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    1. Relationship Between Presence of Foveal Bulge in Optical Coherence Tomographic Images and Visual Acuity After Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair

      Relationship Between Presence of Foveal Bulge in Optical Coherence Tomographic Images and Visual Acuity After Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair

      Purpose: To determine whether a significant correlation exists between the presence of a bulge in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment line and the best-corrected visual acuity in eyes after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair. Methods: Patients who had undergone successful RRD repair and had an intact inner segment/outer segment line at the central fovea in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images were retrospectively studied. Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients were evaluated, and the eyes were classified preoperatively into those with macula-on RRD (n = 14) and those with macula-off RRD (n = 21). Examination of the spectral-domain optical coherence ...

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    2. Wavefront Error Correction with Adaptive Optics in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Wavefront Error Correction with Adaptive Optics in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose: To determine the effects of diabetic retinopathy (DR), increased foveal thickness (FT), and adaptive optics (AO) on wavefront aberrations and Shack-Hartmann (SH) image quality. Methods: Shack-Hartmann aberrometry and wavefront error correction were performed with a bench-top AO retinal imaging system in 10 healthy control and 19 DR subjects. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed and central FT was measured. Based on the FT data in the control group, subjects in the DR group were categorized into two subgroups: those with normal FT and those with increased FT. Shack-Hartmann image quality was assessed based on spot areas, and high-order ...

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    3. Hyperreflective Pyramidal Structures on Optical Coherence Tomography in Geographic Atrophy Areas

      Hyperreflective Pyramidal Structures on Optical Coherence Tomography in Geographic Atrophy Areas

      Purpose: We observed hyperreflective dome-shaped or pyramidal structures (HPS) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients affected with geographic atrophy (GA). Our purpose was to describe the multimodal imaging features of HPS identified in areas of GA in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients with GA harboring HPS in atrophic areas. Multimodal imaging examination including infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT, was performed for each patient. Infrared and fundus autofluorescence appearance and mean SD-OCT height of HPS in GA were analyzed. Results: A total of 36 eyes of 25 patients ...

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    4. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy spectral-domain optical coherence tomography feature of deep capillary ischemia

      Paracentral acute middle maculopathy spectral-domain optical coherence tomography feature of deep capillary ischemia

      Purpose of Review To describe the novel spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) finding of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) that can be associated with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or retinal vasculopathy, and that may indicate an underlying pathogenesis related to ischemia of the retinal deep capillary plexus (DCP). Recent Findings With the advent of high-definition SD-OCT imaging, we are now able to detect deep capillary ischemia. Although cotton wool spots are caused by ischemia of the superficial capillary plexus, PAMM is caused by ischemia of the DCP, and appears as hyper-reflective, band-like lesions in the middle retina, extending from the ...

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    5. Staging Glaucoma Using Stratus OCT in a U.S. Veteran Population

      Staging Glaucoma Using Stratus OCT in a U.S. Veteran Population

      Purpose: This study examines the ability of time domain optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) to discriminate between normal patients and patients with three stages of glaucomatous vision loss in a US veteran population. Methods: A review of consecutive patients who underwent automated perimetry and Stratus OCT Fast RNFL scanning within a 6-month period was conducted. Patients with nonglaucomatous ocular disease that might affect the RNFL or perimetry results were excluded. Glaucomatous eyes were staged using the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson grading system. Average, quadrant, and individual clock hour RNFL thicknesses and normative results between all groups ...

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    6. Fluorescein Angiography Versus Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Planning for Macular Laser Photocoagulation in Diabetic Macular Edema

      Fluorescein Angiography Versus Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Planning for Macular Laser Photocoagulation in Diabetic Macular Edema

      Purpose: To compare laser photocoagulation plans for diabetic macular edema (DME) using fluorescein angiography (FA) versus optical coherence tomography (OCT) thickness map superimposed on the retina. Methods: Fourteen eyes with DME undergoing navigated laser photocoagulation with navigated photocoagulator had FA taken using the same instrument. Optical coherence tomography central retinal thickness map was imported to the photocoagulator and with same magnification aligned onto the retina. Three retina specialists placed laser spot marks separately on FA and OCT image in a masked fashion. The spots placed by each physician were compared between FA and OCT and among physicians. The area of ...

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    7. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Pediatric Epiretinal Membranes

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Pediatric Epiretinal Membranes

      Purpose: To compare the macular morphology of pediatric versus adult eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and identify characteristics associated with postoperative visual acuity. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed spectral domain optical coherence tomography from pediatric subjects and a randomly selected cohort of adult subjects with ERM. Morphologic retinal and ERM features were graded by two masked spectral domain optical coherence tomography readers and compared with a postoperative change in visual acuity. Results: Pediatric ERMs (age, 0.3-16.5 years) were more confluently attached to the retina than adult ERMs (age, 40-88 years; P = 0 ...

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    8. Analysis of Macular and Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness in Glaucoma Patients by Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis of Macular and Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness in Glaucoma Patients by Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background/Aim: To compare the macular and peripapillary choroidal thickness between normal and glaucoma eyes and find out factors related to choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) of Heidelberg Spectralis SD-OCT. Study Design: Cross-sectional transverse study. Methods: A total of 108 glaucoma patients and 48 healthy controls were included in the analysis. Choroidal thickness was measured from 6 mm length radial B-scans at the macular and the optic nerve head by EDI OCT. Choroidal thickness was compared between normal controls, normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients, and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Factors related to choroidal thickness were analyzed by ...

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    9. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Early Deferoxamine Maculopathy: Report of Two Cases

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Early Deferoxamine Maculopathy: Report of Two Cases

      Purpose: To describe spectral domain optical coherence tomography features in two cases of early deferoxamine induced retinal toxicity. Methods: Two patients complained of sudden bilateral visual loss and dyschromatopsia. Both suffered from acute myelocytic leukemia with severe aplastic anemia and were treated with intravenous deferoxamine for 1 month. First ophthalmologic exploration and follow-up included fundoscopic examination, fluorescence angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: Initially, both patients presented with a decreased visual acuity, inferior to 20/100. Fundus examination revealed a loss of transparency of the outer retina in the two cases. Autofluorescence pictures displayed hypoautofluorescence in ...

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    10. Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are calcific deposits buried or at the surface of the optic disc. Although ONHD may be associated with progressive visual field defects, the mechanism of drusen-related field loss is poorly understood. Methods for detecting and imaging disc drusen include B-scan ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities are useful for drusen detection but are limited by low resolution or poor penetration of deep structures. This review was designed to assess the potential role of new OCT technologies in imaging ONHD. Evidence Acquisition: Critical appraisal of published literature and comparison of new ...

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    11. En Face Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Lamellar Macular Holes

      En Face Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Lamellar Macular Holes

      Purpose: To analyze the anatomical characteristics of lamellar macular holes using cross-sectional and en face spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Forty-two lamellar macular holes were retrospectively identified for analysis. The location, cross-sectional length, and area of lamellar holes were measured using B-scans and en face imaging. The presence of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment disruption and the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane formation were recorded. Results: Forty-two lamellar macular holes were identified. Intraretinal splitting occurred within the outer plexiform layer in 97.6% of eyes. The area of intraretinal splitting in lamellar holes did not correlate with visual ...

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    12. Utility of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography During Vitrectomy Surgery for Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

      Utility of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography During Vitrectomy Surgery for Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome

      Purpose: To assess the microarchitectural changes occurring during surgery for vitreomacular traction using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). Methods: A retrospective, consecutive case series of eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for vitreomacular traction with performance of concurrent iOCT. A custom, microscope-mounted portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography system was used. Clinical characteristics and iOCT images were analyzed. Results: Twelve eyes of 12 patients were included with a mean preoperative visual acuity of 20/78 improving to 20/51 (P = 0.02), postoperatively. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography was successfully performed in 100% of cases. Microarchitectural changes were noted on iOCT after ...

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    13. Circumpapillary Choroidal Hemorrhage Masquerading As Melanoma—Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Features

      Circumpapillary Choroidal Hemorrhage Masquerading As Melanoma—Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Features

      Purpose: To illustrate the distinguishing findings of choroidal hemorrhage on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods: Case report. Results: An 81-year-old man on a daily aspirin with well-controlled hypertension noted blurred visual acuity and was diagnosed with presumed choroidal melanoma based on the clinical appearance and generalized hyperfluorescence on angiography. Upon referral, visual acuity was 20/100 in the right eye and 20/30 in the otherwise unremarkable left eye. Clinical examination revealed a choroidal mass of velvety-brown color with ill-defined margins, suggestive of hemorrhage. Ultrasonography disclosed a thin echogenic mass of 2.1 mm in thickness. Fluorescein angiography ...

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    14. Experimental evaluation of efficacy and healing response of everolimus-eluting stents in the familial hypercholesterolemic swine model: a comparative study of bioabsorbable versus durable polymer stent platforms

      Experimental evaluation of efficacy and healing response of everolimus-eluting stents in the familial hypercholesterolemic swine model: a comparative study of bioabsorbable versus durable polymer stent platforms

      Background: The utility of animal models for the prediction of drug-eluting stent (DES) efficacy in human clinical trials is still unclear. The familial hypercholesterolemic swine (FHS) model has been shown to induce a human-like neointimal response to bare metal stent (BMS) implantation. However, its utility to discriminate efficacy signals following DES implantation is unknown. In this study, we aimed to test the efficacy and healing response of several everolimus-eluting stent (EES) platforms in the coronary territory of the FHS. Methods: A total of 19 EES platforms (SYNERGY=6, SYNERGY1/2-dose=7, and PROMUS Element=6) and an identical BMS control ...

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    15. Monitoring Keratitis Resolution with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring Keratitis Resolution with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: Biomicroscopy is generally used, sometimes in conjunction with photography or ultrasound pachymetry, to monitor conditions involving stromal keratitis and edema. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), a technology typically used to examine the posterior segment, may be useful in monitoring the therapeutic interventions for conditions involving corneal edema such as disciform keratitis. Case Reports: Two cases of disciform keratitis were followed to resolution using SD-OCT with anterior segment imaging software (Cirrus 4000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) to quantify decreasing edema throughout treatment. The thickest area of the cornea was located and measured across time using SD-OCT until resolution was ...

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    16. Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Novel Advancements in Colposcopy: Historical Perspectives and a Systematic Review of Future Developments

      Objective: To describe novel innovations and techniques for the detection of high-grade dysplasia. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified through the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words (["computerized colposcopy" or "digital colposcopy" or "spectroscopy" or "multispectral digital colposcopy" or "dynamic spectral imaging", or "electrical impedance spectroscopy" or "confocal endomicroscopy" or "confocal microscopy"or "optical coherence tomography"] and ["cervical dysplasia" or cervical precancer" or "cervix" or "cervical"]) were used. The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to noncolposcopic evaluation of the cervix for the detection of cervical dysplasia. Only English-language articles from the past ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography Shape Analysis of the Peripapillary Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer in Presumed Optic Nerve Sheath Meningiomas

      Optical Coherence Tomography Shape Analysis of the Peripapillary Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer in Presumed Optic Nerve Sheath Meningiomas

      Background: Geometric morphometrics (GM) was used to compare the shape of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane (ppRPE) layer imaged on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of patients with presumed optic nerve sheath meningiomas (pONSM) and normal subjects. Methods: We compared 2 groups: 30 normals to 10 patients (11 eyes) with pONSM. We digitized 20 equidistant semi-landmarks on OCT images of the ppRPE-layer, spanning 2500 [mu]m on each side of the neural canal opening (NCO). Data were analyzed using standard GM techniques including a generalized least squares Procrustes superimposition, principal component analysis (PCA), thin-plate spline, and permutation ...

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    18. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy spectral-domain optical coherence tomography feature of deep capillary ischemia

      Paracentral acute middle maculopathy spectral-domain optical coherence tomography feature of deep capillary ischemia

      Purpose of Review: To describe the novel spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) finding of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) that can be associated with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or retinal vasculopathy, and that may indicate an underlying pathogenesis related to ischemia of the retinal deep capillary plexus (DCP). Recent Findings: With the advent of high-definition SD-OCT imaging, we are now able to detect deep capillary ischemia. Although cotton wool spots are caused by ischemia of the superficial capillary plexus, PAMM is caused by ischemia of the DCP, and appears as hyper-reflective, band-like lesions in the middle retina, extending from the ...

      Read Full Article
    19. The value of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging in vitreoretinal surgery

      The value of intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging in vitreoretinal surgery

      Purpose of review: To evaluate the role of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) in vitreoretinal surgery, assess the current state-of-the art, and to examine possible future directions in the field. Recent findings: Numerous vitreoretinal surgical conditions and procedures have been described utilizing iOCT. These conditions include macular holes, epiretinal membranes, retinal detachments, and retinopathy of prematurity. Significant alterations appear to occur during surgical manipulations in many of these conditions that can be identified with iOCT. The most common current systems used are portable OCT probes that are either mounted to a microscope or used in a handheld fashion. Prototypes are ...

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    20. Side branch complication after a single-stent crossover technique: prediction with frequency domain optical coherence tomography

      Side branch complication after a single-stent crossover technique: prediction with frequency domain optical coherence tomography

      Objectives: To identify preprocedural predictors of side branch (SB) complications after coronary bifurcation stent implantation using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Background: Coronary bifurcation lesions are common but difficult to treat. Longitudinal reconstruction images of FD-OCT have high image quality and less motion artifacts. Methods: Among 49 patients (age: 69.9 years) who underwent elective coronary stenting, 52 bifurcation lesions without baseline SB stenosis were studied. SB complication was defined as angiographic worsening of SB stenosis (>75%). On the basis of preprocedural FD-OCT imaging, plaque distribution, SB angle, carina tip angle (CT angle), and length between proximal branching point ...

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    21. In Vivo Real-time Ultra-fast 3D Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Anastomoses for Super-microsurgical Research

      In Vivo Real-time Ultra-fast 3D Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Anastomoses for Super-microsurgical Research

      PURPOSE: The emergence of supermicrosurgery has enabled reconstructive surgery to enter into a new era by advancing a series of novel techniques including lymphaticovenous anastomosis, fingertip replantation, and perforator flap surgery. Nonetheless, super-microsurgery techniques impose great technical challenges. The instant monitoring and evaluation of the patency of the anastomosis, in particular of intraluminal structure, is critical to be able to predict the necessity of early re-intervention and thus reduce/avoid complications and improve surgical success rates. Real-time 3D fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (3D FD-OCT) is a powerful imaging system, which uniquely provides noninvasive, in vivo real-time images on a micrometer-scale ...

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    22. Choroidal Lymphoma Shows Calm, Rippled, or Undulating Topography on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in 14 Eyes

      Choroidal Lymphoma Shows Calm, Rippled, or Undulating Topography on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in 14 Eyes

      Purpose: To describe the features of choroidal lymphoma on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods: This retrospective observational case series included 14 eyes of 13 patients, with choroidal lymphoma, studied by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Results: The mean age at presentation was 63 years (median, 65 years; range, 32-87 years). Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was present in 2 cases as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1) or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (n = 1). On clinical examination, the choroidal infiltrate was classified as unifocal (n = 3), multifocal (n = 4), or diffuse (n = 7). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans through the tumor ...

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    23. Imaging Myocardium at Risk and Coronary Inflammation in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Combined Use of FDG PET and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging Myocardium at Risk and Coronary Inflammation in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Combined Use of FDG PET and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) represent a heterogeneous group in terms of jeopardized myocardium, pathogenetic mechanisms, and risk of recurrent events. In particular, estimation of myocardium at risk may be challenging before angiography. Yet the mechanisms leading to coronary instability underlying acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have not been completely elucidated. In this report (figure), we describe the potential utility of FDG PET in defining the myocardium at risk and to unravel coronary inflammation in one NSTEMI patient with normal level of C-reactive protein. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of culprit lesions are also shown.

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    24. High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Donor Tissue Preparation for Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Using the Reverse Big Bubble Technique

      High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Donor Tissue Preparation for Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Using the Reverse Big Bubble Technique

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HR-SDOCT) to guide donor tissue preparation in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty using the reverse big bubble technique. Methods: Three corneoscleral discs were included in this ex vivo experimental study. A 27-G cannula was introduced into each cornea at the periphery by 3 different surgeons. Each surgeon attempted to achieve the ideal depth (pre-Descemetic plane) of the tip of the cannula for air injection to produce the reverse big bubble to separate the Descemet membrane (DM) from the posterior stroma. A supine optical ...

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