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    1. Optical Coherence Tomographic Patterns as Predictors of Structural Outcome After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Diabetic Macula Edema

      Optical Coherence Tomographic Patterns as Predictors of Structural Outcome After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Diabetic Macula Edema

      Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to present an association between the treatment response of diabetic macular edema (DME) to intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections and different morphology patterns using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subjects/Methods: This retrospective study included 216 eyes of 142 subjects who received IVR for DME and were observed for at least 2 years. Medical charts and SD-OCT images of consecutive patients were reviewed at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after first IVR treatment. The OCT patterns were characterized as diffuse retinal thickening (DRT), cystoid macular edema (CME), serous retinal ...

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    2. Repeatability of OCT-Based versus Scheimpflugand Reflection-Based Keratometry in Patients with Hyperosmolar and Normal Tear Film

      Repeatability of OCT-Based versus Scheimpflugand Reflection-Based Keratometry in Patients with Hyperosmolar and Normal Tear Film

      Purpose: To compare the repeatability of keratometry between different instruments in patients with hyperosmolar tear film and a control group. Patients and Methods: Subjects with tear-film osmolarity of 316 mOsm/L or more in either eye or 308 m/Osm/L or lower in both eyes were assigned to the hyperosmolar and the control group, respectively. The test eye was the eye with higher osmolarity in the hyperosmolar group and randomly chosen in the control group. The repeatability of keratometry was compared between a reflectometry device (Haag-Streit Lenstar 900), a Scheimpflug device (Oculus Pentacam HR) and two optical coherence tomography ...

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    3. Repeatability of OCT-Based versus Scheimpflug- and Reflection-Based Keratometry in Patients with Hyperosmolar and Normal Tear Film

      Repeatability of OCT-Based versus Scheimpflug- and Reflection-Based Keratometry in Patients with Hyperosmolar and Normal Tear Film

      Purpose: To compare the repeatability of keratometry between different instruments in patients with hyperosmolar tear film and a control group. Patients and Methods: Subjects with tear-film osmolarity of 316 mOsm/L or more in either eye or 308 m/Osm/L or lower in both eyes were assigned to the hyperosmolar and the control group, respectively. The test eye was the eye with higher osmolarity in the hyperosmolar group and randomly chosen in the control group. The repeatability of keratometry was compared between a reflectometry device (Haag-Streit Lenstar 900), a Scheimpflug device (Oculus Pentacam HR) and two optical coherence tomography ...

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    4. Central Macular Thickness in a Healthy Mexican Population Using Huvitz Optical Coherence Tomography

      Central Macular Thickness in a Healthy Mexican Population Using Huvitz Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: To determine normal macular thickness values in a healthy Mexican population and its variation by age and gender using Huvitz spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (HOCT-1F). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 211 consecutive eyes from clinically normal subjects (66 men, 145 women) between October 2018 and December 2018, with best-corrected visual acuities better than 20/30. One eye was selected for the macular scan using the Huvitz OCT (Huvitz OCT-1F, HOCT-1F, Huvitz Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) with an automated segmentation algorithm. Three vertical and horizontal scans, centered on the fovea with an area of 9 mm, and a color ...

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    5. The Effect of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Retinal Microvascular Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The Effect of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Retinal Microvascular Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: This study evaluates the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy on microaneurysm changes and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Design: Prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: This study involved patients with DME undergoing anti-VEGF treatment (aflibercept, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab). Macula OCTA images were obtained before (visit 0) and 1 month after (visit 1) anti-VEGF injection. Microaneurysm counts were performed, and the FAZ was evaluated in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). The differences in microaneurysms, FAZ, and clinical correlations were analyzed ...

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    6. Horizontal Extraocular Muscle Insertion Site in Relation to Axial Length Using Swept-Source Anterior Segment OCT

      Horizontal Extraocular Muscle Insertion Site in Relation to Axial Length Using Swept-Source Anterior Segment OCT

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate between the axial length of the globe and the insertion site of horizontal extraocular muscles using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT), with posing an equation to calculate the muscle insertion site from the axial length. Methods: The study design was observational and cross-sectional. It was performed on 157 eyes of 157 healthy subjects. The distance of the medial rectus (MR) and the lateral rectus (LR) insertion sites from the limbus were measured using SS-ASOCT. The insertion sites’ distances were correlated to the axial length (hypermetropes < 22.5 mm, myopes ...

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    7. Inter-Eye Vault Differences of Implantable Collamer Lens Measured Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Inter-Eye Vault Differences of Implantable Collamer Lens Measured Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The distance between an implantable collamer lens (ICL) and the crystalline lens, namely vault, is a space regulated by the interaction of the ICL and the anatomical structures of the eye. This study analysed the differences in vault size between fellow eyes with similar anterior segment biometry. Patients and Methods: A retrospective case series analysed 109 cases of patients bilaterally implanted with EVO-V4c. Patients were analysed pre- and postoperatively using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The range of vault inter-eye differences was defined as the 95% confidence interval of the differences. Bivariate correlation was applied to seek for associations ...

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    8. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Neovascularization in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Neovascularization in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose: To describe features of neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: A retrospective case series was performed in 23 eyes from 21 patients who underwent OCTA of neovascular complexes (NVCs) due to PDR. Eyes were imaged with the DRI Triton swept-source OCTA, Avanti RTVue XR or Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 as part of routine clinical examination. Segmentation was adjusted to include vasculature between the vitreous cavity and the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The presence of NVCs was confirmed by clinical examination and multimodal imaging such as color or red-free fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, multicolor ...

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    9. Functional and Structural Outcomes at the Foveal Avascular Zone with Optical Coherence Tomography Following Macula off Retinal Detachment Repair

      Functional and Structural Outcomes at the Foveal Avascular Zone with Optical Coherence Tomography Following Macula off Retinal Detachment Repair

      Background: Visual recovery following macula involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to correlate the functional and the anatomical changes in retinal vasculature in the foveal avascular zone using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) after successful retinal reattachment repair and correlate this data with retinal thickness and post-operative visual recovery. Methods: A prospective, comparative observational study of 28 eyes of 14 patients with 14 eyes undergoing macula off retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy, endo-laser and silicone oil-based tamponade compared with 14 fellow healthy eyes at 1, 6 and 12 weeks post-operative period ...

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    10. Quantitative Comparison of the Vascular Structure of Macular Neovascularizations Between Swept-Source and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantitative Comparison of the Vascular Structure of Macular Neovascularizations Between Swept-Source and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain and quantify the differences between swept-source (SS) and spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging of macular neovascularizations (MNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Patients and Methods: SD-OCTA (RTVue Avanti) and SS-OCTA (PLEX ® Elite 9000) were performed in 37 patients with MNV in nAMD. The MNV was delineated and the data were processed via ImageJ. The parameters MNV area, nodes per area, fractal dimension (FD), and flow density were analyzed using MatLab. Results: There was close agreement between the two devices regarding MNV area (ICCc 0.977, ICCa 0 ...

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    11. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), by measuring the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL). Material and Methods: This was a single-center, cross-sectional study. The study included 29 patients with AD (mean age ± standard deviation: 75.61 ± 6.24 years) and 29 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All participants underwent cognitive evaluations using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Measurements of the RNFL thickness, as well as GCL-IPL thickness, were obtained for all participants using OCT ...

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    12. A Real-World Study of Dexamethasone Implant in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Efficacy and Correlation Between Inflammatory Biomarkers and Treatment Outcome

      A Real-World Study of Dexamethasone Implant in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Efficacy and Correlation Between Inflammatory Biomarkers and Treatment Outcome

      Purpose: There has been an increasing clinical interest in specific retinal parameters as non-invasive biomarkers of retinal inflammation in diabetic macular edema (DME) that have been shown to have prognostic value, such as hyperreflective retinal fields (HRFs) and subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND). Methods: We conducted a prospective, non-comparative study of treatment-naïve patients with DME to evaluate the efficacy of a Pro Re Nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal dexamethasone implant 0.7 mg (DexI, Ozurdex™). After administration, patients underwent subsequent injections according to PRN criteria in case of edema relapse, but not earlier than 4 months after the previous treatment ...

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    13. In vivo Imaging of Reis–Bücklers and Thiel–Behnke Corneal Dystrophies Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      In vivo Imaging of Reis–Bücklers and Thiel–Behnke Corneal Dystrophies Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate in vivo corneal changes of genetically confirmed Reis–Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) and Thiel–Behnke corneal dystrophy (TBCD) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Design: A single-center, prospective, comparative case series. Methods: Seven patients from 3 pedigrees (3 males, 4 females) with RBCD [Arg124Leu (R124L) heterozygous missense mutation of human transforming growth factor beta-induced ( TGFBI ) gene] and 4 patients from 3 pedigrees (3 males, 1 female) with TBCD [Arg555Gln (R555Q) heterozygous missense mutation of TGFBI gene] were examined. Six patients with RBCD and three patients with TBCD exhibited recurrence after corneal surgery including penetrating keratoplasty ...

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    14. The Pigtail Sign: A New Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding After Inverted ILM Flap Surgery for Idiopathic Macular Hole

      The Pigtail Sign: A New Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding After Inverted ILM Flap Surgery for Idiopathic Macular Hole

      Purpose: To report a new spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) finding called the pigtail sign. It was found during follow-up of idiopathic macular hole cases after inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 12 eyes (12 patients) who underwent inverted ILM flap technique for idiopathic macular hole closure. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were analyzed for the presence of this new finding. Results: A new spectral domain OCT finding of a curved coiled line hanging above the surface of the retinal layers was seen in all patients. The mean preoperative ...

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    15. Epithelial Remodeling Following Phacoemulsification in Diabetic Patients Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comparative Study

      Epithelial Remodeling Following Phacoemulsification in Diabetic Patients Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comparative Study

      Purpose: To compare the effect of phacoemulsification on corneal epithelial thickness in diabetic and nondiabetic cataract patients. Methods: Fifty eyes with cataracts were enrolled in a prospective comparative interventional study. They were divided into two groups: group A (diabetics) and group B (nondiabetics) and underwent uneventful phacoemulsification. Epithelial thickness was assessed in the central, paracentral, and peripheral cornea on the first day and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively using spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography. Results: A significant increase in the first-day postoperative central epithelial thickness was noticed in both groups (57.16± 3.5 μm and 55 ...

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    16. Hyperreflectivity of Inner Retinal Layers as a Quantitative Parameter of Ischemic Damage in Acute Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO): An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Hyperreflectivity of Inner Retinal Layers as a Quantitative Parameter of Ischemic Damage in Acute Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO): An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To investigate the reflectivity changes of inner retinal layers in acute retinal vein occlusion (RVO) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to correlate these values with other known parameters of acute ischemic damage. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective and observational case series, 230 eyes from 115 patients with acute RVO (central or branch) were categorized as ischemic or non-ischemic depending on fluorescein angiography (FA) images at baseline. Thickness and reflectivity of selected retinal layers were measured from SD-OCT images at baseline. Reflectivity values were correlated with other parameters of acute ischemic damage (best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal ...

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    17. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Ocular Surgeries: Critical Analysis of Clinical Role and Future Perspectives

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Ocular Surgeries: Critical Analysis of Clinical Role and Future Perspectives

      Intraoperative imaging of ocular tissues for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has gained immense admiration in recent years. The real time cross-sectional imaging, as well as three and four dimensional reconstruction abilities of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT), has enhanced our knowledge on many fronts in surgical maneuvers. In this review, we discuss the iOCT discovered constructive knowledge in the cornea, cataract, refractive, glaucoma, pediatric ocular, and various retinal conditions. The practical utility with decision modifying aspects along the specified ocular tissues and with respect to specific ocular entities have been narrated. Moreover, limitations and future directions have also been emphasized ...

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    18. Assessment of the Effect of Vitiligo on Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of the Effect of Vitiligo on Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Vitiligo is a common skin condition affecting 0.5– 2% of the population. The exact etiology of the condition is unknown, but the result is autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. The eye is rich in melanocytes, especially in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Little is known about the effect of vitiligo on the choroid of the eye. Methods: We cross-sectionally examined 31 right eyes of 31 vitiligo patients and 32 right eyes of 32 age- and sex-matched controls for signs of vitiligo affection and then measured the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results: There was ...

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    19. Lumivascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Atherectomy in Recurrent Femoropopliteal Occlusive Diseases Associated with In-Stent Restenosis: Case-Series Report

      Lumivascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Atherectomy in Recurrent Femoropopliteal Occlusive Diseases Associated with In-Stent Restenosis: Case-Series Report

      Lumivascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel adjunct in the field of medicine. It offers clear real-time imaging of artery walls before and during endovascular intervention. This study reports our initial experience on the use of lumivascular OCT-guided atherectomy in the management of two patients with recurrent restenosis in their femoropopliteal arteries associated with in-stent restenosis. Endovascular procedures were successful with a Pantheris atherectomy device (Avinger, Redwood City, CA, USA) and drug-eluting balloons. The OCT images clearly distinguished normal anatomy from plaque pathology, were of great advantage in both the accurate diagnosis and treatment of target lesions, and may ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review

      Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has emerged as a novel, fast, safe and non-invasive imaging technique of analyzing the retinal and choroidal microvasculature in vivo. OCT-A captures multiple sequential B-scans performed repeatedly over a specific retinal area at high speed, thus enabling the composition of a vascular map with areas of contrast change (high flow zones) and areas of steady contrast (slow or no flow zones). It therefore provides unique insight into the exact retinal or choroidal layer and location at which abnormal blood flow develops. OCTA has evolved into a useful tool for understanding a number of retinal ...

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    21. Retinal Microvasculature Changes After Repair of Macula-off Retinal Detachment Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Microvasculature Changes After Repair of Macula-off Retinal Detachment Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Objective: To characterize the microvascular retinal changes after repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent repair of macula-off RRD. Fellow unaffected eyes were used as controls. Post-operative OCT-A allowed comparison of vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP) as well as VD in the choriocapillaris layer. Results: Seventeen eyes of 17 RRD patients were included in the final analysis. There was a reduction in VD of the deep retinal capillary plexus in affected ...

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    22. Quantification of Macular Microvascular Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantification of Macular Microvascular Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To investigate macular structural and microvascular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) eyes compared to age-matched controls using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The foveal and parafoveal thickness and extent of ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption were measured on OCT. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and retinal vessel density (VD) were automatically calculated for superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) and choriocapillaris using OCTA-integrated software. VD was assessed for the whole 6 × 6 mm image, foveal and parafoveal regions. Quantitative measures were compared between healthy and diseased eyes ...

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    23. Evaluation of Peripapillary and Subfoveal Choroid Thickness in Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Evaluation of Peripapillary and Subfoveal Choroid Thickness in Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Objective: In this study, it aims to investigate the effect of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis on peripapillary and subfoveal choroid thickness using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Patients and Methods: While investigating for coronary artery disease, 76 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 35 patients with normal carotid artery (total = 111) were evaluated. Patients according to the degree of stenosis were divided into four categories as non-stenosis (n = 35), mild (n = 26), moderate (n = 27) and severe stenosis (n = 23). Subfoveal and peripapillary choroid thickness, ocular perfusion and intraocular pressures of all patients were measured using a Fourier-domain ...

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    24. Individual Macular Layer Evaluation with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

      Individual Macular Layer Evaluation with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

      Purpose: To evaluate differences in the thickness of the individual macular layers between early, moderate, and severe glaucomatous eyes and compare them with healthy controls. Patients and Methods: Subjects with glaucoma presenting typical optic nerve head findings, high intraocular pressure with or without visual field (VF) damage and normal controls were included. All participants underwent 24– 2 perimetry and spectral-domain OCT. Patients were divided into three groups (early, moderate, and severe) based on the mean deviation of the VF and a healthy control group. The device segmented the layers automatically, and their measurements were plotted using the means of the ...

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