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    1. Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and agreement of OCTA interpretation in cases of common retinal findings and diagnoses, and evaluate the effect of the OCT B-scans on OCTA interpretations. Methods: A case-series study, consisting of a questionnaire with 8 cases demonstrating common retinal conditions of normal, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Each case included OCTA images, and 58 participants were asked to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Following OCTA interpretation, the corresponding OCT B-scans were revealed and participants were asked again to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Rates of accuracy and agreement ...

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    2. Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Optic disc coloboma (ODC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the optic nerve. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps to monitor the complications when there is associated retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or peripapillary neovascularization, while being minimally invasive. OCT angiography could help to better understand this entity from a vascular perspective. We report multimodal imaging of 3 children with large ODC associated with cat eye syndrome, CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities), and branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

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    3. Acute Bilateral Uveitis, Hypotony, and Cataracts Associated with Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Therapy: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Acute Bilateral Uveitis, Hypotony, and Cataracts Associated with Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Therapy: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used for the treatment of several malignancies. In rare cases, patients develop disabling ophthalmic side effects such as dry eyes, episcleritis, keratitis, uveitis, inflammatory orbitopathy, myasthenia gravis, macular edema, and serous retinal detachment. We present a case of acute bilateral anterior uveitis, prolonged hypotony, and cataracts following the use of dual therapy ipilimumab and nivolumab.

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macula in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macula in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma

      Backgroud: The retinal microvasculature within the macula in glaucomatous eyes is not clear. Objectives: To detect macular vessel density (MVD) changes in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Methods: 22 PACG patients who had an episode of acute primary angle closure were included. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were conducted to measure the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC). The MVD was measured with OCT angiography. Results: A weakened macular microvascular network that had an expanded fovea avascular zone was observed in the case group. Compared with the control group, the case ...

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    5. Multimodal imaging in choroidal metastasis

      Multimodal imaging in choroidal metastasis

      Background: Choroidal metastasis represent the most common malignant intraocular tumours. Objectives: To detect the structural and vascular features of choroidal metastasis by multimodal imaging. Methods: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with choroidal metastasis were enrolled in this prospective study. The multimodal imaging was performed in all patients: fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), OCT angiography (OCTA) and ultrasonography. Results: The choroidal metastasis were located in the macula region in 9 eyes (57%) and in the extramacular region in 7 eyes (43%). EDI-OCT showed a mean thickness of 950 ± 246 µm, a smooth anterior tumour ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings (SD-OCT and OCTA) in Early-Stage Type 3 Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings (SD-OCT and OCTA) in Early-Stage Type 3 Neovascularization

      A 76-year-old male presented with a small hyperreflective density in the outer nuclear layer with subtle retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) elevation and few intraretinal cysts on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) confirmed the presence of a tuft-shaped intraretinal neovascular lesion. SD-OCT performed 2 months before showed a smaller RPE elevation at the same location without intraretinal fluid. A 79-year-old male presented with a small hyperreflective density in the outer retina surrounded by scant intraretinal fluid on SD-OCT and a bright vessel on OCTA, suggesting early-stage type 3 neovascularization. SD-OCT performed 2 months before showed a ...

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    7. Characteristics of the Filtering Bleb and the Agreement between Glaucoma Specialist and Anterior Segment OCT Assessment.

      Characteristics of the Filtering Bleb and the Agreement between Glaucoma Specialist and Anterior Segment OCT Assessment.

      Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the filtering bleb in failed late trabeculectomy and the agreement between glaucoma specialist assessment and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) system assessment in terms of the presence of subconjunctival fluid in the filtering bleb. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of glaucoma who were scheduled to undergo trabeculectomy in at least one eye and with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) were enrolled. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. The presence of fluid under the filtering bleb was first evaluated by a glaucoma specialist using biomicroscopy evaluation and then using the ...

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    8. OCT-Angiography in Geographic Atrophy

      OCT-Angiography in Geographic Atrophy

      Geographic atrophy (GA) represents the nonexudative late stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and constitutes a leading cause of legal blindness in the developed world. It is characterized by areas of loss of outer retinal layers including photoreceptors, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium, and rarefication of the choriocapillaris. As all three layers are functionally connected, the precise temporal sequence and relative contribution of these layers towards the development and progression of GA is unclear. The advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has allowed for three-dimensional visualization of retinal blood flow. Using OCT-A, recent studies have demonstrated that choriocapillaris ...

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    9. Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Foveal Splitting Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

      Preoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Foveal Splitting Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

      To assess preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of foveal splitting retinal detachment (RD), and to determine their postoperative outcomes. Consecutive patients who underwent RD surgery over a one-year period were included. Patients diagnosed with a detachment extending to the edge of the fovea on fundus examination (i.e. macula-On/Off) underwent macular OCT scanning. One-year visual acuity (VA) of macula-On/Off, macula-On and macula-Off eyes was compared. 85 eyes were included, of which 8 had a macula-On/Off RD. On preoperative OCT, all macula-On/Off RD had a foveal detachment extending beyond the foveal center, over a median distance ...

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    10. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ranibizumab-Treated Choroidal Neovascularization in Choroidal Osteoma

      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ranibizumab-Treated Choroidal Neovascularization in Choroidal Osteoma

      In this study, we report the initial evaluation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to choroidal osteoma and subsequent response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment monitored with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). A 38-year-old female presented with an initial visual acuity of 20/150 in the left eye. Clinical examination revealed a choroidal osteoma. OCT demonstrated both subretinal and intraretinal fluid. OCT-A was performed and showed CNV. A course of ten treatments with ranibizumab showed an improvement of visual acuity to 20/30–3, improvement of subretinal and intraretinal fluid, as well as attenuation of CNV. Our report demonstrates ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma

      A 46-year-old female with a history of 5 months of progressive painless visual loss in the left eye was found to have an optic nerve sheath meningioma. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed a reduction in the superficial capillary plexus density consistent with her visual field defect and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Moreover, abnormalities in the choriocapillaris were found in the affected eye compared to the fellow eye. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed. Further studies and a consistent number of cases are needed to correctly assess the impairment of ocular blood flow in optic nerve sheath meningioma.

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    12. Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Small Symptomatic Unilateral Choroidal Osteoma Diagnosed with Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography and Thin-Slice Computed Tomography: 2 Clinical Cases

      Background: Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying intraocular tumor of unknown etiology. While patients with choroidal osteoma usually show distinct large yellowish subretinal lesions, some could have small lesions, making the differential diagnosis difficult. We experienced 2 cases of small symptomatic unilateral osteoma approximately 1.0-mm disc diameter in size. Methods: Retrospective medical charts of 2 patients with small symptomatic unilateral osteoma were reviewed. Fundus examination, spectral domain enhanced-depth optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, B-scan ultrasonography (USG), and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were performed. Results: Case 1: a case of a 41-year-old male. Fundus examination ...

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    13. Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Performance of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Bladder Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Objective: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in detection of bladder cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search on CLE in diagnosing bladder cancer in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed. A bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis to evaluate the pooled diagnostic value of CLE. Results: A total of 5 eligible studies involving 302 lesions were available for this meta-analysis. In a per-lesion analysis, pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver-operating curve (SROC) area under the curve (AUC) of CLE ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    14. Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Magnification Effect of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of healthy subjects and examine the magnification effect. Methods: A total of 33 healthy volunteers were enrolled and all subjects were eligible for analysis. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) examination scanned 3 × 3 mm of the macular area. The FAZ area was measured on the superficial OCTA en face image with and without correction by axial length. The relationship between changes in the FAZ area after correction with the axial length was examined. Results: The mean age was 21.9 ± 0.6 years. The mean axial ...

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      Mentions: Optovue Nidek
    15. Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Evaluated by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography: A Canine Model Study

      Background: The predictors and airway morphological changes during the development of postintubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) have not been well elucidated. Objectives: To elucidate the validation of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) in assessing the airway morphological changes in PITS. Methods: We performed oral endotracheal intubation in 12 beagles to establish the PITS model. EB-OCT was performed respectively before modeling and on the 1st, 7th, and 12th day after extubation in 9 canines, and was conducted consecutively in 3 canines during the development of PITS. Histological findings and the thickness and gray-scale value of the tracheal wall assessed by EB-OCT measurements ...

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    16. USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      USING ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY – DERIVED PARAMETERS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN EYES WITH AND WITHOUT GLAUCOMA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

      Introduction: New technologies have been developed in order to decrease interpersonal influence and subjectivity during the glaucoma diagnosis process. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain OCT (EDI OCT) has turned up as a favorable tool for deep optic nerve head (ONH) structures assessment. Objective: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of different EDI OCT -derived parameters to discriminate between eyes with and without glaucoma. Material and Methods: The following optic nerve head parameters were measured: lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and area; prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT) thickness and area; average Bruch’s membrane opening - minimum rim width (aBMO-MRW ...

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    17. Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Feasibility and Safety of a Coaxial Dual Wavelength – Optical Coherence Tomography Apparatus

      Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and safety of a coaxial dual wavelength optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (marked as Hydra-OCT). Methods: Healthy participants without ocular pathology underwent retinal imaging using the Hydra-OCT allowing for simultaneous measurement of retinal scanning of 840 and 1072 nm wavelength. Before and after measurement, best corrected visual acuity and patients’ comfort was assessed. Representative OCT images from both wavelengths were compared by five independent graders using a subjective grading scheme. Results: A total of 30 eyes of 30 participants (8 females and 22 males) with a mean age of 26.5 years (range from 19 to ...

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    18. Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Longitudinal Microvascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Repair Surgery

      Purpose: To investigate longitudinal changes and associated factors for microvascular parameters in macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after repair surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 34 eyes with macula-off RRD. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and parafoveal vessel density were recorded every 3 months for 1 year after surgery. We analyzed 3×3mm and 6×6mm swept-source optical coherence tomographic angiography (SS-OCTA) images to quantify microvascular parameters. Individual clinical factors, and pre- and postoperative OCT images were analyzed to find factors associated with changes in the FAZ area and vessel density 12 months after surgery. Results: The ...

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    19. Measurement of the Lower Lid Margin Thickness by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Measurement of the Lower Lid Margin Thickness by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To verify the feasibility of using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to measure the lower lid margin thickness (LLMT) from posterior lash line to the mucocutaneous junction. Methods: This was a prospective, single center, observational study. Fifty-six volunteers between 20 and 79 years old with normal healthy eyes were included in this study. Using AS-OCT to measure the LLMT at the middle position was separately performed by two operators under the same conditions. Results: The mean age of 56 subjects (24 males and 32 females) was 45.4 ± 15.7 years. The LLMT measured by AS-OCT between two ...

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    20. Predicting Progression of Untreated Macular Pucker Using Retinal Surface En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      Predicting Progression of Untreated Macular Pucker Using Retinal Surface En Face Optical Coherence Tomography

      To review visual outcomes in untreated premacular membrane (PMM) with macular pucker (MP) and evaluate novel predictors of progression. Methods: In this retrospective observation study, we included 342 eyes with untreated PMM with MP between 2012 and 2015. PMMs were characterized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging based on foveal morphologies, number of retinal contraction centers, central subfield thickness (CST), inner segment ellipsoid band integrity, and photoreceptor deformation index. Additionally, the thickened retina portion was identified by en face OCT and processed digitally to calculate its area. Parameters were retrospectively analyzed using multiple regression analyses to identify associations with ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics of the Choroid Underlying Congenital Hypertrophy of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics of the Choroid Underlying Congenital Hypertrophy of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

      Purpose: This study evaluates and characterizes the choroid underlying congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE). Methods: Retrospective observational study of CHRPE at least 2 mm in diameter. Choroidal vascular architecture was qualitatively examined. Choroidal thickness was measured by 2 independent observers using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients with CHRPE were included. Thirty-two lesions had imaging sufficient for analysis. Haller’s layer was healthy in 18 (56%), thin in 13 (41%), and absent in 1 (2%). Sattler’s layer was atrophic in 30 (94%), and choriocapillaris was atrophic in 31 ...

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    22. Microvasculature Changes of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization and the Predictive Value of Feeder Vessel Disappearance after Ranibizumab Treatment Revealed Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Microvasculature Changes of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization and the Predictive Value of Feeder Vessel Disappearance after Ranibizumab Treatment Revealed Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Aim: To investigate vascular changes of myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) after ranibizumab treatment using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive subjects with a diagnosis of mCNV were included. Patients underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab treatment with a 6-month follow-up. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and OCTA evaluation. The 3 × 3 OCTA en face images were analyzed for the absence/presence of mCNV, CNV area, and CNV network morphology. In particular, the morphology of the mCNV was analyzed in order to detect the presence/absence of feeder vessels. Results: Eleven subjects were evaluated. At baseline, the mCNV was identified ...

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    23. Multimodality Imaging Approach for Combined Central Retinal Vein and Artery Occlusion: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Multimodality Imaging Approach for Combined Central Retinal Vein and Artery Occlusion: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion is an uncommon vascular pathology that can cause severe and permanent visual impairment. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a newly available, noninvasive imaging technique that can potentially improve understanding of the structural and vascular implications and prognosis of this infrequent pathology. The present report describes the principal clinical findings in a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion, as detected by the different imaging modalities available in a tertiary referral hospital. OCTA wide-field montage images identified an extensive area of nonperfusion on the macula with involvement of the entire retina ...

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    24. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula Is Associated with Greater Central Choroidal Blood Flow Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula Is Associated with Greater Central Choroidal Blood Flow Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: Dome-shaped macula (DSM) is characterized by an inward bulge in the macula, often associated with a myopic staphyloma. One complication of DSM is particularly studied: foveolar serous retinal detachment (SRD). This study analyzed the variations of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) decorrelation signal in cases of DSM with and without SRD. Methods: This was a retrospective study including twenty height eyes presenting with DSM. OCT-A scans were recorded, and the intensity of the choroidal decorrelation signal was quantified to analyze choroidal blood flow (CBF) in central, temporal, and nasal macular areas. The size of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy ...

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