1. 1-24 of 69 1 2 3 »
    1. Adaptive Optics and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Photoreceptor Structure After Short Pascal Macular Grid and Panretinal Laser Photocoagulation [Research Letters]

      Adaptive Optics and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Photoreceptor Structure After Short Pascal Macular Grid and Panretinal Laser Photocoagulation [Research Letters]

      To understand the effect of therapeutic doses of laser application on the neurosensory retina, detailed histologic1-3 and optical coherence tomographic (OCT)4-10 evaluations have been used in both animal models and the human eye. We sought to evaluate photoreceptor structure associated with laser photocoagulation lesions using 2 high-resolution retinal imaging tools: adaptive optics (AO) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). Methods Two patients received short-duration (20-millisecond) Pascal laser therapy (532 nm; OptiMedica Corp) for clinical indications. Subject 1 was a 57-year-old woman with macular edema from hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. Treatment consisted of 3 x 3 grid laser applications with a 100-μm ...

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    2. Effect of Race, Age, and Axial Length on Optic Nerve Head Parameters and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Cirrus HD-OCT [Clinical Sciences]

      Effect of Race, Age, and Axial Length on Optic Nerve Head Parameters and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Cirrus HD-OCT [Clinical Sciences]

      Objective To determine the effect of race, demographic, and ocular variables on optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, 284 normal subjects aged 18 to 84 years were evaluated at 7 sites using Cirrus HD-OCT. Disc area, rim area, average cup-disc ratio, vertical cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and average, temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior RNFL thicknesses were calculated. The main outcome measures were associations between Cirrus HD-OCT optic nerve head and RNFL measurements and age, sex, and race. Results The 284 subjects self-identified as being ...

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    3. Three-dimensional Distribution of the Vitelliform Lesion, Photoreceptors, and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in the Macula of Patients With Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Three-dimensional Distribution of the Vitelliform Lesion, Photoreceptors, and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in the Macula of Patients With Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Objective To describe the anatomical phenotypes of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a large series of patients with confirmed mutations in the BEST1 gene. Methods In our retrospective observational case series, we assessed 15 patients (30 eyes) with a clinical diagnosis of vitelliform macular dystrophy who were found to have mutations in the BEST1 gene. Color fundus photographs and SD-OCT images were evaluated and compared with those of 15 age-matched controls (30 eyes). Using a validated 3-dimensional SD-OCT segmentation algorithm, we calculated the equivalent thickness of photoreceptors and the equivalent thickness of the ...

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    4. Subclinical Photoreceptor Disruption in Response to Severe Head Trauma [Research Letters]

      Subclinical Photoreceptor Disruption in Response to Severe Head Trauma [Research Letters]

      Commotio retinae is a transient opacification of the retina due to outer retinal disruption occurring in a contrecoup fashion after blunt trauma.1-2 Histological studies in animals and humans after ocular blunt trauma have revealed that disruption occurs at the level of the photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium.2-3 Recent reports using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have shown detectable disruption at the level of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction and retinal pigment epithelium4-6 and that these changes may be reversible over time with restoration of normal outer retinal architecture.5 However, the resolution of existing OCT ...

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    5. Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy

      Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy
      Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy. Methods Retrospective review of 4 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity, and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were analyzed. Results The median (range) age at presentation was 31 (27-52) years. The median (range) interval between symptom onset and presentation was 4 (1-20) weeks. Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive coxsackievirus titers (50%). The median (range ...
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      Mentions: Emory University
    6. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomographic Assessment of Severity of Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomographic Assessment of Severity of Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Objective  To investigate whether the severity of cystoid macular edema (CME) in neonates who were 31 to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, as viewed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging, predicts the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or is related to systemic health. Design  Of 62 prematurely born neonates in a prospective institutional review board–approved study, 42 met the following inclusion criteria: at least 1 SD-OCT imaging session prior to 37 weeks' postmenstrual age and prior to ROP laser treatment, if a laser treatment was performed, and an ophthalmic ROP examination at or after 41 weeks' postmenstrual age ...

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    7. In Vivo Evaluation of Focal Lamina Cribrosa Defects in Glaucoma

      In Vivo Evaluation of Focal Lamina Cribrosa Defects in Glaucoma
      Objectives  To assess focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects in glaucoma using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and to investigate their spatial relationships with neuroretinal rim and visual field loss. Methods  Serial horizontal and vertical enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomographic images of the optic nerve head were obtained from healthy subjects and those with glaucoma. Focal LC defects defined as anterior laminar surface irregularity (diameter, >100 µm; depth, >30 µm) that violates the normal smooth curvilinear contour were investigated regarding their configurations and locations. Spatial consistency was evaluated among focal LC defects, neuroretinal rim thinning/notching, and visual field ...
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    8. Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness and Local Visual Field Sensitivity in Glaucoma

      Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness and Local Visual Field Sensitivity in Glaucoma

      Objective To compare loss in sensitivity measured using standard automated perimetry (SAP) with local retinal ganglion cell layer (RGC) thickness measured using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in the macula of patients with glaucoma. Methods To compare corresponding locations of RGC thickness with total deviation (TD) of 10-2 SAP for 14 patients with glaucoma and 19 controls, an experienced operator hand-corrected automatic segmentation of the combined RGC and inner plexiform layer (RGC+IPL) of 128 horizontal B-scans. To account for displacement of the RGC bodies around the fovea, the location of the SAP test points was adjusted to correspond to the ...

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    9. Normal Macular Thickness Measurements in Healthy Eyes Using Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography

      Normal Macular Thickness Measurements in Healthy Eyes Using Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography
      Objective To report normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using the latest commercially available optical coherence tomography (OCT) mapping software, version 3.0, from the Stratus OCT (OCT3). Methods Thirty-seven eyes from 37 healthy subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including OCT. Six radial scans, 6 mm in length and centered on the fovea, were obtained using the OCT3. Retinal thickness was automatically calculated by OCT mapping software. Measurements were displayed as the mean and standard deviation for each of the 9 regions defined in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Results Foveal thickness (mean thickness in the central ...
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    10. Analysis of Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Optic Pit-Related Maculopathy With Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography: A Possible Connection With the Vitreous Cavity: A Possible Connection With the Vitreous Cavity

      Analysis of Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Optic Pit-Related Maculopathy With Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography: A Possible Connection With the Vitreous Cavity: A Possible Connection With the Vitreous Cavity
      Optimal management of optic pit–related maculopathy remains to be determined. The fluid source for the maculopathy also remains controversial. In this article, we present a unique surgical technique for internal drainage of the intraretinal fluid and describe the intraoperative use of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to assist in the surgical management of this condition. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed with elevation of the posterior hyaloid. Following an air-fluid exchange, aspiration over the optic nerve pit was performed. Following aspiration, intraoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated collapse of the retinoschisis, strongly suggesting a connection between the vitreous cavity and the ...
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    11. Three-dimensional Distribution of the Vitelliform Lesion, Photoreceptors, and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in the Macula of Patients With Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Three-dimensional Distribution of the Vitelliform Lesion, Photoreceptors, and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in the Macula of Patients With Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Objective To describe the anatomical phenotypes of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a large series of patients with confirmed mutations in the BEST1 gene. Methods In our retrospective observational case series, we assessed 15 patients (30 eyes) with a clinical diagnosis of vitelliform macular dystrophy who were found to have mutations in the BEST1 gene. Color fundus photographs and SD-OCT images were evaluated and compared with those of 15 age-matched controls (30 eyes). Using a validated 3-dimensional SD-OCT segmentation algorithm, we calculated the equivalent thickness of photoreceptors and the equivalent thickness of the ...

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    12. Novel Software Strategy for Glaucoma Diagnosis: Asymmetry Analysis of Retinal Thickness

      Novel Software Strategy for Glaucoma Diagnosis: Asymmetry Analysis of Retinal Thickness
      The benefits of high-speed, detailed retinal thickness measurement by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma diagnosis have not been fully realized. We have modified the software protocols for such measurement and applied it for diagnosis at different stages of glaucoma. Using the Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Carlsbad, California), we have customized the retinal thickness protocol to acquire detailed retinal thickness measurements of the central 20° of the posterior pole. These custom maps are displayed in a compressed color scale that reveals small losses in retinal thickness. A novel asymmetry analysis protocol was created to highlight differences between the eyes and ...
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    13. Selective Abnormality of Cone Outer Segment Tip Line in Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy as Observed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Selective Abnormality of Cone Outer Segment Tip Line in Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy as Observed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis of retinal diseases with minimal ophthalmoscopic changes. For example, in eyes with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR),1-5 an abnormality of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment (IS/OS) junction found by OCT was spatially correlated with the region of visual field defect. Recent high-resolution spectral-domain OCT images have shown a thin line between the IS/OS junction and the retinal pigment epithelium. This line has been identified as the cone OS tip (COST) line.6 However, the pathophysiological interpretation of its appearance has not been established, and ...
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    14. Structure-Function Relationship in Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Structure-Function Relationship in Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives  To determine the structure-function relationship in glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT)–derived structural measurements and to evaluate this relationship using a linear model. Methods  In a cross-sectional study, structure-function relationships were determined for all the participants in the DIGS (Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study) and the ADAGES (African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study) who had undergone standard automated perimetry (SAP) and SDOCT within 6 months of each other. Strength of relationship was reported as coefficient of determination (R2). The relationship was also evaluated using a previously described linear model. Results  The results of 579 SAP and SDOCT ...

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    15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Analysis of Vitreomacular Traction: Quantification of Cyst Volume and Vitreoretinal Interface Area

      Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Analysis of Vitreomacular Traction: Quantification of Cyst Volume and Vitreoretinal Interface Area
      ptical coherence tomography (OCT) has made considerable advancements in retinal imaging, especially with the advent of high-resolution, spectral-domain OCT.1 Nonetheless, viewing and analysis of OCT data are limited to 2-dimensional (2D) slice-based scrolling through consecutive scans as shown in Figure 1. In a series of eyes with idiopathic vitreomacular traction, we used a method of rendering 2D raster OCT data into 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric objects. By isolating and quantifying distinct retinal structures within these 3D objects, we sought to determine the following: (1) the correlation between cyst volume and area of vitreoretinal adhesion; and (2) the relationship between individual ...
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    16. Association of Narrow Angles With Anterior Chamber Area and Volume Measured With Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography]

      Association of Narrow Angles With Anterior Chamber Area and Volume Measured With Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography]
      Objectives To describe the measurement of anterior chamber area and anterior chamber volume by anterior-segment optical coherence tomography and to investigate the association of these parameters with the presence of narrow angles. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of subjects aged at least 50 years without ophthalmic symptoms recruited from a community clinic. All participants underwent standardized ocular examination and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. Customized software was used to measure anterior chamber area (cross-sectional area bounded by the corneal endothelium, anterior surface of iris, and lens within the pupil) and anterior chamber volume (calculated by rotating the anterior chamber area ...
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    17. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Simultaneous Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Simultaneous Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study
      Objective To describe the morphology of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears secondary to age-related macular degeneration by using high-resolution, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods For simultaneous topographic and tomographic in vivo imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were applied in combination. Retina over the RPE-denuded area was particularly examined for signs of viable photoreceptors. Results A total of 26 patients (28 eyes) were included in the study. The mean (SD) age of patients was 78 (8) years (age range, 62-91 years). In cases with recent RPE tears, external limiting membrane, photoreceptor inner and outer segment ...
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    18. Temporal Macular Thinning on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Proliferative Sickle Cell Retinopathy

      Temporal Macular Thinning on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Proliferative Sickle Cell Retinopathy
      Sickle cell retinopathy is associated with retinal ischemia due to sickling of red blood cells in retinal arterioles that supply nutrients to the inner retinal layers.1-2 Proliferative sickle cell retinopathy (PSR) results in neovascularization caused by occlusion of the peripheral arteriole, typically at the branching points of the arterioles.3 Although neovascularization may be seen at the optic disc and the macula, PSR is primarily a peripheral ischemic retinal disease that results in vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment.1 However, peripheral ischemia can easily be missed on clinical examination, and invasive techniques such as wide-field angiography are required to ...
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    19. Ultra–High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Commotio Retinae

      Ultra–High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Commotio Retinae
      Commotio retinae is a self-limited opacification of the retina secondary to direct blunt ocular trauma. Histologic studies of monkeys and humans relate this clinical observation to damaged photoreceptor outer segments and receptor cell bodies.1-3 Reports using time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and spectral-domain OCT support the involvement of the photoreceptor layer, but these techniques lack the resolution necessary to confirm results of histologic analysis.4-6 Prototype high-speed ultra–high-resolution OCT (hs-UHR-OCT) images demonstrate these anatomical changes in a patient with acute commotio retinae. Report of a Case A 46-year-old man visited the emergency department with pain and blurry vision ...
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    20. Occult Hypotony Maculopathy Diagnosed With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Occult Hypotony Maculopathy Diagnosed With Optical Coherence Tomography
      Three patients with hypotony had decreased vision and normal ocular examination results. Evaluation of the macula by optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated hypotony maculopathy, which resolved after increasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Several weeks after normalization of intraocular pressure, OCT showed resolution of folds in the neurosensory retina and choroid. The anatomic resolution corresponded well with the clinical findings of an increase in IOP and improved visual acuity. Optical coherence tomography is a valuable tool for diagnosing hypotony maculopathy and assessing restoration of normal anatomy following appropriate treatment to raise the IOP. Optical coherence tomography (Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, Calif) has ...
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    21. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Determined by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Ophthalmologically Normal Eyes

      Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Determined by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Ophthalmologically Normal Eyes
      Objectives  To evaluate the peripapillary distribution of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and to study potentially related factors. Methods  In 7 institutes in Japan, RNFLT in 7 concentric peripapillary circles with diameters ranging from 2.2 to 4.0 mm were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in 251 ophthalmologically normal subjects. Multiple regression analysis for the association of RNFLT with sex, age, axial length, and disc area was performed. Results  Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness decreased linearly from 125 to 89 µm as the measurement diameter increased (P < .001, mixed linear model). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness correlated with age in all diameters (partial correlation coefficient [PCC] = –0.40 to –0.32; P < .001) and negatively correlated with disc area in the 2 innermost circles but positively correlated in the 3 outermost circles (PCC = –0.30 to –0.22 and 0.17 to 0.20; P ≤ .005). Sex and axial length did not correlate with RNFLT (P > .08). The ...
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    22. Imaging the Macula Through a Black Occlusive Intraocular Lens

      Imaging the Macula Through a Black Occlusive Intraocular Lens
      Black occlusive intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been shown to be an effective treatment for intractable diplopia,1-2 visual confusion, and poor cosmesis resulting from leukokoria.3-5 A significant disadvantage of occlusive IOL insertion is that conventional funduscopy is not possible, preventing the detection of posterior pole disease. Here we describe a patient in whom we made the novel discovery of successful macular imaging through an occlusive IOL using an infrared light–based scanning laser ophthalmoscope/optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner. We suggest that this report is likely to fundamentally change the current thinking on occlusive IOLs and to promote ...
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    23. Diagnostic Performance of Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements for Detecting Eyes With Narrow Angles: An Anterior Segment OCT Study: An Anterior Segment OCT Study

      Diagnostic Performance of Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements for Detecting Eyes With Narrow Angles: An Anterior Segment OCT Study: An Anterior Segment OCT Study

      Objective  To assess the diagnostic performance of angle measurements from anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images for identifying eyes with narrow angles. Methods  We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of individuals 50 years or older who had phakic eyes and who underwent AS-OCT imaging in the dark by a single operator and gonioscopy by an ophthalmologist masked to AS-OCT findings. An eye was considered to have narrow angles if the posterior pigmented trabecular meshwork was not visible for at least 180° on gonioscopy. Horizontal AS-OCT images were analyzed for the following measurements using customized software: angle opening distance (AOD ...

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    24. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Detection of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Detection of Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma
      Objective  To evaluate and compare time-domain (Stratus) and spectral-domain (Cirrus; both Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the detection of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Methods  Patients with localized RNFL defects and age-matched normal control participants were consecutively enrolled from July 1 to December 31, 2008. Sixty-six eyes from 66 patients and 66 eyes from 66 normal controls were imaged with Stratus OCT (fast RNFL scan mode) and Cirrus OCT (optic disc cube mode). The ability to detect the RNFL defect by using quadrant clock-hour maps from both OCTs ...
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    1-24 of 69 1 2 3 »
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