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    1. An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging technique. To date, OCT has been demonstrated in several areas of dentistry, primarily using wavelengths around 1,300 nm, low numerical aperture (NA) imaging lenses, and detectors insensitive to the polarization of light. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of three commercially available OCT systems operating with alternative wavelengths, imaging lenses, and detectors for OCT imaging of dental enamel. Spectral-domain (SD) OCT systems with (i) 840 nm (Lumedica, OQ LabScope 1.0), (ii) 1,300 nm (Thorlabs, Tel320) center wavelengths, and (iii) a swept-source (SS) OCT ...

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    2. Characteristics of the Foveal Microvasculature in Asian Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Characteristics of the Foveal Microvasculature in Asian Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate changes in the foveal microvasculature in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (dry AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Eighty-three eyes with dry AMD and 83 age- and sex-matched normal eyes were enrolled. A 3 × 3 mm 2 OCTA (Zeiss HD-OCT 5000 with AngioPlex; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) scan was used to acquire images. Vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of the superficial capillary plexus were analyzed. Results: The VD of the full area, central area, and inner ring of the dry AMD patients (18.61, 8 ...

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    3. Toxocara Optic Disc Granuloma: Deep Range Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Findings

      Toxocara Optic Disc Granuloma: Deep Range Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Findings

      We aimed to present a unique case of a child with an optic disc granuloma with exudative retinal detachment as a manifestation of ocular toxocariasis. The response to systemic therapy was assessed using deep range imaging optical coherence tomography. This imaging technique was the most accurate for identification of retinal, macular and vitreous changes associated with this intraocular pathology.

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    4. Reproducibility of Foveal Avascular Zone and Superficial Macular Retinal Vasculature Measurements in Healthy Eyes Determined by Two Different Scanning Protocols of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Reproducibility of Foveal Avascular Zone and Superficial Macular Retinal Vasculature Measurements in Healthy Eyes Determined by Two Different Scanning Protocols of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of quantitative measurements of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and retinal vasculature determined by different scanning protocols of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy volunteers. Method: All participants were scanned by two trained operators using an AngioPlex OCTA. Both angiography protocols (6 × 6 mm and 3 × 3 mm) were performed three times on the same eye by operator A and one additional time by operator B. The FAZ area and perimeter, retinal vessel length density (VLD) and perfusion density (PD) of different regions were analysed. Results: Fifty-two eyes from 52 subjects were recruited for ...

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    5. Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases is highly dependent on imaging, physiological function tests and tissue sampling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are novel imaging techniques with near-microscopic resolution that can be easily and safely combined with conventional bronchoscopy. Disease-related pulmonary anatomical compartments can be visualized, real time, using these techniques. In obstructive lung diseases, airway wall layers and related structural remodelling can be identified and quantified. In malignant lung disease, normal and malignant areas of the central airways, lung parenchyma, lymph nodes and pleura can be discriminated. A growing number of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have ...

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    6. An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging technique. To date, OCT has been demonstrated in several areas of dentistry, primarily using wavelengths around 1,300 nm, low numerical aperture (NA) imaging lenses, and detectors insensitive to the polarization of light. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of three commercially available OCT systems operating with alternative wavelengths, imaging lenses, and detectors for OCT imaging of dental enamel. Spectral-domain (SD) OCT systems with (i) 840 nm (Lumedica, OQ LabScope 1.0), (ii) 1,300 nm (Thorlabs, Tel320) center wavelengths, and (iii) a swept-source (SS) OCT ...

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    7. Feasibility and Safety of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Short-Term Posturing Prescription after Macular Hole Surgery

      Feasibility and Safety of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Short-Term Posturing Prescription after Macular Hole Surgery

      Purpose: To assess closure rate and visual outcome of a court of patients with macular hole (MH) who underwent surgical repair with intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT)-confirmed MH closure and short-term postoperative face-down posturing (FDP). Secondary aim was to assess the correlation between iOCT and postoperative OCT at day 1. Methods: Retrospective clinical study conducted in the Miulli Hospital Acquaviva delle Fonti (Italy), enrolling patients with idiopathic MH who underwent 25-G pars plana vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling. During surgery, closure of MH was confirmed by iOCT and short-term FDP (12–24 h, until day-1 visit) was prescribed ...

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    8. The Comparison of Morphologic Characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The Comparison of Morphologic Characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to compare the morphology characteristics of type 1 and 2 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study of 51 eyes with nAMD using OCTA from July 2016 through March 2017. Results: In total, 51 eyes of 50 patients were included in the analysis. According to the anatomical classification based on OCT, 27 eyes (53%) were diagnosed with type 1 CNV, and 24 eyes (47%) were type 2 CNV. Type 2 CNV was characterized by ...

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    9. Angiography and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Angiography and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy (ASPPC) is one of the rarest ocular manifestations of syphilis. The pathophysiology of this entity is still unknown. We report the outer retinal findings on en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the alteration of choriocapillaris flow findings on OCT angiography in a patient with ASPPC at the time of presentation, after penicillin treatment completion and during follow-up.

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    10. Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes after Conbercept Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes after Conbercept Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate microvascular changes in eyes with macular oedema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) before and after intravitreal conbercept injection and the correlation of such changes with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal thickness. Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients treated with a single intravitreal injection of conbercept for macular oedema due to BRVO were included in this study. The automatically measured values of the vessel density in the superficial (SCP) and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP), the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, the FAZ perimeter, the vessel density within ...

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    11. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Cystinosis Confirmed by Electron Microscopy

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Cystinosis Confirmed by Electron Microscopy

      Purpose: To report a case of ocular cystinosis diagnosed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and histopathology. Methods: A 67-year-old man who presented with eye pain was found to have unilateral corneal crystal deposition. Ocular cystinosis was diagnosed by histopathology, AS-OCT, and lack of renal involvement of the disease. Results: AS-OCT showed hyperreflective densities in the corneal epithelium. The patient underwent superficial keratectomy given irregular astigmatism prior to cataract surgery. Electron microscopy of the corneal scrapings revealed epithelial cells with intracystoplasmic membrane-bound crystals confirming the diagnosis of cystinosis. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ...

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    12. Noninvasive Determination of Epidermal and Stratum Corneum Thickness in vivo Using Two-Photon Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Impact of Body Area, Age, and Gender

      Noninvasive Determination of Epidermal and Stratum Corneum Thickness in vivo Using Two-Photon Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Impact of Body Area, Age, and Gender

      Background: High-resolution images of the epidermis are important to understand the transdermal penetration and changes in epidermal components. Both ex vivo and in vivo technologies are available to picture the epidermal thickness (ET). So far, the illustration of the stratum corneum (SC) has not been possible without artifacts. Objective: Precision in vivo measurement of the ET and SC, duly considering the impact of location on the body, age, and gender. Methods: In this pilot study on 20 skin-healthy subjects aged 18–66 years, the ET was imaged by two-photon microscopy (2PM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the SC by ...

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    13. Impact of Accumulated Serum Uric Acid on Coronary Culprit Lesion Morphology Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Impact of Accumulated Serum Uric Acid on Coronary Culprit Lesion Morphology Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

      Objectives: We aimed to examine the relations of very high levels of serum uric acid (sUA) with features of culprit lesion plaque morphology determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: We retrospectively compared ACS patients according to sUA levels of > 8.0 mg/dL ( n = 169), 7.1–8.0 mg/dL ( n = 163), 6.1–7.0 mg/dL ( n = 259), and ≤6.0 mg/dL ( n = 717). Angiography and OCT findings were analyzed in patients with preintervention OCT and the 4 sUA groups (> 8.0 mg/dL ...

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    14. Sex-Related Variations of Retinal and Choroidal Thickness and Foveal Avascular Zone in Healthy and Diabetic Children Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Sex-Related Variations of Retinal and Choroidal Thickness and Foveal Avascular Zone in Healthy and Diabetic Children Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gender differences in the chorioretinal microvasculature of children with and without vascular pathology. Methods: Healthy and type 1 diabetic children without diabetic retinopathy underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and structural OCT. We measured the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep CP (DCP), central retina, and choroid thickness. Results: OCTA examination was conducted in 112 diabetic and 30 healthy children, and structural OCT in 121 diabetic children and 32 controls. DCP FAZ area in boys was significantly smaller ...

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    15. Implication of Deep-Vascular-Layer Alteration Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy

      Implication of Deep-Vascular-Layer Alteration Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy

      The aim of this narrative mini review is to analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters from reports that involved both superficial and deep vascular layers in patients with diabetes and to assess their relevance for the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Papers published from January 2015 to August 2018 describing the use of OCTA in diabetes were identified and reviewed through a Medline/PubMed search. OCTA studies suggest that parameters are altered in patients with diabetes in all retinal vascular layers. From all included studies that evaluated both the superficial and the deep vascular layer, a number of studies ...

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    16. Microvascular Capillary Plexus Findings of Commotio Retinae on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Microvascular Capillary Plexus Findings of Commotio Retinae on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology features of commotio retinae (CR) have been established, but alterations of the microvascular macular capillary plexus on OCT angiography (OCTA) has not been previously studied. We present a 46-year-old man who sustained a tennis ball injury to the right eye with visual acuity reduction to 20/30 and grey-white deep macular discoloration, suggestive of CR. Spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) showed increased reflectivity and thickness of the ellipsoid zone (junction of photoreceptor inner and outer segments). OCTA revealed no apparent microvascular alterations (right versus left eye) in the foveal avascular zone superficial (0.42 vs. 0 ...

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    17. Iris Morphological Features in Patients with 360° Angle-Closure Neovascular Glaucoma: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Iris Morphological Features in Patients with 360° Angle-Closure Neovascular Glaucoma: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To investigate iris morphological features in 360° angle-closure neovascular glaucoma (NVG) by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Patients and Methods: In this retrospective, clinic-based, comparative study, 14 patients with 360° angle-closure NVG and 14 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled. All patients enrolled had no prior glaucoma surgery but underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Horizontal scanning images of swept-source ASOCT were analyzed using software calipers in temporal and nasal angle areas. The iris thickness at 1 and 2 mm from the pupil edge, iris length, trabecular meshwork length, peripheral anterior synechia (PAS) length, PAS height ...

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    18. Detection of Candida Endophthalmitis in a Newborn Using Handheld Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Detection of Candida Endophthalmitis in a Newborn Using Handheld Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      In a newborn with candidemia, two retinal lesions were seen without external inflammatory signs or reaction in the anterior chamber or vitreous. However, handheld spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (HH SD-OCT) images show that one of the retinal lesions had a “firework display” projecting to the vitreous that was not identified in indirect ophthalmoscopy. This finding suggested a Candida endophthalmitis. HH SD-OCT findings allowed us to make an accurate diagnosis and, therefore, modified the decision-making process in the treatment of the pathology.

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    19. Evaluation of Vascular Changes with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Plaque Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma

      Evaluation of Vascular Changes with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Plaque Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma

      Aim: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate whether optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) can be used to quantify the vascular changes in radiation maculopathy, and changes in the tumor vasculature in eyes treated with plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Methods: In this prospective study, we evaluated 39 Caucasian patients with choroidal melanoma (39 eyes) treated with ruthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy. The patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, bulbar echography, and OCT-A before and 1 year after treatment. Results: At baseline, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the affected eyes was 0.35 ± 0.40 logMAR, and the mean tumor ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a new tool able to visualize the different retinal plexuses and choroidal plexus, and it is a dye-free, rapid, and three-dimensional method. A new era in retinal imaging has begun, and retinal specialists have to deal with this novel diagnostic tool. However, OCT-A is a very recent technology and, as such, its clinical applications have still to be determined. For these reasons, dye angiographies (fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography) are still the current gold standard to study the retinal and choroidal vessels. In this chapter, we focus on current OCT-A applications in several ...

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    21. Bronchial Thermoplasty-Induced Acute Airway Effects Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography in Severe Asthma

      Bronchial Thermoplasty-Induced Acute Airway Effects Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography in Severe Asthma

      Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic treatment for severe asthma targeting airway smooth muscle (ASM) with radiofrequent energy. Although implemented worldwide, the effect of BT treatment on the airways is unclear. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique, based on near-infrared light, that generates high-resolution cross-sectional airway wall images. Objective: To assess the safety and feasibility of OCT in severe asthma patients and determine acute airway effects of BT by OCT and compare these to the untreated right middle lobe (RML). Methods: Severe asthma patients were treated with BT (TASMA trial). During the third BT procedure, OCT ...

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    22. Diagnostic Ability and Discriminant Values of OCT-Angiography Parameters in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Diagnostic Ability and Discriminant Values of OCT-Angiography Parameters in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Purpose: To evaluate papillary, peripapillary, and macular vasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography in preperimetric (PPG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal eyes, and to assess diagnostic ability and associations among the vasculature and structural damage. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex thickness, whole-image (wiVD), inside disc (idVD), peripapillary (ppVD), and macular vessel densities were obtained. Analysis of variance, post hoc test, and Pearson coefficient were used. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and cut-offs were calculated. Results: Thirteen healthy, 39 PPG, and 19 POAG eyes were included ...

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    23. Reduction of Peripapillary Vessel Density by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography from the Acute to the Atrophic Stage in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Reduction of Peripapillary Vessel Density by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography from the Acute to the Atrophic Stage in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Purpose: To analyse superficial peripapillary vascularization in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at acute and atrophic (3 months) stage. Procedures: Prospective case-control study including 6 patients with NAION and 10 age-matched healthy controls evaluated with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A; Angioplex-Cirrus) at acute and atrophic stage. Apart from the ­commercially provided measurements for vessel density (VD) and perfusion density (PD), a custom image analysis was used to quantify the peripapillary capillary density (PCD). Results: NAION-group demonstrated a significant decrease in the PCD, VD and PD compared with fellow unaffected and control groups at acute and atrophic stage. At 3 ...

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    24. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Allows the Unification of Clinical Decision Making for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Activity

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Allows the Unification of Clinical Decision Making for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Activity

      urpose: This prospective observational clinical study investigated the benefits of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for specialists and residents in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Procedures: The study involved 49 eyes of 44 patients. Patients were advised to present for reevaluation 4 weeks after the administration of the loading dose of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inhibitors (3 intravitreal injections every 4 weeks after diagnosis). They were examined by residents (3–4 years’ experience in ophthalmology) and specialists (> 5 years’ experience). Each examiner evaluated the clinical situation and the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan. After ...

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