1. Articles from BJO Online

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    1. Optical coherence tomography angiography for the characterisation of retinal microvasculature alterations in pregnant patients with anaemia: a nested case‒control study

      Optical coherence tomography angiography for the characterisation of retinal microvasculature alterations in pregnant patients with anaemia: a nested case‒control study

      Aims: To characterise retinal microvascular alterations in the eyes of pregnant patients with anaemia (PA) and to compare the alterations with those in healthy controls (HC) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This nested case‒control study included singleton PA and HC from the Eye Health in Pregnancy Study. Fovea avascular zone (FAZ) metrics, perfusion density (PD) in the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus and flow deficit (FD) density in the choriocapillaris (CC) were quantified using FIJI software. Linear regressions were conducted to evaluate the differences in OCTA metrics between PA and HC. Subgroup analyses were performed based ...

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    2. Detection of diabetic neovascularisation using single-capture 65°-widefield optical coherence tomography angiography

      Detection of diabetic neovascularisation using single-capture 65°-widefield optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aim: To assess the detection rate of retinal neovascularisation (NV) in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) using widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (WF-OCTA) in comparison to ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA). Methods: Single-capture 65°-WF-OCTA-imaging was performed in patients with NV at the disc or elsewhere (NVE) detected on UWF-FA using a modified PlexElite system and B-scans were examined for blood flow signals breaching the internal limiting membrane. Sensitivity of WF-OCTA and UWF colour fundus (UWF-CF) photography for correct diagnosis of PDR was determined and interdevice agreement (Fleiss' κ) between WF-OCTA and UWF-FA for detection of NV in the total gradable ...

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    3. Characterising collateral vessels in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusions using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Characterising collateral vessels in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusions using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background/aims: To characterise the morphology, location and functional significance of both macular and extramacular collateral vessels (CVs) in patients with a history of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS OCTA). Methods: Patients with a history of BRVO underwent WF SS OCTA testing to acquire 12×12 mm images, which were evaluated for CVs and non-perfusion area (NPA). Region of interest analysis of individual CVs was performed to identify correlations between CV size, depth and retinal location. Mixed effects multivariate regression analyses of factors associated with NPA and visual acuity (VA) were ...

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    4. Macular thickness and its associated factors in a Chinese rural adult population: the Handan Eye Study

      Macular thickness and its associated factors in a Chinese rural adult population: the Handan Eye Study

      Purpose To describe the normal macular thickness and assess its associations. Methods The Handan Eye Follow-up Study was conducted between 2012 and 2013. Macular thickness was scanned by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The built-in software generated a retinal thickness (RT) map, which was divided into three regions (central, internal and external regions) and nine quadrants (one in central and four in internal and external regions each). Results For 5394 subjects in the Handan Eye Follow-up Study, 4793 received OCT examination, 2946 of whom (accounting for 61.46% of the total subjects, mean age 58.91±10.95, 55.6 ...

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    5. Association of macular OCT and OCTA parameters with visual acuity in glaucoma

      Association of macular OCT and OCTA parameters with visual acuity in glaucoma

      Background/aims: To investigate the association of macular optical coherence tomography (OCT)/OCT angiography (OCTA) parameters with visual acuity (VA) in glaucoma. Methods: 144 pseudophakic primary open-angle glaucoma eyes were included. Foveal (fVD), parafoveal (pf), perifoveal (perifVD) and whole-image vessel densities (wiVD) of superficial and deep layers, and their corresponding ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses were obtained from OCTA 6×6 mm 2 macula scans. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circumference and foveal density-300 (FD300) were measured. Correlation between OCT/OCTA parameters and Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution VA (logMAR VA) in early and moderate-advanced glaucoma was ...

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      Mentions: UCSD
    6. Biphasic change in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness from 30 to 60 weeks postmenstrual age in preterm infants

      Biphasic change in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness from 30 to 60 weeks postmenstrual age in preterm infants

      Background/Aims The optic nerve development during the critical postnatal weeks of preterm infants is unclear. We aimed to investigate the change of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in preterm infants. Methods We used an investigational handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to serially image awake preterm infants between 30 and 60 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) at the bedside. We assessed RNFL thickness in the papillomacular bundle and nasal macular ganglion cell layer+inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness. We applied a segmented mixed model to analyse the change in the thickness of RNFL and GCL+IPL as a function ...

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    7. Clinical usefulness of layer-by-layer deviation maps of Spectralis OCT: comparison with Cirrus OCT

      Clinical usefulness of layer-by-layer deviation maps of Spectralis OCT: comparison with Cirrus OCT

      Background/aims: To compare the diagnostic abilities of Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (OCT) for retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect detection among patients with preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) and early glaucoma (EG). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 144 eyes (47 healthy, 43 PPG, 54 EG; MD≥-6 dB) of 144 participants underwent Spectralis and Cirrus OCT on the same day. The presence of RNFL defect on red-free RNFL photography and the respective deviation maps of Spectralis and Cirrus OCT was rated. Areas under the receiver ...

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    8. Ancillary PanoMap OCT shows the progression of glaucomatous papillomacular bundle defect with disc haemorrhage on the fovea-disc axis

      Ancillary PanoMap OCT shows the progression of glaucomatous papillomacular bundle defect with disc haemorrhage on the fovea-disc axis

      Background/aims: To identify the spatial relationship between disc haemorrhage (DH) on the fovea-disc axis and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect in the papillomacular bundle (PMB) using ancillary PanoMap optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: We investigated the presence and progression of spatially corresponding PMB defects in glaucomatous eyes with temporally located DH on the fovea-disc axis (FoDi-DH). We identified PMB defects using ancillary PanoMap OCT with guided progression analysis, in addition to red-free photographs. Results: We studied 36 eyes of 35 glaucoma patients with FoDi-DH, pre-existing PMB defects were observed in 18 eyes (50.0%) at the time and ...

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    9. Persistent subfoveal fluid in pneumatic retinopexy versus pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: posthoc analysis of the PIVOT randomised trial

      Persistent subfoveal fluid in pneumatic retinopexy versus pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: posthoc analysis of the PIVOT randomised trial

      Purpose To assess the incidence of persistent subfoveal fluid (PSFF) in pneumatic retinopexy (PnR) versus pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair and to determine its association with functional outcomes. Methods Posthoc analysis of the PIVOT randomised trial. Eyes with gradable en face and cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans at 1–2 months postoperatively were included. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with PSFF following PnR versus PPV at 1–2 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included association of PSFF with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter score at 3, 6 and 12 months ...

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    10. Association of baseline optical coherence tomography angiography with the development of glaucomatous visual field defects in preperimetric glaucoma eyes

      Association of baseline optical coherence tomography angiography with the development of glaucomatous visual field defects in preperimetric glaucoma eyes

      Aims To evaluate whether baseline vessel density (VD) parameters derived from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is associated with the development of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects in preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients. Methods One eye from each of 200 consecutive PPG patients with a normal standard automated perimetry and OCT-A at baseline was retrospectively analysed. OCT-A was used to measure the circumpapillary VD (cpVD) and the parafoveal and perifoveal VD. The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses were measured as reference standards. Two patient groups were stratified based on the development of repeatable glaucomatous ...

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    11. Factors associated with choroidal microvascular dropout change

      Factors associated with choroidal microvascular dropout change

      Background/aims To investigate the factors associated with choroidal microvasculature drop-out (MvD) enlargement detected by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in glaucomatous eyes. Methods Ninety-one eyes of 68 primary open-angle glaucoma patients were enrolled. Only eyes with a minimum of four good quality OCT-A and OCT scans of the optic nerve head acquired at least and with a minimum of 2 years follow-up were included. Area and angular circumference of MvD were analysed on en face images. Univariable and multivariable mixed effects models were constructed to identify the factors contributing to MvD area and angular circumference change over time. Results ...

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      Mentions: UCSD
    12. Parapapillary choroidal microvascular density in acute primary angle-closure and primary open-angle glaucoma: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Parapapillary choroidal microvascular density in acute primary angle-closure and primary open-angle glaucoma: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Back ground/aims To determine whether parapapillary choroidal microvasculature (PPCMv) density, measured by optical coherence tomography angiography, differed between acute primary angle-closure (APAC), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and controls. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Data from 149 eyes from two academic referral centres were analysed. Automated PPCMv density was calculated in inner and outer annuli around the optic nerve region in addition to the peripapillary superficial vasculature, using customised software. A generalised estimating equation was used to compare vessel densities among groups, adjusted for confounders. Results Data from 40 eyes with APAC, 65 eyes with POAG and ...

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    13. Automatic segmentation of multitype retinal fluid from optical coherence tomography images using semisupervised deep learning network

      Automatic segmentation of multitype retinal fluid from optical coherence tomography images using semisupervised deep learning network

      Background/aims: To develop and validate a deep learning model for automated segmentation of multitype retinal fluid using optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Methods: We retrospectively collected a total of 2814 completely anonymised OCT images with subretinal fluid (SRF) and intraretinal fluid (IRF) from 141 patients between July 2018 and June 2020, constituting our in-house retinal OCT dataset. On this dataset, we developed a novel semisupervised retinal fluid segmentation deep network (Ref-Net) to automatically identify SRF and IRF in a coarse-to-refine fashion. We performed quantitative and qualitative analyses on the model's performance while verifying its generalisation ability by using ...

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    14. Single-capture ultra-widefield guided swept-source optical coherence tomography in the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and associated peripheral vitreoretinal patholog

      Single-capture ultra-widefield guided swept-source optical coherence tomography in the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and associated peripheral vitreoretinal patholog

      Background/Aim To assess the utility of single-capture ultra-widefield confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated swept-source optical coherence tomography (UWF-SS-OCT) in the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and associated peripheral pathology. Methods 138 eyes of 101 consecutive patients with RRD and/or associated peripheral pathology at a vitreoretinal practice in Toronto, Canada between December 2020 and February 2021 that had UWF-SS-OCT with interpretable scans were included. A 200 degree fundus photograph was used to navigate a built-in 100 kHz UWF-SS-OCT to image pathology with a high-density 23 mm line scan and/or volume scan. Main outcomes were the microstructural ...

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    15. Choriocapillaris flow deficit and the risk of referable diabetic retinopathy: a longitudinal SS-OCTA study

      Choriocapillaris flow deficit and the risk of referable diabetic retinopathy: a longitudinal SS-OCTA study

      Aims To investigate the association between the choriocapillaris flow deficit percentage (CC FD%) and the 1-year incidence of referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR) in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods This prospective cohort study included participants with type 2 DM. The DR status was graded based on the ETDRS-7 photography. The CC FD% in the central 1 mm area, inner circle (1.5 mm to 2.5 mm), outer circle (2.5 mm to 5.0 mm) and the entire area in the macular region were measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Logistic regression analysis was used ...

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    16. Changes in glaucoma management following visual field testing and optical coherence tomography

      Changes in glaucoma management following visual field testing and optical coherence tomography

      Background Optimal utilisation of investigations in glaucoma management remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether a temporal association exists between such testing and management changes. Methods Retrospective observational study using nationwide healthcare insurance claims database. Glaucoma outpatient encounters from patients aged ≥40 years with/without Humphrey visual field (HVF) and/or optical coherence tomography (OCT) were identified. An encounter was considered associated with an intervention if surgery occurred within 90 days, or if medication change or laser trabeculoplasty (LT) occurred within 30 days. Results 12 669 324 outpatient encounters of 1 863 748 individuals from 2003 to 2020 were included ...

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    17. Clinically relevant factors associated with a binary outcome of diabetic macular ischaemia: an OCTA study

      Clinically relevant factors associated with a binary outcome of diabetic macular ischaemia: an OCTA study

      Aims We investigated the demographic, ocular, diabetes-related and systemic factors associated with a binary outcome of diabetic macular ischaemia (DMI) as assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) evaluation of non-perfusion at the level of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) in a cohort of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods 617 patients with DM were recruited from July 2015 to December 2020 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Eye Centre. Image quality assessment (gradable or ungradable for assessing DMI) and DMI evaluation (presence or absence of DMI) were assessed at the level ...

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    18. Quantitative evaluation of retinal and choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with myopic anisometropia by CDI and OCTA

      Quantitative evaluation of retinal and choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with myopic anisometropia by CDI and OCTA

      Aims To investigate the association between the myopic severity and retinal microvascular density, choroidal vascularity and retrobulbar blood flow in adult anisomyopes. Methods This study comprised 90 eyes of 45 myopic anisomyopes who were recruited for Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The superficial vessel density (SVD), deep vessel density (DVD), choroidal thickness (ChT) and choroidal vascularity, including total choroidal area (TCA), luminal area (LA), stromal area (SA) and Choroidal Vascularity Index (CVI), were measured using OCTA. Moreover, the Pulsatile Index, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of posterior ciliary artery (PCA), central ...

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    19. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured with SD-OCT in a population-based study: the Handan Eye Study

      Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured with SD-OCT in a population-based study: the Handan Eye Study

      Purpose To examine the normative profile of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and ocular parameters based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and its associations with related parameters among the Chinese population. Methods This population-based cohort Handan Eye Study (HES) recruited participants aged≥30 years. All subjects underwent a standardised ophthalmic examination. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was obtained using SD-OCT. Mixed linear models were adopted to evaluate the correlation of RNFL thickness with ocular parameters as well as systemic factors. R V.3.6.1 software was used for statistical analysis. Results 3509 subjects (7024 eyes) with the average age ...

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    20. Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography imaging in patients with different severities of hydroxychloroquine toxicity

      Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography imaging in patients with different severities of hydroxychloroquine toxicity

      Purpose: To determine the diagnostic validity of quantitative measures derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in their ability to discriminate between cohorts of eyes unaffected by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and those with a range of toxicity severities, including mild toxicity. Methods: Prospective, single-centre, case-control study conducted between August 2010 and May 2017. Participants were exposed to HCQ for at least 5 years (mean±SD =14±7.2 years) and classified into affected and unaffected cohorts based on the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2016 recommendations. For affected eyes, severity (groups 1-4) was assigned based on the extent of ellipsoid zone ...

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    21. Angle closure extent, anterior segment dimensions and intraocular pressure

      Angle closure extent, anterior segment dimensions and intraocular pressure

      Aim To investigate the association between the extent of iridotrabecular contact and other quantitative anterior segment dimensions measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; CASIA SS-1000, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) with intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods Cross-sectional study. All subjects who were ≥50 years with no history of glaucoma, ocular surgery or trauma, underwent SS-OCT imaging (eight equally spaced radial scans), Goldman applanation tonometry and gonioscopy on the same day. We measured iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index and area, total volume of trabeculo-iris space area and angle opening distance at 500 and 750 from the scleral spur (TISA 500 and 750, AOD 500 ...

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    22. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of anterior segment optical coherence tomography capture of disease state in childhood anterior uveitis

      Quantitative and qualitative assessment of anterior segment optical coherence tomography capture of disease state in childhood anterior uveitis

      Background/aims: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) assessment of anterior chamber inflammation is an emerging tool. We describe the performance of AS-OCT in a paediatric population. Methods: A mixed-methods prospective study, using routine clinical assessment as reference standard, and AS-OCT, with Tomey CASIA2 or Heidelberg Spectralis HS1, as index test, with data collected on patient perceptions of imaging. Repeatability, diagnostic indices, responsiveness to clinical change and clinical correlations of imaging-based metrics (image cell count, size, density and brightness) were assessed, with construction of receiver operated characteristic curves. Exploratory thematic analysis of responses from families was undertaken. Results: A total ...

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    23. Consensus-based recommendations for optical coherence tomography angiography reporting in uveitis

      Consensus-based recommendations for optical coherence tomography angiography reporting in uveitis

      Background/aims: To establish a consensus in the nomenclature for reporting optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA findings in uveitis. Methods: The modified Delphi process consisted of two rounds of electronic questionnaires, followed by a face-to-face meeting conducted virtually. Twenty-one items were included for discussion. The three main areas of discussion were: wide field OCTA (WF-OCTA), nomenclature of OCTA findings and OCTA signal attenuation assessment and measurement. Seventeen specialists in uveitis and retinal imaging were selected by the executive committee to constitute the OCTA nomenclature in Uveitis Delphi Study Group. The study endpoint was defined by the degree of consensus for ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    24. Combining retinal and choroidal microvascular metrics improves discriminative power for diabetic retinopathy

      Combining retinal and choroidal microvascular metrics improves discriminative power for diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters from both the retinal and choroidal microvasculature to detect the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Method This is a cross-sectional case–control study. OCTA parameters from retinal vasculature, fovea avascular zone (FAZ) and choriocapillaris were evaluated from 3×3 mm 2 fovea-centred scans. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the discriminative power on the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), the presence of DR and need for referral: group 1 (no DM vs DM no DR), group 2 (no DR vs any DR) and ...

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