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    1. COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM: Findings on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Eight Eyes

      COMBINED HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM: Findings on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Eight Eyes

      Purpose: To assess combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods: Retrospective, observational cases series in eight eyes of eight patients, with comparison between affected and unaffected eyes regarding enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography features of tumor, fovea, and choroid. Results: The mean age at presentation was 7 years. The tumor was macular (n = 5) or extramacular (n = 3). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed irregularities in inner retina (n = 8) and/or all retinal layers (n = 3), with epiretinal membrane (n = 8), causing an inner retinal sawtooth (mini-peak ...

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    2. Very late neoatherosclerotic plaque rupture in drug-eluting stent restenosis

      Very late neoatherosclerotic plaque rupture in drug-eluting stent restenosis

      A 71-year-old man presented in emergency department for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. At admission, 12-lead ECG was in sinus rhythm without sign of myocardial ischemia, and troponin slightly increased. The only notable feature of the patient's medical history was single-vessel coronary artery disease revealed 10 years previously, treated by stenting of the second segment of the right coronary artery with a 3.0 x 25 mm bare metal stent. Three months later, intrastent restenosis was managed by implantation of a 3.0 x 28 mm paclitaxel-eluting stent. Two years before the present admission, following a non contributive stress test for ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Angle Anatomy Changes After Trabeculectomy in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Angle Anatomy Changes After Trabeculectomy in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

      Purpose: Using anterior chamber optical coherence tomography to evaluate changes in angle anatomy in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) before and after trabeculectomy. Methods: This is a prospective observational study in 38 eyes of 38 patients with PACG, who underwent trabeculectomy. We used customized software to analyze optical coherence tomography images (Visante) of all participants before and after the surgical treatment. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed for predictors of percentage change in mean angle parameters, including scleral spur angle, angle opening distance, angle recess area, and trabecular-iris surface area. The main outcome measures were changes in angle parameters ...

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    4. OCT-Derived Comparison of Corneal Thickness Distribution and Asymmetry Differences Between Normal and Keratoconic Eyes

      OCT-Derived Comparison of Corneal Thickness Distribution and Asymmetry Differences Between Normal and Keratoconic Eyes

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the corneal thickness asymmetry indices in a large pool of patients with keratoconus derived using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in comparison with established Scheimpflug imaging-derived keratoconus classification indices. Methods: Six specific indices were comparatively investigated in this study encompassing 2 groups: keratoconic group A (175 eyes) and age- and gender-matched control group B (175 eyes). AS-OCT was used for corneal focal thinning and irregularity indices, namely the superior nasal minus inferior temporal (SN-IT), superior minus inferior (S-I), minimum minus median (Min-Med) focal thinning, and thickness range, defined as the ...

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    5. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS MEASURED WITH SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BEFORE AND AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING FOR IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANES

      CHOROIDAL THICKNESS MEASURED WITH SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BEFORE AND AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING FOR IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANES

      Purpose: In eyes with epiretinal membranes (ERMs), retinal arteries become dilated and tortuous. This may correlate with the hemodynamics of the affected areas and possibly with choroidal thickness. The aim of this study was to estimate choroidal thickness before and after vitrectomy for idiopathic ERM in the operated eye and in the unaffected fellow eye. Methods: A prospective study of 21 patients with idiopathic ERMs. We obtained swept source optical coherence tomography images that simultaneously evaluated the vitreous, retina, and choroid. We performed choroidal thickness measurements before pars plana vitrectomy with ERM removal and internal limiting membrane peeling. We took ...

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    6. CHOROIDAL OSTEOMA SHOWS BONE LAMELLA AND VASCULAR CHANNELS ON ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN 15 EYES

      CHOROIDAL OSTEOMA SHOWS BONE LAMELLA AND VASCULAR CHANNELS ON ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN 15 EYES

      Purpose: To describe enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography findings of choroidal osteoma. Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of 15 eyes with choroidal osteoma imaged with EDI-OCT. Results: The mean age at presentation was 27 years. There were 10 women and 3 men. The visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motion, with reduced visual acuity secondary to photoreceptor loss in the foveola (n = 5) or subfoveal fluid (n = 1), and additional choroidal neovascular membrane (n = 3). The mean basal tumor diameter was 8.0 mm, and ultrasonographic thickness was 1.5 mm. Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence ...

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    7. In Vivo Imaging of Coin-Shaped Lesions in Cytomegalovirus Corneal Endotheliitis by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Imaging of Coin-Shaped Lesions in Cytomegalovirus Corneal Endotheliitis by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo corneal changes of coin-shaped lesions in cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: Two eyes of 2 patients (69- and 71-year-old men), with polymerase chain reaction-proven CMV corneal endotheliitis presenting coin-shaped lesions, were included in this study. AS-OCT examination was performed on the initial visit and at follow-up visits by paying special attention to the coin-shaped lesions. Selected AS-OCT images of the cornea were evaluated qualitatively for changes in the shape and degree of light reflection. Results: In both cases, coin-shaped lesions were observed at ...

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    8. Homonymous Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning After Isolated Occipital Lesion: Macular OCT Demonstrates Transsynaptic Retrograde Retinal Degeneration

      Homonymous Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning After Isolated Occipital Lesion: Macular OCT Demonstrates Transsynaptic Retrograde Retinal Degeneration

      A 48-year-old man was examined 24 months after medial and surgical treatment of an isolated well-circumscribed right occipital lobe abscess. An asymptomatic residual left homonymous inferior scotoma was present. Fundus examination revealed temporal pallor of both optic discs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed mild temporal loss of retinal nerve fiber layer in both eyes. No relative afferent pupillary defect was present. Assessment of the retinal ganglion cell layer demonstrated homonymous thinning in a pattern corresponding to the homonymous visual field loss. There were no abnormalities of the lateral geniculate nuclei or optic tracts on review of the initial brain ...

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      Mentions: Randy H. Kardon
    9. Visual Fields and OCT Role in Diagnosis of Glaucoma

      Visual Fields and OCT Role in Diagnosis of Glaucoma

      Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of visual field (VF) tests and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diagnosing glaucoma. Methods: One hundred sets of disc photographs, red-free fundus photographs, VF tests, and OCT images were presented progressively to seven ophthalmologists. Each set was provided in three steps: (1) the disc and red-free fundus photographs were shown first; (2) then, VF tests were also provided; and (3) finally, the OCT results were provided. The same process was repeated on another day. Kappa statistics were used to assess the intraobserver and interobserver agreement, as well as the agreement with the reference standard ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography and Histopathology of Macular Uveitis

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Histopathology of Macular Uveitis

      Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a noninvasive technique that can provide high-resolution images of macular morphology. The purpose of this study was to examine the pathological mechanism of uveitis and compare the changes in the macula of uveitis patients and the histopathological features of experimentally induced uveitis in mice. Methods: Macular OCT was performed on 78 eyes of 51 patients of the Eye Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, with apparent uveitis changes. C57BL/6 mice were injected with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-specific T cells from naive mice immunized with complete Freund adjuvant IRBP1-20 ...

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    11. Effect of Angle of Incidence on Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Effect of Angle of Incidence on Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate the local variability of anterior chamber angle (ACA) metrics obtained by time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: Anterior-segment OCT imaging was performed on 30 normal eyes using Visante TD-OCT and 40 normal eyes using Cirrus SD-OCT. For Visante OCT, a single 16-mm line scan of the inferior angle with 3 slightly different rotations of 265, 270, and 275 degrees was performed. For Cirrus OCT, a 5-line raster of the inferior angle was performed, centering the third scan line at the 6 o'clock position, with 0.25 mm between ...

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    12. Correlation and Agreement Between Cirrus HD-OCT "RNFL Thickness Map" and Scan Circle Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements

      Correlation and Agreement Between Cirrus HD-OCT "RNFL Thickness Map" and Scan Circle Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements

      Purpose: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements. Methods: ImageJ and custom Perl scripts were used to derive RNFL thickness measurements from RNFL thickness maps of optic disc scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thickness of the map, and RNFL thickness of the areas inside/outside the scan circle were obtained. Correlation and agreement between RNFL thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements were evaluated using R2 and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. Results: A total of 104 ...

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    13. Reproducibility of Anterior Segment Angle Metrics Measurements Derived From Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Reproducibility of Anterior Segment Angle Metrics Measurements Derived From Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility of anterior segment angle (ACA) metrics measurements in normal subjects on Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: 40 eyes from 20 healthy, normal subjects underwent anterior segment imaging using a Cirrus SD-OCT. For each eye, 2 acquisitions of 5-line raster scans were performed perpendicularly on the inferior (270 degrees) angle. The Schwalbe's line-angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and Schwalbe's line-trabecular-iris space area (SL-TISA) measurements were performed by masked certified reading center graders using customized grading software. Intra-acquisition, intergrader, and intragrader reproducibility of SL-AOD and SL-TISA measurements were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients ...

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    14. A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters

      A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters

      Purpose: Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a heterogenous disease, and there is still controversy about subclassifications of this disorder. On the basis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we subdivided NTG with hierarchical cluster analysis using optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 eyes of 200 NTG patients between March 2011 and June 2012 underwent SD-OCT scans to measure ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. We classified NTG into homogenous subgroups based on these variables using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and compared clusters to evaluate diverse NTG characteristics. Results: Three ...

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    15. Electrooculography and Optical Coherence Tomography Reveal Late-Onset Best Disease

      Electrooculography and Optical Coherence Tomography Reveal Late-Onset Best Disease

      Purpose: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, also known as Best disease, is a macular dystrophy characterized by bilateral yellowish egg yolk-like lesion(s) present within the maculae. It is a slowly progressive disease that usually presents at childhood. Best vitelliform macular dystrophy frequently proceeds through stages, beginning with a classic presentation described as vitelliform. A similar condition, known as adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy, has been described among adult patients. Although the two maculopathies may look similar, they are considered two separate entities, because of the age of onset and overall clinical presentation. Case Report: A 54-year-old man presented with gradual-onset blurred ...

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    16. "EN FACE" OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING IN TYPE 2 IDIOPATHIC MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA

      "EN FACE" OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING IN TYPE 2 IDIOPATHIC MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA

      Purpose: To comprehensively evaluate the retinal and choroidal changes in eyes with Type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia using “en face” and B-scan spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to compare their respective contributions to this evaluation. Methods: Eyes with a diagnosis of proliferative or nonproliferative Type 2 macular telangiectasia were prospectively studied. All patients underwent an extensive ophthalmologic examination including biomicroscopic fundus examination, color photography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, B-scan and en face spectral domain OCT. Results: Twenty eyes of 10 patients were included in this study. En face OCT C-scans and conventional B-scans were both able to show ...

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    17. Dependability of Posterior-Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness

      Dependability of Posterior-Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the intersession and interobserver reliability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using a posterior-segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Sixty patients were examined with a posterior-segment SD-OCT system (Topcon 3D-OCT). To analyze intersession reproducibility, 1 examiner measured CCT in 60 eyes 2 times 1 week apart, and to study interobserver reproducibility, a second examiner obtained another measurement during the first session. Within-subject reproducibility, coefficient of reproducibility (CR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Agreement between Topcon 3D OCT and ultrasound pachymetry (USP) was also assessed. Results: Posterior-segment SD-OCT ...

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    18. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS RETINITIS

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS RETINITIS

      Purpose: To describe spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of infectious retinitis, including affected layer of retinal involvement, changes at the vitreoretinal interface, and response to therapy. Methods: Observational case series. A retrospective review of five patients with infectious retinitis: one with toxoplasmosis, three with herpetic retinitis secondary to cytomegalovirus, and one with herpetic retinitis secondary to varicella zoster virus. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fundus photography, and SD-OCT imaging (Heidelberg Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) of the affected retina at the initial visit with serial fundus photography and SD-OCT imaging at follow-up visits. Approval was obtained ...

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    19. Nonangiographic assessment of coronary artery disease: a practical approach to optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve

      Nonangiographic assessment of coronary artery disease: a practical approach to optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve

      In an era of increased scrutiny of the appropriateness and safety of revascularization, interventional cardiologists must evolve by adding key tools to their armamentarium. This review highlights the utility of optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve in the catheterization lab and provides a practical guide for using these technologies during coronary intervention in various lesion subsets. We propose that fractional flow reserve informs the decision to intervene and optical coherence tomography guides the optimization of the outcome.

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    20. ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN A YOUNG CASE OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA TYPE 1

      ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES IN A YOUNG CASE OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA TYPE 1

      Purpose: To describe the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography findings in a very young case of Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. Methods: Observational case report of a young patient who underwent clinical examination and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography evaluation. Results: A 4-year-old boy with a history of Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria and resulting chronic renal failure was referred to us for ophthalmologic examination. There were no ocular symptoms when he was referred to us. Fundus examination showed deposition of calcium oxalate crystals at the posterior pole located symmetrically in both eyes. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography evaluation ...

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    21. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI IN EARLY STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI IN EARLY STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

      Purpose: To analyze the presence of hyperreflective foci in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients, separately, without clinically significant diabetic macular edema and visual impairment. Methods: Noninvasive, observational prospective study. Seventeen and 19 consecutive Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients (33 and 38 eyes), respectively, were recruited. All patients had no clinically significant diabetic macular edema or visual impairment. Two age- and sex-matched control groups were also included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Hyperreflective foci were counted considering horizontal B-scan passing through the fovea. Results: On spectral domain optical coherence tomography, patients ...

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