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    1. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY DIFFERENCE MAPS AND AVERAGE MACULAR VOLUME FOR GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY DIFFERENCE MAPS AND AVERAGE MACULAR VOLUME FOR GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY

      Purpose: To demonstrate the ability to monitor geographic atrophy (GA) volumetrically through all retinal layers with high-resolution optical coherence tomography difference maps and average macular volume. Methods: Observational case report. Results: Two patients diagnosed with GA were followed up for multiple years with consecutive high-resolution optical coherence tomography studies along with fundus photography and fluorescein angiography or fundus autofluorescence. Difference maps visually reflect macular thinning associated with expansion of GA witnessed on alternative studies. In addition, these maps show progressive macular thinning within previously delineated areas of GA. Average macular volume quantitatively demonstrates the decreasing volume associated with the expanding ...

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    2. Highly calcific in-stent restenosis as a substrate for sirolimus-eluting stent very late stent thrombosis

      Highly calcific in-stent restenosis as a substrate for sirolimus-eluting stent very late stent thrombosis

      We describe a case of very late stent thrombosis with documentation of highly calcific restenosis at optical coherence tomography without clear signs of stent malapposition, neoatherosclerosis disruption, or vascular toxicity to stent polymer. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports dealing with highly calcific restenosis as a potential background to very late stent thrombosis.

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    3. A FALSE COLOR FUSION STRATEGY FOR DRUSEN AND GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY VISUALIZATION IN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES

      A FALSE COLOR FUSION STRATEGY FOR DRUSEN AND GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY VISUALIZATION IN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES

      Purpose: To display drusen and geographic atrophy (GA) in a single projection image from three-dimensional spectral domain optical coherence tomography images based on a novel false color fusion strategy. Methods: We present a false color fusion strategy to combine drusen and GA projection images. The drusen projection image is generated with a restricted summed-voxel projection (axial sum of the reflectivity values in a spectral domain optical coherence tomography cube, limited to the region where drusen is present). The GA projection image is generated by incorporating two GA characteristics: bright choroid and thin retina pigment epithelium. The false color fusion method ...

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    4. DISTRIBUTION OF INTRARETINAL EXUDATES IN DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA DURING ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY OBSERVED BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY

      DISTRIBUTION OF INTRARETINAL EXUDATES IN DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA DURING ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY OBSERVED BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To evaluate changes in the distribution and morphology of intraretinal microexudates and hard exudates (HEs) during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema. Methods: Twenty-four patients with persistent diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation were investigated in this prospective cohort study. Each eye was assigned to a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments at monthly intervals. Additional single treatments were performed if diabetic macular edema persisted or recurred. Intraretinal exudates were analyzed over 6 months using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography. Results: Before treatment, microexudates were detected ...

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    5. New imaging techniques for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      New imaging techniques for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      Purpose of review: Recent advances in imaging techniques provide innovative tools for the detection of bladder cancer. In patients with nonmuscle invasive cancer, there is a need for enhanced visualization of flat growing lesions and multifocal tumors. The aim of new imaging modalities is the improved detection and staging of bladder lesions, as an adjunct to conventional white light endoscopy. Recent findings: Fluorescence cystoscopy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and hexaminolevulinate has been shown to improve the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions in comparison to conventional white light cystoscopy. Prospective phase III clinical trials have demonstrated advanced diagnostic ability, enhanced ...

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    6. Neural Network Analysis of Different Segmentation Strategies of Nerve Fiber Layer Assessment for Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Neural Network Analysis of Different Segmentation Strategies of Nerve Fiber Layer Assessment for Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of different segmentations of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness measurements using an artificial neural network and to define the optimal number of sectors with best diagnostic ability for glaucoma diagnosis. Methods: A total of 117 glaucoma patients and 123 normal subjects were included in the study. NFL thickness measurements were performed using the Spectralis-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering) to obtain the NFL thickness average; measurements from 2 semicircles, 4 quadrants, and 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, and 64 sectors; and 768 uniformly divided locations around the peripapillary NFL. An artificial neural network evaluation was ...

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    7. Association Between Transient Interface Fluid on Intraoperative OCT and Textural Interface Opacity After DSAEK Surgery in the PIONEER Study

      Association Between Transient Interface Fluid on Intraoperative OCT and Textural Interface Opacity After DSAEK Surgery in the PIONEER Study

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the association between transient interface fluid (TIF) and textural interface opacity (TIO) after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) surgery using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) in the PIONEER (Prospective Intraoperative and Perioperative Ophthalmic ImagiNg with Optical CoherEncE TomogRaphy) study. Methods: All consecutive eyes that underwent DSAEK between October 2011 and September 2013 from the PIONEER intraoperative and perioperative OCT study were included. iOCT images were captured after lenticule apposition with complete air fill and after air-fluid exchange. Postoperative day 1 OCT images were obtained. Outcome variables included the presence of ...

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    8. RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ALBINISM USING WIDE-FIELD POLARIZATION-SENSITIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ALBINISM USING WIDE-FIELD POLARIZATION-SENSITIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To investigate pigmentation characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography compared with intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Methods: Five patients (10 eyes) with previously genetically diagnosed albinism and 5 healthy control subjects (10 eyes) were imaged by a wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system (scan angle: 40 x 40[degrees] on the retina), sensitive to melanin contained in the RPE, based on the polarization state of backscattered light. Conventional intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence examinations were performed. Retinal pigment epithelium-pigmentation ...

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    9. Meta-analysis of Stratus OCT Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy

      Meta-analysis of Stratus OCT Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy

      Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma in different stages, different types of glaucoma, and different ethnic groups using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: We searched MEDLINE to identify available articles on diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma published between January 2004 and December 2011. A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) search using medical subject headings and keywords was executed using the following terms: "diagnostic accuracy" or "receiver operator characteristic" or "area under curve" or "AUC" and "Stratus OCT" and "glaucoma." The search was subsequently limited to publications in English. The area under a receiver operator characteristic (AUC) curve ...

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    10. Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 41-year-old woman with skew deviation had cyclotorsion of both eyes. This resulted in a falsely low probability plot of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in adjacent clock hours on optical coherence tomography (OCT) due to displacement of the retinal nerve fiber layer peaks. Ocular cyclotorsion may cause misinterpretation of OCT probability plots. OCT retinal nerve fiber layer plots also may be used to objectively quantify the degree of ocular cyclotorsion.

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      Mentions: Randy H. Kardon
    11. THE PEARL NECKLACE SIGN: A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Exudative Macular Disease

      THE PEARL NECKLACE SIGN: A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Exudative Macular Disease

      Purpose: To report a novel spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in exudative macular disease, called the pearl necklace sign. Methods: A retrospective case series of 21 eyes (20 patients) with chronic exudative maculopathy resulting from age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, branch retinal vein occlusion, retinal arterial macroaneurysm, and Coats disease. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were carefully evaluated and correlated with color fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance, and fluorescein angiography. Results: A unique spectral domain optical coherence tomography macular finding of hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the outer plexiform ...

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      Mentions: K. Bailey Freund
    12. RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION: FOLLOW-UP ANALYSIS USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION: FOLLOW-UP ANALYSIS USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To describe the clinical findings, diagnostics, and differential diagnosis in a patient with retinopathy in acute systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Methods: Description of the clinical course of the EBV retinopathy was based on the medical record, photographs, and visual fields of the patient. Retinal morphology was visualized using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering), and fluorescein angiography. Multiple serologic tests were performed to exclude different infectious agents. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a focal scotoma in his right visual field. One week ago, he suffered from high fever, joint pain, neck stiffness, and hepatitis; 2 weeks ...

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    13. Peri-strut low-intensity areas in optical coherence tomography correlate with peri-strut inflammation and neointimal proliferation: an in-vivo correlation study in the familial hypercholesterolemic coronary swine model of in-stent restenosis

      Peri-strut low-intensity areas in optical coherence tomography correlate with peri-strut inflammation and neointimal proliferation: an in-vivo correlation study in the familial hypercholesterolemic coronary swine model of in-stent restenosis

      Background: Peri-strut low-intensity area (PLI) is a common imaging finding during the evaluation of in-stent neointima using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to determine the biological significance of PLI by comparing in-vivo OCT images with the corresponding histological sections obtained from the familial hypercholesterolemic swine model of coronary stenosis. Methods: A total of 26 coronary vessels of nine familial hypercholesterolemic swine were injured with 30% balloon overstretch and then immediately followed by everolimus eluting or bare metal stent placement at 20% overstretch. At 30 days, all stented vessels were subjected to in-vivo OCT analysis and were harvested for histological ...

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    14. OCT Imaging of a Traumatic Endothelial Ring

      OCT Imaging of a Traumatic Endothelial Ring

      Purpose: To report a case of a traumatic corneal endothelial ring sustained from a nonblast injury and its resolution with corneal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods: The authors present a report of the clinical case with imaging of the lesion using corneal OCT. Results: A 59-year-old man presented 1 day after sustaining a nonpenetrating foreign body injury to his cornea. Slit-lamp examination showed an endothelial annular lesion of 3.3 mm in diameter, which was grey-white in color. No other signs of traumatic injury were present. Stromal edema and endothelial disruption were demonstrated on corneal OCT. This resolved completely ...

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    15. Reference Standard Test and the Diagnostic Ability of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Reference Standard Test and the Diagnostic Ability of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the reference standard used to diagnose glaucoma and the diagnostic ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomograph (SDOCT). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 280 eyes of 175 consecutive subjects, referred to a tertiary eye care center for glaucoma evaluation, underwent optic disc photography, visual field (VF) examination, and SDOCT examination. The cohort was divided into glaucoma and control groups based on 3 reference standards for glaucoma diagnosis: first based on the optic disc classification (179 glaucoma and 101 control eyes), second on VF classification (glaucoma hemifield test outside normal limits and pattern SD with ...

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      Mentions: Harsha L. Rao
    16. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MACULAR EDEMA OF DIFFERENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ORIGINS BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MACULAR EDEMA OF DIFFERENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ORIGINS BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To develop a classification approach based solely on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to differentiate macular edema (ME) of different disease entities and to determine underlying pathology. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 153 participants: 27 with Irvine-Gass, 31 with uveitic ME, 24 with ME after branch retinal vein occlusion, 13 with central retinal vein occlusion, 44 with diabetic ME, and 14 controls. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was graded according to a standardized reading protocol. Grading characteristics were: ME pattern in the central line (horizontal/vertical) and in volume scans, distribution of cysts in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study ...

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    17. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED RANIBIZUMAB MONOTHERAPY FOR RETINAL ANGIOMATOUS PROLIFERATION IN KOREAN PATIENTS

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED RANIBIZUMAB MONOTHERAPY FOR RETINAL ANGIOMATOUS PROLIFERATION IN KOREAN PATIENTS

      Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcome of optical coherence tomography-based ranibizumab monotherapy in Korean patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation and identify prognostic factors of visual outcome. Methods: A prospective single-arm clinical study of 31 retinal angiomatous proliferation patients who underwent 3 consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections was conducted. Additional treatment was given based on optical coherence tomography at monthly follow-ups over 24 months. Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 48.7 +/- 19.3 to 56.3 +/- 19.1 letters at 24 months (P = 0.010). Total cumulative numbers of injection were 5.5 +/- 2.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.4 ...

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    18. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF INTRAOCULAR TUMORS: From Placid to Seasick to Rock and Rolling Topography-The 2013 Francesco Orzalesi Lecture.

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF INTRAOCULAR TUMORS: From Placid to Seasick to Rock and Rolling Topography-The 2013 Francesco Orzalesi Lecture.

      Purpose: To review enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of intraocular tumors.

      Methods: Review of tumor surface topography and internal characteristics based on published reports and personal experience.

      Results: Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, choroidal nevus showed smooth moderate dome-shape and with overlying retinal pigment epithelial alterations, subretinal cleft, and photoreceptor loss. Choroidal melanoma was smooth, moderately dome-shaped, and with overlying "shaggy" photoreceptors. Choroidal metastasis showed "lumpy, bumpy" irregular surface topography, subretinal fluid, and shaggy photoreceptors. Choroidal hemangioma was smooth, acutely dome-shaped and with subretinal fluid and/or cystoid retinal edema. Choroidal lymphoma showed "placid, rippled, or seasick ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography-guided treatment of very late stent thrombosis caused by inaccurate stent deployment in a bifurcation

      Optical coherence tomography-guided treatment of very late stent thrombosis caused by inaccurate stent deployment in a bifurcation

      A 65-year-old man presented at our institution with anterior wall reinfarction, due to very late stent thrombosis, 4 years after primary angioplasty on the first bifurcation of the left anterior descending artery. Using intravascular optical coherence tomography, we identified stent malapposition in the proximal left anterior descending artery, occurring during the first primary angioplasty, as the probable cause of the very late stent thrombosis. Imaging with optical coherence tomography guided our treatment strategy of mechanical and pharmacological thrombectomy, followed by staged stent postdilatation.

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    20. Quantification of manual thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a study exploiting serial frequency domain-optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of manual thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a study exploiting serial frequency domain-optical coherence tomography

      Aims: Thrombus aspiration is useful in improving myocardial reperfusion in comparison to conventional percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, assessment of thrombus aspiration efficacy is lacking. Aim of this study was to quantify by frequency domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) the amount of thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing manual thrombus aspiration, correlating it with the actual size of the retrieved material. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. OCT assessment of thrombotic lesions was performed before and after thrombus aspiration and repeated after stent deployment. OCT thrombus assessment was ...

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      Mentions: Francesco Prati
    21. Colocalization of thin-cap fibroatheroma and spotty calcification is a powerful predictor of procedure-related myocardial injury after elective coronary stent implantation

      Colocalization of thin-cap fibroatheroma and spotty calcification is a powerful predictor of procedure-related myocardial injury after elective coronary stent implantation

      Objectives Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related cardiac enzyme elevation is an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes, but preprocedural predictors of this complication have not been established. This study evaluated the morphological characteristics of culprit lesions by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), and examined their predictive value for procedure-related myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective PCI. Methods Sixty-eight patients treated by FD-OCT-guided elective PCI were studied. On the basis of the presence or absence of postprocedural plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation, patients were divided into elevation (cTnT-E, n =25) and nonelevation (cTnT-nonE, n =43) groups. FD-OCT examinations of ...

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    22. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with multivessel disease: the key role of optical coherence tomography

      Acute coronary syndromes in patients with multivessel disease: the key role of optical coherence tomography

      In this article, we provide very illustrative images obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT) of a patient presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease. These patients are referred to the catheterization laboratory without performing any prior noninvasive imaging. This leads very often to diagnostic dilemmas with difficult solutions. Coronary angiography is frequently insufficient or even misleading to guide the interventional cardiologist in the identification and revascularization of the culprit coronary lesion. What makes our case particularly paradigmatic is the fact that without OCT guidance, an erroneous clinical decision-making process would have taken place, leaving untreated the culprit lesion in ...

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    23. INDIVIDUALIZED, SPECTRAL DOMAIN-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY–GUIDED FACEDOWN POSTURING AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY: Minimizing Treatment Burden and Maximizing Outcome

      INDIVIDUALIZED, SPECTRAL DOMAIN-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY–GUIDED FACEDOWN POSTURING AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY: Minimizing Treatment Burden and Maximizing Outcome

      Purpose: To evaluate the individualized, optical coherence tomography-guided facedown posturing after macular hole (MH) surgery in minimizing the burden and maximizing outcome. Methods: A retrospective comparative study. One hundred and seven consecutive eyes with an MH (<500 μ m) received vitrectomy and gas tamponade. After surgery, optical coherence tomography examination was performed from 6 hours to postoperative Day 2. In Group A, with a pro re nata posturing protocol, the duration of facedown posturing was determined from the optical coherence tomography findings. Group A was subdivided as follows: Group A1, facedown posturing required postoperatively and Group A2, no posturing required. When ...

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