1. Articles from BJO Online

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    1. Choriocapillaris flow deficit in Bietti crystalline dystrophy detected using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Choriocapillaris flow deficit in Bietti crystalline dystrophy detected using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background/Aims This study aimed to evaluate blood flow in the choriocapillaris in patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) with CYP4V2 mutations using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and to explore the parameters associated with visual function. Methods This prospective case-series study included 13 eyes of 13 consecutive patients with BCD with CYP4V2 mutations and 20 healthy eyes. Using OCTA, we obtained en face images of blood flow in the choriocapillaris. The residual choriocapillaris area on en face images in a 10°×10° macular cube was manually measured and graded according to whether the choriocapillaris remained at the subfovea. We ...

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    2. Wide-field en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography using extended field imaging in diabetic retinopathy

      Wide-field en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography using extended field imaging in diabetic retinopathy

      Aims To examine the feasibility of wide-field en face swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) with extended field imaging (EFI) for evaluation of the retinal vasculature in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods This study included 37 eyes of 27 patients (age, 65±10 years; male patients, 18; female patients, 9) with DR. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including OCTA and fluorescein angiography (FA). The imaging methods were compared for visible field of view, presence and extent of non-perfused areas (NPAs), presence and number of new blood vessels (NVs), vessel density (VD) and patient comfort level measured by Visual Analogue Scale ...

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    3. Macular capillary plexuses after epiretinal membrane surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Macular capillary plexuses after epiretinal membrane surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Aims To investigate macular vascular integrity using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients undergoing vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal and to determine its association with structural and visual outcomes. Methods Forty-three patients with unilateral ERM who were followed for ≥6 months after surgery were included. Ophthalmological evaluations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) before surgery and 6 months after surgery. We obtained en face OCTA images of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) for both eyes 6 months after ERM removal. We compared eyes with ERM to unaffected fellow eyes ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomographic angiography identifies peripapillary microvascular dilation and focal non-perfusion in giant cell arteritis

      Optical coherence tomographic angiography identifies peripapillary microvascular dilation and focal non-perfusion in giant cell arteritis

      Aims We set out to determine the optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) characteristics of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) in the context of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods This is an observational case series of four patients with AAION secondary to GCA, three with unilateral AAION and one with bilateral AAION. We reviewed the charts, fundus photography, visual fields, fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT-A images for all patients to identify a unifying theme in a range of AAION clinical severity. Imaging of two healthy control eyes from two patients of similar age to the patients in our series were ...

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    5. Macular imaging by optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma

      Macular imaging by optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma

      The macular area is important to the detection of glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Macular thickness complementary to peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness can well reflect glaucomatous damage, given that the macula contains more than 50% of the RGCs in a multilayered pattern and larger RGC bodies compared with their axons. Thus, macular ganglion cell thickness parameters recently have been considered to be an effective glaucoma-diagnostic tool comparable to RNFL thickness parameters. Furthermore, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer thickness and deviation maps can provide additional information essential for distinguishing glaucomatous changes from other ...

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    6. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in serpiginous choroiditis

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in serpiginous choroiditis

      ackground/Aims To analyse choroidal vascular density of affected and non-affected areas in active and inactive serpiginouschoroiditis (SC) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods In this cross-sectional and observational study, 22 eyes of 11 patients diagnosed with SC were included. All patients underwent blue-light fundus autofluorescence (spectralis Heidelberg retinalangiography+OCT) and swept-source OCT-A (AngioPlex Elite 9000 SS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditech) to analyse qualitative features and choroidal vessel density of areas considered affected, and the inner and the outer border of the lesions. Unaffected areas of otherwise healthy retina have also been studied. Results All inactive inflammatory lesions ...

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    7. Macular capillary plexuses after macular hole surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Macular capillary plexuses after macular hole surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Aims To investigate the structural changes of the superficial capillary plexuses (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH) after surgery, determine the factors related to changes of macular capillary plexuses and evaluate its association with postoperative visual outcomes. Methods Thirty-three patients with unilateral MH who were followed for ≥6 months after surgery were included. Ophthalmologic evaluations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain OCT before surgery and 6 months postsurgery. En face OCTA images were obtained for both eyes at 6 months postsurgery, and the postoperative ...

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    8. Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography systems for corneal vascularisation

      Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography systems for corneal vascularisation

      Aim To newly describe a spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for the cornea and directly compare two OCTA system scans of the same eyes with corneal vascularisation. Methods Cross-sectional, observational, comparative case series. We performed sequential OCTA scans (10 eyes of 10 subjects with corneal vascularisation,4 scans each eye) repeated using split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm angiography system (SSADA, AngioVue; Optovue Inc, USA) and SD OCTA (Angioscan; Nidek Co. Ltd, Japan) in the same region of interest. We analysed all scan images for repeatability, image quality and vessel density measurements and compared OCTA systems. Results We obtained substantial ...

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    9. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing glaucoma: secondary analyses of the GATE study

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing glaucoma: secondary analyses of the GATE study

      Background/Aims To assess the diagnostic performance of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) data of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting glaucoma. Methods Secondary analyses of a prospective, multicentre diagnostic study (Glaucoma Automated Tests Evaluation (GATE)) referred to hospital eye services in the UK were conducted. We included data from 899 of 966 participants referred to hospital eye services with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We used both eyes’ data and logistic regression-based receiver operator characteristics analysis to build a set of models to measure the sensitivity and specificity of the average and inferior quadrant RNFL thickness data of OCT ...

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    10. Characteristics of early filtering blebs that predict successful trabeculectomy identified via three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Characteristics of early filtering blebs that predict successful trabeculectomy identified via three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Background/aims To identify the cross-sectional characteristics of filtering blebs at 2 weeks post-trabeculectomy associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) control at 1 year post-trabeculectomy. Methods Ninety-nine eyes of 94 patients who had undergone primary trabeculectomy were included in this retrospective consecutive case series study. Surgical success was defined as an IOP ≤15 mm Hg and a >20% reduction in IOP without glaucoma medication or additional glaucoma surgeries at 1 year post-trabeculectomy. Subjects were classified into two groups according to whether surgery was successful or unsuccessful. Blebs were examined using swept-source three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography and evaluated for quantitative ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of foveal hypoplasia

      Aims To discuss foveal development in the context of detailed retinal vasculature imaging in foveal hypoplasia using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods In this case series, the optical coherence tomography angiography results of four patients with idiopathic foveal hypoplasia and two patients with foveal hypoplasia secondary to oculocutaneous albinism are presented. Results Cases with intact visual acuity demonstrated lower grades of foveal hypoplasia on optical coherence tomography, while those with poor vision demonstrated high grades of foveal hypoplasia. The superficial retinal capillary plexus was intact in the foveal area in all cases, with no demonstrable foveal avascular zone. The deep ...

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    12. Identification of imaging features that determine quality and repeatability of retinal capillary plexus density measurements in OCT angiography

      Identification of imaging features that determine quality and repeatability of retinal capillary plexus density measurements in OCT angiography

      Purpose Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) potentially allows for rapid and non-invasive quantification of retinal capillary plexus density in various disease states. This study aims to identify the key features that influenced the repeatability of OCT-A measurements. Methods We obtained OCT-A images on two separate visits in 44 healthy eyes from 44 subjects, each imaged with using the Topcon DRI OCT Triton imaging system. The parafoveal vessel density within a 1.5 mm radius centred over the fovea was obtained with the built-in tool for the superficial and deep retinal plexuses. Repeatability of vessel density was determined by intraclass correlation ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography angiography enhances the detection of optic nerve damage in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography enhances the detection of optic nerve damage in multiple sclerosis

      Background Quantitative assessment of optic nerve damage is important in the evaluation of optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective To detect optic nerve damage using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography in MS. Methods Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (NFL) thickness, macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and Optic Nerve Head Flow Index (ONH-FI) were measured. The ONH-FI was defined as flow signal averaged over the optic disc. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AROC). Results Sixty-eight eyes of 45 MS participants and 55 eyes of 32 healthy controls (HCs) were ...

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    14. The volume of peripapillary vessels within the retinal nerve fibre layer: an optical coherence tomography angiography study of normal subjects

      The volume of peripapillary vessels within the retinal nerve fibre layer: an optical coherence tomography angiography study of normal subjects

      Background/aims To investigate the contribution of vascular volume calculated by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to the measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods We used OCTA scans to build volumetric maps of the RNFL angiograms by thresholding the decorrelation images and summing the number of white pixels along the z-axis at each location. We used these maps to calculate the contribution of the vascular tissue to the RNFL thickness. Results We analysed 51 eyes from 36 subjects. The mean RNFL volume calculated on the peripapillary region was 0.607±0.045 mm 3 and the ...

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    15. Non-invasive method of monitoring retinal vasculitis in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy using optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive method of monitoring retinal vasculitis in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy using optical coherence tomography

      Background/aims To investigate the utility of using montaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) thickness maps to monitor perivascular thickness as a marker of vasculitic activity in patients with large-vessel retinal vasculitis. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 22 eyes of 11 patients with a history of retinal vasculitis associated with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR). Patients had serial spectral domain 6×6 mm cube OCT scans centred on the fovea, optic nerve and proximal branches of the superior and inferior retinal vessels. OCT thickness change maps for each respective region were analysed. Changes in perivascular thickness were confirmed by assessing ...

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    16. Comparing optical coherence tomography radial and cube scan patterns for measuring Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) in glaucoma and healthy eyes: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

      Comparing optical coherence tomography radial and cube scan patterns for measuring Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) in glaucoma and healthy eyes: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

      Aim To compare the cube and radial scan patterns of the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for quantifying the Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW). Methods Sixty healthy eyes and 189 glaucomatous eyes were included. The optic nerve head cube and radial pattern scans were acquired using Spectralis SD-OCT. BMO-MRWs were automatically delineated using the San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm. The BMO-MRW diagnostic accuracy for glaucoma detection and rates of change derived from the two scan patterns were compared. Results There was a significant difference between the baseline global BMO-MRW measurements of cube and radial scans ...

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    17. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angle and vault analysis after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens V4c implantation in patients with high myopia

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angle and vault analysis after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens V4c implantation in patients with high myopia

      Objective To assess anterior segment changes, including iridocorneal angle and vault, after toric and non-toric implantable collamer lens (ICL) V4c (STAAR Surgical AG) implantation under different lighting conditions. Methods Longitudinal, prospective, case series. Patients with high myopia (>6 dioptres) underwent toric and non-toric ICL V4c implantation. Optical coherence tomography measurements were taken under different lighting conditions preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Results Seventy-six eyes of 42 patients underwent ICL V4c implantation. Mean age was 27.4 years (±5.14 years, range 20 to 39 years). The average iridocorneal angle showed a statistically ...

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    18. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-compatible surgical instruments for real-time image-guided ophthalmic surgery

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography-compatible surgical instruments for real-time image-guided ophthalmic surgery

      Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a potentially transformational technology that is now commercially available to ophthalmic surgeons. Currently, the use of the technology is primarily limited to a ‘stop and image’ approach due to the lack of OCT compatibility with surgical instrumentation. In this report, we describe multiple OCT-compatible surgical instruments that were developed for various surgical needs, based on previous evaluation of potential surgical materials for optical features and physical properties. OCT-compatible instrumentation included two membrane scrapers, a surgical pick and vitreoretinal forceps. Imaging during in vitro and ex vivo-simulated surgical procedures demonstrated excellent visualisation of the instrument ...

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    19. Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Comparing optical coherence tomography findings in different aetiologies of infectious necrotising retinitis

      Abstract Aims To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of active necrotising infectious retinitis (NIR) due to toxoplasmosis or herpesviruses and to determine distinctive OCT signs for these two causes of infectious retinitis. Methods OCT scans from eyes with active NIR due to varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis (TOXO) were reviewed. All images were evaluated for the presence of previously described OCT findings in TOXO-NIR and compared with the viral group. New OCT findings were recorded and compared. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured at the site of NIR and compared. Results 10 ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography angiography characterisation of Best disease and associated choroidal neovascularisation

      Optical coherence tomography angiography characterisation of Best disease and associated choroidal neovascularisation

      Aims To characterise the vasculature of the retina in patients with Best vitelliform dystrophy, including those with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and correlate with fluorescein angiography (FA). Methods This prospective observational study included 19 eyes of 10 patients with Best disease. Using OCTA, all layers of retina were qualitatively characterised for each eye. Patients with CNV also underwent FA, and areas of CNV were measured by OCTA and FA and correlated. Results Retinal characteristics revealed 14 (74%) eyes with abnormal foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in the superficial layer, 19 eyes (100%) had an abnormal FAZ ...

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    21. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Background/Aims To identify the retinal vascular pathologies in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD) through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. Methods Our study included 26 patients in the patient group, and age-matched and sex-matched 26 subjects in the control group. A detailed ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed for all subjects included in the study. The retinal, choroidal vascular structures and choroidal thickness (CT) of all subjects were analysed in a detailed way with a commercial spectral domain OCTA. Moreover, all participants underwent detailed neurological examination including Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test to evaluate cognitive function ...

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    22. Features of optical coherence tomography predictive of choroidal neovascularisation treatment response in pathological myopia in association with fluorescein angiography

      Features of optical coherence tomography predictive of choroidal neovascularisation treatment response in pathological myopia in association with fluorescein angiography

      ackground/Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of several optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to estimate choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) activity in pathological myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA) as a reference. Methods This was a single-centre, retrospective study. The medical records of patients with active myopic CNV who received intravitreal bevacizumab treatment were reviewed. Parameters to monitor CNV activity were morphological features of CNV on OCT, such as CNV height, central foveal thickness, intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, fuzziness of the CNV border, CNV network area on FA, and haemorrhage or exudation on fundus photo. Results There ...

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    23. Interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion parameter measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion parameter measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aim The aim of the study was to investigate the interchangeability and reliability of macular perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods A prospective cross-sectional observational study. Healthy adult Chinese subjects were recruited. Macular perfusion parameters were automatically analysed by software included in a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system. The vessel density (VD) of the whole, parafovea, superior-hemi, inferior-hemi, fovea, temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants as well as the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and choroidal capillary VD (CCVD) were quantified. Results A total of 51 eyes in 27 subjects were included (8 men and 19 women, mean age ...

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    24. Vitreomacular Hyaloid Attachment: A Normal Optical Coherence Tomography Finding

      Vitreomacular Hyaloid Attachment: A Normal Optical Coherence Tomography Finding

      Dear Editor, We would like to comment on the excellent article by Sahni, Stanga, Wong, and Harding [1]. In their paper, a number of descriptive terms for optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis are defined in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization undergoing treatment with photodynamic therapy. One term, “vitreomacular hyaloid attachment (VMHA),” was used to refer to incomplete separation of the posterior hyaloid with attachment at the macula. Twenty of 56 patients (35.7%) included in the study had VMHA on OCT. We would like to point out that this vitreomacular configuration is identical to that described ...

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