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    1. A Real-World Study of Dexamethasone Implant in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Efficacy and Correlation Between Inflammatory Biomarkers and Treatment Outcome

      A Real-World Study of Dexamethasone Implant in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Efficacy and Correlation Between Inflammatory Biomarkers and Treatment Outcome

      Purpose: There has been an increasing clinical interest in specific retinal parameters as non-invasive biomarkers of retinal inflammation in diabetic macular edema (DME) that have been shown to have prognostic value, such as hyperreflective retinal fields (HRFs) and subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND). Methods: We conducted a prospective, non-comparative study of treatment-naïve patients with DME to evaluate the efficacy of a Pro Re Nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal dexamethasone implant 0.7 mg (DexI, Ozurdex™). After administration, patients underwent subsequent injections according to PRN criteria in case of edema relapse, but not earlier than 4 months after the previous treatment ...

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    2. In vivo Imaging of Reis–Bücklers and Thiel–Behnke Corneal Dystrophies Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      In vivo Imaging of Reis–Bücklers and Thiel–Behnke Corneal Dystrophies Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate in vivo corneal changes of genetically confirmed Reis–Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) and Thiel–Behnke corneal dystrophy (TBCD) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Design: A single-center, prospective, comparative case series. Methods: Seven patients from 3 pedigrees (3 males, 4 females) with RBCD [Arg124Leu (R124L) heterozygous missense mutation of human transforming growth factor beta-induced ( TGFBI ) gene] and 4 patients from 3 pedigrees (3 males, 1 female) with TBCD [Arg555Gln (R555Q) heterozygous missense mutation of TGFBI gene] were examined. Six patients with RBCD and three patients with TBCD exhibited recurrence after corneal surgery including penetrating keratoplasty ...

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    3. The Pigtail Sign: A New Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding After Inverted ILM Flap Surgery for Idiopathic Macular Hole

      The Pigtail Sign: A New Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding After Inverted ILM Flap Surgery for Idiopathic Macular Hole

      Purpose: To report a new spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) finding called the pigtail sign. It was found during follow-up of idiopathic macular hole cases after inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 12 eyes (12 patients) who underwent inverted ILM flap technique for idiopathic macular hole closure. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were analyzed for the presence of this new finding. Results: A new spectral domain OCT finding of a curved coiled line hanging above the surface of the retinal layers was seen in all patients. The mean preoperative ...

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    4. Epithelial Remodeling Following Phacoemulsification in Diabetic Patients Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comparative Study

      Epithelial Remodeling Following Phacoemulsification in Diabetic Patients Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comparative Study

      Purpose: To compare the effect of phacoemulsification on corneal epithelial thickness in diabetic and nondiabetic cataract patients. Methods: Fifty eyes with cataracts were enrolled in a prospective comparative interventional study. They were divided into two groups: group A (diabetics) and group B (nondiabetics) and underwent uneventful phacoemulsification. Epithelial thickness was assessed in the central, paracentral, and peripheral cornea on the first day and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively using spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography. Results: A significant increase in the first-day postoperative central epithelial thickness was noticed in both groups (57.16± 3.5 μm and 55 ...

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    5. Hyperreflectivity of Inner Retinal Layers as a Quantitative Parameter of Ischemic Damage in Acute Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO): An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Hyperreflectivity of Inner Retinal Layers as a Quantitative Parameter of Ischemic Damage in Acute Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO): An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To investigate the reflectivity changes of inner retinal layers in acute retinal vein occlusion (RVO) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to correlate these values with other known parameters of acute ischemic damage. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective and observational case series, 230 eyes from 115 patients with acute RVO (central or branch) were categorized as ischemic or non-ischemic depending on fluorescein angiography (FA) images at baseline. Thickness and reflectivity of selected retinal layers were measured from SD-OCT images at baseline. Reflectivity values were correlated with other parameters of acute ischemic damage (best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal ...

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    6. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Ocular Surgeries: Critical Analysis of Clinical Role and Future Perspectives

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Ocular Surgeries: Critical Analysis of Clinical Role and Future Perspectives

      Intraoperative imaging of ocular tissues for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has gained immense admiration in recent years. The real time cross-sectional imaging, as well as three and four dimensional reconstruction abilities of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT), has enhanced our knowledge on many fronts in surgical maneuvers. In this review, we discuss the iOCT discovered constructive knowledge in the cornea, cataract, refractive, glaucoma, pediatric ocular, and various retinal conditions. The practical utility with decision modifying aspects along the specified ocular tissues and with respect to specific ocular entities have been narrated. Moreover, limitations and future directions have also been emphasized ...

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    7. Assessment of the Effect of Vitiligo on Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of the Effect of Vitiligo on Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Vitiligo is a common skin condition affecting 0.5– 2% of the population. The exact etiology of the condition is unknown, but the result is autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. The eye is rich in melanocytes, especially in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. Little is known about the effect of vitiligo on the choroid of the eye. Methods: We cross-sectionally examined 31 right eyes of 31 vitiligo patients and 32 right eyes of 32 age- and sex-matched controls for signs of vitiligo affection and then measured the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results: There was ...

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    8. Lumivascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Atherectomy in Recurrent Femoropopliteal Occlusive Diseases Associated with In-Stent Restenosis: Case-Series Report

      Lumivascular Optical Coherence Tomography–Guided Atherectomy in Recurrent Femoropopliteal Occlusive Diseases Associated with In-Stent Restenosis: Case-Series Report

      Lumivascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel adjunct in the field of medicine. It offers clear real-time imaging of artery walls before and during endovascular intervention. This study reports our initial experience on the use of lumivascular OCT-guided atherectomy in the management of two patients with recurrent restenosis in their femoropopliteal arteries associated with in-stent restenosis. Endovascular procedures were successful with a Pantheris atherectomy device (Avinger, Redwood City, CA, USA) and drug-eluting balloons. The OCT images clearly distinguished normal anatomy from plaque pathology, were of great advantage in both the accurate diagnosis and treatment of target lesions, and may ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review

      Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has emerged as a novel, fast, safe and non-invasive imaging technique of analyzing the retinal and choroidal microvasculature in vivo. OCT-A captures multiple sequential B-scans performed repeatedly over a specific retinal area at high speed, thus enabling the composition of a vascular map with areas of contrast change (high flow zones) and areas of steady contrast (slow or no flow zones). It therefore provides unique insight into the exact retinal or choroidal layer and location at which abnormal blood flow develops. OCTA has evolved into a useful tool for understanding a number of retinal ...

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    10. Retinal Microvasculature Changes After Repair of Macula-off Retinal Detachment Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Microvasculature Changes After Repair of Macula-off Retinal Detachment Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Objective: To characterize the microvascular retinal changes after repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent repair of macula-off RRD. Fellow unaffected eyes were used as controls. Post-operative OCT-A allowed comparison of vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP) as well as VD in the choriocapillaris layer. Results: Seventeen eyes of 17 RRD patients were included in the final analysis. There was a reduction in VD of the deep retinal capillary plexus in affected ...

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    11. Quantification of Macular Microvascular Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantification of Macular Microvascular Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To investigate macular structural and microvascular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) eyes compared to age-matched controls using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The foveal and parafoveal thickness and extent of ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption were measured on OCT. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and retinal vessel density (VD) were automatically calculated for superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) and choriocapillaris using OCTA-integrated software. VD was assessed for the whole 6 × 6 mm image, foveal and parafoveal regions. Quantitative measures were compared between healthy and diseased eyes ...

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    12. Evaluation of Peripapillary and Subfoveal Choroid Thickness in Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Evaluation of Peripapillary and Subfoveal Choroid Thickness in Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Objective: In this study, it aims to investigate the effect of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis on peripapillary and subfoveal choroid thickness using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Patients and Methods: While investigating for coronary artery disease, 76 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 35 patients with normal carotid artery (total = 111) were evaluated. Patients according to the degree of stenosis were divided into four categories as non-stenosis (n = 35), mild (n = 26), moderate (n = 27) and severe stenosis (n = 23). Subfoveal and peripapillary choroid thickness, ocular perfusion and intraocular pressures of all patients were measured using a Fourier-domain ...

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    13. Individual Macular Layer Evaluation with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

      Individual Macular Layer Evaluation with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

      Purpose: To evaluate differences in the thickness of the individual macular layers between early, moderate, and severe glaucomatous eyes and compare them with healthy controls. Patients and Methods: Subjects with glaucoma presenting typical optic nerve head findings, high intraocular pressure with or without visual field (VF) damage and normal controls were included. All participants underwent 24– 2 perimetry and spectral-domain OCT. Patients were divided into three groups (early, moderate, and severe) based on the mean deviation of the VF and a healthy control group. The device segmented the layers automatically, and their measurements were plotted using the means of the ...

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    14. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) Guided Reversal of Edematous Punctal Occlusion

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) Guided Reversal of Edematous Punctal Occlusion

      Aim: To evaluate the role of anterior segment–optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in the diagnosis of punctal stenosis and to compare punctal parameters before and after medical treatment. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 eyes of 24 patients who had acquired inflammatory punctal stenosis and had persistent epiphora (persistent epiphora group – PEG), and 20 eyes of 10 subjects with normal punctal openings as a control group (control group – CG). We measured the outer punctal diameter (OPD), recorded the visibility of the internal punctum and punctal depth (PD) using AS-OCT, before and 1 month after treatment with preservative ...

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    15. Anterior Segment Biometry During Accommodation and Effects of Cycloplegics by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Anterior Segment Biometry During Accommodation and Effects of Cycloplegics by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: We analyzed changes in the crystalline lens during accommodation and the effects of cycloplegics by swept-source anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (7 males and 13 females, aged 22– 34 years), with no history of eye disease except for refractive errors, were recruited. Biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and anterior and posterior curvature of the lens (ACL and PCL), were measured using AS-OCT (CASIA2). The measurements were performed with or without an accommodative demand of 5.0 diopters (D). The same tests were repeated following the topical administration of ...

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    16. Correlations Between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters and the Visual Acuity in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

      Correlations Between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters and the Visual Acuity in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

      Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Patients and Methods: Sixty eyes of 60 participants were included in this prospective study: 40 diabetic patients [20 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group), 20 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group)] and 20 age- and gender-matched normal healthy subjects (control group). After full ophthalmological examination and fundus fluorescein angiography, OCTA was performed for all participants. Quantitative OCTA parameters, such as the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, the superficial ...

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    17. Factors Affecting Repeatability of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pathologic Eyes

      Factors Affecting Repeatability of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pathologic Eyes

      Purpose: To determine factors that may affect the repeatability of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) measurement obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) including instrument type, image segmentation, image quality, and fundus pathology. Patients and Methods: This prospective single-center study enrolled 43 subjects (85 eyes) with retinal vasculopathy, macular edema, optic pathology or normal contralateral eye. The macula was imaged twice using Optovue Angiovue and once using Cirrus Angioplex to obtain 3x3mm OCTA images centered on the fovea. Images were generated by the same operator within 30 mins. The FAZ size for the entire retinal thickness (“overall FAZ”) was measured ...

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    18. Wide Stromal Mapping Using an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Wide Stromal Mapping Using an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To quantify and assess the reproducibility of the corneal stromal thickness profiles captured by the SD-OCT. Secondly, we correlated the zonal thicknesses to the age, gender and axial length. Methods: We included 227 normal eyes of 227 patients with a maximum hypermetropia of +5 and myopia of – 6 diopters (D). Subjects with an intraocular pressure exceeding 22 mm Hg, evidence of cataract formation, history of ophthalmic surgery or disease were excluded. Lastly, reproducibility was evaluated in a subset of 50 participants by means of an identical scan protocol repeated by 2 different OCT operators. Results: Stromal values were consistently ...

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    19. Plume Sign in the Deturgescence of Macular Cysts – A Novel OCT Finding

      Plume Sign in the Deturgescence of Macular Cysts – A Novel OCT Finding

      Aim: To describe a novel OCT finding called “Plume sign” in macular cysts. Methods: Case records of five cases were retrospectively reviewed. Their case history and imaging findings on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) have been described. Results: We observed five cases which had a solitary cyst foveal or parafoveal in location, was unique due to the presence of a plume-shaped internal substance, was treated with topical NSAIDs and was associated with good visual outcomes. We observed three cardinal events; firstly, retinal thickening followed by the formation of a foveal or parafoveal solitary cyst. Secondly, a ...

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    20. Application of Second-Generation Swept-Source Anterior Segment-OCT in the Measurement of Marginal Reflex Distance-1 (MRD-1)

      Application of Second-Generation Swept-Source Anterior Segment-OCT in the Measurement of Marginal Reflex Distance-1 (MRD-1)

      Purpose: To measure marginal reflex distance-1 (MRD-1) values in normal subjects and patients with blepharoptosis using second-generation swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to evaluate the usefulness of this measurement method. Materials and Methods: MRD-1 values were measured using AS-OCT in 80 eyes of 40 normal subjects (16 men and 24 women) aged 20– 59 years with no neurological or endocrinological disorders, and the measured values were compared between four age groups comprising 20 eyes of 10 subjects each in their 20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s. The Volk Eye Check system was simultaneously used to measure MRD-1 in ...

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    21. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided DMEK in Corneas with Poor Visualization

      Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided DMEK in Corneas with Poor Visualization

      Purpose: To assess the utility of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (Mi-OCT) for performing Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in corneas with poor visualization. Methods: It is a prospective interventional case series that included 25 consecutive cases of corneal decompensation with poor visualization that underwent Mi-OCT-guided DMEK at a tertiary eye care centre. The main outcome measures were graft attachment on day 3 and requirement for re-bubbling. Results: The etiology for corneal decompensation was pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (n=17), Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (n=4), failed graft (n=2), iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (n=1) and failed Descemet stripping automated endothelial ...

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    22. Consolidation of Imaging Modalities Utilizing Digitally Assisted Visualization Systems: The Development of a Surgical Information Handling Cockpit

      Consolidation of Imaging Modalities Utilizing Digitally Assisted Visualization Systems: The Development of a Surgical Information Handling Cockpit

      The management of vitreoretinal cases is ever-evolving, paralleled by rapid advancements in operative imaging modalities. In this article, we describe an advanced application of digitally assisted vitreoretinal surgery (DAVS) that involves the consolidation of pre-existing ancillary imaging technology into a single same-screen viewing platform. Forty-four eyes of 44 patients were operated using same screen simultaneous viewing of the primary three-dimensional high definition (3DHD) surgical field and simultaneous auxiliary video feed viewing of all currently approved ocular endoscopy (n=12), intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) units (n=24), or computer feeds from the EHR/image management software (n=8). All surgeries ...

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    23. Artificial Intelligence to Identify Retinal Fundus Images, Quality Validation, Laterality Evaluation, Macular Degeneration, and Suspected Glaucoma

      Artificial Intelligence to Identify Retinal Fundus Images, Quality Validation, Laterality Evaluation, Macular Degeneration, and Suspected Glaucoma

      Purpose: To assess the performance of deep learning algorithms for different tasks in retinal fundus images: (1) detection of retinal fundus images versus optical coherence tomography (OCT) or other images, (2) evaluation of good quality retinal fundus images, (3) distinction between right eye (OD) and left eye (OS) retinal fundus images,(4) detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and (5) detection of referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Patients and Methods: Five algorithms were designed. Retrospective study from a database of 306,302 images, Optretina’s tagged dataset. Three different ophthalmologists, all retinal specialists, classified all images. The dataset was split ...

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    24. Functional and Structural Changes of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex in Heavy Smoker

      Functional and Structural Changes of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex in Heavy Smoker

      Purpose: To assess the functional and structural changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) in heavy smokers using pattern electroretinogram (PERG), photopic negative response(PhNR) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Patients and Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 heavy smokers (at least 15 cigarettes/day for 10 years) (study group) and 60 eyes of 30 age and gender-matched healthy non-smoker subjects (control group) were included. After full ophthalmologic examination (PERG), (PhNR) using RETI-port/scan 21 (Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) and (SD-OCT using Topcon 3D OCT model 2000 FA version.8.30) were ...

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