1. Articles from EurekAlert!

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    1. Watching an embryo's neural tube close

      Watching an embryo's neural tube close

      In those precious weeks before a woman even realizes she's pregnant, an embryo will have already developed a neural tube, a hollow structure made of cells which will eventually become the brain and spinal cord. Now, with $3.2 million from the National Institutes of Health, UH professor of biomedical engineering Kirill Larin will tackle the evolutionary anomaly of why the neural tube closes in most embryos but remains open in others, leading to birth defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly. Neural Tube Defects (NTD) are the second most common structural birth defect in humans, affecting upwards of ...

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    2. Artificial intelligence quickly and accurately diagnoses eye diseases and pneumonia

      Artificial intelligence quickly and accurately diagnoses eye diseases and pneumonia

      Using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, researchers at Shiley Eye Institute at UC San Diego Health and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in China, Germany and Texas, have developed a new computational tool to screen patients with common but blinding retinal diseases, potentially speeding diagnoses and treatment. The findings are published in the February 22 issue of Cell . "Artificial intelligence (AI) has huge potential to revolutionize disease diagnosis and management by doing analyses and classifications involving immense amounts of data that are difficult for human experts -- and doing them rapidly," said senior author Kang ...

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    3. New instrument lets doctors view the entire eye with unprecedented level of detail

      New instrument lets doctors view the entire eye with unprecedented level of detail

      Researchers have developed the first instrument that can provide a detailed image of the entire eye. By incorporating a lens that changes optical parameters in response to an electric current, the innovative technology can produce higher quality images than currently available and could make eye examinations faster and more comfortable for patients by avoiding the need to undergo imaging with multiple instruments to look at different areas of the eye. "Diseases such as glaucoma affect both the front and back portions of the eye," said Ireneusz Grulkowski, whose research team at Nicolaus Copernicus University , Poland, worked with Pablo Artal's ...

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    4. First Korean biomedical researcher to win IEEE-EMBS Early Career Achievement Award

      First Korean biomedical researcher to win IEEE-EMBS Early Career Achievement Award

      Chulhong Kim, Associate Professor of Creative IT Engineering at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), has been selected to receive the 2017 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) Academic Early Career Achievement Award for his contributions to 'multi-scale photoacoustic imaging from super-resolution atomic force photoactivated microscopy for research to systems for clinical applications.' This highly prestigious award is given annually to an individual "for significant contributions to the field of biomedical engineering as evidenced by innovative research design, product development, patents, and/or publications made by an individual who is within 10 years of completing their highest ...

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    5. Easier diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      Easier diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      The Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging at Helmholtz Zentrum München is heading the "Hybrid optical and optoacoustic endoscope for esophageal tracking" (ESOTRAC) research project, in which engineers and physicians together develop a novel hybrid endoscopic instrument for early diagnosis and staging of esophageal cancer. The device may reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and, importantly, facilitate early-disease detection leading to earlier start of therapy, which improves therapeutic efficacy over late-disease treatment and leads to immense cost-savings for the health care system. ESOTRAC has been awarded four million Euros from Horizon 2020, the EU framework program for research and ...

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    6. Researchers achieve meter-scale optical coherence tomography for first time

      Researchers achieve meter-scale optical coherence tomography for first time

      An industry-academic collaboration has achieved the first optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of cubic meter volumes. With OCT's ability to provide difficult-to-obtain information on material composition, subsurface structure, coatings, surface roughness and other properties, this advance could open up many new uses for OCT in industry, manufacturing and medicine. The achievement also represents important progress toward developing a high-speed, low-cost OCT system on a single integrated circuit chip. "Our study demonstrates world-record results in cubic meter volume imaging, with at least an order of magnitude larger depth range and volume compared to previous demonstrations of three-dimensional OCT," said James ...

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    7. Using light to map the circuitry of the brain

      Using light to map the circuitry of the brain

      Lehigh University bio-engineers are first to explore the use of highly-sensitive, non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) to examine neuron-to-neuron communication in live tissue. Scientific progress has provided a solid understanding of the anatomy of the brain. However, there is still no reliable way to examine neuron to neuron communication, as it happens--a key to understanding the correlation between brain structure and brain function. Chao Zhou , assistant professor of bioengineering at Lehigh University, likens our current brain-mapping ability to a Global Positioning System (GPS) that can help a user locate a city, but cannot offer a street-level view. With current imaging ...

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    8. Intravascular imaging identifies some heart attack patients who can forgo stenting

      Intravascular imaging identifies some heart attack patients who can forgo stenting

      Rome, Italy 30 August 2016: More than one quarter of heart attack patients who are normally treated with stents to re-open their blocked arteries might be able to forgo this procedure and receive anti-thrombotic medications only, according to results of a pilot study. Results of the EROSION (Effective Anti-thrombotic Therapy without Stenting: Intravascular OCT-based Management in Plaque Erosion) study, presented in a Hot Line session at ESC Congress 2016, and published simultaneously in the European Heart Journal , suggest "a potentially major change in the treatment of a significant number of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS)," said lead investigator Ik-Kyung ...

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    9. Handheld device takes high-resolution images of children's retinas

      Handheld device takes high-resolution images of children's retinas

      Engineers and physicians at Duke University have developed a handheld device capable of capturing images of a retina with cellular resolution. The new probe will allow researchers to gather detailed structural information about the eyes of infants and toddlers for the first time. "Diagnostic tools that examine and image the retina have been well-designed for adults, but are exceedingly difficult to use in infants and young children who can't hold the required position or focus for long enough periods of time," said Cynthia Toth, professor of ophthalmology and biomedical engineering at Duke University. "Before now, it hasn't been ...

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    10. Co-invented by OHSU's Dr. David Huang 25 years ago, OCT technology helps stop blindness

      Co-invented by OHSU's Dr. David Huang 25 years ago, OCT technology helps stop blindness

      The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology today published a special anniversary edition in their journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science with more than 70 articles to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the invention of Optical Coherence Tomography technology, co-invented by Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute's David Huang, M.D., Ph.D. while Huang was a Ph.D. student with James Fujimoto, Ph.D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OCT is the most commonly used ophthalmic diagnostic technology worldwide, with an estimated 30 million OCT imaging procedures performed every year. "I am pleased to see how well ...

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    11. New discovery on how the inner ear works

      New discovery on how the inner ear works

      Researchers have found that the parts of the inner ear that process sounds such as speech and music seem to work differently than other parts of the inner ear. Researchers from Linköping University are part of the team behind the discovery. "This helps us understand the mechanisms that enable us to perceive speech and music. We hope that more knowledge about the capabilities of the ear will lead to better treatments for the hearing impaired," says Anders Fridberger, professor of neuroscience at Linköping University. To perceive speech and music, you must be able to hear low-frequency sound. And ...

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    12. UA engineers zero in on early detection of ovarian cancer

      UA engineers zero in on early detection of ovarian cancer

      University of Arizona researcher Jennifer Barton is leading a two-year, $1 million project funded by the National Cancer Institute to identify imaging biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the most deadly gynecological cancer in the United States. This work may enable the first effective screening system for ovarian cancer. "Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening techniques, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat," said Barton, professor of biomedical engineering, electrical and computer engineering, optical sciences, and agricultural and biosystems engineering, and interim director of the UA BIO5 Institute.

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    13. UH optometrist investigates changes in eye structure in astronauts

      UH optometrist investigates changes in eye structure in astronauts

      Astronauts who spend time aboard the International Space Station return to Earth with changes to the structure of their eyes which could impact their vision. NASA has studied the phenomenon, known as space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS), for several years, and now a University of Houston optometrist has quantified some of the changes using optical coherence tomography imaging, reporting his findings in JAMA Ophthalmology . "We studied pre-flight and post-flight data from 15 astronauts who had spent time aboard the space station and detected changes in morphology of the eyes," said Nimesh Patel, assistant professor. All of them had good vision ...

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    14. Biomechanical mapping method aids development of therapies for damaged heart tissue

      Biomechanical mapping method aids development of therapies for damaged heart tissue

      Researchers have developed a new way to capture the detailed biomechanical properties of heart tissue. The high-resolution optical technique fills an important technology gap necessary to develop and test therapies that might eventually be used to heal heart damage after a heart attack. "Today about one million people suffer heart attacks every year, and there is currently no cure for the resulting cardiac tissue scarring," said Kirill V. Larin of University of Houston , Texas who co-led the research with James F. Martin from the Baylor College of Medicine and the Texas Heart Institute . "We are working to develop ways to ...

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    15. Eye changes may signal frontotemporal lobe degeneration

      Eye changes may signal frontotemporal lobe degeneration

      Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that is present in tens of thousands of Americans, but is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Now in a study published this week online ahead of print in Neurology , researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found evidence that a simple eye exam and retinal imaging test may help improve that accuracy. Using an inexpensive, non-invasive, eye-imaging technique, the Penn Medicine scientists found that patients with FTD showed thinning of the outer retina--the layers with the photoreceptors through which we see--compared to control subjects. The retina ...

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    16. Sophisticated medical imaging technique proves useful for automotive industry

      Sophisticated medical imaging technique proves useful for automotive industry

      Many of today's cars are coated with paint that exhibits a metallic or glittery shine. The exact sparkle and color you see is determined by the distribution and characteristics of tiny metal flakes used in the paint. A new approach based on the medical imaging technique optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides the car industry with a practical way to automatically analyze these metal flakes, which until now have been difficult to image, in order to improve the efficiency of the automotive finishing process. "We have demonstrated, for the first time, through OCT and our image analysis approach, we are ...

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    17. Collaboration aims to reduce, treat vision problems in astronauts

      Collaboration aims to reduce, treat vision problems in astronauts

      To reduce and better treat spaceflight-induced visual impairment, University of Houston (UH) optometrists are collaborating on a NASA study that examines ocular changes seen in a number of astronauts. The research, developed by Heidelberg Engineering, uses Spectralis® Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which is a technique for obtaining subsurface images of translucent or opaque materials at a resolution equivalent to a low-power microscope. OCT effectively images reflections from within tissue to provide cross-sectional views. This technology is being used to investigate changes in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the optic nerve and retinal structures in astronauts exposed to long-duration microgravity aboard the ...

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    18. University of Leicester takes delivery of unique eye imaging equipment

      University of Leicester takes delivery of unique eye imaging equipment

      New technology will help scientists study eye disorders in infants, thanks to charitable donations Generous donations from eye charities have allowed the University of Leicester to buy a unique piece of retinal imaging equipment - the only one of its kind in the UK. The handheld retinal scanner will allow new research into eye disorders such as nystagmus, a condition that causes involuntary twitching movements of the eyes. The device is particularly useful for studying the eyes of young children, who often miss out on diagnoses because standard equipment is unsuitable for use with infants. Nystagmus in children is currently poorly ...

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    19. Bio-optics breakthroughs: Highlights of medical and bioscience research at Frontiers in Optics 2009

      Bio-optics breakthroughs: Highlights of medical and bioscience research at Frontiers in Optics 2009
      ( Optical Society of America ) From scopes that help premature babies breathe to techniques for imaging live neurons and beating hearts as they develop, the latest optical and laser technology being deployed in medicine and the biosciences will be on display at the Optical Society's Annual Meeting, Frontiers in Optics, which takes place Oct. 11-15 at the Fairmont San Jose Hotel and the Sainte ...
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    20. Will individuals with Alzheimer's disease benefit from cataract surgery?

      CLEVELAND—A multi-institutional team of researchers, led by the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University, will begin a five-year, $2.9 million National Institutes of Health-funded study. They will examine the lives of patients with both cataracts and Alzheimer's disease (AD) to document how restored vision improves everyday life for people with dementia. "This project addresses a major social justice issue in the disparity in vision care of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease," said Grover "Cleve" Gilmore, dean of the Case Western Reserve Mandel School and principal investigator of the study. Gilmore will ...
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    21. IADR and GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare announce winners of 2009 Innovation in Oral Care Awards

      Alexandria, Va. – The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare today announced the 2009 winners of the annual IADR/GSK Innovation in Oral Care Awards. The three prestigious awards recognize research in innovative oral care technologies that may maintain and improve oral health and the quality of life. ...Sandra Bordin, Ph.D., The University of Washington School of Dentistry, Seattle, USA, for "Optical Coherence Tomography for Non-invasive Diagnosis of Periodontal Disorders." This proposal plans to develop miniature, high-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging needle devices to explore the validity of this bioengineering technology, which would have ...
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    22. Vulnerable plaque may be easier to detect through new imaging technology

      Research results indicate that optical coherence tomography, a newly evolving imaging method, may be the best tool available to detect vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. The findings will be presented at the 20th annual Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics scientific symposium, sponsored by the Cardiovascular Research Foundation.
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    1-23 of 23
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