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    1. Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Background: Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying intraocular tumor of unknown etiology. While patients with choroidal osteoma usually show distinct large yellowish subretinal lesions, some could have small lesions, making the differential diagnosis difficult. We experienced 2 cases of small symptomatic unilateral osteoma approximately 1.0-mm disc diameter in size. Methods: Retrospective medical charts of 2 patients with small symptomatic unilateral osteoma were reviewed. Fundus examination, spectral domain enhanced-depth optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, B-scan ultrasonography (USG), and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were performed. Results: Case 1: a case of a 41-year-old male. Fundus examination ...

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    2. Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detection of bladder cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search on CLE in diagnosing bladder cancer in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled diagnostic value of CLE. Results: A total of 5 eligible studies involving 302 lesions were available for this meta-analysis. In a per-lesion analysis, pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver-operating curve (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) of CLE ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    3. Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of healthy subjects and examine the magnification effect. Methods: A total of 33 healthy volunteers were enrolled and all subjects were eligible for analysis. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) examination scanned 3 × 3 mm of the macular area. The FAZ area was measured on the superficial OCTA en face image with and without correction by axial length. The relationship between changes in the FAZ area after correction with the axial length was examined. Results: The mean age was 21.9 ± 0.6 years. The mean axial ...

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      Mentions: Optovue Nidek
    4. Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Background: The predictors and airway morphological changes during the development of postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) have not been well elucidated. Objectives: To elucidate the validation of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) in assessing the airway morphological changes in PITS. Methods: We performed oral endotracheal intubation in 12 beagles to establish the PITS model. EB-OCT was performed respectively before modeling and on the 1st, 7th, and 12th day after extubation in 9 canines, and was conducted consecutively in 3 canines during the development of PITS. Histological findings and the thickness and gray-scale value of the tracheal wall assessed by EB-OCT measurements ...

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    5. USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      Introduction: New technologies have been developed in order to decrease interpersonal influence and subjectivity during the glaucoma diagnosis process. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain OCT (EDI OCT) has turned up as a favorable tool for deep optic nerve head (ONH) structures assessment. Objective: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of different EDI OCT -derived parameters to discriminate between eyes with and without glaucoma. Material and Methods: The following optic nerve head parameters were measured: lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and area; prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT) thickness and area; average Bruch’s membrane opening - minimum rim width (aBMO-MRW ...

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    6. Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and safety of a coaxial dual wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (marked as Hydra-OCT). Methods: Healthy participants without ocular pathology underwent retinal imaging using the Hydra-OCT allowing for simultaneous measurement of retinal scanning of 840 and 1072 nm wavelength. Before and after measurement, best corrected visual acuity and patients’ comfort was assessed. Representative OCT images from both wavelengths were compared by five independent graders using a subjective grading scheme. Results: A total of 30 eyes of 30 participants (8 females and 22 males) with a mean age of 26.5 years (range from 19 to ...

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    7. Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Purpose: To investigate longitudinal changes and associated factors for microvascular parameters in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after repair surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 34 eyes with macula-off RRD. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and parafoveal vessel density were recorded every 3 months for 1 year after surgery. We analyzed 3×3mm and 6×6mm swept-source optical coherence tomographic angiography (SS-OCTA) images to quantify microvascular parameters. Individual clinical factors, and pre- and postoperative OCT images were analyzed to find factors associated with changes in the FAZ area and vessel density 12 months after surgery. Results: The ...

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    8. Measurement of the Lower Lid Margin Thickness by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Measurement of the Lower Lid Margin Thickness by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To verify the feasibility of using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to measure the lower lid margin thickness (LLMT) from posterior lash line to the mucocutaneous junction. Methods: This was a prospective, single center, observational study. Fifty-six volunteers between 20 and 79 years old with normal healthy eyes were included in this study. Using AS-OCT to measure the LLMT at the middle position was separately performed by two operators under the same conditions. Results: The mean age of 56 subjects (24 males and 32 females) was 45.4 ± 15.7 years. The LLMT measured by AS-OCT between two ...

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    9. Predicting Progression of Untreated Macular Pucker Using Retinal Surface En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Predicting Progression of Untreated Macular Pucker Using Retinal Surface En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      To review visual outcomes in untreated premacular membrane (PMM) with macular pucker (MP) and evaluate novel predictors of progression. Methods: In this retrospective observation study, we included 342 eyes with untreated PMM with MP between 2012 and 2015. PMMs were characterized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging based on foveal morphologies, number of retinal contraction centers, central subfield thickness (CST), inner segment ellipsoid band integrity, and photoreceptor deformation index. Additionally, the thickened retina portion was identified by en face OCT and processed digitally to calculate its area. Parameters were retrospectively analyzed using multiple regression analyses to identify associations with ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics of the Choroid Underlying Congenital Hypertrophy of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics of the Choroid Underlying Congenital Hypertrophy of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Purpose: This study evaluates and characterizes the choroid underlying congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE). Methods: Retrospective observational study of CHRPE at least 2 mm in diameter. Choroidal vascular architecture was qualitatively examined. Choroidal thickness was measured by 2 independent observers using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients with CHRPE were included. Thirty-two lesions had imaging sufficient for analysis. Haller’s layer was healthy in 18 (56%), thin in 13 (41%), and absent in 1 (2%). Sattler’s layer was atrophic in 30 (94%), and choriocapillaris was atrophic in 31 ...

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    11. Microvasculature Changes of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization and the Predictive Value of Feeder Vessel Disappearance after Ranibizumab Treatment Revealed Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Microvasculature Changes of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization and the Predictive Value of Feeder Vessel Disappearance after Ranibizumab Treatment Revealed Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Aim: To investigate vascular changes of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) after ranibizumab treatment using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive subjects with a diagnosis of mCNV were included. Patients underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab treatment with a 6-month follow-up. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and OCTA evaluation. The 3 × 3 OCTA en face images were analyzed for the absence/presence of mCNV, CNV area, and CNV network morphology. In particular, the morphology of the mCNV was analyzed in order to detect the presence/absence of feeder vessels. Results: Eleven subjects were evaluated. At baseline, the mCNV was identified ...

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    12. Multimodality Imaging Approach for Combined Central Retinal Vein and Artery Occlusion: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Multimodality Imaging Approach for Combined Central Retinal Vein and Artery Occlusion: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion is an uncommon vascular pathology that can cause severe and permanent visual impairment. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a newly available, noninvasive imaging technique that can potentially improve understanding of the structural and vascular implications and prognosis of this infrequent pathology. The present report describes the principal clinical findings in a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion, as detected by the different imaging modalities available in a tertiary referral hospital. OCTA wide-field montage images identified an extensive area of nonperfusion on the macula with involvement of the entire retina ...

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    13. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula Is Associated with Greater Central Choroidal Blood Flow Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula Is Associated with Greater Central Choroidal Blood Flow Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: Dome-shaped macula (DSM) is characterized by an inward bulge in the macula, often associated with a myopic staphyloma. One complication of DSM is particularly studied: foveolar serous retinal detachment (SRD). This study analyzed the variations of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) decorrelation signal in cases of DSM with and without SRD. Methods: This was a retrospective study including twenty height eyes presenting with DSM. OCT-A scans were recorded, and the intensity of the choroidal decorrelation signal was quantified to analyze choroidal blood flow (CBF) in central, temporal, and nasal macular areas. The size of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy ...

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    14. An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging technique. To date, OCT has been demonstrated in several areas of dentistry, primarily using wavelengths around 1,300 nm, low numerical aperture (NA) imaging lenses, and detectors insensitive to the polarization of light. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of three commercially available OCT systems operating with alternative wavelengths, imaging lenses, and detectors for OCT imaging of dental enamel. Spectral-domain (SD) OCT systems with (i) 840 nm (Lumedica, OQ LabScope 1.0), (ii) 1,300 nm (Thorlabs, Tel320) center wavelengths, and (iii) a swept-source (SS) OCT ...

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    15. Characteristics of the Foveal Microvasculature in Asian Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Characteristics of the Foveal Microvasculature in Asian Patients with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate changes in the foveal microvasculature in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (dry AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Eighty-three eyes with dry AMD and 83 age- and sex-matched normal eyes were enrolled. A 3 × 3 mm 2 OCTA (Zeiss HD-OCT 5000 with AngioPlex; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) scan was used to acquire images. Vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of the superficial capillary plexus were analyzed. Results: The VD of the full area, central area, and inner ring of the dry AMD patients (18.61, 8 ...

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    16. Toxocara Optic Disc Granuloma: Deep Range Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Findings

      Toxocara Optic Disc Granuloma: Deep Range Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Findings

      We aimed to present a unique case of a child with an optic disc granuloma with exudative retinal detachment as a manifestation of ocular toxocariasis. The response to systemic therapy was assessed using deep range imaging optical coherence tomography. This imaging technique was the most accurate for identification of retinal, macular and vitreous changes associated with this intraocular pathology.

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    17. Reproducibility of Foveal Avascular Zone and Superficial Macular Retinal Vasculature Measurements in Healthy Eyes Determined by Two Different Scanning Protocols of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Reproducibility of Foveal Avascular Zone and Superficial Macular Retinal Vasculature Measurements in Healthy Eyes Determined by Two Different Scanning Protocols of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of quantitative measurements of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and retinal vasculature determined by different scanning protocols of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy volunteers. Method: All participants were scanned by two trained operators using an AngioPlex OCTA. Both angiography protocols (6 × 6 mm and 3 × 3 mm) were performed three times on the same eye by operator A and one additional time by operator B. The FAZ area and perimeter, retinal vessel length density (VLD) and perfusion density (PD) of different regions were analysed. Results: Fifty-two eyes from 52 subjects were recruited for ...

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    18. Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Pulmonary Diseases

      Diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases is highly dependent on imaging, physiological function tests and tissue sampling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are novel imaging techniques with near-microscopic resolution that can be easily and safely combined with conventional bronchoscopy. Disease-related pulmonary anatomical compartments can be visualized, real time, using these techniques. In obstructive lung diseases, airway wall layers and related structural remodelling can be identified and quantified. In malignant lung disease, normal and malignant areas of the central airways, lung parenchyma, lymph nodes and pleura can be discriminated. A growing number of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) have ...

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    19. An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      An Experimental Review of Optical Coherence Tomography Systems for Noninvasive Assessment of Hard Dental Tissues

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging technique. To date, OCT has been demonstrated in several areas of dentistry, primarily using wavelengths around 1,300 nm, low numerical aperture (NA) imaging lenses, and detectors insensitive to the polarization of light. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of three commercially available OCT systems operating with alternative wavelengths, imaging lenses, and detectors for OCT imaging of dental enamel. Spectral-domain (SD) OCT systems with (i) 840 nm (Lumedica, OQ LabScope 1.0), (ii) 1,300 nm (Thorlabs, Tel320) center wavelengths, and (iii) a swept-source (SS) OCT ...

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    20. Feasibility and Safety of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Short-Term Posturing Prescription after Macular Hole Surgery

      Feasibility and Safety of Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Short-Term Posturing Prescription after Macular Hole Surgery

      Purpose: To assess closure rate and visual outcome of a court of patients with macular hole (MH) who underwent surgical repair with intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT)-confirmed MH closure and short-term postoperative face-down posturing (FDP). Secondary aim was to assess the correlation between iOCT and postoperative OCT at day 1. Methods: Retrospective clinical study conducted in the Miulli Hospital Acquaviva delle Fonti (Italy), enrolling patients with idiopathic MH who underwent 25-G pars plana vitrectomy plus internal limiting membrane peeling. During surgery, closure of MH was confirmed by iOCT and short-term FDP (12–24 h, until day-1 visit) was prescribed ...

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    21. The Comparison of Morphologic Characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The Comparison of Morphologic Characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 Choroidal Neovascularization in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to compare the morphology characteristics of type 1 and 2 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study of 51 eyes with nAMD using OCTA from July 2016 through March 2017. Results: In total, 51 eyes of 50 patients were included in the analysis. According to the anatomical classification based on OCT, 27 eyes (53%) were diagnosed with type 1 CNV, and 24 eyes (47%) were type 2 CNV. Type 2 CNV was characterized by ...

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    22. Angiography and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Angiography and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy (ASPPC) is one of the rarest ocular manifestations of syphilis. The pathophysiology of this entity is still unknown. We report the outer retinal findings on en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the alteration of choriocapillaris flow findings on OCT angiography in a patient with ASPPC at the time of presentation, after penicillin treatment completion and during follow-up.

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    23. Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes after Conbercept Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes after Conbercept Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate microvascular changes in eyes with macular oedema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) before and after intravitreal conbercept injection and the correlation of such changes with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal thickness. Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients treated with a single intravitreal injection of conbercept for macular oedema due to BRVO were included in this study. The automatically measured values of the vessel density in the superficial (SCP) and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP), the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, the FAZ perimeter, the vessel density within ...

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    24. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Cystinosis Confirmed by Electron Microscopy

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Cystinosis Confirmed by Electron Microscopy

      Purpose: To report a case of ocular cystinosis diagnosed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and histopathology. Methods: A 67-year-old man who presented with eye pain was found to have unilateral corneal crystal deposition. Ocular cystinosis was diagnosed by histopathology, AS-OCT, and lack of renal involvement of the disease. Results: AS-OCT showed hyperreflective densities in the corneal epithelium. The patient underwent superficial keratectomy given irregular astigmatism prior to cataract surgery. Electron microscopy of the corneal scrapings revealed epithelial cells with intracystoplasmic membrane-bound crystals confirming the diagnosis of cystinosis. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ...

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