1. Articles from BJO Online

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    1. Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: correlation with morphological and functional tests

      Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: correlation with morphological and functional tests

      Purpose To evaluate swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for more than 5 years and to compare results with the tests currently recommended for screening of HCQ retinopathy. Methods In this controlled pilot study, consecutive patients treated with HCQ for more than 5 years underwent SS-OCTA, SS-OCT B-scan and en-face C-scan, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), 10–2 automated visual field (AVF) testing and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). On SS-OCTA, evaluation of the retinal superficial capillary plexus, middle capillary plexus, and deep capillary plexus (DCP) and the choriocapillaris (CC) was obtained. Results We included 10 patients ...

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    2. Early hydroxychloroquine retinopathy: optical coherence tomography abnormalities preceding Humphrey visual field defects

      Early hydroxychloroquine retinopathy: optical coherence tomography abnormalities preceding Humphrey visual field defects

      Background/Aims Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy may result in severe and irreversible vision loss, emphasising the importance of screening and early detection. The purpose of this study is to report the novel finding of early optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities due to HCQ toxicity that may develop in the setting of normal Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing. Methods Data from patients with chronic HCQ exposure was obtained from seven tertiary care retina centres. Ten patients with HCQ-associated OCT abnormalities and normal HVF testing were identified. Detailed analysis of the OCT findings and ancillary tests including colour fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, multifocal ...

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    3. Diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background Compared with current imaging methods, the diagnostic performance and the advantages and limitations of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) remain unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating vessel density (VD) in patients with glaucoma using OCTA. Methods We conducted a literature search on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ISI Conference Proceedings and Google Scholar, along with a manual search, from January 2006 to March 2018. We included prospective studies that used OCTA to compare the VD in glaucomatous eyes with healthy control eyes. Results Of 3045 screened articles, 24 were included in a broad characterisation ...

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    4. Microperimetry in age-related macular degeneration: association with macular morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Microperimetry in age-related macular degeneration: association with macular morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Background/aims Microperimetry is a technique that is increasingly used to assess visual function in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between retinal sensitivity measured with macular integrity assessment (MAIA) microperimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based macular morphology in AMD. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study. All participants were imaged with colour fundus photographs used for AMD staging (Age-Related Eye Disease Study scale), spectral-domain OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) and swept-source OCT (Topcon, Japan). Threshold retinal sensitivity of the central 10° diameter circle was assessed with the full-threshold, 37-point protocol of the MAIA microperimetry device ...

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    5. Inner macular layer thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children and adults: a hospital-based study

      Inner macular layer thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children and adults: a hospital-based study

      Purpose To establish the normative ranges of macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL) and macular inner plexiform layer (mIPL) thickness using Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) in both Korean children and adults, and to determine factors associated with mGCL and mIPL thickness. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of 573 healthy subjects (5–70 years old) who underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations in a single institution. Each inner retinal layer thickness was measured using SD-OCT and automatic segmentation software. Cross-sectional analysis was used to evaluate the effect of gender, age and ocular parameters on ...

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    6. Imaging in myopia: potential biomarkers, current challenges and future developments

      Imaging in myopia: potential biomarkers, current challenges and future developments

      Myopia is rapidly increasing in Asia and around the world, while it is recognised that complications from high myopia may cause significant visual impairment. Thus, imaging the myopic eye is important for the diagnosis of sight-threatening complications, monitoring of disease progression and evaluation of treatments. For example, recent advances in high-resolution imaging using optical coherence tomography may delineate early myopic macula pathology, optical coherence tomography angiography may aid early choroidal neovascularisation detection, while multimodal imaging is important for monitoring treatment response. However, imaging the eye with high myopia accurately has its challenges and limitations, which are important for clinicians to ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in cystoid macular degeneration associated with central serous chorioretinopathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in cystoid macular degeneration associated with central serous chorioretinopathy

      Aim To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics and to identify and analyse the incidence of choroidal neovascular (CNV) network seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with cystoid macular degeneration (CMD) associated with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of 29 eyes of 25 patients who were previously diagnosed as CSCR with CMD. Baseline patient characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), evidence of CNV network and its pattern on OCTA, distribution of CMD changes and OCT parameters, such as height of the neurosensory retinal detachment (NSD), presence of double layer sign, central ...

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    8. Choroidal thickness and vascular density in macular telangiectasia type 2 using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Choroidal thickness and vascular density in macular telangiectasia type 2 using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To investigate the choroidal thickness (CT) and choroidal vascular densities (CVD) of patients with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) and their association with other multimodal imaging features, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients with MacTel2 along with controls without any macular disease were included. Fundus photography, confocal blue reflectance, near-infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain OCT and SS-OCT were performed. Images were independently analysed by two graders, and CVD was calculated from binarised en face SS-OCT images. CT was obtained from the SS-OCT platform via built-in automated segmentation. Multilevel mixed-effects models were ...

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    9. Evaluation of vascular changes in intermediate uveitis and retinal vasculitis using swept-source wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of vascular changes in intermediate uveitis and retinal vasculitis using swept-source wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To evaluate vascular changes in patients with intermediate uveitis with or without retinal vasculitis using swept-source wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods This is a prospective cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients with intermediate uveitis were evaluated using wide-field OCTA. Wide-field OCTA and en-face OCT images were analysed for the presence of capillary non-perfusion and reduced perfusion, disruption of ellipsoid zone, and abnormalities on en-face wide-field retinal thickness maps, respectively, and compared with fluorescein angiography (FA) findings in a subcohort. Results 164 eyes of 88 patients with intermediate uveitis were included. Areas of capillary non-perfusion and reduced perfusion were more ...

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    10. Collateral vessels on optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion

      Collateral vessels on optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion

      Aims To detect collateral vessels using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and to investigate the associations with visual outcomes and macular oedema. Methods Eyes with macular oedema secondary to BRVO that underwent OCTA at baseline and were followed up for more than 6 months were enrolled. The presence of collaterals, whether the collaterals were leaky or not, and the associations with visual outcomes and macular oedema were investigated. Results Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients (8 men and 20 women; mean age, 68 years) were enrolled. Collaterals were detected in 23 eyes (82 ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography angiography in exudative age-related macular degeneration: a predictive model for treatment decisions

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in exudative age-related macular degeneration: a predictive model for treatment decisions

      Aims To evaluate on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), the predictive role of different qualitative findings of choroidal neovascularisations (CNV) in assessing the status of exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD) and to develop a potential model to predict the CNV activity. Methods Retrospective review of the multimodal imaging records of patients with eAMD obtained during treatment for type 1 or type 2 CNV. The qualitative analysis of CNVs on OCT angiograms assessed the presence or absence of tiny branching vessels, loops, peripheral anastomotic arcades and choriocapillaris hypointense halo. These findings were then correlated with those of structural OCT scans. A ...

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    12. Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology

      Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology

      Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) has sparked tremendous global interest in recent years. DL has been widely adopted in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing, but is only beginning to impact on healthcare. In ophthalmology, DL has been applied to fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography and visual fields, achieving robust classification performance in the detection of diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, the glaucoma-like disc, macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration. DL in ocular imaging may be used in conjunction with telemedicine as a possible solution to screen, diagnose and monitor major eye diseases for ...

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    13. Unmeasurable small size superficial and deep foveal avascular zone in nanophthalmos: the Collaborative Nanophthalmos OCTA Study

      Unmeasurable small size superficial and deep foveal avascular zone in nanophthalmos: the Collaborative Nanophthalmos OCTA Study

      Aim To study the macular structure and vasculature in consecutive nanophthalmic eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods This is a prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study of patients with nanophthalmos (one or both eyes). The superficial and deep foveal avascular zones (FAZ) were measured both manually and with the machine’s built-in automated measurement tool. Correlations between best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) and subfoveolar choroidal thickness (SFCT) were calculated. Results Sixty-five eyes of 35 subjects (16 men and 19 women) with a mean age of 37.4 years were analysed. The mean±SD of refractive error was ...

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    14. Lens nuclear opacity quantitation with long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography: correlation to LOCS III and a Scheimpflug imaging-based grading system

      Lens nuclear opacity quantitation with long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography: correlation to LOCS III and a Scheimpflug imaging-based grading system

      Purpose To quantitate lens nuclear opacity using long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images and to evaluate the correlation of this method to Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) and a Scheimpflug imaging-based grading system (Pentacam Nuclear Stage function; PNS). Methods This study enrolled 120 participants (120 eyes) with age-related nuclear cataracts. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), LOCS III nuclear opalescence (NO) and nuclear colour (NC) were obtained. The nuclear density measured using PNS function (ND PNS ) was recorded. Three successive series of long-range SS-OCT images were captured, and the nuclear region was analysed using ImageJ (NIH, Bethesda, Maryland ...

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    15. Comparative analysis of autofluorescence and OCT angiography in Stargardt disease

      Comparative analysis of autofluorescence and OCT angiography in Stargardt disease

      Aims To characterise the vasculature of the retina in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare these functional findings with fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. Methods This observational study included consecutive patients with STGD. The choriocapillaris (CC) layer was analysed on OCTA and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes were assessed on FAF. Areas of CC and RPE impairment were quantified and correlated. Results Twenty-two patients suffering from different stages of STGD were enrolled. OCTA revealed a vascular rarefaction with vascular prominence in 15 (35%) eyes while the remaining cases had pure vascular rarefaction. On ...

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    16. Choriocapillaris impairment around the atrophic lesions in patients with geographic atrophy: a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Choriocapillaris impairment around the atrophic lesions in patients with geographic atrophy: a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Aims To evaluate the choriocapillaris (CC) flow alterations around geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration. Methods Using a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) device, two volume 6×6 mm scans were acquired in patients with GA presenting between June and December 2017 at the Doheny-UCLA Eye Centers. The area of GA was delineated on the en face structural OCT fundus images. For each eye, the en face OCTA slabs at the level of the CC from the two acquisitions were averaged and compensated for signal loss using the corresponding structural en face images. The resulting ...

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    17. Repeatability and comparability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of high-density and non-high-density optical coherence tomography angiography scans in normal and glaucoma eyes

      Repeatability and comparability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of high-density and non-high-density optical coherence tomography angiography scans in normal and glaucoma eyes

      Aims To compare the peripapillary vessel density (VD) measurements of high-density (HD) and non-HD optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) scans in normal and glaucoma eyes, and to evaluate the intrasession repeatability of VD measurements of HD scans. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 46 normal (33 subjects) and 89 glaucoma (64 patients) eyes underwent 3 HD and 1 non-HD optic nerve head OCTA scans in the same session. Agreement in VD measurements between HD and non-HD scans was assessed using Bland and Altman analysis. Repeatability of the VD measurements of HD scans was assessed using within-subject coefficient of repeatability (CRw) and ...

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    18. Early retinal and choroidal OCT and OCT angiography signs of inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery

      Early retinal and choroidal OCT and OCT angiography signs of inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery

      Purpose To evaluate, by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA), early retinal, choroidal and macular perfusion changes induced by a local inflammatory reaction secondary to uncomplicated cataract surgery. Methods Selected eyes undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled in a prospective study. OCT and OCTA were performed before cataract surgery (T0) and at day: 1 (T1), 7 (T7), 30 (T30) and 90 (T90). Inner (IR) and outer retinal (OR) volumes, choroidal volume, hyper-reflective retinal spots (HRS) in IR and OR changes were measured at OCT. Macular perfusion was analysed in superficial (SCP), intermediate (ICP) and deep retinal capillary ...

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    19. Effect of optic disc–fovea distance on the normative classifications of macular inner retinal layers as assessed with OCT in healthy subjects

      Effect of optic disc–fovea distance on the normative classifications of macular inner retinal layers as assessed with OCT in healthy subjects

      Purpose To determine the influence of the optic disc–fovea distance (DFD) on the normative classifications based on thickness measurements of macular inner retinal layers with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in healthy subjects. Methods A total of 182 eyes from 182 healthy subjects were included (mean (SD) spherical equivalent −0.8 (1.9) dioptres). We performed macula and optic disc imaging with the Topcon 3D OCT 2000. The thickness of the macular inner retinal layers (macular retinal nerve fibre layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and both combined (ganglion cell complex; GCC)) and the corresponding classifications based on ...

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    20. Conservative treatment of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma: optical coherence tomography-assisted diagnosis and follow-up in three consecutive cases

      Conservative treatment of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma: optical coherence tomography-assisted diagnosis and follow-up in three consecutive cases

      Background/aims To report conservative therapy in diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma (DIR) and describe specific optic coherence tomography (OCT) features of the tumour. Methods Retrospective review of all DIR cases treated conservatively between 1998 and 2012. Results Three patients (three eyes) were included, cases 1 and 3 with previous enucleation of the contralateral eye and case 2 with unilateral retinoblastoma referred after prior pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil. Mean age at diagnosis was 7 years (range 14 months–14 years). Globe and vision preservation (Snellen visual acuity of 12.5/10) was achieved in case 3 with a recurrence-free follow-up ...

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    21. Peripapillary and parafoveal vascular network assessment by optical coherence tomography angiography in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Peripapillary and parafoveal vascular network assessment by optical coherence tomography angiography in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Background/aims Current understanding of the alterations in the retinal vascular network in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) is limited. We aim to assess the peripapillary and parafoveal vessel density in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD patients by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Methods A total of 55 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD patients with or without a history of optic neuritis (ON) and 33 healthy controls underwent spectral domain OCT and OCT angiography. Clinical histories, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, visual functional system score (VFSS) and disease duration were collected. Results Peripapillary and parafoveal vessel density was significantly decreased in NMOSD eyes with ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    22. Vision and visual potential for perifoveal retinoblastoma after optical coherence tomographic-guided sequential laser photocoagulation

      Vision and visual potential for perifoveal retinoblastoma after optical coherence tomographic-guided sequential laser photocoagulation

      Background/aims To assess tumour control, vision and anatomical visual potential in eyes with perifoveal retinoblastoma treated by sequential photocoagulation from the antifoveal tumour edge inwards, avoiding treatment near the fovea. Patients were monitored for tumour control, foveal and perifoveal anatomy at each treatment session by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and treated for amblyopia when the other eye had better vision. Methods Eyes with perifoveal retinoblastoma treated between 1 January 2011 and 31 May 2017 with laser therapy after chemotherapy for juxtafoveal (fovea clear of tumour but <3000 µm from tumour edge) or foveolar retinoblastoma (tumour underlying fovea) were retrospectively ...

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    23. Repeatability of vessel density measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases

      Repeatability of vessel density measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases

      Aim To analyse the repeatability of vessel density (VD) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with retinal diseases. Methods Two consecutive VD measurements using OCTA were analysed prospectively in patients with retinal diseases (diabetic macular oedema (DME), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with macular oedema, epiretinal membrane (ERM), wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD)). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and test-retest SD of VD measurements were assessed, and linear regression analyses were conducted to identify factors related to repeatability. Results A total of 134 eyes were analysed involving 20 eyes with DME, 44 eyes with ...

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    24. Quantitative retinal microvasculature in children using swept-source optical coherence tomography: the Hong Kong Children Eye Study

      Quantitative retinal microvasculature in children using swept-source optical coherence tomography: the Hong Kong Children Eye Study

      Aims To evaluate the distributions of quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) metrics and its associated factors in children. Methods 1059 children aged 6–8 years were recruited from the Hong Kong Children Eye Study. All the participants underwent OCT-A with a swept-source OCT. Retinal microvasculature on superficial capillary plexus was assessed and quantified by a customised automated image analysis programme. Univariable and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine systemic (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, head circumference and blood pressure), demographic and ocular (axial length (AL), macular thickness and volume, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and ...

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