1. Articles from BJO Online

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    1. Comparing optical coherence tomography radial and cube scan patterns for measuring Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) in glaucoma and healthy eyes: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

      Comparing optical coherence tomography radial and cube scan patterns for measuring Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) in glaucoma and healthy eyes: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

      Aim To compare the cube and radial scan patterns of the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for quantifying the Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW). Methods Sixty healthy eyes and 189 glaucomatous eyes were included. The optic nerve head cube and radial pattern scans were acquired using Spectralis SD-OCT. BMO-MRWs were automatically delineated using the San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm. The BMO-MRW diagnostic accuracy for glaucoma detection and rates of change derived from the two scan patterns were compared. Results There was a significant difference between the baseline global BMO-MRW measurements of cube and radial scans ...

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    2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angle and vault analysis after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens V4c implantation in patients with high myopia

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angle and vault analysis after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens V4c implantation in patients with high myopia

      Objective To assess anterior segment changes, including iridocorneal angle and vault, after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens (ICL) V4c (STAAR Surgical AG) implantation under different lighting conditions. Methods Longitudinal, prospective, case series. Patients with high myopia (>6 dioptres) underwent toric and non-toric ICL V4c implantation. Optical coherence tomography measurements were taken under different lighting conditions preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Results Seventy-six eyes of 42 patients underwent ICL V4c implantation. Mean age was 27.4 years (±5.14 years, range 20 to 39 years). The average iridocorneal angle showed a statistically ...

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    3. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-compatible surgical instruments for real-time image-guided ophthalmic surgery

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-compatible surgical instruments for real-time image-guided ophthalmic surgery

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potentially transformational technology that is now commercially available to ophthalmic surgeons. Currently, the use of the technology is primarily limited to a ‘stop and image’ approach due to the lack of OCT compatibility with surgical instrumentation. In this report, we describe multiple OCT-compatible surgical instruments that were developed for various surgical needs, based on previous evaluation of potential surgical materials for optical features and physical properties. OCT-compatible instrumentation included two membrane scrapers, a surgical pick and vitreoretinal forceps. Imaging during in vitro and ex vivo-simulated surgical procedures demonstrated excellent visualisation of the instrument ...

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    4. Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Abstract Aims To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. Methods OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group. New OCT findings were recorded and compared. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured at the site of NIR and compared. Results 10 ...

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    5. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Background/Aims To identify the retinal vascular pathologies in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD) through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. Methods Our study included 26 patients in the patient group, and age-matched and sex-matched 26 subjects in the control group. A detailed ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed for all subjects included in the study. The retinal, choroidal vascular structures and choroidal thickness (CT) of all subjects were analysed in a detailed way with a commercial spectral domain OCTA. Moreover, all participants underwent detailed neurological examination including Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test to evaluate cognitive function ...

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    6. Features of optical coherence tomography predictive of choroidal neovascularisation treatment response in pathological myopia in association with fluorescein angiography

      Features of optical coherence tomography predictive of choroidal neovascularisation treatment response in pathological myopia in association with fluorescein angiography

      ackground/Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of several optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to estimate choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) activity in pathological myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA) as a reference. Methods This was a single-centre, retrospective study. The medical records of patients with active myopic CNV who received intravitreal bevacizumab treatment were reviewed. Parameters to monitor CNV activity were morphological features of CNV on OCT, such as CNV height, central foveal thickness, intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, fuzziness of the CNV border, CNV network area on FA, and haemorrhage or exudation on fundus photo. Results There ...

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    7. Interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion parameter measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion parameter measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aim The aim of the study was to investigate the interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods A prospective cross-sectional observational study. Healthy adult Chinese subjects were recruited. Macular perfusion parameters were automatically analysed by software included in a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system. The vessel density (VD) of the whole, parafovea, superior-hemi, inferior-hemi, fovea, temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants as well as the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and choroidal capillary VD (CCVD) were quantified. Results A total of 51 eyes in 27 subjects were included (8 men and 19 women, mean age ...

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    8. Vitreomacular Hyaloid Attachment: A Normal Optical Coherence Tomography Finding

      Vitreomacular Hyaloid Attachment: A Normal Optical Coherence Tomography Finding

      Dear Editor, We would like to comment on the excellent article by Sahni, Stanga, Wong, and Harding [1]. In their paper, a number of descriptive terms for optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis are defined in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization undergoing treatment with photodynamic therapy. One term, “vitreomacular hyaloid attachment (VMHA),” was used to refer to incomplete separation of the posterior hyaloid with attachment at the macula. Twenty of 56 patients (35.7%) included in the study had VMHA on OCT. We would like to point out that this vitreomacular configuration is identical to that described ...

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    9. Retinal structure assessed by OCT as a biomarker of brain development in children born small for gestational age

      Retinal structure assessed by OCT as a biomarker of brain development in children born small for gestational age

      Purpose To identify differences in neuronal tissue from retinal and brain structures in children born small for gestational age (SGA) with no abnormality in neonatal brain ultrasonography and no previous neurological impairment, and to evaluate the relationship between retinal structure and brain changes in school-age children born SGA. Methods Two cohorts of children were recruited: 25 children born SGA and 25 children born with an appropriate birth weight according to gestational age. All the children underwent an ophthalmic examination, which included retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and a brain MRI. MRI images were automatically segmented and global and ...

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    10. Peripapillary perfused capillary density in primary open-angle glaucoma across disease stage: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Peripapillary perfused capillary density in primary open-angle glaucoma across disease stage: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Aims To assess peripapillary perfused capillary density (PCD) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) across stage of disease. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, 60 eyes with varying stages of POAG and 24 control eyes were imaged on a spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography system (AngioVue, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) generating images centred on the optic nerve head. Major blood vessels were removed using custom automated software. PCD was calculated as a percentage as the ratio of pixels associated with perfused capillaries to the total number of pixels in the corresponding region-of-interest (ROI). Analysis of covariance was used to compare ...

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    11. Longitudinal study of retinal status using optical coherence tomography after acute onset endophthalmitis following cataract surgery

      Longitudinal study of retinal status using optical coherence tomography after acute onset endophthalmitis following cataract surgery

      Purpose To analyse the macula imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients treated for acute postcataract endophthalmitis. Methods Patients presenting with acute postcataract endophthalmitis were included in this observational and multicentre study from January 2008 to December 2011. We recorded the following OCT data at the 3, 6 and 12-month visits: the central macular thickness, the perifoveal macular thickness, the central foveal point thickness and abnormalities of the outer retina, the macula and vitreoretinal interface. Results 46 patients were included in the OCT analysis. From month 3 to 12, epiretinal membrane (ERM) prevalence increased from 26% to 39%, vitreomacular ...

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    12. Choroid morphometric analysis in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration by means of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Choroid morphometric analysis in non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration by means of optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aims To describe the vascular changes in patients affected by non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), featuring reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), drusen, or both RPD and drusen by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods Cross-sectional observational case series. Patients with non-neovascular AMD presenting at the Medical Retina Service of the Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan were recruited. Patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, infrared reflectance, short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence and OCT-A (AngioPlex, CIRRUS HD-OCT 5000, Carl Zeiss Meditech, Dublin, USA). Main outcome was quantification of vessel density, stromal tissue, and vascular/stromal (V/S) ratio at the ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography angiography in acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

      Purpose To characterise vascular changes in eyes with acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) imaging. Methods This hospital-based observational case-control study included included five patients with acute NAION (6 eyes), within 7 days after onset of symptoms and 19 age-matched healthy controls (19 eyes). OCT-A (RTVue XR 100; Optovue, Fremont, California, USA), covering a 4.5×4.5 mm scan area, was used to evaluate peripapillary blood flow in cases and controls. The flow densities at the retinal and choroidal level were measured using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. Results The mean age ...

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    14. Retinal segmented layers with strong aquaporin-4 expression suffered more injuries in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders compared with optic neuritis with aquaporin-4 antibody seronegativity detected by optical coherence tomography

      Retinal segmented layers with strong aquaporin-4 expression suffered more injuries in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders compared with optic neuritis with aquaporin-4 antibody seronegativity detected by optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To evaluate retinal segmented layer alterations in optic neuritis (ON) in an AQP4-Ab seropositive (AQP4-Ab+/ON) cohort and in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with ON eyes (NMO-ON) compared with an AQP4-Ab seronegative ON (AQP4-Ab−/ON) cohort using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods We recruited 109 patients with ON (161 eyes) and 47 healthy controls. All patients with ON were subdivided into three subcohorts: 37 patients (54 eyes) with AQP4-Ab+/ON, 45 patients (65 eyes) with AQP4-Ab−/ON and 27 patients (42 eyes) with NMO-ON. All subjects were evaluated for their peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and inner macular segmented ...

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    15. Temporal ocular coherence tomography-measured changes in anterior chamber angle and diurnal intraocular pressure after laser iridoplasty: IMPACT study

      Temporal ocular coherence tomography-measured changes in anterior chamber angle and diurnal intraocular pressure after laser iridoplasty: IMPACT study

      Aims To evaluate temporal change in anterior chamber angle anatomy following argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) in eyes with occludable angles postlaser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) compared with control eyes. Additionally, the effect on diurnal intraocular pressure (DIOP) fluctuation (maximum-minimum IOP) was investigated. Methods Twenty-two patients with bilateral primary angle closure/suspects with gonioscopically occludable anterior chamber angles following LPI were randomised to receive ALPI (n=11) or no further treatment (n=11). Angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular-iris angle, angle recess area and trabecular-iris space area were measured over eight sections with swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography and DIOP was ...

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    16. Comparison of diabetic retinopathy classification using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography

      Comparison of diabetic retinopathy classification using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To analyse and compare the classification of eyes with diabetic retinopathy using fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) performed either with AngioPlex or AngioVue. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 50 eyes from 26 diabetic subjects. Two independent graders classified the FA angiograms, to assess the presence and severity of several characteristics according to the ETDRS Report 11, and a similar evaluation was performed for each 3×3 mm OCTA image from the superficial retinal layer and for the full retina slab. Results Percentages of non-gradable images for the outline of foveal avascular zone ...

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    17. Comparison of OCT angiography and indocyanine green angiographic findings with subtypes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Comparison of OCT angiography and indocyanine green angiographic findings with subtypes of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Purpose To compare the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) that was divided into two types: polypoidal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and typical PCV (type 2 PCV). Methods We studied a retrospective case series of 32 patients with treatment-naïve PCV (24 men, eight women; mean age 65.4 years). PCV was categorised into polypoidal CNV (type 1 PCV) and type 2 PCV based on ICGA findings. OCTA was performed using the RTVue XR Avanti. Macular cubes (3×3 or 6×6 mm) were acquired. To evaluate the locations of ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization ill-defined with fluorescein angiography

      Optical coherence tomographic angiography of choroidal neovascularization ill-defined with fluorescein angiography

      Purpose To evaluate the morphological structure of ill-defined choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) with traditional fluorescein angiography (FA) compared with optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). Methods A retrospective case series study of 11 eyes with ill-defined CNV on FA was performed. Eyes were scanned with commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) (70 000 A-scans/s). The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was used to distinguish blood flow from static tissue. En face OCT angiograms were compared with FA. Results Eleven cases of ill-defined CNV on FA were identified from 10 study participants. Mean age of the participants was 74.5±6 ...

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    19. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma

      Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma

      Aims To evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare these with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes of 33 healthy control subjects, 63 eyes of 39 patients with POAG and 49 eyes of 32 patients with PACG underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) and RNFL imaging with spectral domain OCT. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density and RNFL parameters were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Aims To discuss foveal development in the context of detailed retinal vasculature imaging in foveal hypoplasia using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods In this case series, the optical coherence tomography angiography results of four patients with idiopathic foveal hypoplasia and two patients with foveal hypoplasia secondary to oculocutaneous albinism are presented. Results Cases with intact visual acuity demonstrated lower grades of foveal hypoplasia on optical coherence tomography, while those with poor vision demonstrated high grades of foveal hypoplasia. The superficial retinal capillary plexus was intact in the foveal area in all cases, with no demonstrable foveal avascular zone. The deep ...

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    21. Predicting outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in diabetic macular oedema: a review of the literature

      Predicting outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in diabetic macular oedema: a review of the literature

      Diabetic macular oedema affects visual acuity to a varying degree. The current treatment of choice is intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that has proven both its anatomical and visual efficacy in several large randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Although most patients respond well to anti-VEGF agents, some, however, show a moderate or even poor response. There is no clear consensus as to how to manage these patients, or define them. In addition, identifying early in the course of treatment which patients will respond and which patients will not is paramount to any personalised treatment regimen. Most large RCTs such as ...

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    22. Detection of mild papilloedema in posterior uveitis using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Detection of mild papilloedema in posterior uveitis using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Objective To compare two methods for diagnosing mild papilloedema (PO) using peripapillary total retinal (PTR) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurement by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients suffering from posterior uveitis. Methods 17 eyes in 17 patients with PO caused by posterior uveitis, 15 eyes in 15 patients with uveitis but with no PO based on slit lamp analysis were studied. High-quality OCT fundus images were analysed and graded by three masked observers using the Modified Frisén Scale. Eyes with PO were divided into two subgroups: mild (n=15) and moderate–severe PO (n ...

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    23. Retinal vessel calibre measurements by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Retinal vessel calibre measurements by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To compare the vessel calibre measurements between optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and colour fundus photography. Methods In this retrospective comparative study, OCTA and colour fundus images of healthy eyes and eyes with optic atrophy were evaluated. The colour fundus image was registered manually using Image J software to the OCTA image of the optic disc. Two independent graders measured the vessel calibre of the widest vein and artery in each peripapillary quadrant on a 3.4 mm diameter circle centred on the optic disc in the same location on both images. The difference in vessel calibre between the ...

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    24. Association between OCT-based microangiography perfusion indices and diabetic retinopathy severity

      Association between OCT-based microangiography perfusion indices and diabetic retinopathy severity

      Aim To evaluate the association between retinal capillary non-perfusion and diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography (OMAG). Methods 33 patients (51 eyes) with a history of diabetes underwent imaging with a 68 kHz Cirrus-5000 spectral domain OMAG prototype. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The perfusion index (PI) was defined as per cent coverage of area by retinal vessels with flow, measured within a minimum of 6.8×6.8 mm 2 OMAG scan. The PI in each ETDRS zone was analysed using an automated algorithm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the degree of ...

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