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    1. Natural Course of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Natural Course of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To analyze the impact of OCT characteristics on the natural course of Optic-Disc-Pit-Maculopathy (ODP-M). Methods: Single-center, retrospective, observational case series. Patients with ODP-M were included in the study. Baseline demographic characteristics, central macular thickness (CMT), intrapapillary proliferation (IPP), subretinal fluid (SRF), subretinal precipitations, outer retinal fluid (ORF) and outer retinal layer hole (ORH) were evaluated. The changes of the OCT characteristics were analyzed with respect to the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to the last visit. Results: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up time of 37.6 (median 22) months. The mean BCVA ...

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    2. Bronchoscopic Journey of in vivo Real-Time Microscopic Imaging in ILD: A Case Series

      Bronchoscopic Journey of in vivo Real-Time Microscopic Imaging in ILD: A Case Series

      Background: Patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) frequently present with nondiagnostic high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results, resulting in the need for invasive surgical or cryo-lung biopsy that is associated with significant morbidity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are high-resolution laser and light-based techniques that provide real-time imaging of the alveolar compartment during bronchoscopy with a different depth and field of view. Objectives: The aim of the study was to correlate OCT and CLE imaging to HRCT imaging in ILD. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 20 ILD patients who underwent ...

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    3. Analysis of retinal microvasculature features in amblyopic eyes: A meta-analysis

      Analysis of retinal microvasculature features in amblyopic eyes: A meta-analysis

      Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate retinal vessel density (VD) in amblyopic patients using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for published articles comparing retinal microvasculature characteristics in patients with amblyopia and controls. Continuous variable outcomes were assessed using the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval. Review Manager Version 5.30 was used for the analysis. Results: Thirteen qualified articles were pooled in this meta-analysis. Compared with controls, the foveal whole enface VD of superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) of patients as measured by ...

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    4. Microvascular Changes in the Cystic Lesion of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Imaged by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Microvascular Changes in the Cystic Lesion of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Imaged by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Introduction: This study aimed to describe the quantitative features of the microvasculature in the cystic lesions of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: A total of 43 eyes with BRVO, treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, were analyzed. Using wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), en face OCT images were obtained by depth-integrated reflectivity of the retina, and vascular density (VD), vascular length (VL), vascular lacunarity, and fractal dimension (FD) were evaluated in a 12 × 12-mm area of retinal nonperfusion. Results: The mean area of affected lesions was 38.7 ± 19.8 mm2, and cystic lesions were ...

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    5. Multimodal Imaging of Unilateral Acute Maculopathy Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Case Series

      Multimodal Imaging of Unilateral Acute Maculopathy Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: A Case Series

      We described clinical and multimodal imaging findings in 4 patients with unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease. Four eyes of 4 patients (3 women and 1 man) with a mean age of 35 years (range: 24–40 years) were included. A bacillary detachment was observed in 3 out of the 4 eyes and was strongly suspected in the remaining eye. This particular detachment was resolved within 5–10 days in our series. A choriocapillaris involvement was supported by the multimodal imaging findings. On indocyanine green angiography, a hypofluorescence was observed throughout the sequence, and ...

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    6. Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ocular Oncology: Pearls and Pitfalls

      Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ocular Oncology: Pearls and Pitfalls

      Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a valuable imaging tool for the diagnosis of several retinal and choroidal diseases. Its role in ocular oncology is clinically promising but still controversial. In this review, we report the main applications and limits of the use of OCTA for the study of intraocular tumors. Summary: OCTA allows a rapid, safe, low-cost, and high-resolution visualization of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. Attempts have been made to use this technology in ocular oncology to differentiate benign and malignant lesions and to assist physicians in the evaluation and monitoring of post-treatment complications. Main limitations include ...

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    7. Changes in dimensions and functions of crystalline lens in high myopia using CASIA2 optical coherence tomography

      Changes in dimensions and functions of crystalline lens in high myopia using CASIA2 optical coherence tomography

      Introduction: Crystalline lens is the major dioptric component and varies with refractive status. In this study, we aim to evaluate the changes of dimensions and functions of crystalline lens in high myopia and its correlated variables using CASIA2 swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: One hundred and thirty eligible eyes of myopic patients from 18-40 years old were enrolled and divided into low-to-moderate myopia (LMM) and high myopia (HM) groups according to spherical equivalent (SE). Anterior segment features, including lens thickness (LT), anterior radius of curvature (ARC), posterior radius of curvature (PRC), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens tilt were ...

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    8. Analysis of microvascular abnormalities in obesity: a comparative study with healthy subjects using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics

      Analysis of microvascular abnormalities in obesity: a comparative study with healthy subjects using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics

      PURPOSE: To analyze retinal microvasculature in obese subjects as compared to a normal-weight population. METHODS: In this case-control observational study, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) and adaptive optics (AO) were performed in eyes of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, obese patients and in healthy controls. AO was used to calculate the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR). The foveal avascular zone (FAZ), the macular vessel density (VD) and the macular perfusion density of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses were analyzed in 6x6mm macular OCTA cubes. SS-OCTA was also used to measure the choroidal thickness, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the VD of ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Chiasmitis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Chiasmitis

      A 29-year-old girl presented complaining of acute bilateral visual loss associated with mild headache and retrobulbar pain. She was diagnosed with chiasmal optic neuritis caused by multiple sclerosis. Her visual acuity and visual field defect promptly improved after steroid therapy. However optical coherence tomography angiography showed a progressive reduction of superficial capillary plexus density of the retina and optic nerve consistent with the progressive impairment of the retinal ganglionar cell layer. Contrary to chiasmal compression, in chiasmal optic neuritis, the superficial capillary plexus density reduction is diffuse and does not reflect the peculiar anatomy of the chiasm.

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    10. Reference Database of Inner Retinal Layer Thickness and Thickness Asymmetry In Healthy Thai Adults as Measured by The Spectralis Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Reference Database of Inner Retinal Layer Thickness and Thickness Asymmetry In Healthy Thai Adults as Measured by The Spectralis Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To determine a reference database of the thickness and intraocular thickness asymmetry of total retina, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) in healthy Thai subjects measured by the Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited the healthy subjects age ≥18 years, having spherical refraction within ±6 diopters and cylindrical refraction ±3 diopters, from a hospital’s personnel and the people accompanying patients visiting the ophthalmology department. If the eligibility criteria were met for both eyes, only 1 eye of each subject was randomly selected for an analysis. Macular ...

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    11. Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Malignant Hypertension Choroidopathy: A Case Report

      Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Malignant Hypertension Choroidopathy: A Case Report

      This report presented the longitudinal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in a patient with malignant hypertension choroidopathy. An 87-year-old woman presented with acute unilateral central vision loss in the setting of hypertensive emergency. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed massive serous macular detachment. OCTA revealed extensive flow loss in the neuroretina and choriocapillaris. With blood pressure (BP) normalization and without any ocular intervention, visual acuity recovered on subsequent visits. Flow loss in the neuroretinal capillaries persisted, but significant improvement in the perfusion of the choriocapillaris was observed. This case demonstrates extensive choriocapillaris flow loss in the acute phase of ...

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    12. Macular Morphologic and Microvascular Analysis in Pseudophakic Children with Previous Pediatric Cataract Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Macular Morphologic and Microvascular Analysis in Pseudophakic Children with Previous Pediatric Cataract Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Introduction: The macular morphologic and microvascular changes in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze macular morphologic and microvascular remodeling in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive cases between December 1, 2018, and November 31, 2020 were recruited. Sixty-one participants (31 pseudophakic children and 30 healthy controls) met the inclusion criteria and were included for final analysis. OCTA was used to measure macular vascular density, the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and macular thickness. The parameters were compared between pseudophakic and healthy ...

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    13. Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Introduction: Examination of subungual pigmented lesions is sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Objectives: The study was aimed to investigate characteristic patterns in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subungual hematomas and determine distinctive features that can differentiate them from subungual melanocytic lesions. Methods: VivoSight® (Michelson Diagnostics, Maidstone, UK) was used to examine 71 subungual hematomas and 11 subungual melanocytic lesions in 69 patients (18 female and 51 male patients). Results: On OCT, bleeding was related to sharply defined black sickle-shaped ( p < 0.001) or globular regions (not significant [ns]) with a hyperreflective margin (0.002), a grey center (0.013 ...

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    14. Non-homogenous hyperreflectivity in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA implies early treatment with anti-VEGF for central serous chorioretinopathy

      Non-homogenous hyperreflectivity in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA implies early treatment with anti-VEGF for central serous chorioretinopathy

      Introduction: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) facilitates the detection of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This study explored the role of non-homogenous hyperreflectivity implying putative CNV in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: Thirteen eyes out of 12 patients with CSCR were examined with OCTA. The non-homogenous hyperreflectivity was compared with the histological morphology of experimental CNV. The effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated by analyzing the changes of central macular thickness (CMT) and the height of subretinal fluid (SRF). Results: Comparison of the non-homogenous hyperreflectivity on OCTA with the established CNV in ...

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    15. Anterior Segmental Optical Coherence Tomography Analyses of Severe Corneal Irregular Astigmatism following Blepharoptosis Surgery

      Anterior Segmental Optical Coherence Tomography Analyses of Severe Corneal Irregular Astigmatism following Blepharoptosis Surgery

      We report a case of severe irregular corneal astigmatism resulting from delayed diagnosis of suture exposure following blepharoptosis surgery. An 81-year-old man who had bilateral blepharoptosis surgery and two revisions on his right eye before he complained foreign body sensation (FBS) and blurred vision of his right eye. The visual acuity was 0.4 and the MRD1 was 1 mm for his right eye. A very severe corneal astigmatism of 7.7D, eccentricity of 0.53, corneal thinning, and higher order aberration (HOA) of 3.346 μm was found. Scratch-like lesions on the upper cornea suggested the presence of suture ...

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    16. Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and its incidence is rising. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) can develop low- and high-grade dysplasia which can progress to EAC overtime. The golden standard to detect dysplastic BE (DBE) or EAC is surveillance with high-definition white-light endoscopy (HD-WLE) and random biopsies according to the Seattle protocol. However, this method is time-consuming and associated with a remarkable miss rate. Therefore, there is great need for the development of novel reliable techniques to optimize surveillance strategies and improve detection rates. Summary: Optical chromoendoscopy (OC) techniques like narrow-band imaging ...

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    17. Nail-Patella Syndrome: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Nail-Patella Syndrome: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      We describe a 51-year-old Hispanic female with nail-patella syndrome (NPS), a rare genetic disease with a wide range of systemic features such as nail dysplasia and finger abnormalities, elbow webbing, iliac horn, patellar subluxation, and proteinuria. Some patients additionally have a history of glaucoma and other ocular features such as thick central corneal thickness, Lester’s sign, prominent iris processes, and optic nerve cupping. Our patient had a history of glaucoma suspicion, prominent iris processes, increased cup to disc ratios, tilted optic discs, and tigroid fundi. In addition, we report optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings of focal areas of ...

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    18. Choroidal Macrovessel Diagnosed on Multimodal Imaging, including Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal Macrovessel Diagnosed on Multimodal Imaging, including Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal macrovessel (CM) is a rare anomalous vascular lesion in the choroid. In this case report, we describe a 72-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with an incidental heavily branching CM in the macula of his right eye based on multimodal imaging, including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), swept-source OCT angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. Multimodal imaging is valuable in demonstrating the distinctive appearance of this entity and differentiating it from more vision-threatening differential diagnoses, such as ophthalmomyiasis interna, choroidal neoplasms, retinochoroidal anastomosis, and inflammatory conditions.

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    19. Study of nonperfusion area changes after ranibizumab intravitreal injection for diabetic macular edema by means of widefield OCT angiography

      Study of nonperfusion area changes after ranibizumab intravitreal injection for diabetic macular edema by means of widefield OCT angiography

      Introduction: To evaluate changes of retinal capillary non-perfusion areas (RCNPA) and the retinal capillary vessel density (RCVD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) using widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (WFOCTA) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IRI). Materials and Methods: 24 eyes of 24 patients with DR and DME candidates to a loading dose of IRI were enrolled. All patients underwent WFOCTA with the PLEX Elite 9000 device with 15 × 9 mm scans centered on the foveal center at baseline (T0) and 1 month after ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Macular Changes And Their Correlation With Peripheral Nonperfusion At Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Macular Changes And Their Correlation With Peripheral Nonperfusion At Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography

      Introduction: To investigate the correlation between ischemic index (ISI) measured on ultra-widefield (UWF) fluorescein angiography (FA) images and macular parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in eyes affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods: Retrospective study of data from 12 eyes affected by treatment-naïve CRVO. All patients underwent a comprehensive ocular examination including structural OCT, OCT-A, and UWF FA. Variables analyzed included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured with the ETDRS chart; foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area at full-thickness OCT-A angiogram; perfusion density (PD) in the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP); ISI; and central macular ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography Prognostic Factors in AMD Patients with Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Prognostic Factors in AMD Patients with Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization

      Purpose: To investigate the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and visual acuity outcomes after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for age related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization (PPCNV). METHODS: A retrospective case series of consecutive patients diagnosed with PPCNV secondary to AMD. All patients were treated with IVB injections with a follow-up time of one year. Data collected included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), automated and manually measured OCT parameters. RESULTS: A total of 68 eyes were diagnosed with PPMV. Of them, 30 eyes of 30 patients aged 84.3±6.9 years of ...

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    22. Transient Angle Obstruction Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Hemodialysis

      Transient Angle Obstruction Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Hemodialysis

      An 80-year-old Japanese man presented with decreased vision in his right eye (OD) after every hemodialysis (HD) session beginning several months previously. His local ophthalmologist prescribed antiglaucoma medications because of high intraocular pressure (IOP) (38 mm Hg) OD 4 months previously; with treatment, the IOP fluctuated between 6 and 34 mm Hg OD. When hospitalized, the IOP was measured, and the anterior chamber was observed by anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and after HD. Before HD, the IOP levels were 7 mm Hg OD and 8 mm Hg in the left eye (OS). AS-OCT showed marked anterior iris bowing ...

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    23. Standardization of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinal Disease

      Standardization of Optical Coherence  Tomography Angiography Imaging  Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinal Disease

      Optical coherence tomography Angiography (OCT-A) represents a revolution in the noninvasive evaluation of retinal and choroidal circulation especially in detecting early clinical signs of diabetic retinal disease (DRD). With appropriate use, OCT-A characteristics and measurements have the potential to become new imaging biomarkers in managing and treating DRD. Major challenges include (a) provision of standardized outputs from different OCT-A instruments providing standardized terminology to correctly interpret data; (b) the presence of artifacts; (c) the absence of standardized grading or interpretation method in the evaluation of DRD, similar to that already established in fundus photography; and (d) establishing how OCT-A might ...

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    24. Vitreous Noise on Optical Coherence Tomography as an Early Finding of Brolucizumab-Related Intraocular Inflammation

      Vitreous Noise on Optical Coherence Tomography as an Early Finding of Brolucizumab-Related Intraocular Inflammation

      We describe a case of brolucizumab-related intraocular inflammation (IOI) detected using vitreous haze on optical coherence tomography (OCT) at an early stage before the patient was aware of any symptom. A 69-year-old female presented with decreased right vision. The patient was diagnosed with pachychoroidal neovasculopathy and started intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) with a 3+ treat-and-extend strategy (TAE). Although the serous retinal detachment (SRD) disappeared after IVA treatment, the patient was managed with treatment every 4 weeks without extending the treatment interval To shorten the treatment interval, intravitreal brolucizumab (IVBr) was started 44 weeks after starting IVA treatment. After initiating IVBr treatment ...

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