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    1. Macular Morphologic and Microvascular Analysis in Pseudophakic Children with Previous Pediatric Cataract Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Macular Morphologic and Microvascular Analysis in Pseudophakic Children with Previous Pediatric Cataract Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Introduction: The macular morphologic and microvascular changes in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze macular morphologic and microvascular remodeling in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive cases between December 1, 2018, and November 31, 2020 were recruited. Sixty-one participants (31 pseudophakic children and 30 healthy controls) met the inclusion criteria and were included for final analysis. OCTA was used to measure macular vascular density, the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and macular thickness. The parameters were compared between pseudophakic and healthy ...

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    2. Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Introduction: Examination of subungual pigmented lesions is sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Objectives: The study was aimed to investigate characteristic patterns in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subungual hematomas and determine distinctive features that can differentiate them from subungual melanocytic lesions. Methods: VivoSight® (Michelson Diagnostics, Maidstone, UK) was used to examine 71 subungual hematomas and 11 subungual melanocytic lesions in 69 patients (18 female and 51 male patients). Results: On OCT, bleeding was related to sharply defined black sickle-shaped ( p < 0.001) or globular regions (not significant [ns]) with a hyperreflective margin (0.002), a grey center (0.013 ...

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    3. Non-homogenous hyperreflectivity in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA implies early treatment with anti-VEGF for central serous chorioretinopathy

      Non-homogenous hyperreflectivity in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA implies early treatment with anti-VEGF for central serous chorioretinopathy

      Introduction: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) facilitates the detection of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This study explored the role of non-homogenous hyperreflectivity implying putative CNV in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: Thirteen eyes out of 12 patients with CSCR were examined with OCTA. The non-homogenous hyperreflectivity was compared with the histological morphology of experimental CNV. The effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated by analyzing the changes of central macular thickness (CMT) and the height of subretinal fluid (SRF). Results: Comparison of the non-homogenous hyperreflectivity on OCTA with the established CNV in ...

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    4. Anterior Segmental Optical Coherence Tomography Analyses of Severe Corneal Irregular Astigmatism following Blepharoptosis Surgery

      Anterior Segmental Optical Coherence Tomography Analyses of Severe Corneal Irregular Astigmatism following Blepharoptosis Surgery

      We report a case of severe irregular corneal astigmatism resulting from delayed diagnosis of suture exposure following blepharoptosis surgery. An 81-year-old man who had bilateral blepharoptosis surgery and two revisions on his right eye before he complained foreign body sensation (FBS) and blurred vision of his right eye. The visual acuity was 0.4 and the MRD1 was 1 mm for his right eye. A very severe corneal astigmatism of 7.7D, eccentricity of 0.53, corneal thinning, and higher order aberration (HOA) of 3.346 μm was found. Scratch-like lesions on the upper cornea suggested the presence of suture ...

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    5. Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and its incidence is rising. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) can develop low- and high-grade dysplasia which can progress to EAC overtime. The golden standard to detect dysplastic BE (DBE) or EAC is surveillance with high-definition white-light endoscopy (HD-WLE) and random biopsies according to the Seattle protocol. However, this method is time-consuming and associated with a remarkable miss rate. Therefore, there is great need for the development of novel reliable techniques to optimize surveillance strategies and improve detection rates. Summary: Optical chromoendoscopy (OC) techniques like narrow-band imaging ...

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    6. Nail-Patella Syndrome: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      Nail-Patella Syndrome: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings

      We describe a 51-year-old Hispanic female with nail-patella syndrome (NPS), a rare genetic disease with a wide range of systemic features such as nail dysplasia and finger abnormalities, elbow webbing, iliac horn, patellar subluxation, and proteinuria. Some patients additionally have a history of glaucoma and other ocular features such as thick central corneal thickness, Lester’s sign, prominent iris processes, and optic nerve cupping. Our patient had a history of glaucoma suspicion, prominent iris processes, increased cup to disc ratios, tilted optic discs, and tigroid fundi. In addition, we report optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings of focal areas of ...

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    7. Choroidal Macrovessel Diagnosed on Multimodal Imaging, including Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal Macrovessel Diagnosed on Multimodal Imaging, including Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal macrovessel (CM) is a rare anomalous vascular lesion in the choroid. In this case report, we describe a 72-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with an incidental heavily branching CM in the macula of his right eye based on multimodal imaging, including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), swept-source OCT angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. Multimodal imaging is valuable in demonstrating the distinctive appearance of this entity and differentiating it from more vision-threatening differential diagnoses, such as ophthalmomyiasis interna, choroidal neoplasms, retinochoroidal anastomosis, and inflammatory conditions.

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    8. Study of nonperfusion area changes after ranibizumab intravitreal injection for diabetic macular edema by means of widefield OCT angiography

      Study of nonperfusion area changes after ranibizumab intravitreal injection for diabetic macular edema by means of widefield OCT angiography

      Introduction: To evaluate changes of retinal capillary non-perfusion areas (RCNPA) and the retinal capillary vessel density (RCVD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) using widefield optical coherence tomography angiography (WFOCTA) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IRI). Materials and Methods: 24 eyes of 24 patients with DR and DME candidates to a loading dose of IRI were enrolled. All patients underwent WFOCTA with the PLEX Elite 9000 device with 15 × 9 mm scans centered on the foveal center at baseline (T0) and 1 month after ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Macular Changes And Their Correlation With Peripheral Nonperfusion At Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography In Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Macular Changes And Their Correlation With Peripheral Nonperfusion At Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography

      Introduction: To investigate the correlation between ischemic index (ISI) measured on ultra-widefield (UWF) fluorescein angiography (FA) images and macular parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in eyes affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods: Retrospective study of data from 12 eyes affected by treatment-naïve CRVO. All patients underwent a comprehensive ocular examination including structural OCT, OCT-A, and UWF FA. Variables analyzed included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured with the ETDRS chart; foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area at full-thickness OCT-A angiogram; perfusion density (PD) in the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP); ISI; and central macular ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Prognostic Factors in AMD Patients with Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization

      Optical Coherence Tomography Prognostic Factors in AMD Patients with Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization

      Purpose: To investigate the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and visual acuity outcomes after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for age related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization (PPCNV). METHODS: A retrospective case series of consecutive patients diagnosed with PPCNV secondary to AMD. All patients were treated with IVB injections with a follow-up time of one year. Data collected included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), automated and manually measured OCT parameters. RESULTS: A total of 68 eyes were diagnosed with PPMV. Of them, 30 eyes of 30 patients aged 84.3±6.9 years of ...

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    11. Transient Angle Obstruction Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Hemodialysis

      Transient Angle Obstruction Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Hemodialysis

      An 80-year-old Japanese man presented with decreased vision in his right eye (OD) after every hemodialysis (HD) session beginning several months previously. His local ophthalmologist prescribed antiglaucoma medications because of high intraocular pressure (IOP) (38 mm Hg) OD 4 months previously; with treatment, the IOP fluctuated between 6 and 34 mm Hg OD. When hospitalized, the IOP was measured, and the anterior chamber was observed by anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and after HD. Before HD, the IOP levels were 7 mm Hg OD and 8 mm Hg in the left eye (OS). AS-OCT showed marked anterior iris bowing ...

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    12. Standardization of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinal Disease

      Standardization of Optical Coherence  Tomography Angiography Imaging  Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinal Disease

      Optical coherence tomography Angiography (OCT-A) represents a revolution in the noninvasive evaluation of retinal and choroidal circulation especially in detecting early clinical signs of diabetic retinal disease (DRD). With appropriate use, OCT-A characteristics and measurements have the potential to become new imaging biomarkers in managing and treating DRD. Major challenges include (a) provision of standardized outputs from different OCT-A instruments providing standardized terminology to correctly interpret data; (b) the presence of artifacts; (c) the absence of standardized grading or interpretation method in the evaluation of DRD, similar to that already established in fundus photography; and (d) establishing how OCT-A might ...

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    13. Vitreous Noise on Optical Coherence Tomography as an Early Finding of Brolucizumab-Related Intraocular Inflammation

      Vitreous Noise on Optical Coherence Tomography as an Early Finding of Brolucizumab-Related Intraocular Inflammation

      We describe a case of brolucizumab-related intraocular inflammation (IOI) detected using vitreous haze on optical coherence tomography (OCT) at an early stage before the patient was aware of any symptom. A 69-year-old female presented with decreased right vision. The patient was diagnosed with pachychoroidal neovasculopathy and started intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) with a 3+ treat-and-extend strategy (TAE). Although the serous retinal detachment (SRD) disappeared after IVA treatment, the patient was managed with treatment every 4 weeks without extending the treatment interval To shorten the treatment interval, intravitreal brolucizumab (IVBr) was started 44 weeks after starting IVA treatment. After initiating IVBr treatment ...

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    14. Multimodal Imaging, OCT En Face, and OCT Angiography of an Anomalous Retinal Artery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

      Multimodal Imaging, OCT En Face, and OCT Angiography of an Anomalous Retinal Artery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

      The purpose is to study for the first time the vascular plexuses and the retinal nerve fiber layer and raphe of a patient with a very uncommon anatomical variation: an anomalous retinal artery supplying the whole macula. We used multimodal imaging, en face spectral-domain optic coherence tomography, and spectral-domain optic coherence tomography angiography. One patient presented in his left eye a very unusual anatomical variation of macular vascularization. A retinal artery deriving from the inferior temporal retinal artery irrigated the whole macula. The formation of the papillomacular bundle and the temporal raphe nerve fiber layer has been attributed to the ...

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    15. Assessing Light and Energy-Based Therapy by Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy: A Randomized Trial of Photoaged Skin

      Assessing Light and Energy-Based Therapy by Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy: A Randomized Trial of Photoaged Skin

      Background and Objectives: Image-guided quantitative and semi-quantitative assessment of skin can potentially evaluate treatment efficacy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are ideal for this purpose. This study assessed clinically relevant statistical changes in RCM and OCT features in photoaged skin after light and energy-based therapy. Methods: Novel statistical analyses were performed using OCT and RCM data collected during a previously published trial: a 12-week study of female décolleté skin randomized to four areas treated with thulium laser (L), photodynamic therapy (PDT), combined L-PDT, and control. Eight semi-quantitative RCM scores of photodamage and OCT measurements of ...

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    16. Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Introduction: This study aimed to reveal whether retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) inner plexiform layer, and choroidal layer (CL) thicknesses differed in patients with migraine. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to measure these neurovascular structural changes and determine the relationship between these structures and cranial white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Methods: This retrospective comparative registry study included a total of 155 individuals aged 18–55 (mean, 33.50 ± 8.34), consisting of 110 migraine patients and 45 healthy controls. Results: RNFLs were thinner in the migraine group than the control group but not to a statistically ...

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    17. A meta-analysis of alterations in the retina and choroid in high myopia assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      A meta-analysis of alterations in the retina and choroid in high myopia assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background: High myopia (HM) is a risk factor for several pathological structural changes in retinal and choroidal thickness or vessel. To date, changes in retinal and choroidal microvasculature circulations in HM have yielded inconsistent results. Objectives: To evaluate alternations in retinal and choroidal thickness, and capillary microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in HM. Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant published studies. Primary outcomes were foveal avascular zone, vessel density, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, foveal thickness, sub-foveal choroidal thickness and chorio-capillary density. Alterations in outcomes were evaluated by standardized mean difference ...

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    18. Successful Treatment of Post-Phacoemulsification Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Assessed by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Report

      Successful Treatment of Post-Phacoemulsification Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Assessed by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Report

      Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD) is a rare but serious complication of phacoemulsification surgery. A small DMD may resolve spontaneously, but extensive DMD often requires intracameral injection of air, nonexpansile gases, or expansile gases. A 92-year-old man who underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration with intraocular lens placement in the right eye had significantly reduced visual acuity, with a hazy cornea after surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) examination revealed extensive DMD throughout the cornea. He was treated with intracameral injection of 20% sulfur hexafluoride. As a result, the Descemet membrane was successfully reattached, and the corneal edema resolved. AS-OCT was ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Microvascular Variations in Pre- and Posttreatment of Retinoblastoma Tumors

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Microvascular Variations in Pre- and Posttreatment of Retinoblastoma Tumors

      Introduction: The purpose of this study is to describe variations in microvasculature before and after treatment of treatment-naive lesions and during consolidation therapy of retinoblastoma lesions using an investigational portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system. Methods: This study is a single-center, prospective, observational case series. Recruited subjects were either undergoing surveillance for retinoblastoma or had newly detected retinoblastoma. Nine tumors from 7 eyes in 6 patients were included. During exams under anesthesia, the tumors were imaged with an investigational portable OCTA system. OCTA images were analyzed to assess vascular changes before and after treatment. Results: In all 6 presented ...

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