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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers - Vitreous Status Influence in Outcomes for Diabetic Macular Edema Therapy with 0.19 mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant

      Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers - Vitreous Status Influence in Outcomes for Diabetic Macular Edema Therapy with 0.19 mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant

      Background: The 0.19 mg fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) implant (ILUVIEN®; Alimera Sciences Ltd, Hampshire, UK) was approved for the treatment of vision impairment associated with chronic and refractory diabetic macular edema (DME). Objectives: To quantitatively assess functional and structural features in non-vitrectomized and vitrectomized DME patients after being treated with a FAc implant Methods: Retrospective review of patients with DME receiving single intravitreal injection of the FAc implant. The study was designed to analyze the presence of quantitative structural OCT biomarkers at baseline and 12 months after FAc therapy according to vitreous status. Results: A total of 41 eyes from ...

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    2. Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Glaucoma Surgery (Textbook)

      Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Glaucoma Surgery (Textbook)

      The advent of integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (i 2 OCT) has opened the door for safer and more complex surgeries in the retina and cornea. However, to limit its use to just two subspecialties within ophthalmology is an opportunity lost for many other subspecialties. Here, we describe the use of i 2 OCT in pediatric glaucoma surgery. It can be used to identify Schlemm’s canal, Barkan’s membrane, demonstrate the corneal pathology in Haab’s striae, and iris hypoplasia in cases of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. It can help identify drainage blebs that are filtering and those that are not ...

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    3. Evaluation of axial length measurement using enhanced retina visualization mode of the swept-source optical coherence tomography biometer in dense cataract

      Evaluation of axial length measurement using enhanced retina visualization mode of the swept-source optical coherence tomography biometer in dense cataract

      Introduction: It has been reported that even using the swept-source optical coherence biometer, it is challenging to measure the axial length (AL) in cases with advanced cataracts. The enhanced retina visualization (ERV) mode, which is equipped with OCTB1 (ARGOS), shifts the peak of measurement sensitivity to the retina side so that the AL can be measured even if the light energy is attenuated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of the ERV mode in measuring the AL of dense cataracts. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational case series conducted in Japan. We ...

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    4. Diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Web of Science. The pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (sROC), and the total accurate classification rate were used to evaluate OCTA' diagnostic value of CNV in AMD patients. Results: Seven studies involving 517 eyes were included in the analysis. The mean age of subjects in each study ranged from 58 ...

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    5. Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (Textbook)

      Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, rapid, and 3-dimensional evaluation of retinal vasculature well-suited for the evaluation of the microvasculopathy of diabetes. It visualizes the key clinical features of diabetic retinopathy (DR), including microaneurysms, non-perfusion, neovascularization, and capillary dilation. Several studies quantifying non-perfusion metrics in DR have demonstrated significant correlation between levels of retinopathy with these metrics. Segmentation schema, projection artifacts, image resolution, and signal strength remain a challenge, and careful attention to these and other technical issues is required for understanding the application of quantitative OCTA in DR.

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography of Peri-Ocular Skin Cancers: An Optical Biopsy

      Optical Coherence Tomography of Peri-Ocular Skin Cancers: An Optical Biopsy

      Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool for retinal disease for several years, and OCT apparatuses are becoming increasingly powerful. However, OCT has yet to reach its full potential in ophthalmology clinics. Alike retinal layers, it has been shown that OCT is able to generate cross-sectional images of the skin and allows visualization of skin lesions in a histopathology-like manner. Objective: We aim to validate OCT as an imaging modality for peri-ocular skin cancer. Through a series of cases, we highlight findings for 3 common eyelid malignancies: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and ...

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    7. Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and agreement of OCTA interpretation in cases of common retinal findings and diagnoses, and evaluate the effect of the OCT B-scans on OCTA interpretations. Methods: A case-series study, consisting of a questionnaire with 8 cases demonstrating common retinal conditions of normal, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Each case included OCTA images, and 58 participants were asked to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Following OCTA interpretation, the corresponding OCT B-scans were revealed and participants were asked again to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Rates of accuracy and agreement ...

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    8. Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Optic disc coloboma (ODC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the optic nerve. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps to monitor the complications when there is associated retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or peripapillary neovascularization, while being minimally invasive. OCT angiography could help to better understand this entity from a vascular perspective. We report multimodal imaging of 3 children with large ODC associated with cat eye syndrome, CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities), and branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

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    9. Acute Bilateral Uveitis, Hypotony, and Cataracts Associated with Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Therapy: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Acute Bilateral Uveitis, Hypotony, and Cataracts Associated with Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Therapy: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used for the treatment of several malignancies. In rare cases, patients develop disabling ophthalmic side effects such as dry eyes, episcleritis, keratitis, uveitis, inflammatory orbitopathy, myasthenia gravis, macular edema, and serous retinal detachment. We present a case of acute bilateral anterior uveitis, prolonged hypotony, and cataracts following the use of dual therapy ipilimumab and nivolumab.

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    10. Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macula in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macula in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma

      Backgroud: The retinal microvasculature within the macula in glaucomatous eyes is not clear. Objectives: To detect macular vessel density (MVD) changes in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Methods: 22 PACG patients who had an episode of acute primary angle closure were included. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were conducted to measure the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC). The MVD was measured with OCT angiography. Results: A weakened macular microvascular network that had an expanded fovea avascular zone was observed in the case group. Compared with the control group, the case ...

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    11. Multimodal imaging in choroidal metastasis

      Multimodal imaging in choroidal metastasis

      Background: Choroidal metastasis represent the most common malignant intraocular tumours. Objectives: To detect the structural and vascular features of choroidal metastasis by multimodal imaging. Methods: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with choroidal metastasis were enrolled in this prospective study. The multimodal imaging was performed in all patients: fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), OCT angiography (OCTA) and ultrasonography. Results: The choroidal metastasis were located in the macula region in 9 eyes (57%) and in the extramacular region in 7 eyes (43%). EDI-OCT showed a mean thickness of 950 ± 246 µm, a smooth anterior tumour ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings (SD-OCT and OCTA) in Early-Stage Type 3 Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings (SD-OCT and OCTA) in Early-Stage Type 3 Neovascularization

      A 76-year-old male presented with a small hyperreflective density in the outer nuclear layer with subtle retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) elevation and few intraretinal cysts on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) confirmed the presence of a tuft-shaped intraretinal neovascular lesion. SD-OCT performed 2 months before showed a smaller RPE elevation at the same location without intraretinal fluid. A 79-year-old male presented with a small hyperreflective density in the outer retina surrounded by scant intraretinal fluid on SD-OCT and a bright vessel on OCTA, suggesting early-stage type 3 neovascularization. SD-OCT performed 2 months before showed a ...

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    13. Characteristics of the Filtering Bleb and the Agreement between Glaucoma Specialist and Anterior Segment OCT Assessment.

      Characteristics of the Filtering Bleb and the Agreement between Glaucoma Specialist and Anterior Segment OCT Assessment.

      Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the filtering bleb in failed late trabeculectomy and the agreement between glaucoma specialist assessment and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) system assessment in terms of the presence of subconjunctival fluid in the filtering bleb. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of glaucoma who were scheduled to undergo trabeculectomy in at least one eye and with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) were enrolled. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. The presence of fluid under the filtering bleb was first evaluated by a glaucoma specialist using biomicroscopy evaluation and then using the ...

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    14. OCT-Angiography in Geographic Atrophy

      OCT-Angiography in Geographic Atrophy

      Geographic atrophy (GA) represents the nonexudative late stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and constitutes a leading cause of legal blindness in the developed world. It is characterized by areas of loss of outer retinal layers including photoreceptors, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium, and rarefication of the choriocapillaris. As all three layers are functionally connected, the precise temporal sequence and relative contribution of these layers towards the development and progression of GA is unclear. The advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has allowed for three-dimensional visualization of retinal blood flow. Using OCT-A, recent studies have demonstrated that choriocapillaris ...

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    15. Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Foveal Splitting Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

      Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Foveal Splitting Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

      To assess preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of foveal splitting retinal detachment (RD), and to determine their postoperative outcomes. Consecutive patients who underwent RD surgery over a one-year period were included. Patients diagnosed with a detachment extending to the edge of the fovea on fundus examination (i.e. macula-On/Off) underwent macular OCT scanning. One-year visual acuity (VA) of macula-On/Off, macula-On and macula-Off eyes was compared. 85 eyes were included, of which 8 had a macula-On/Off RD. On preoperative OCT, all macula-On/Off RD had a foveal detachment extending beyond the foveal center, over a median distance ...

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    16. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ranibizumab-Treated Choroidal Neovascularization in Choroidal Osteoma

      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ranibizumab-Treated Choroidal Neovascularization in Choroidal Osteoma

      In this study, we report the initial evaluation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to choroidal osteoma and subsequent response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment monitored with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). A 38-year-old female presented with an initial visual acuity of 20/150 in the left eye. Clinical examination revealed a choroidal osteoma. OCT demonstrated both subretinal and intraretinal fluid. OCT-A was performed and showed CNV. A course of ten treatments with ranibizumab showed an improvement of visual acuity to 20/30–3, improvement of subretinal and intraretinal fluid, as well as attenuation of CNV. Our report demonstrates ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

      A 46-year-old female with a history of 5 months of progressive painless visual loss in the left eye was found to have an optic nerve sheath meningioma. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a reduction in the superficial capillary plexus density consistent with her visual field defect and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Moreover, abnormalities in the choriocapillaris were found in the affected eye compared to the fellow eye. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. Further studies and a consistent number of cases are needed to correctly assess the impairment of ocular blood flow in optic nerve sheath meningioma.

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    18. Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Background: Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying intraocular tumor of unknown etiology. While patients with choroidal osteoma usually show distinct large yellowish subretinal lesions, some could have small lesions, making the differential diagnosis difficult. We experienced 2 cases of small symptomatic unilateral osteoma approximately 1.0-mm disc diameter in size. Methods: Retrospective medical charts of 2 patients with small symptomatic unilateral osteoma were reviewed. Fundus examination, spectral domain enhanced-depth optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, B-scan ultrasonography (USG), and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were performed. Results: Case 1: a case of a 41-year-old male. Fundus examination ...

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    19. Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detection of bladder cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search on CLE in diagnosing bladder cancer in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled diagnostic value of CLE. Results: A total of 5 eligible studies involving 302 lesions were available for this meta-analysis. In a per-lesion analysis, pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver-operating curve (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) of CLE ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    20. Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of healthy subjects and examine the magnification effect. Methods: A total of 33 healthy volunteers were enrolled and all subjects were eligible for analysis. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) examination scanned 3 × 3 mm of the macular area. The FAZ area was measured on the superficial OCTA en face image with and without correction by axial length. The relationship between changes in the FAZ area after correction with the axial length was examined. Results: The mean age was 21.9 ± 0.6 years. The mean axial ...

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      Mentions: Optovue Nidek
    21. Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Background: The predictors and airway morphological changes during the development of postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) have not been well elucidated. Objectives: To elucidate the validation of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) in assessing the airway morphological changes in PITS. Methods: We performed oral endotracheal intubation in 12 beagles to establish the PITS model. EB-OCT was performed respectively before modeling and on the 1st, 7th, and 12th day after extubation in 9 canines, and was conducted consecutively in 3 canines during the development of PITS. Histological findings and the thickness and gray-scale value of the tracheal wall assessed by EB-OCT measurements ...

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    22. USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      Introduction: New technologies have been developed in order to decrease interpersonal influence and subjectivity during the glaucoma diagnosis process. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain OCT (EDI OCT) has turned up as a favorable tool for deep optic nerve head (ONH) structures assessment. Objective: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of different EDI OCT -derived parameters to discriminate between eyes with and without glaucoma. Material and Methods: The following optic nerve head parameters were measured: lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and area; prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT) thickness and area; average Bruch’s membrane opening - minimum rim width (aBMO-MRW ...

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    23. Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and safety of a coaxial dual wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (marked as Hydra-OCT). Methods: Healthy participants without ocular pathology underwent retinal imaging using the Hydra-OCT allowing for simultaneous measurement of retinal scanning of 840 and 1072 nm wavelength. Before and after measurement, best corrected visual acuity and patients’ comfort was assessed. Representative OCT images from both wavelengths were compared by five independent graders using a subjective grading scheme. Results: A total of 30 eyes of 30 participants (8 females and 22 males) with a mean age of 26.5 years (range from 19 to ...

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    24. Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Purpose: To investigate longitudinal changes and associated factors for microvascular parameters in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after repair surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 34 eyes with macula-off RRD. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and parafoveal vessel density were recorded every 3 months for 1 year after surgery. We analyzed 3×3mm and 6×6mm swept-source optical coherence tomographic angiography (SS-OCTA) images to quantify microvascular parameters. Individual clinical factors, and pre- and postoperative OCT images were analyzed to find factors associated with changes in the FAZ area and vessel density 12 months after surgery. Results: The ...

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