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    1. Foveal Curvature and Asymmetry Assessed Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Foveal Curvature and Asymmetry Assessed Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The aims of this study were to use cross-sectional optical coherence tomography imaging and custom curve fitting software to evaluate and model the foveal curvature as a spherical surface and to compare the radius of curvature in the horizontal and vertical meridians and test the sensitivity of this technique to anticipated meridional differences. Methods: Six 30-degree foveal-centered radial optical coherence tomography cross-section scans were acquired in the right eye of 20 clinically normal subjects. Cross sections were manually segmented, and custom curve fitting software was used to determine foveal pit radius of curvature using the central 500, 1000, and ...

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    2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF SUBMACULAR PERFORATING SCLERAL VESSELS BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF SUBMACULAR PERFORATING SCLERAL VESSELS BY ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To analyze submacular perforating scleral vessels (PSVs) using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-SDOCT). Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 11 healthy women were included in this retrospective study. Central EDI-SDOCT scans (3 x 4.5 x 1.9 mm, 13.5 mm2 scan area) were acquired and postprocessed by denoising, manual sclera segmentation, and PSV investigated by five graders. Results: Mean age was 22.4 +/- 6.2 years. Mean refractive error was -0.44 +/- 0.8 diopters. Mean axial length was 23.08 +/- 0.63 mm. The coefficient of agreement for grading was good. Mean number of ...

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    3. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN ENDOGENOUS CANDIDA ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE

      SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN ENDOGENOUS CANDIDA ENDOPHTHALMITIS AND THEIR CLINICAL RELEVANCE

      Purpose: To describe vitreal, retinal, and choroidal features of eyes affected by Endogenous candida endophthalmitis (ECE) analyzed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate their clinical impact. Methods: Medical records and SD-OCT images from eyes diagnosed with ECE at four retina and uveitis tertiary referral centers were retrospectively evaluated. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were analyzed to evaluate the structural changes occurring in the vitreous, the retina, and the choroid in areas involved by ECE. Baseline and final best-corrected visual acuity were correlated with SD-OCT findings. Results: Fifteen eyes from nine patients were enrolled. Vitreous involvement ...

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    4. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF CONGENITAL SIMPLE HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY OF CONGENITAL SIMPLE HAMARTOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM

      Purpose: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography features of congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium. Methods: Case report. Results: A 14-year-old boy was referred for an asymptomatic fundus tumor in the left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. The right fundus was normal. The left fundus disclosed a gray-white nodular retinal mass of 2-mm diameter in the juxtafoveal region, protruding into the vitreous cavity and causing radial retinal folds. The mass demonstrated echodensity without calcification on ultrasonography, hypoautofluorescence on short-wavelength autofluorescence, and mixed hyporeflective and hyperreflective ...

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    5. CLASSIFICATION OF HALLER VESSEL ARRANGEMENTS IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IMAGED WITH EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      CLASSIFICATION OF HALLER VESSEL ARRANGEMENTS IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IMAGED WITH EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To compare the prevailing patterns of Haller vessel arrangements at the posterior pole between healthy eyes and those with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using en face optical coherence tomography. Methods: Eyes of normal subjects and patients with acute or chronic CSC underwent optical coherence tomography imaging (RTVue 100; Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). En face sections at the level of the Haller layer were classified by two masked graders into five mutually exclusive morphologic categories (temporal herringbone, branched from below, laterally diagonal, double arcuate, and reticular). The relative prevalence of each Haller vessel arrangement pattern was determined for each phenotype ...

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    6. A Novel Method for Assessing Lamina Cribrosa Structure Ex Vivo Using Anterior Segment Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Novel Method for Assessing Lamina Cribrosa Structure Ex Vivo Using Anterior Segment Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of anterior segment enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for ex vivo lamina cribrosa (LC) imaging. Materials and Methods: After removing anterior segment and vitreous, the optic nerve head (ONH) tissue of porcine eyes was placed on a customized eye holder for imaging. Serial EDI OCT B-scans (interval, ~35 [mu]m) of the ONH were obtained using anterior segment module of spectral-domain OCT. Various conditions were tested for better quality LC images. After EDI OCT, serial histologic sections were obtained (distance between sections, ~5 [mu]m). LC ...

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    7. Evaluation of Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Choroidal Vasculature Using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Choroidal Vasculature Using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The authors visualized arterioles from the peripapillary choroid to the optic nerve head in vivo, using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods and Results: In this case series, we present 3 eyes with visible centripetal branches from the peripapillary choroid. The 3 eyes were diagnosed as glaucoma suspect, normal-tension glaucoma, and primary open-angle glaucoma. In the en face projection images of the choroidal layer, obtained by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography, the vessels from the peripapillary choroid to the optic nerve head were observed in all 3 eyes; one of them was further evaluated by indocyanine green angiography using ...

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    8. BIOMARKERS OF NEOVASCULAR ACTIVITY IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION USING OCT ANGIOGRAPHY

      BIOMARKERS OF NEOVASCULAR ACTIVITY IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION USING OCT ANGIOGRAPHY

      Purpose: To study the qualitative and quantitative features of choroidal neovascular (NV) membranes in age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with active and quiescent NV lesions before and after treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Methods: Macular optical coherence tomography angiography images were obtained using RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue. Morphologic features and quantitative measurements of the NV lesion were analyzed using en face projection images. The NV lesion was subdivided into inner segment and outer fringe for further fractal dimension analysis. Results: In a series of 31 eyes, 11 eyes with active NV lesions at ...

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    9. REPEATABILITY OF AUTOMATED VESSEL DENSITY AND SUPERFICIAL AND DEEP FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AREA MEASUREMENTS USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY: Diurnal Findings

      REPEATABILITY OF AUTOMATED VESSEL DENSITY AND SUPERFICIAL AND DEEP FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AREA MEASUREMENTS USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY: Diurnal Findings

      Purpose: To evaluate the repeatability of vessel density and superficial and deep foveal avascular zone measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography, and to specify a diurnal change range. Methods: Forty-six eyes of 25 healthy individuals were included. Optical coherence tomography angiography measurements were planned for three consecutive sessions, with 3 hours in between them. AngioVue software of the RTVue XR Avanti was used. Superficial and deep retinal layer vessel density values, including the whole retina, fovea, and each parafoveal zone, were obtained from the software. The intraclass correlation, coefficient of variation, and coefficient of repeatability were calculated for each parameter ...

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    10. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BASELINE PREDICTORS FOR INITIAL BEST-CORRECTED VISUAL ACUITY RESPONSE TO INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR TREATMENT IN EYES WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: The CHARTRES Study

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY BASELINE PREDICTORS FOR INITIAL BEST-CORRECTED VISUAL ACUITY RESPONSE TO INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR TREATMENT IN EYES WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: The CHARTRES Study

      Purpose: To identify baseline optical coherence tomography morphologic characteristics predicting the visual response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in diabetic macular edema. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with diabetic macular edema completed a prospective, observational study (NCT01947881-CHARTRES). All patients received monthly intravitreal injections of Lucentis for 3 months followed by PRN treatment and underwent best-corrected visual acuity measurements and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at Baseline, Months 1, 2, 3, and 6. Visual treatment response was characterized as good (>=10 letters), moderate (5-10 letters), and poor (<5 or letters loss). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were graded before and after ...

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    11. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Anterior Chamber Fibrous Ingrowth

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Anterior Chamber Fibrous Ingrowth

      Purpose: Here, we present the first reported case of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-assisted Descemet membrane stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in a patient with anterior segment fibrous ingrowth. Methods: A 61-year-old woman with corneal edema and chronic angle-closure glaucoma secondary to fibrous ingrowth after 2 glaucoma shunt device implantations underwent dissection and removal of anterior chamber fibrous ingrowth and DSAEK. The surgical techniques using intraoperative OCT and outcome are described. Results: Intraoperative OCT provided a clear dissection plane of the fibrous membranes in the anterior chamber and view of their relation to the iris and corneal endothelium, despite ...

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    12. Familial Incomplete Punctal Canalization: Clinical and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Feature

      Familial Incomplete Punctal Canalization: Clinical and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Feature

      Incomplete punctal canalization is a form of punctal dysgenesis with membranous noncanalization and can be confused with punctal agenesis. The clinical and diagnostic features are known; however, familial incomplete punctal canalization has not been reported earlier. A family with 3 affected members is presented in this series with similar incomplete punctal canalization and nasolacrimal duct obstructions. After membranotomy and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with bicanalicular intubation, all of them are free of epiphora at last visit.

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    13. Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To study the distribution of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in children with refractive errors. Materials and Methods: Two hundred forty-three healthy eyes from 139 children with refractive error ranging from -10.00 to +5.00 D were recruited from the National University Hospital Eye Surgery outpatient clinic. After a comprehensive ocular examination, refraction, and axial length (AL) measurement (IOLMaster), macular GC-IPL and RNFL thickness values were obtained with a spectral domain Cirrus high definition optical coherence tomography system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.). Only scans with signal strength of ...

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    14. Relationship Between OCT Angiography Temporal Peripapillary Vessel-Density and Octopus Perimeter Paracentral Cluster Mean Defect

      Relationship Between OCT Angiography Temporal Peripapillary Vessel-Density and Octopus Perimeter Paracentral Cluster Mean Defect

      Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between optical coherence tomography angiography angioflow vessel-density (PAFD) measured in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the temporal peripapillary sector and the average of the spatially corresponding superior and inferior paracentral cluster mean defect values (mean paracentral MD) measured with Octopus perimetry. Materials and Methods: Spaerman’s correlation between temporal peripapillary PAFD acquired with the Angiovue OCT and mean paracentral MD measured with the Normal and tendency-oriented perimetry strategy of Octopus G2 perimetry, respectively, was determined on 1 eye of 13 healthy participants, 22 medically controlled ...

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    15. Comparison of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Bleb Grading, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, and Intraocular Pressure After Trabeculectomy

      Comparison of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Bleb Grading, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, and Intraocular Pressure After Trabeculectomy

      Purpose: To compare a novel anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) bleb grading system with a clinical bleb grading system and both with intraocular pressure (IOP) following trabeculectomy surgery. Materials and Methods: A novel AS-OCT grading system based on bleb size and internal reflectivity was developed. An imaging center was tasked with masked grading of AS-OCT images acquired by multiple surgical sites at postoperative week (POW) 2, postoperative month (POM) 4, 6, and 12, respectively. The Moorfields Bleb Grading System was used by another independent imaging center to grade clinical photos. The results of the 2 grading systems were compared ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography and Glaucoma Progression: A Comparison of a Region of Interest Approach to Average Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Glaucoma Progression: A Comparison of a Region of Interest Approach to Average Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness

      Purpose: To determine whether the change in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in a region of interest (ROI) is a better measure of glaucoma progression than the change in average circumpapillary (cp) RNFL thickness. Methods: Disc cube scans were obtained with frequency domain optical coherence tomography from 60 eyes of 60 patients (age, 61.7±12.7 y) with early or suspected glaucoma and controlled intraocular pressure. The average time between 2 test dates was 3.2±1.8 years. En-face images of the scans from the 2 tests were aligned based on the blood vessels, and cp ...

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    17. Determinants of Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Densities Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Eyes

      Determinants of Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Densities Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Eyes

      PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subject-related (age, sex, and systemic hypertension and diabetes), eye-related (refractive error, optic disc size), and technology-related (signal strength index, SSI of the scans) determinants on the peripapillary and macular vessel densities measured with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal eyes. METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 normal eyes of 107 subjects (45 men, 62 women, median age: 50 y, range: 18 to 77 y) underwent OCTA imaging. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the effect of the determinants on the peripapillary and macular vessel densities measured ...

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    18. The Association Between Clinical Features Seen on Fundus Photographs and Glaucomatous Damage Detected on Visual Fields and Optical Coherence Tomography Scans

      The Association Between Clinical Features Seen on Fundus Photographs and Glaucomatous Damage Detected on Visual Fields and Optical Coherence Tomography Scans

      Purpose: To classify the appearance of the optic disc seen on fundus photographs of healthy subjects and patients with or suspected glaucoma whose diagnosis was based upon visual fields (VFs) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) results. Patients and Methods: One eye of 100 patients with or suspected glaucoma and 62 healthy subjects were prospectively tested with 24-2 and 10-2 VF and macular and disc sdOCT cube scans. All eyes with or suspected glaucoma had a 24-2 mean deviation better than −6.0 dB and an abnormal appearing disc on stereophotographs. The retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (RGC ...

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    19. INTRAPAPILLARY PROLIFERATION IN OPTIC DISK PITS: Clinical Findings and Time-Related Changes

      INTRAPAPILLARY PROLIFERATION IN OPTIC DISK PITS: Clinical Findings and Time-Related Changes

      Purpose: To investigate the structural changes of intrapapillary proliferations associated with optic disk pits (ODPs) and optic disk pit maculopathy (ODP-M) using enhanced depth-spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-EDI-OCT) and megahertz optical coherence tomography (MHz-OCT). Methods: Sixteen eyes of patients with ODPs were studied. Papillary and peripapillary areas were repeatedly examined with SD-EDI-OCT over time. To evaluate swept-source OCT, some of the patients additionally received MHz-OCT-imaging. Results: MHz-OCT or SD-EDI images showed the entire form of the pits from opening to bottom in 13 of the 16 cases. The shape of ODPs varied considerably. In patients with unilateral ODP, deep intrapapillary ...

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    20. Exploring Photoreceptor Reflectivity Through Multimodal Imaging Of Outer Retinal Tubulation In Advanced AGE-RELATED Macular Degeneration

      Exploring Photoreceptor Reflectivity Through Multimodal Imaging Of Outer Retinal Tubulation In Advanced AGE-RELATED Macular Degeneration

      Purpose: To investigate the microscopic structure of outer retinal tubulation (ORT) and optical properties of cone photoreceptors in vivo, we studied ORT appearance by multimodal imaging, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods: Four eyes of four subjects with advanced age-related macular degeneration underwent color fundus photography, infrared reflectance imaging, SD-OCT, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with a high-resolution research instrument. Outer retinal tubulation was identified in closely spaced (11 μ m) SD-OCT volume scans. Results: Outer retinal tubulation in cross-sectional and en face SD-OCT was a hyporeflective area representing a lumen surrounded ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Neuroretinitis is a form of papillitis associated with the delayed onset of an exudative macular star among other inflammatory ocular findings. We describe 4 patients with neuroretinitis who displayed several distinctive and novel findings on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that include "epipapillary infiltrates" and an atypical pattern of inner retinal folds. The recognition of these findings on OCT may help in the early diagnosis of neuroretinitis.

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    22. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy in the management of Barrett's esophagus

      Volumetric laser endomicroscopy in the management of Barrett's esophagus

      Purpose of review: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is on the rise despite widespread appreciation that the precursor lesion is Barrett's esophagus. Studies have shown that some patients known to have Barrett's esophagus develop cancer despite their enrollment in conventional endoscopic surveillance programs. This highlights the need for advanced endoscopic imaging to help identify early neoplasia and prevent its progression to esophageal cancer. Recently, a wide-field, second-generation optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform called volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration and made commercially available for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus. Recent findings ...

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    23. Factors Associated With Visual Field Progression in Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography-guided Progression Analysis: A Topographic Approach

      Factors Associated With Visual Field Progression in Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography-guided Progression Analysis: A Topographic Approach

      Purpose: To identify factors associated with visual field (VF) progression in optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided progression analysis (GPA) using a topographic approach. Methods: Topographic components of OCT-GPA maps (Cirrus HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec) were classified according to location (temporal, superotemporal, superonasal, nasal, inferornasal, and inferotemporal), size (small, medium, and large), shape (wedge and irregular types), and pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) progression (widening, deepening, and new development). All positive findings in OCT-GPA (RNFL thickness maps, profiles, and average RNFL thickness) were defined as strong RNFL progression. VF progression was determined by linear regression analysis of VF mean ...

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    24. Retinal microvascular alterations related to diabetes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography: A cross-sectional analysis

      Retinal microvascular alterations related to diabetes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography: A cross-sectional analysis

      Abstract: Fluorescein angiography has been so far the gold-standard test to assess diabetic macular ischemia (DMI), a cause of irreversible visual impairment in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and perifoveal microcirculation changes in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a new and noninvasive vascular imaging technique. Cross-sectional study including eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR. All patients underwent medical history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, slit-lamp and fundus examination, multicolor imaging, SD-OCT, and swept-source OCT. OCTA was performed in order to assess macular superficial and ...

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