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    1. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN A YOUNG CASE OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA TYPE 1

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN A YOUNG CASE OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA TYPE 1

      Purpose: To describe the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography findings in a very young case of Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. Methods: Observational case report of a young patient who underwent clinical examination and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography evaluation. Results: A 4-year-old boy with a history of Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria and resulting chronic renal failure was referred to us for ophthalmologic examination. There were no ocular symptoms when he was referred to us. Fundus examination showed deposition of calcium oxalate crystals at the posterior pole located symmetrically in both eyes. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography evaluation ...

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    2. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI IN EARLY STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI IN EARLY STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To analyze the presence of hyperreflective foci in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients, separately, without clinically significant diabetic macular edema and visual impairment. Methods: Noninvasive, observational prospective study. Seventeen and 19 consecutive Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients (33 and 38 eyes), respectively, were recruited. All patients had no clinically significant diabetic macular edema or visual impairment. Two age- and sex-matched control groups were also included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Hyperreflective foci were counted considering horizontal B-scan passing through the fovea. Results: On spectral domain optical coherence tomography, patients ...

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    3. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED RANIBIZUMAB INJECTION FOR CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA IN WELL-CONTROLLED UVEITIS: Twelve-Month Outcomes

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED RANIBIZUMAB INJECTION FOR CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA IN WELL-CONTROLLED UVEITIS: Twelve-Month Outcomes

      Purpose: To determine whether serial ranibizumab injections are effective in the treatment of cystoid macular edema in patients with chronic controlled noninfectious uveitis. Methods: Five eyes of 5 patients were included in a prospective noncomparative therapeutic trial. They received intravitreal injections of ranibizumab at Day 0 and were followed monthly for 1 year. Injections were repeated monthly if persistent or new cystic edema manifested on optical coherence tomography. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity from baseline at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included mean percentage change in central subfield retinal thickness (CST) and incidence ...

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    4. Corneal Topographic Analysis of Patients With Mooren Ulcer Using 3-Dimensional Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Corneal Topographic Analysis of Patients With Mooren Ulcer Using 3-Dimensional Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the corneal topography and visual function of patients with Mooren ulcer using 3-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography (3-D AS-OCT). Methods: Fourteen eyes of 9 patients with Mooren ulcer were studied. Pachymetric and axial power maps were obtained by 3-D AS-OCT. The axial power maps were classified into 3 patterns by visual inspection. The distribution of the corneal dioptric power was analyzed by Fourier harmonic expansion. The magnitudes of the spherical component, asymmetry, regular astigmatism, higher-order irregularity, and radial distance from the corneal vertex to the thinnest point of the lesion were determined. Results: The axial power ...

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    5. The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Beginning almost 25 years ago, optical coherence tomography (OCT) began its journey into the mainstream of ophthalmology.  Initially developed for retinal an vitro-retinal interface disease and glaucoma, this revolutionary technology has proven to ultimately have broader applications in neuro-ophthalmology and neurology, 2 specialties in which a better understating of OCT has led to more widespread investigation and clinical use.

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    6. Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made possible the structure–function correlations that uniquely characterize the afferent visual pathway as a model for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and for developing new treatments. During the past decade, OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL) thickness have evolved from being a means to validate visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity, to provide a window on the axonal and neuronal loss that are now widely recognized as contributors to permanent visual dysfunction in MS. Although acute optic neuritis (ON) leads to thinning of ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Background: Grading of papilledema severity is subjective and based on monocular fundus features of the optic nerve. Interobserver agreement on grading the severity of papilledema is poor among expert observers, even using well-defined criteria such as the Frisen scale, which is a non-continuous ordinal scale of grading. Furthermore, non-expert clinicians often find it difficult to properly view and interpret features of the optic nerve using ophthalmoscopy, which can lead to failure to diagnose papilledema in non-ophthalmologic care settings. This may delay treatment, which can result in vision loss. Distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema can also be difficult when surface drusen are ...

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    8. Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved over the past decade to become one of the most important ancillary tests in ophthalmic practice. This noninvasive ocular imaging technique provides high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular region, ganglion cell layer, and optic nerve head. With OCT, we can learn much about axonal–neuronal integrity in the anterior aspect of the afferent visual pathway and gain insights about mechanisms of brain injury in various central nervous system disorders.

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    9. Comparing Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Automated Perimetry to Diagnose Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

      Comparing Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Automated Perimetry to Diagnose Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

      Purpose: To compare the abilities of standard automated perimetry (SAP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in diagnosing eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 280 eyes of 175 subjects referred to tertiary eye care center by general ophthalmologists for a glaucoma evaluation underwent retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) imaging with SDOCT. All subjects had at least 2 reliable and repeatable SAP. Two glaucoma experts masked to clinical and SAP results classified the optic nerves into GON and nonglaucomatous groups based on digital optic disc photographs. Ability of SDOCT parameters and ...

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      Mentions: Harsha L. Rao
    10. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN LONG-TERM SILICONE OIL-RELATED VISUAL LOSS

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN LONG-TERM SILICONE OIL-RELATED VISUAL LOSS

      Purpose: To investigate spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in long-term silicone oil-related visual loss. Methods: Four symptomatic patients were reviewed 4 years to 9 years after vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade for macula-on retinal detachment. Three lost vision with oil in situ, with one at the time of oil removal. Eleven control eyes with good vision were included. Patients underwent assessment of best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue testing, static perimetry, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of the macula and disk. Results: Long-term best-corrected visual acuity was significantly reduced in affected eyes (range, 0.44-1 ...

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    11. Wound Healing Process After Corneal Stromal Thinning Observed With Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Wound Healing Process After Corneal Stromal Thinning Observed With Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to observe the wound healing process after corneal stromal thinning by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and a slit lamp. Methods: Four patients with corneal stromal thinning (2 patients: corneal iron foreign bodies; 2 patients: keratitis) were included. Serial AS-OCT and slit-lamp examinations were used to follow up the progress of these patients. The thicknesses of the whole cornea and the corneal stroma were measured with AS-OCT and compared with the findings observed during the slit-lamp examination. Results: AS-OCT showed that epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia initially occurred in the area of ...

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    12. Evaluation of the Macular Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography in Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma

      Evaluation of the Macular Choroidal Thickness Using Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography in Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) in pseudoexfoliative (PEX) glaucoma and age-matched healthy subjects using spectral optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, 32 eyes of 32 PEX glaucoma patients and 30 eyes of 30 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. The CT is measured perpendicularly (from the outer edge of the hyperreflective retinal pigment epithelium to the inner sclera) at the fovea, and 1.5 mm temporal, 3.0 mm temporal, 1.5 mm nasal, and 3.0 mm nasal to the fovea using SD-OCT (RTVue-100). Results: The groups were similar regarding the mean age ...

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    13. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED LASER TREATMENT OF CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN A PREGNANT WOMAN

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-GUIDED LASER TREATMENT OF CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN A PREGNANT WOMAN

      Purpose: To report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy treated with focal laser photocoagulation guided by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) without fluorescein angiography. Methods: In this interventional case report, a 27-year-old pregnant lady with central serous chorioretinopathy was evaluated with fundus photography and SD-OCT. She was treated with focal laser photocoagulation to the area of micro rip on the summit of pigment epithelial detachment identified by SD-OCT. Results: Successful treatment of serous macular detachment using SD-OCT in a pregnant lady. Conclusion: We report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy evaluated and treated successfully with SD-OCT without the use ...

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    14. CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS VISUALIZED BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      CHOROIDAL GRANULOMAS VISUALIZED BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To assess the visualization of choroidal granulomas (CG) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and to describe their EDI-OCT characteristics. Methods: Combined indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and EDI-OCT images of 44 CG (sarcoid, tubercular, or Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada related) were reviewed. By ICG angiography, CG were classified as full thickness or partial thickness and as small or large. Two independent operators evaluated EDI-OCT scans over granulomas to record their characteristics (full thickness/partial thickness, shape, reflectivity, internal pattern, margins, and shadowing/increased transmission effect). The agreement between ICG angiography and EDI-OCT, the interobserver agreement, and the correlations between EDI-OCT ...

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    15. Coronary plaque ulceration documented at sequential angiography and confirmed by optical coherence tomography in a patient with recurrent acute coronary syndrome

      Coronary plaque ulceration documented at sequential angiography and confirmed by optical coherence tomography in a patient with recurrent acute coronary syndrome

      A 51-year-old man was hospitalized for recurrence of acute coronary syndrome after few months. Coronary angiography during first hospitalization showed no significant coronary stenosis, while the second time, right coronary artery presented an expansion at the proximal segment. Optical coherence tomography documented a long fibroatheroma with an ulceration and residual white thrombus

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    16. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHY B-SCAN FOR MEASURING RETINOCHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN NORMAL EYES

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHY B-SCAN FOR MEASURING RETINOCHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN NORMAL EYES

      Purpose: To assess the accuracy of retinochoroidal thickness measurements obtained by ultrasonography (USG) B-Scan (over eyelids) and high-resolution immersion USG (with lids open) compared with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in normal subjects. Methods: Retinochoroidal thickness measurements were performed in normal subjects using USG over eyelids and high-resolution immersion USG (with lids open) using the 20-MHz probe keeping EDI-OCT as the gold standard. Mean retinochoroidal thickness at the fovea, 1.5 mm nasally and temporally were analyzed for interobserver agreement using intraclass correlation coefficient test. Paired t-test was used to compare the values obtained by the three techniques ...

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      Mentions: Amod Gupta
    17. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC REFLECTIVITY OF CYSTOID SPACES IS RELATED TO RECURRENT DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA AFTER TRIAMCINOLONE

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC REFLECTIVITY OF CYSTOID SPACES IS RELATED TO RECURRENT DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA AFTER TRIAMCINOLONE

      Purpose: To determine the association between reflectivity levels in foveal cystoid spaces on optical coherence tomography images and the course of the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) after triamcinolone acetonide treatment for diabetic macular edema. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive eyes treated with an intravitreal or sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema. The foveal cystoid spaces within central 1 mm were circumscribed, followed by measurement of optical coherence tomography reflectivity. The correlation between the reflectivity and visual outcome was investigated. Results: The optical coherence tomography reflectivity levels in foveal cystoid spaces increased ...

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    18. SUPRACHOROIDAL LAYER AND SUPRACHOROIDAL SPACE DELINEATING THE OUTER MARGIN OF THE CHOROID IN SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      SUPRACHOROIDAL LAYER AND SUPRACHOROIDAL SPACE DELINEATING THE OUTER MARGIN OF THE CHOROID IN SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To define the morphology of outer choroidal margins in swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 180 eyes: 20 eyes of healthy volunteers, 20 eyes of myopic patients, and 20 eyes from each of the following groups: macular hole, lamellar macular hole, epiretinal membranes, drusen, dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular AMD, and vitreomacular traction. A single 12-mm wide swept-source optical coherence tomography image for each of the examined eyes consisting of 1,024 A-scans has been created. The main outcome measure selected was to estimate the presence of suprachoroidal layer, as well as ...

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    19. COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM: Findings on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Eight Eyes

      COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM: Findings on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Eight Eyes

      Purpose: To assess combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods: Retrospective, observational cases series in eight eyes of eight patients, with comparison between affected and unaffected eyes regarding enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography features of tumor, fovea, and choroid. Results: The mean age at presentation was 7 years. The tumor was macular (n = 5) or extramacular (n = 3). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed irregularities in inner retina (n = 8) and/or all retinal layers (n = 3), with epiretinal membrane (n = 8), causing an inner retinal sawtooth (mini-peak ...

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    20. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN THIAMINE RESPONSIVE MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA.

      FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN THIAMINE RESPONSIVE MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA.

      Background: To report ophthalmologic fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA). Methods: A 13-year-old girl with genetically proven TRMA was ophthalmologically (visual acuity, funduscopy, perimetry, electroretinogram) followed up over >5 years. Fundus imaging also included autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: During a 5-year follow-up, visual acuity and visual field decreased, despite a special TRMA diet. Funduscopy revealed bull's eye appearance, whereas fundus autofluorescence showed central and peripheral hyperfluorescence and perifoveal hypofluorescence. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography revealed affected inner segment ellipsoid band and irregularities in ...

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    21. EFFECT OF RANIBIZUMAB ON HIGH-SPEED INDOCYANINE GREEN ANGIOGRAPHY AND MINIMUM INTENSITY PROJECTION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      EFFECT OF RANIBIZUMAB ON HIGH-SPEED INDOCYANINE GREEN ANGIOGRAPHY AND MINIMUM INTENSITY PROJECTION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

      Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to investigate how induction/pro re nata ranibizumab intravitreal treatment of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration affects the anatomy of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the overlying outer retinal tissue. Methods: High-speed indocyanine green (HS-ICG) angiography measurements provided quantification of the CNV size in 60 patients followed for 1 year. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography (MinIP OCT), a novel algorithm assessing minimum optical intensity between the internal limiting membrane and retinal pigment epithelium, measured the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV. Fluorescein angiography was also assessed to evaluate ...

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    22. Clinical Validity of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex by Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography in Advanced Glaucoma

      Clinical Validity of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex by Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography in Advanced Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the repeatability and diagnostic power of macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness using a spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in advanced glaucoma. Patients and Methods: Forty advanced glaucoma patients were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups of 20 patients each, according to the MD between −20 and −10 dB, and <−20 dB. The thickness of mGCC and pRNFL were measured with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in both the groups. The repeatability of each parameter was assessed in both the groups, and the diagnostic power of each parameter was compared ...

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    23. Comparison of the Clinical Disc Margin Seen in Stereo Disc Photographs With Neural Canal Opening Seen in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Comparison of the Clinical Disc Margin Seen in Stereo Disc Photographs With Neural Canal Opening Seen in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Purpose: To compare neural canal opening (NCO) with the clinical optic disc margin (DM) seen and to investigate the planarity of the NCO in normal human optic nerve heads (ONH). Methods: Sixteen eyes were imaged. Twelve healthy eyes were selected for planarity and 9 for NCO and DM correspondence. All subjects were subjected to a visual field examination, stereo disc photograph (SDP), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, clinical examination with a fellowship trained glaucoma specialist, and optical coherence tomography imaging. Three reviewers delineated the NCO and inner limiting membrane on optical coherence tomography images. The clinical DM was delineated by a glaucoma ...

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