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    1. HYPERREFLECTIVE FOVEAL SPOTS IN PATIENTS WITH VITREORETINAL ANOMALIES A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

      HYPERREFLECTIVE FOVEAL SPOTS IN PATIENTS WITH VITREORETINAL ANOMALIES A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

      Purpose: To describe structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography features in patients who have developed hyperreflective foveal spots with or without vitreomacular interface abnormalities or with vitreous adhesion alone. Methods: The study design was observational and cross sectional. The presence of defined epiretinal membrane was considered an exclusion criterion. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, with structural OCT and OCT angiography acquisitions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of OCT angiography reconstructions were performed for superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and choriocapillaris. Results: Thirty patients (20 men; mean age, 55.2 years) showing hyperreflective foveal spots on structural ...

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    2. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Features

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Features

      Purpose: To investigate the long-term incidence and risk factors of macular hole (MH) development in the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral idiopathic MH. Methods: The retrospective case–control study involved the fellow eyes of 215 consecutive patients with idiopathic MH. The patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or development of MH in the fellow eye. The spectral domain optical coherence tomography features and clinical characteristics of each group were compared. Results: Twelve (5.6%) patients presented with bilateral MH at the initial visit, whereas 20 (9.3%) initially unilateral patients developed MH in the fellow ...

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    3. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF PORETTI-BOLTSHAUSER SYNDROME: FINDINGS FROM MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOG

      OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF PORETTI-BOLTSHAUSER SYNDROME: FINDINGS FROM MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOG

      Background/Purpose: Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome is a rare, nonprogressive neurologic syndrome with characteristic cerebellar cysts on neuroimaging due to mutations in LAMA1 . The ophthalmic findings in Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome are not well described. Here, we report the ophthalmic findings from multimodal imaging and electrophysiology of a patient with genetically confirmed Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome . Methods: A 3-year-old boy with confirmed mutations in LAMA1 underwent examination under anesthesia with electroretinography and multimodal imaging including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography , optical coherence tomography , and optical coherence tomography angiography . Results: Dilated fundus examination was notable for retinal vascular anomalies, including a large area of nonperfusion in the temporal ...

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    4. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY BEFORE AND AFTER SURGERY FOR IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE

      QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY BEFORE AND AFTER SURGERY FOR IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE

      Purpose: To investigate, using optical coherence tomography angiography , the foveal avascular zone (FAZar), the FAZ perimeter (FAZp), the acircularity index of the FAZ (FAZai), and the density of vessels surrounding the FAZ (FAZvd) before and after idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery, and associations of these parameters with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, letter score gain, and central foveal thickness. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed preoperative and postoperative (sixth month) medical records of 28 eyes of 28 patients who undergone epiretinal membrane surgery and had an intact ellipsoid zone. Results: There were significant increases in best-corrected visual acuity, FAZar, and FAZp and decreases in ...

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    5. INTRAOPERATIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND ENDOSCOPY-GUIDED EXPLANTATION OF ARGUS II DEVIC

      INTRAOPERATIVE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND ENDOSCOPY-GUIDED EXPLANTATION OF ARGUS II DEVIC

      Purpose: To describe a surgical approach using intraoperative optical coherence tomography and endoscopy for successful Argus II retinal prosthesis system removal. Methods: Retrospective review of a patient undergoing Argus II explantation 8 months after initial implantation. Results: Successful explantation of the Argus II device was performed in this patient. Conclusion: Explantation of the Argus II device can be a difficult surgery, and intraoperative optical coherence tomography and endoscopy can be used to help avoid potential complications.

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      Mentions: Duke University
    6. Recent developments in pediatric retina

      Recent developments in pediatric retina

      Purpose of review Pediatric retina is an exciting, but also challenging field, where patient age and cooperation can limit ease of diagnosis of a broad range of congenital and acquired diseases, inherited retinal degenerations are mostly untreatable and surgical outcomes can be quite different from those for adults. This review aims to highlight some recent advances and trends that are improving our ability to care for children with retinal conditions. Recent findings Studies have demonstrated the feasibility of multimodal imaging even in nonsedated infants, with portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography in particular offering structural insights into diverse ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    7. Visual Field Cluster Map Corresponding to Bruch’s Membrane Opening-Minimum Rim Area Sectors in Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Visual Field Cluster Map Corresponding to Bruch’s Membrane Opening-Minimum Rim Area Sectors in Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Précis: We generated a new visual field cluster map corresponding to Bruch’s membrane opening-minimum rim area sectors, which described in detail the structure-function relationships between the optic nerve head and visual field in patients with open-angle glaucoma . Purpose: To investigate the structure-function relationship between Bruch’s membrane opening-minimum rim area (BMO-MRA) and visual field (VF) in patients with open-angle glaucoma . Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 67 eyes of 50 patients with open-angle glaucoma who underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for BMO-MRA and Humphrey VF test. BMO-MRA of the glaucomatous optic nerve head was divided into 12 sectors. The correlation ...

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    8. TOPOGRAPHIC OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SEGMENTATION SHOWS LIMITED ELLIPSOID ZONE RECOVERY IN MILD HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE RETINOPATHY

      TOPOGRAPHIC OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SEGMENTATION SHOWS LIMITED ELLIPSOID ZONE RECOVERY IN MILD HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE RETINOPATHY

      urpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sections have shown limited ellipsoid zone (EZ) improvement in mild hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy within a few years after drug cessation. However, the extent, functional significance, and stability of such changes over time remain unclear. Methods: We created en face EZ maps using automated pixel-by-pixel segmentation for four patients with early-moderate HCQ toxicity followed for 6-8 years after drug cessation. These maps were compared with OCT cross-sections, fundus autofluorescence, and automated 10-2 visual fields. Results: One patient had no EZ line loss; one had stable EZ loss throughout follow-up; two showed 30 to 40% reduction in ...

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    9. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography–Assisted Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: Toward More Efficient, Safer Surgery

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography–Assisted Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: Toward More Efficient, Safer Surgery

      Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) and prolonged overpressure in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty for surgical safety, efficiency, and outcome. Methods: All Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasties performed by the same surgeon from November 2016 through April 2018 at the University Medical Center Utrecht were included, including 6 months of follow-up. The primary outcome was the prevalence of adverse events, and the secondary outcomes included critical decision-making and surgery time. Surgeries that included prolonged (ca. 12 minutes) overpressurization of the globe were classified as group 1, and those without prolonged overpressurization of the globe were ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Idiopathic Foveal Hypoplasia and Its Correlation With Visual Acuity

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Idiopathic Foveal Hypoplasia and Its Correlation With Visual Acuity

      SIGNIFICANCE Foveal hypoplasia is described clinically by the absence of a foveal pit and subsequent reduction in visual acuity. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides precise segmentation of the retinal vascular supply demonstrating the vascular perfusion in affected patients. Preservation of perfusion is linked to visual acuity and function. PURPOSE This case report describes a patient with foveal hypoplasia and preservation of visual acuity with preserved retinal capillary density of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses on optical coherence tomography angiography. In addition, the diagnostic findings of foveal hypoplasia as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography will be described. CASE REPORT ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography confirms the pathomechanism of acute fluid misdirection syndrome

      Optical coherence tomography confirms the pathomechanism of acute fluid misdirection syndrome

      We have read the article by Anisimova et al. with great interest, and we believe that some discussion is required. 1 In this very original investigation, the authors have imaged the Berger's space with intraoperative optical coherence tomography to assess the risk factors for intraoperative complications during phacoemulsification. This study established evidence on migration of lens microfragments, triamcinolone, or cellular material into the Berger's space during cataract surgery. The discontinuity of both the lenticular zonules and Wieger's ligament attachment is presented as the key mechanism for developing fluid misdirection. 2,3 The authors use different terms, including ...

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    12. Evaluation Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Effects of Malnutrition on Ocular Parameters in Pediatric Patients

      Evaluation Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of the Effects of Malnutrition on Ocular Parameters in Pediatric Patients

      SIGNIFICANCE We determined decreases in choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in all quadrants. Our findings show that the choroid and RNFL are affected before the emergence of ocular symptoms in malnourished children. PURPOSE We aimed to determine whether the RNFL, a component of the neuronal structure, and the choroid, supplying the retina, are affected in children with malnutrition using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. METHODS One hundred twenty-six malnourished patients without ocular symptoms, aged between 5 and 10 years, and 116 healthy children were included in the study. Age, sex, weight-for-age (WFA) z score, height-for-age z score ...

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    13. Efficacy of Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Axial Length Measurement for Advanced Cataract Patients

      Efficacy of Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Axial Length Measurement for Advanced Cataract Patients

      SIGNIFICANCE A major limitation of standard time-domain optical coherence tomography–based biometers (TD-OCT) is an inability to measure the axial length (AL) in advanced cataract. A new device that uses swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) allows better light penetration. Hence, a considerable number of cataract patients who failed AL measurement by TD-OCT can be recovered by SS-OCT. PURPOSE The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of an SS-OCT for AL measurement in advanced cataract patients and to identify characteristics of lens opacity that impede the AL measurement. METHODS Advanced cataract patients who were unable to obtain AL ...

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    14. Tear Meniscus Imaging by Anterior Segment-optical Coherence Tomography in Medically Controlled Glaucoma

      Tear Meniscus Imaging by Anterior Segment-optical Coherence Tomography in Medically Controlled Glaucoma

      Purpose: To investigate the tear meniscus (TM) in medically controlled glaucoma patients (MCGP) using Anterior Segment-Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: Fifty-six MCGP, twenty-four patients with evaporative dry eye (EDE), and thirty healthy subjects (Controls), were enrolled. MCGP were divided into Group 1 (14 eyes): ß-blockers; Group 2 (14 eyes): prostaglandin analogs; Group 3 (28 eyes) ≥2 drugs. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Schirmer Test I (STI), and tear meniscus height (lower and upper: L-TMH, U-TMH) and area (L-TMA, U-TMA) using AS-OCT, were performed. Results: OSDI score was higher ( P <0 ...

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    15. Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pseudoexfoliation and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

      Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pseudoexfoliation and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

      Precis: Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma eyes had a similar level of peripapillary and superficial macular vessel densities compared with primary open-angle glaucoma eyes matched for age and glaucoma severity when assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography. Purpose: To compare vessel density (VD) measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) in the peripapillary and macular areas. Methods: The circumpapillary (cpVD), parafoveal (pfVD), and perifoveal vessel densities (perifVD) were obtained using OCT-A (AngioVue/RTVue-XR) in 98 eyes from 98 subjects (age, visual acuity (VA), visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) matched 49 POAG and 49 ...

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    16. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS IMPAIRMENT IN EYES WITH CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A Quantitative OCT Angiography Study

      SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS IMPAIRMENT IN EYES WITH CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A Quantitative OCT Angiography Study

      Purpose: To develop an optical coherence tomography angiography ( OCTA )-based framework for quantitatively analyzing the spatial distribution of choriocapillaris (CC) impairment around choroidal neovascularization ( CNV ) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Methods: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, 400-kHz swept-source OCTA images from 7 eyes of 6 patients with CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration were quantitatively analyzed using custom software. A lesion-centered zonal OCTA analysis technique—which portioned the field-of-view into zones relative to CNV boundaries—was developed to quantify the spatial dependence of CC flow deficits. Results: Quantitative, lesion-centered zonal analysis of CC OCTA images revealed highest flow-deficit percentages near ...

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    17. A Deep Learning Approach in Rebubbling After Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty

      A Deep Learning Approach in Rebubbling After Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty

      Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of deep learning in judging the need for rebubbling after Descemet's endothelial membrane keratoplasty (DMEK). Methods: This retrospective study included eyes that underwent rebubbling after DMEK ( rebubbling group: RB group) and the same number of eyes that did not require rebubbling (non-RB group), based on medical records. To classify the RB group, randomly selected images from anterior segment optical coherence tomography at postoperative day 5 were evaluated by corneal specialists. The criterion for rebubbling was the condition where graft detachment reached the central 4.0-mm pupil area. We trained nine types of deep neural ...

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    18. Axial length measurement and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography based biometer in the presence of a dense vitreous hemorrhage

      Axial length measurement and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography based biometer in the presence of a dense vitreous hemorrhage

      Purpose: To evaluate axial length (AL) measurements and detection rates using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) biometer (OA-2000, Tomey, Japan) compared with the IOLMaster (v5.4, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany), Lenstar (v2.1, Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and ultrasound (US) measurements in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Setting: Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Design: Comparative evaluation of a diagnostic test or technology. Methods: The main outcomes were AL measurement failure rate and agreement in AL measurements in patients with VH. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess the agreement between devices. Results: In total, 40 eyes were ...

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    19. Diagnosing Glaucoma with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Using Deep Learning Classifier

      Diagnosing Glaucoma with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Using Deep Learning Classifier

      Précis: An SD-OCT based deep learning system detected glaucomatous structural change with high sensitivity and specificity. It outperformed the clinical diagnostic parameters in discriminating glaucomatous eyes from healthy eyes. Purpose: To assess the performance of a deep learning classifier for detection of glaucomatous change based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Three hundred and fifty image sets of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) SD-OCT for 86 glaucomatous eyes and 307 SD-OCT image sets of 196 healthy participants were recruited and split into training (197 eyes) and test (85 eyes) datasets based on ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve guided treatment of woven coronary artery anomaly presenting as acute myocardial infarction

      Optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve guided treatment of woven coronary artery anomaly presenting as acute myocardial infarction

      Rationale: Woven coronary artery is a very rare congenital anomaly which may lead to acute coronary syndrome in previous literatures. At present, there is no consensus on the treatment of this coronary artery abnormality. Patient concerns: A 48-year-old male was admitted to the other hospital because of persistent chest pain. The electrocardiogram showed an ST-segment elevation in the v1-v5 lead and the patient was diagnosed with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed 2 lumens in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending artery. Then the patient was transferred to our hospital for further diagnosis and treatment. Diagnoses: The ...

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    21. The 360° circumferential opening of Schlemm's canal in normal individuals detected by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      The 360° circumferential opening of Schlemm's canal in normal individuals detected by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      We aimed to observe the opening status and morphological parameters of Schlemm's canal (SC) in normal eyes using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Consecutive EDI-OCT scans were used to examine the right eye of 20 normal individuals . EDI-OCT was performed clockwise for 8 regions (at the 12:00, 1:30, 3:00, 4:30, 6:00, 7:30, 9:00 and 10:30 o’clock positions). Image processing and analysis in java software was used to measure the area, perimeter, and diameter of SC. Twenty-one serial scans of each region were evaluated and a total of 168 ...

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    22. Real-Time Intraoperative Dynamics of White Cataract- Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Classification & Management

      Real-Time Intraoperative Dynamics of White Cataract- Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Classification & Management

      Purpose: To evaluate morphological characteristics and intraoperative dynamics of different types of white cataract using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) Setting: Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Design: Prospective interventional study Methods: Fifty eyes with white cataract undergoing phacoemulsification were evaluated. Primary outcome measure was classification of white cataract based on morphology and intraoperative dynamics on iOCT. Secondary outcome measure was rhexis related complications. Results: We identified four types of white cataract based on iOCT - Type I (18%), II (6%), III (48%) and IV (28%). Type I had regularly arranged lamellar ...

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