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    1. Changes in macular parameters in different types of amblyopia: optical coherence tomography study

      Changes in macular parameters in different types of amblyopia: optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the changes in macular parameters (thickness, volume) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (RNFLT) in different cases of amblyopia versus the normal fellow eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to estimate the relationship of OCT changes with various defined patients’ parameters. Design: This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series. Methods: The method involved measuring the peripapillary RNFLT, macular thickness, and macular volume via spectral domain (OCT) in different types of amblyopia and comparing with the other fellow eyes. This study was conducted at the Mansoura Ophthalmic Center ...

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    2. Coronary stents and vascular response to implantation: literature review

      Coronary stents and vascular response to implantation: literature review

      Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have minimized the limitations of bare-metal stents (BMSs) after percutaneous coronary interventions. Nevertheless, serious concerns remain about possible late complications of stenting, such as stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR), although the introduction of second-generation DESs seems to have softened the phenomenon, compared to the first-generation ones. ST is a potentially catastrophic event, which has been markedly reduced by optimization of stent implantation, novel stent designs, and dual antiplatelet therapy. The exact mechanism to explain its occurrence is under investigation, and, realistically, multiple factors are responsible. ISR of BMSs has been previously considered as a stable ...

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    3. Comparison of retina specialist preferences regarding spectral-domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Comparison of retina specialist preferences regarding spectral-domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare physician preferences regarding the commercially available spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and swept-source (SS) OCTA prototype device. Design: Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments was performed. Patients and methods: Subjects at the University of Washington Eye Institute and Harborview Medical Center were prospectively recruited and imaged with the Zeiss SD OCTA (HD-5000, Angioplex) and Zeiss SS OCTA (Plex Elite, Everest) devices on the same day. The study included 10 eyes from 10 subjects diagnosed with a retinal/choroidal disease. Deidentified images were compiled into a survey and sent to retina ...

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    4. Multimodal images of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion

      Multimodal images of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion

      Two illustrative cases of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion are presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography. In these two patients, retinal ischemia and collateral vessels were well imaged without the need to use traditional fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and other retinal vascular diseases.

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    5. Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with ...

      Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with ...

      Purpose: To compare the choroidal structure beneath the macular area in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched controls. Methods: This study was performed at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Twenty eyes of 14 patients (82.3±4.2 years, mean ± standard deviation) with RPD and 35 eyes of 20 age-matched controls (81.5±6.0 years) were studied. The choroidal structure was determined by binarizing the images obtained by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in all patients and controls. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas were quantified by the binarization method. Results: The total choroidal area of ...

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    6. Measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in anisometropia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective study

      Measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in anisometropia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective study

      Purpose: To study whether there is a difference in central macular thickness (CMT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between the two eyes of individuals having anisometropia >1 diopter (D) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods: One hundred and one subjects, 31 with myopic anisometropia, 28 with astigmatic anisometropia, and 42 with hypermetropic anisometropia, were enrolled in the study. After informed consent, detailed ophthalmological examination was performed for every patient including cycloplegic refraction, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp, and fundus examination. After routine ophthalmic examination peripapillary RNFL and CMT were measured using spectral ...

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    7. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

      Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

      The author read with interest the article by Browning et al. 1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts. 1. The article 1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography. 2 ...

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    8. Applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma mass screening

      Applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma mass screening

      Purpose: To perform a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (ASD-OCT) for glaucoma mass screening in a population-based setting. Methods: Information using ASD-OCT (thicknesses of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer [mRNFL], disc retinal nerve fiber layer [dRNFL], ganglion cell layer [GCL] + inner plexiform layer [IPL]; GCL+, and ganglion cell complex [GCL + IPL + RNFL; GCL++]) was obtained from 245 eyes of 123 glaucomatous subjects and 1,454 eyes of 727 normal subjects. For all four measurements, each grid was scored as follows: 2= within 95% of the normal database; 1= within 5%; and 0 ...

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    9. Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To determine the relationship between different spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) signs of retinal ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and whether they predict anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV). Design: Retrospective, observational study. Subjects: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with acute CRVO and 12 months of follow-up. Methods: We graded baseline SD-OCTs for increased reflectivity of the inner retina, loss of definition of inner retinal layers, presence of a prominent middle-limiting membrane (p-MLM) sign, and presence of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). Graders were masked with respect to all clinical information. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of grading ...

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    10. The new Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width classification improves optical coherence tomography specificity in tilted discs

      The new Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width classification improves optical coherence tomography specificity in tilted discs

      Background and objective: To investigate and compare the false-positive (FP) diagnostic classification of the Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy eyes with tilted optic disc. Materials and methods: Fifty healthy eyes of 30 participants with tilted optic disc underwent BMO-MRW and RNFL scanning using Spectralis and macular Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Results: The overall FP rate was significantly lower using BMO-MRW map compared with both RNFL map by Spectralis (8% vs 62%, respectively, P <0.001) and ganglion cell analysis (GCA) map by Cirrus (8% vs 50 ...

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    11. The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      Purpose: To determine the repeatability and profiles with different partition methods in intraretinal thickness layers in healthy human subjects, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT was used to acquire three-dimensional volume of the macula in 20 healthy subjects. The dataset was acquired twice using the macular cube 512×128 protocol in an area of 6×6 mm 2 centered on the fovea. Commercially available segmentation software (Orion™) was used to segment the dataset into thickness maps of six intraretinal layers. The coefficient of repeatability and intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) were analyzed using hemispheric zoning and ...

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    12. Preoperative optical coherence tomography visualization of epiretinal membranes enhances surgical strategies

      Preoperative optical coherence tomography visualization of epiretinal membranes enhances surgical strategies

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with macular epiretinal membrane (ERM) for the planning of surgical strategy. Patients and methods: One hundred twenty-three eyes of 121 patients (49 men, 72 women; mean age, 66 years) with an idiopathic ERM were enrolled. All patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including indirect ophthalmoscopy and OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 and/or 5000). OCT images obtained using model 4000 were transferred to the model 5000 system for vitreoretinal interface (VRI) analysis. The retinal thickness in each area, occurrence rate, and locations ...

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    13. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

      Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

      Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the ...

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    14. Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

      Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To examine the relationship between signal strength and macular thickness as measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT)’s fast macular thickness protocol in healthy subjects. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study 79 eyes of 42 healthy subjects were enrolled. The age, gender, and eye (right vs left) of each subject were recorded. The Stratus OCT fast macular thickness scan protocol was used and the macular thickness was measured with retinal thickness map analysis. Each eye was imaged at least six times to acquire images with signal strengths of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 out of 10 ...

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    15. Effect of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal and ganglion cell complex thicknesses measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Effect of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal and ganglion cell complex thicknesses measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effect of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, as measured by enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: This prospective study included 30 eyes of 30 patients who had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification surgery for senile cataract but had no previous ocular surgery or other ocular abnormality. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, axial length, and central corneal thickness were measured preoperatively. The operative times (OTs) and effective phaco times were also recorded in each case. OCT measurements were performed at the preoperative visit and 1 month ...

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    16. Clinical, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence findings in patients with intraocular tumors

      Clinical, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence findings in patients with intraocular tumors

      Purpose: To describe clinical, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in patients with intraocular tumors and determine if OCT and FAF could be helpful in the differential diagnosis and management of different choroidal tumors. Methods: Forty-nine patients with untreated, macular, midperipheral, and extrapapillary intraocular tumors were included. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination: best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, funduscopy, and standardized B mode, and if possible A mode, ultrasonography, and OCT and FAF imaging of the surface of the intraocular tumors. Results: Of the 49 patients studied, 19 had choroidal nevi, ten had indeterminate choroidal melanocytic lesions (IMLs ...

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    17. Short wave–automated perimetry (SWAP) versus optical coherence tomography in early detection of glaucoma

      Short wave–automated perimetry (SWAP) versus optical coherence tomography in early detection of glaucoma

      Objective: To assess the role and diagnostic effectiveness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and short wave–automated perimetry (SWAP) to distinguish between normal, glaucoma suspects, and surely diagnosed glaucomatous eye. Background: Changes in the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) often precede the appearance of visual field defect with standard automated perimetry. Unfortunately, RNFL defect can be difficult to identify during clinical examination. Early detection of glaucoma is still controversial, whether by OCT, SWAP, or frequency-doubling technology perimetry. Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled, consecutive, prospective study, a total 70 subjects (140 eyes) were included in the ...

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    18. Noninvasive detection of microaneurysms in diabetic retinopathy by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Noninvasive detection of microaneurysms in diabetic retinopathy by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Background and objectives: A method of identifying retinal vascular microaneurysms (MAs) in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Patients and methods: SS-OCT images were acquired in 17 eyes with NPDR using prototype SS-OCT device and fluorescein angiography (FA) images were obtained simultaneously. MAs identified on SS-OCT slabs were correlated to MAs identified on FA. Results: MAs were identified in SS-OCT slabs in 15/17 eyes, resulting in NPDR diagnosis rate of 88%. Mean number of MAs identified on FA was 11.7±11.9 (total 199) and was 8.1±9.3 (total 137) on SS-OCT ...

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    19. Optic nerve head topography and retinal structural changes in eyes with macrodisks: a comparative study with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Optic nerve head topography and retinal structural changes in eyes with macrodisks: a comparative study with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To compare optic nerve head parameters, the thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), the ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) in macrodisks and normal-sized healthy disks using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Patients and methods: A total of 88 healthy eyes (42 macrodisks and 46 normal-sized disks) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Optic nerve head parameters as well as pRNFL, mRNFL, GCC, and GCIPL thicknesses were measured in all subjects. Optic disk areas (ODAs) >2.70 mm 2 were defined as macrodisks ...

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    20. Macular pigment optical density: repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance

      Macular pigment optical density: repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance

      Purpose: To evaluate short-term repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements obtained using the QuantifEye Heterochromatic Flicker Photometer. Patients and methods: A total of 72 study participants were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular evaluation, including visual acuity, evaluation of ocular dominance, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and optic nerve head and macula analysis using optical coherence tomography and fundus photography. All study participants after initial training underwent MPOD measurement twice in both eyes in a randomized sequence. The repeatability was tested using Altman and Bland ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

      Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

      We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec®), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo®) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture.

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    22. Optical coherence tomography parameters predictive of visual outcome after anti-VEGF therapy for retinal vein occlusion

      Optical coherence tomography parameters predictive of visual outcome after anti-VEGF therapy for retinal vein occlusion

      Purpose: To determine the optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters that are predictive of visual outcome after anti-VEGF therapy for a retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods: Fifty-seven eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to a central or branch RVO treated with bevacizumab or ranibizumab were studied. Spectral-domain OCT and microperimetry were performed before, 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment and at the final visit. Central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM), ellipsoid zone (EZ), and foveal bulge (FB), and photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length were determined. Results: The mean follow-up period was ...

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    23. Wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography using extended field imaging technique to evaluate the nonperfusion area in retinal vein occlusion

      Wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography using extended field imaging technique to evaluate the nonperfusion area in retinal vein occlusion

      Purpose: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a newly developed technology which allows us to reconstruct the three-dimensional chorioretinal vasculature without dye injection. OCTA is a noninvasive, rapid, and reproducible method to assess retinal ischemia. However, one of its limitations is the size of scanning area. A novel yet simple technique to expand the scan length on optical coherence tomography has been reported as an extended field imaging (EFI) technique. It involves imaging the posterior pole through trial frames fitted with a +20 diopter lens. We applied this technique to OCTA to evaluate retinal vein occlusion. Materials and methods: Ten ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography of the preterm eye: from retinopathy of prematurity to brain development

      Optical coherence tomography of the preterm eye: from retinopathy of prematurity to brain development

      Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment.

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