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    1. Three-dimensional mapping of peripapillary retinal layers using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Three-dimensional mapping of peripapillary retinal layers using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To map and view the effects of age, gender, and axial length on seven individual retinal layers around the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods: We scanned 242 healthy patients using the Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography in an outpatient setting. The layers were observed on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study sectors using the standard Spectralis Family Acquisition Module 6.0.11.0. The center was the ONH, the inner circle (IC) was 1–3 mm away, and the outer circle (OC) was 3–6 mm away. The seven layers were retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell ...

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    2. Agreement of swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence-tomography retinal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Agreement of swept-source and spectral-domain optical coherence-tomography retinal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Changes in macular thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) are thought to reflect disease activity, and can be used to guide treatment with antiangiogenic agents. 1 Both spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the more recently introduced swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) have onboard segmentation algorithms that deliver automated retinal thickness measurements. Agreement between OCT derived macular thickness measurements is critical for monitoring of patients if these modalities are to be used interchangeably. This prospective cross-sectional study sought to determine the limits of agreement between SD-OCT (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering) and SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1 Atlantis; Topcon Medical Systems) in ...

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    3. Six-month postoperative outcomes of intraoperative OCT-guided surgical cystotomy for refractory cystoid macular edema in diabetic eyes

      Six-month postoperative outcomes of intraoperative OCT-guided surgical cystotomy for refractory cystoid macular edema in diabetic eyes

      ... Purpose: This study evaluated the outcomes of surgical cystotomy for recurrent diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME). Patients and methods: We analyzed 20 eyes with a clinical diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and refractory CME. Release of vitreoretinal adhesion, epiretinal membrane (ERM) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and cystotomy guided by intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) were performed in every patient. Pars plana vitrectomy was also performed in 17 patients, 11 of whom also underwent lensectomy and intraocular lens implantation. Central retinal thickness (CRT), central minimum macular thickness (CMMT), macular volume (MV) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared preoperatively and ...

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    4. Spectropathology-corroborated multimodal quantitative imaging biomarkers for neuroretinal degeneration in diabetic retinopathy

      Spectropathology-corroborated multimodal quantitative imaging biomarkers for neuroretinal degeneration in diabetic retinopathy

      Introduction: Image-based early detection for diabetic retinopathy (DR) needs value addition due to lack of well-defined disease-specific quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) for neuroretinal degeneration and spectropathological information at the systemic level. Retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of DR. Therefore, development of an integrated assessment method for detecting neuroretinal degeneration using spectropathology and QIBs is necessary for the early diagnosis of DR. Methods: The present work explored the efficacy of intensity and textural features extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images after selecting a specific subset of features for the precise classification of retinal layers using variants ...

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    5. Segmented swept source optical coherence tomography angiography assessment of the perifoveal vasculature in patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: a serial case report

      Segmented swept source optical coherence tomography angiography assessment of the perifoveal vasculature in patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: a serial case report

      Purpose: To describe perifoveal microvascular changes occurring in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS OCTA). Patients and methods: This is a serial case report of three patients. Retrospective data of patients affected by XLRS were collected. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and color fundus photography (CFPh) were carried out with Topcon ® OCT 2000 3D OCT as part of the standard care. Two patients were imaged on Topcon Atlantis ® SS OCTA and one on Topcon Triton ® SS OCTA. SS OCTA images were acquired using the 3 × 3 mm fovea-centered cubes scanning protocol. Analysis of both ...

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    6. Vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in diabetic macular edema and effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy: an optical coherence tomography study

      Vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in diabetic macular edema and effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy: an optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose: To study vitreoretinal interface (VRI) abnormalities in diabetic macular edema (DME) and the influence of these on the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Methods: VRI status and central retinal thickness (CRT) were evaluated using line and 3D-reference scans obtained using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography RTVue-100 before and 1 month after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection (IVI). VRI status was categorized into five subgroups: normal VRI, retinal surface wrinkling associated with the eccentric epiretinal membrane (ERM), ERM involving the macular center, vitreomacular adhesion (VMA), and vitreomacular traction (VMT). Results: A total of 105 eyes of 89 patients were ...

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    7. Variability of choroidal and retinal thicknesses in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography – implications for designing clinical trials

      Variability of choroidal and retinal thicknesses in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography – implications for designing clinical trials

      Aim: The aim was to study the variability of choroidal scleral interface (CSI) thickness in healthy subjects and its relevance for designing future studies. Methods: A total of 123 volunteers were imaged using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy grid was used. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 285.85±14.53 µm and 287.18±12.93 µm, and mean central CSI thickness was 273.94±77.77 µm and 271.19±78.85 µm for the right and left eyes, respectively. Mean retinal and CSI thicknesses correlated negatively with age ( p =0.023, r =–0.208 ...

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    8. Imaging choroidal neovascular membrane using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Imaging choroidal neovascular membrane using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in delineating the morphology of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV). Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational case series reviewing clinical data and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and SS-OCTA images of patients with CNV and comparing the findings. The swept-source technology enables deeper penetration and superior axial resolution. The incorporated blood flow detection algorithm, optical coherence tomography angiography ratio analysis (OCTARA), enables visualization of CNV in vivo without the need for dye injection. Results: The study included ...

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    9. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography and ab interno trabecular meshwork surgery with the Trabectome

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography and ab interno trabecular meshwork surgery with the Trabectome

      Importance: This study is the first description of the use of the intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) for trabecular meshwork surgery with the Trabectome in a regular clinical setting. Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate intraoperatively the immediate success of ab interno trabeculotomy with the Trabectome defined as a removal of the trabecular meshwork. Design: This is a retrospective clinical study performed in the University Eye Hospital, Medical School Hannover. Participants: A total of nine consecutive Caucasian patients suffering from primary open angle glaucoma, pigment dispersion glaucoma, or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma took part in the study. Methods: All ...

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    10. Accuracy of Alcon WaveLight® EX500 optical pachymetry during LASIK

      Accuracy of Alcon WaveLight® EX500 optical pachymetry during LASIK

      Purpose: To study the accuracy and reliability of optical pachymetry using the Alcon WaveLight EX500 during laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Materials and methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 90 eyes from 45 patients who had undergone LASIK (mean age 35.2±8.2 years; 19 males, 26 females). The WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser was programmed to cut LASIK flaps at a desired depth of 120 µm. Optical low-coherence reflectometry (WaveLight EX500) was used to measure central corneal thickness prior to lifting the flap, and the residual stromal bed immediately after excimer ablation. Flap thickness (FT) was calculated ...

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    11. Changes in macular parameters in different types of amblyopia: optical coherence tomography study

      Changes in macular parameters in different types of amblyopia: optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the changes in macular parameters (thickness, volume) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (RNFLT) in different cases of amblyopia versus the normal fellow eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to estimate the relationship of OCT changes with various defined patients’ parameters. Design: This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series. Methods: The method involved measuring the peripapillary RNFLT, macular thickness, and macular volume via spectral domain (OCT) in different types of amblyopia and comparing with the other fellow eyes. This study was conducted at the Mansoura Ophthalmic Center ...

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    12. Coronary stents and vascular response to implantation: literature review

      Coronary stents and vascular response to implantation: literature review

      Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have minimized the limitations of bare-metal stents (BMSs) after percutaneous coronary interventions. Nevertheless, serious concerns remain about possible late complications of stenting, such as stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR), although the introduction of second-generation DESs seems to have softened the phenomenon, compared to the first-generation ones. ST is a potentially catastrophic event, which has been markedly reduced by optimization of stent implantation, novel stent designs, and dual antiplatelet therapy. The exact mechanism to explain its occurrence is under investigation, and, realistically, multiple factors are responsible. ISR of BMSs has been previously considered as a stable ...

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    13. Comparison of retina specialist preferences regarding spectral-domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Comparison of retina specialist preferences regarding spectral-domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare physician preferences regarding the commercially available spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and swept-source (SS) OCTA prototype device. Design: Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments was performed. Patients and methods: Subjects at the University of Washington Eye Institute and Harborview Medical Center were prospectively recruited and imaged with the Zeiss SD OCTA (HD-5000, Angioplex) and Zeiss SS OCTA (Plex Elite, Everest) devices on the same day. The study included 10 eyes from 10 subjects diagnosed with a retinal/choroidal disease. Deidentified images were compiled into a survey and sent to retina ...

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    14. Multimodal images of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion

      Multimodal images of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion

      Two illustrative cases of chronic branch retinal vein occlusion are presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography. In these two patients, retinal ischemia and collateral vessels were well imaged without the need to use traditional fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and other retinal vascular diseases.

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    15. Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with ...

      Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with ...

      Purpose: To compare the choroidal structure beneath the macular area in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched controls. Methods: This study was performed at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Twenty eyes of 14 patients (82.3±4.2 years, mean ± standard deviation) with RPD and 35 eyes of 20 age-matched controls (81.5±6.0 years) were studied. The choroidal structure was determined by binarizing the images obtained by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in all patients and controls. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas were quantified by the binarization method. Results: The total choroidal area of ...

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    16. Measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in anisometropia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective study

      Measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in anisometropia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective study

      Purpose: To study whether there is a difference in central macular thickness (CMT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between the two eyes of individuals having anisometropia >1 diopter (D) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods: One hundred and one subjects, 31 with myopic anisometropia, 28 with astigmatic anisometropia, and 42 with hypermetropic anisometropia, were enrolled in the study. After informed consent, detailed ophthalmological examination was performed for every patient including cycloplegic refraction, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp, and fundus examination. After routine ophthalmic examination peripapillary RNFL and CMT were measured using spectral ...

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    17. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

      Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

      The author read with interest the article by Browning et al. 1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts. 1. The article 1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography. 2 ...

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    18. Applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma mass screening

      Applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography for glaucoma mass screening

      Purpose: To perform a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (ASD-OCT) for glaucoma mass screening in a population-based setting. Methods: Information using ASD-OCT (thicknesses of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer [mRNFL], disc retinal nerve fiber layer [dRNFL], ganglion cell layer [GCL] + inner plexiform layer [IPL]; GCL+, and ganglion cell complex [GCL + IPL + RNFL; GCL++]) was obtained from 245 eyes of 123 glaucomatous subjects and 1,454 eyes of 727 normal subjects. For all four measurements, each grid was scored as follows: 2= within 95% of the normal database; 1= within 5%; and 0 ...

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    19. Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To determine the relationship between different spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) signs of retinal ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and whether they predict anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV). Design: Retrospective, observational study. Subjects: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with acute CRVO and 12 months of follow-up. Methods: We graded baseline SD-OCTs for increased reflectivity of the inner retina, loss of definition of inner retinal layers, presence of a prominent middle-limiting membrane (p-MLM) sign, and presence of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). Graders were masked with respect to all clinical information. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of grading ...

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    20. The new Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width classification improves optical coherence tomography specificity in tilted discs

      The new Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width classification improves optical coherence tomography specificity in tilted discs

      Background and objective: To investigate and compare the false-positive (FP) diagnostic classification of the Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy eyes with tilted optic disc. Materials and methods: Fifty healthy eyes of 30 participants with tilted optic disc underwent BMO-MRW and RNFL scanning using Spectralis and macular Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Results: The overall FP rate was significantly lower using BMO-MRW map compared with both RNFL map by Spectralis (8% vs 62%, respectively, P <0.001) and ganglion cell analysis (GCA) map by Cirrus (8% vs 50 ...

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    21. The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      The measurement repeatability using different partition methods of intraretinal tomographic thickness maps in healthy human subjects

      Purpose: To determine the repeatability and profiles with different partition methods in intraretinal thickness layers in healthy human subjects, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT was used to acquire three-dimensional volume of the macula in 20 healthy subjects. The dataset was acquired twice using the macular cube 512×128 protocol in an area of 6×6 mm 2 centered on the fovea. Commercially available segmentation software (Orion™) was used to segment the dataset into thickness maps of six intraretinal layers. The coefficient of repeatability and intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) were analyzed using hemispheric zoning and ...

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    22. Preoperative optical coherence tomography visualization of epiretinal membranes enhances surgical strategies

      Preoperative optical coherence tomography visualization of epiretinal membranes enhances surgical strategies

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with macular epiretinal membrane (ERM) for the planning of surgical strategy. Patients and methods: One hundred twenty-three eyes of 121 patients (49 men, 72 women; mean age, 66 years) with an idiopathic ERM were enrolled. All patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including indirect ophthalmoscopy and OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 and/or 5000). OCT images obtained using model 4000 were transferred to the model 5000 system for vitreoretinal interface (VRI) analysis. The retinal thickness in each area, occurrence rate, and locations ...

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    23. Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

      Comparison of choroidal thickness measurements between spectral-domain OCT and swept-source OCT in normal and diseased eyes

      Purpose: Sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) is affected in many ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare SFCT measurements between Topcon 3D 2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Topcon swept-source OCT (SS-OCT), with different laser wavelengths, in normal and diseased populations. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study including 27 normal volunteers and 27 participants with retinal disease. OCT scans were performed sequentially and under standardized conditions using both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The OCT scans were evaluated by two independent graders. Paired t -tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the ...

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    24. Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

      Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To examine the relationship between signal strength and macular thickness as measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT)’s fast macular thickness protocol in healthy subjects. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study 79 eyes of 42 healthy subjects were enrolled. The age, gender, and eye (right vs left) of each subject were recorded. The Stratus OCT fast macular thickness scan protocol was used and the macular thickness was measured with retinal thickness map analysis. Each eye was imaged at least six times to acquire images with signal strengths of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 out of 10 ...

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