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    1. RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ALBINISM USING WIDE-FIELD POLARIZATION-SENSITIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ALBINISM USING WIDE-FIELD POLARIZATION-SENSITIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To investigate pigmentation characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography compared with intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Methods: Five patients (10 eyes) with previously genetically diagnosed albinism and 5 healthy control subjects (10 eyes) were imaged by a wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system (scan angle: 40 x 40[degrees] on the retina), sensitive to melanin contained in the RPE, based on the polarization state of backscattered light. Conventional intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence examinations were performed. Retinal pigment epithelium-pigmentation ...

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    2. Meta-analysis of Stratus OCT Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy

      Meta-analysis of Stratus OCT Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy

      Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma in different stages, different types of glaucoma, and different ethnic groups using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: We searched MEDLINE to identify available articles on diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma published between January 2004 and December 2011. A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) search using medical subject headings and keywords was executed using the following terms: "diagnostic accuracy" or "receiver operator characteristic" or "area under curve" or "AUC" and "Stratus OCT" and "glaucoma." The search was subsequently limited to publications in English. The area under a receiver operator characteristic (AUC) curve ...

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    3. Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 41-year-old woman with skew deviation had cyclotorsion of both eyes. This resulted in a falsely low probability plot of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in adjacent clock hours on optical coherence tomography (OCT) due to displacement of the retinal nerve fiber layer peaks. Ocular cyclotorsion may cause misinterpretation of OCT probability plots. OCT retinal nerve fiber layer plots also may be used to objectively quantify the degree of ocular cyclotorsion.

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      Mentions: Randy H. Kardon
    4. THE PEARL NECKLACE SIGN: A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Exudative Macular Disease

      THE PEARL NECKLACE SIGN: A Novel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Finding in Exudative Macular Disease

      Purpose: To report a novel spectral domain optical coherence tomography finding in exudative macular disease, called the pearl necklace sign. Methods: A retrospective case series of 21 eyes (20 patients) with chronic exudative maculopathy resulting from age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, branch retinal vein occlusion, retinal arterial macroaneurysm, and Coats disease. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were carefully evaluated and correlated with color fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance, and fluorescein angiography. Results: A unique spectral domain optical coherence tomography macular finding of hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the outer plexiform ...

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      Mentions: K. Bailey Freund
    5. RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION: FOLLOW-UP ANALYSIS USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      RETINOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION: FOLLOW-UP ANALYSIS USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To describe the clinical findings, diagnostics, and differential diagnosis in a patient with retinopathy in acute systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Methods: Description of the clinical course of the EBV retinopathy was based on the medical record, photographs, and visual fields of the patient. Retinal morphology was visualized using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering), and fluorescein angiography. Multiple serologic tests were performed to exclude different infectious agents. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a focal scotoma in his right visual field. One week ago, he suffered from high fever, joint pain, neck stiffness, and hepatitis; 2 weeks ...

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    6. Peri-strut low-intensity areas in optical coherence tomography correlate with peri-strut inflammation and neointimal proliferation: an in-vivo correlation study in the familial hypercholesterolemic coronary swine model of in-stent restenosis

      Peri-strut low-intensity areas in optical coherence tomography correlate with peri-strut inflammation and neointimal proliferation: an in-vivo correlation study in the familial hypercholesterolemic coronary swine model of in-stent restenosis

      Background: Peri-strut low-intensity area (PLI) is a common imaging finding during the evaluation of in-stent neointima using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to determine the biological significance of PLI by comparing in-vivo OCT images with the corresponding histological sections obtained from the familial hypercholesterolemic swine model of coronary stenosis. Methods: A total of 26 coronary vessels of nine familial hypercholesterolemic swine were injured with 30% balloon overstretch and then immediately followed by everolimus eluting or bare metal stent placement at 20% overstretch. At 30 days, all stented vessels were subjected to in-vivo OCT analysis and were harvested for histological ...

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    7. OCT Imaging of a Traumatic Endothelial Ring

      OCT Imaging of a Traumatic Endothelial Ring

      Purpose: To report a case of a traumatic corneal endothelial ring sustained from a nonblast injury and its resolution with corneal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods: The authors present a report of the clinical case with imaging of the lesion using corneal OCT. Results: A 59-year-old man presented 1 day after sustaining a nonpenetrating foreign body injury to his cornea. Slit-lamp examination showed an endothelial annular lesion of 3.3 mm in diameter, which was grey-white in color. No other signs of traumatic injury were present. Stromal edema and endothelial disruption were demonstrated on corneal OCT. This resolved completely ...

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    8. Reference Standard Test and the Diagnostic Ability of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Reference Standard Test and the Diagnostic Ability of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the reference standard used to diagnose glaucoma and the diagnostic ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomograph (SDOCT). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 280 eyes of 175 consecutive subjects, referred to a tertiary eye care center for glaucoma evaluation, underwent optic disc photography, visual field (VF) examination, and SDOCT examination. The cohort was divided into glaucoma and control groups based on 3 reference standards for glaucoma diagnosis: first based on the optic disc classification (179 glaucoma and 101 control eyes), second on VF classification (glaucoma hemifield test outside normal limits and pattern SD with ...

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      Mentions: Harsha L. Rao
    9. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MACULAR EDEMA OF DIFFERENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ORIGINS BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MACULAR EDEMA OF DIFFERENT PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC ORIGINS BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To develop a classification approach based solely on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to differentiate macular edema (ME) of different disease entities and to determine underlying pathology. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 153 participants: 27 with Irvine-Gass, 31 with uveitic ME, 24 with ME after branch retinal vein occlusion, 13 with central retinal vein occlusion, 44 with diabetic ME, and 14 controls. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was graded according to a standardized reading protocol. Grading characteristics were: ME pattern in the central line (horizontal/vertical) and in volume scans, distribution of cysts in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study ...

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    10. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED RANIBIZUMAB MONOTHERAPY FOR RETINAL ANGIOMATOUS PROLIFERATION IN KOREAN PATIENTS

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED RANIBIZUMAB MONOTHERAPY FOR RETINAL ANGIOMATOUS PROLIFERATION IN KOREAN PATIENTS

      Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcome of optical coherence tomography-based ranibizumab monotherapy in Korean patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation and identify prognostic factors of visual outcome. Methods: A prospective single-arm clinical study of 31 retinal angiomatous proliferation patients who underwent 3 consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections was conducted. Additional treatment was given based on optical coherence tomography at monthly follow-ups over 24 months. Results: Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 48.7 +/- 19.3 to 56.3 +/- 19.1 letters at 24 months (P = 0.010). Total cumulative numbers of injection were 5.5 +/- 2.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.4 ...

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    11. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF INTRAOCULAR TUMORS: From Placid to Seasick to Rock and Rolling Topography-The 2013 Francesco Orzalesi Lecture.

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OF INTRAOCULAR TUMORS: From Placid to Seasick to Rock and Rolling Topography-The 2013 Francesco Orzalesi Lecture.

      Purpose: To review enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of intraocular tumors.

      Methods: Review of tumor surface topography and internal characteristics based on published reports and personal experience.

      Results: Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, choroidal nevus showed smooth moderate dome-shape and with overlying retinal pigment epithelial alterations, subretinal cleft, and photoreceptor loss. Choroidal melanoma was smooth, moderately dome-shaped, and with overlying "shaggy" photoreceptors. Choroidal metastasis showed "lumpy, bumpy" irregular surface topography, subretinal fluid, and shaggy photoreceptors. Choroidal hemangioma was smooth, acutely dome-shaped and with subretinal fluid and/or cystoid retinal edema. Choroidal lymphoma showed "placid, rippled, or seasick ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography-guided treatment of very late stent thrombosis caused by inaccurate stent deployment in a bifurcation

      Optical coherence tomography-guided treatment of very late stent thrombosis caused by inaccurate stent deployment in a bifurcation

      A 65-year-old man presented at our institution with anterior wall reinfarction, due to very late stent thrombosis, 4 years after primary angioplasty on the first bifurcation of the left anterior descending artery. Using intravascular optical coherence tomography, we identified stent malapposition in the proximal left anterior descending artery, occurring during the first primary angioplasty, as the probable cause of the very late stent thrombosis. Imaging with optical coherence tomography guided our treatment strategy of mechanical and pharmacological thrombectomy, followed by staged stent postdilatation.

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    13. Quantification of manual thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a study exploiting serial frequency domain-optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of manual thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a study exploiting serial frequency domain-optical coherence tomography

      Aims: Thrombus aspiration is useful in improving myocardial reperfusion in comparison to conventional percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, assessment of thrombus aspiration efficacy is lacking. Aim of this study was to quantify by frequency domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) the amount of thrombus removal in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing manual thrombus aspiration, correlating it with the actual size of the retrieved material. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. OCT assessment of thrombotic lesions was performed before and after thrombus aspiration and repeated after stent deployment. OCT thrombus assessment was ...

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      Mentions: Francesco Prati
    14. Colocalization of thin-cap fibroatheroma and spotty calcification is a powerful predictor of procedure-related myocardial injury after elective coronary stent implantation

      Colocalization of thin-cap fibroatheroma and spotty calcification is a powerful predictor of procedure-related myocardial injury after elective coronary stent implantation

      Objectives Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related cardiac enzyme elevation is an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes, but preprocedural predictors of this complication have not been established. This study evaluated the morphological characteristics of culprit lesions by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), and examined their predictive value for procedure-related myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective PCI. Methods Sixty-eight patients treated by FD-OCT-guided elective PCI were studied. On the basis of the presence or absence of postprocedural plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation, patients were divided into elevation (cTnT-E, n =25) and nonelevation (cTnT-nonE, n =43) groups. FD-OCT examinations of ...

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    15. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with multivessel disease: the key role of optical coherence tomography

      Acute coronary syndromes in patients with multivessel disease: the key role of optical coherence tomography

      In this article, we provide very illustrative images obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT) of a patient presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease. These patients are referred to the catheterization laboratory without performing any prior noninvasive imaging. This leads very often to diagnostic dilemmas with difficult solutions. Coronary angiography is frequently insufficient or even misleading to guide the interventional cardiologist in the identification and revascularization of the culprit coronary lesion. What makes our case particularly paradigmatic is the fact that without OCT guidance, an erroneous clinical decision-making process would have taken place, leaving untreated the culprit lesion in ...

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    16. INDIVIDUALIZED, SPECTRAL DOMAIN-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY–GUIDED FACEDOWN POSTURING AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY: Minimizing Treatment Burden and Maximizing Outcome

      INDIVIDUALIZED, SPECTRAL DOMAIN-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY–GUIDED FACEDOWN POSTURING AFTER MACULAR HOLE SURGERY: Minimizing Treatment Burden and Maximizing Outcome

      Purpose: To evaluate the individualized, optical coherence tomography-guided facedown posturing after macular hole (MH) surgery in minimizing the burden and maximizing outcome. Methods: A retrospective comparative study. One hundred and seven consecutive eyes with an MH (<500 μ m) received vitrectomy and gas tamponade. After surgery, optical coherence tomography examination was performed from 6 hours to postoperative Day 2. In Group A, with a pro re nata posturing protocol, the duration of facedown posturing was determined from the optical coherence tomography findings. Group A was subdivided as follows: Group A1, facedown posturing required postoperatively and Group A2, no posturing required. When ...

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    17. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF PURTSCHER-LIKE RETINOPATHY

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF PURTSCHER-LIKE RETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with Purtscher-like retinopathy. Methods: Case report, image analysis, and literature review. Results: A 71-year-old woman presented with decreased vision, cotton-wool spots, and a deep whitish polygonal lesion in her left eye, which was hyperreflective on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. She was diagnosed with Purtscher-like retinopathy and later was found to have metastatic pancreatic cancer. Conclusion: Purtscher-like retinopathy can occur secondary to malignant pancreatic cancer. Purtscher-flecken can be characterized by cross-sectional and en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography and represent deep capillary ischemia.

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      Mentions: Brandon J. Lujan
    18. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical applications

      Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical applications

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based technology that provides very high spatial resolution images. OCT has been initially employed as a research tool to investigate plaque morphology and stent strut coverage. The introduction of frequency domain OCT allowing fast image acquisition during a prolonged contrast injection via the guiding catheter has made OCT applicable for guidance of coronary interventions. In this manuscript, the various applications of OCT are reviewed, from assessment of plaque vulnerability and severity to characteristics of unstable lesions and thrombus burden to stent optimization and evaluation of late results.

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    19. Facilitating Glaucoma Diagnosis With Intereye Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Asymmetry Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Facilitating Glaucoma Diagnosis With Intereye Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Asymmetry Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To test whether increased intereye retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) asymmetry may be indicative of glaucoma. To determine the best statistical methods and intereye RNFL cutoffs for differentiating between normal and glaucoma subjects to better alert clinicians to early glaucomatous damage. Methods: Sixty-six primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 40 age-matched normal subjects had both eyes imaged at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) machine. Statistical methodologies were used to find cutoffs that achieved the best sensitivities and specificities for differentiating OAG from normal subjects. Results: Intereye RNFL asymmetry for global ...

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    20. Automatic Biometry of the Anterior Segment During Accommodation Imaged by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Automatic Biometry of the Anterior Segment During Accommodation Imaged by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: To test accuracy and repeatability of a software algorithm that performs automatic biometry of the anterior segment of the human eye imaged with long scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: The ocular anterior segment imaging was performed with custom-built long scan depth OCT. An automatic software algorithm including boundary segmentation, image registration, and optical correction was developed for fast and reliable biometric measurements based on the OCT images. The boundary segmentation algorithm mainly used the gradient information of images and applied the shortest path search based on the dynamic programming to optimize the edge finding. The automatic algorithm ...

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    21. Measurement of Anterior Scleral Curvature Using Anterior Segment OCT

      Measurement of Anterior Scleral Curvature Using Anterior Segment OCT

      Purpose: To investigate and validate methods for measuring the radius of anterior scleral curvature using anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. Methods: Twenty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images, centered on horizontal/vertical limbus, including adjacent anterior sclera, were obtained in addition to conventional images centered on the optical axis. Central horizontal, nasal, and temporal optical coherence tomography images were consolidated to a new image for subsequent analyses. The reference points of limbal surface and three scleral points were marked nasally and temporally. The radius of a best-fit circle to the six scleral points ...

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    22. Effect of Intraocular Pressure and Anisotropy on the Optical Properties of the Cornea: A Study Using Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Effect of Intraocular Pressure and Anisotropy on the Optical Properties of the Cornea: A Study Using Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: We hypothesize that because of the anisotropic properties of the cornea, there should be a nonuniform change in birefringence with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). In this in vitro study, anisotropic properties, stress distribution within the cornea, and the effect of IOP on changes in stress level were investigated. Design: Button inflation tests for deformation with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography were used to demonstrate optical and material anisotropy on ex vivo human corneas. Methods: Inflation tests were performed on human donor corneoscleral rims. Using a turntable and hydrostatic column, each corneoscleral rim was subjected to a hydrostatic ...

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    23. MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES AND EVOLUTION OF INNER RETINAL DIMPLES ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING

      MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES AND EVOLUTION OF INNER RETINAL DIMPLES ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING

      Purpose: To evaluate morphologic features and the evolution of inner retinal dimples using spectral domain optical coherence tomography after internal limiting membrane peeling. Methods: A single-center retrospective study of spectral domain optical coherence tomography features in 43 eyes after full-thickness macular hole surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling without adjunctive internal limiting membrane staining. Results: Postoperatively, a total of 210 dimples were noted in 37 eyes (86%), with a mean of 5.7 dimples per eye (median, 5; range, 1-20), most frequently located in the inferotemporal quadrant (n = 122, 58%, P < 0.0001). At initial detection, mean dimple dimensions were ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    24. PREVALENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CYSTOID SPACES IN RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA: Investigation With Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      PREVALENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CYSTOID SPACES IN RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA: Investigation With Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and spatial distribution of cystoid spaces (CS) in retinitis pigmentosa patients with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: A total of 529 eyes of 275 patients with retinitis pigmentosa were examined with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The presence or absence of CS was judged for each eye. Retinal layer and outer retinal status where the CS existed were also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using 1 eye per 1 patient. Results: Cystoid spaces were present in 119 of 529 eyes (22.5%) of 74 of 275 patients (26.9%). There were no significant differences ...

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