...
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    14. High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography
      Swept-laser sources offer a number of advantages for Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT). However, inter- and intra-sweep variability leads to calibration errors that adversely affect phase sensitivity. While there are several approaches to overcoming this problem, our preferred method is to simply calibrate every sweep of the laser. This approach offers high accuracy and phase stability at the expense of a substantial processing burden. In this approach, the Hilbert phase ...
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    15. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography-based vibrometry using a highly phase-stable akinetic swept laser source

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography-based vibrometry using a highly phase-stable akinetic swept laser source
      Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT) is an emerging tool for in vivo investigation of the vibratory function of the intact middle and inner ear. PhOCT is able to resolve micron scale tissue morphology in three dimensions as well as measure picometer scale motion at each spatial position. Most PhOCT systems to date have relied upon the phase stability offered by spectrometer detection. On the other hand swept laser source based ...
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  2. About Brian E. Applegate

    Brian E. Applegate

    Brian E. Applegate received his B.S. in chemistry from Wright State University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry from The Ohio State University. He completed a NIH postdoctoral fellowship at Duke University before joining the faculty of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. He is currently an Associate Professor with research interests in technology development for optical and molecular imaging and optical diagnosis/monitoring of atherosclerosis and diseases of the inner ear.