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    1. Evaluation of Vascular Changes with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Plaque Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma

      Evaluation of Vascular Changes with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Plaque Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma

      Aim: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate whether optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) can be used to quantify the vascular changes in radiation maculopathy, and changes in the tumor vasculature in eyes treated with plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Methods: In this prospective study, we evaluated 39 Caucasian patients with choroidal melanoma (39 eyes) treated with ruthenium-106 plaque radiotherapy. The patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, bulbar echography, and OCT-A before and 1 year after treatment. Results: At baseline, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the affected eyes was 0.35 ± 0.40 logMAR, and the mean tumor ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a new tool able to visualize the different retinal plexuses and choroidal plexus, and it is a dye-free, rapid, and three-dimensional method. A new era in retinal imaging has begun, and retinal specialists have to deal with this novel diagnostic tool. However, OCT-A is a very recent technology and, as such, its clinical applications have still to be determined. For these reasons, dye angiographies (fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography) are still the current gold standard to study the retinal and choroidal vessels. In this chapter, we focus on current OCT-A applications in several ...

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    3. Bronchial Thermoplasty-Induced Acute Airway Effects Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography in Severe Asthma

      Bronchial Thermoplasty-Induced Acute Airway Effects Assessed with Optical Coherence Tomography in Severe Asthma

      Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic treatment for severe asthma targeting airway smooth muscle (ASM) with radiofrequent energy. Although implemented worldwide, the effect of BT treatment on the airways is unclear. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique, based on near-infrared light, that generates high-resolution cross-sectional airway wall images. Objective: To assess the safety and feasibility of OCT in severe asthma patients and determine acute airway effects of BT by OCT and compare these to the untreated right middle lobe (RML). Methods: Severe asthma patients were treated with BT (TASMA trial). During the third BT procedure, OCT ...

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    4. Diagnostic Ability and Discriminant Values of OCT-Angiography Parameters in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Diagnostic Ability and Discriminant Values of OCT-Angiography Parameters in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Purpose: To evaluate papillary, peripapillary, and macular vasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography in preperimetric (PPG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal eyes, and to assess diagnostic ability and associations among the vasculature and structural damage. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex thickness, whole-image (wiVD), inside disc (idVD), peripapillary (ppVD), and macular vessel densities were obtained. Analysis of variance, post hoc test, and Pearson coefficient were used. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and cut-offs were calculated. Results: Thirteen healthy, 39 PPG, and 19 POAG eyes were included ...

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    5. Reduction of Peripapillary Vessel Density by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography from the Acute to the Atrophic Stage in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Reduction of Peripapillary Vessel Density by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography from the Acute to the Atrophic Stage in Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Purpose: To analyse superficial peripapillary vascularization in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at acute and atrophic (3 months) stage. Procedures: Prospective case-control study including 6 patients with NAION and 10 age-matched healthy controls evaluated with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A; Angioplex-Cirrus) at acute and atrophic stage. Apart from the ­commercially provided measurements for vessel density (VD) and perfusion density (PD), a custom image analysis was used to quantify the peripapillary capillary density (PCD). Results: NAION-group demonstrated a significant decrease in the PCD, VD and PD compared with fellow unaffected and control groups at acute and atrophic stage. At 3 ...

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    6. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Allows the Unification of Clinical Decision Making for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Activity

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Allows the Unification of Clinical Decision Making for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Activity

      urpose: This prospective observational clinical study investigated the benefits of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for specialists and residents in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Procedures: The study involved 49 eyes of 44 patients. Patients were advised to present for reevaluation 4 weeks after the administration of the loading dose of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inhibitors (3 intravitreal injections every 4 weeks after diagnosis). They were examined by residents (3–4 years’ experience in ophthalmology) and specialists (> 5 years’ experience). Each examiner evaluated the clinical situation and the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan. After ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma: A Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma: A Review

      Background: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Several techniques exist for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) is a recently developed technique that provides a quantitative assessment of the microcirculation of the retina and choroid in a fast, noninvasive way. Despite it being a novel technique, several publications have already been done in the glaucoma field. However, a summary of findings is currently lacking. Aims: To perform a literature review to assess the role of OCTA in glaucoma diagnosis and follow-up. Methods: A database search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase ...

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      Mentions: K. U. Leuven
    8. Reliability of Vessel Density Measurements in the Peripapillary Retina and Correlation with Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Healthy Subjects Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Reliability of Vessel Density Measurements in the Peripapillary Retina and Correlation with Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Healthy Subjects Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of vessel density measurements in the peripapillary retina using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and to analyze the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy subjects. Method: Thirty-five healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. The optic disc region was scanned three times with spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) and split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography by two skilled examiners. Vessel density of the peripapillary retina was automatically calculated by the software RTVue-XR (version 2015.1.1.98). The RNFL thickness on the optic nerve head was measured by SD-OCT. The coefficient of variation (CV), coefficient ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

      Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

      Chestnut burrs, the thorny encapsulation of chestnut fruit, can sometimes cause corneal injuries and ulceration, with poor prognoses. We report a case of corneal perforation and damaged anterior lens capsule due to a chestnut burr, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A 67-year-old woman with a chestnut burr injury in her right eye was referred to our hospital. Her right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.8. Slit-lamp examination and AS-OCT showed perforation involving the endothelial layer at the center of the cornea. The iris and anterior lens capsule were damaged. Cell infiltration was observed around the wound. Bacterial ...

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    10. Choroidal Thickness with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography versus Foveal Morphology in Young Children with a History of Prematurity

      Choroidal Thickness with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography versus Foveal Morphology in Young Children with a History of Prematurity

      Aim: Comparison of choroidal thickness (CT) and foveal morphology as seen with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in children with a history of treated or spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity (tROP or srROP) to assess the impact on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods: CT was measured by SS-OCT (DRI-OCT Triton; Topcon, USA) single scans of a 6-mm diameter around the fovea in 17 children with tROP or srROP (4–7 years of age) and compared to 25 controls (age-matched children and adults). The disproportion of the outer nuclear layer and inner retinal layers at the fovea (i.e., the ONL ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Foveal Neovascularization in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Foveal Neovascularization in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose: To report a case of foveal neovascularization in a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: Multimodal imaging was used for diagnostic investigation. Patient: A 61-year-old male with a 16-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was referred to our medical retina department for examination and management. Meticulous fundus examination and multimodal imaging revealed proliferative diabetic retinopathy lesions, including neovascularization located in the foveal area. Results: OCT-A allowed us to detect the neovascular lesion, confirm that it originated from perifoveal capillaries, estimate its retinal depth, and evaluate the vessel blood flow in multiple ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Offers New Insights into Choriocapillaris Perfusion

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Offers New Insights into Choriocapillaris Perfusion

      The choriocapillaris (CC) represents a fundamentally important vascular layer that is subject to physiologic changes with increasing age and that is also associated with a wide range of chorioretinal diseases. So far, information on blood flow in this specific layer has remained limited. With the advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), new perspectives and possibilities of CC imaging have begun to evolve. This article shall review the opportunities and challenges of applying OCTA technology to the CC layer and summarize the current clinical efforts in OCTA CC imaging exemplarily in dry age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy.

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      Mentions: Optovue
    13. Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objectives: We sought to clarify clinical features and outcomes related to calcified nodules (CN) compared with plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Based on OCT findings for culprit lesion plaque morphologies, ACS patients with analyzable OCT images ( n = 362) were classified as CN, PR, PE, and other. Results: The prevalence of CN, PR, and PE was 6% ( n = 21), 45% ( n = 163), and 41% ( n = 149), respectively. Patients with CN were older (median 71 vs. 65 years, p = 0.03) and ...

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    14. Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Features and Outcomes of Patients with Calcified Nodules at Culprit Lesions of Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objectives: We sought to clarify clinical features and outcomes related to calcified nodules (CN) compared with plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Based on OCT findings for culprit lesion plaque morphologies, ACS patients with analyzable OCT images ( n = 362) were classified as CN, PR, PE, and other. Results: The prevalence of CN, PR, and PE was 6% ( n = 21), 45% ( n = 163), and 41% ( n = 149), respectively. Patients with CN were older (median 71 vs. 65 years, p = 0.03) and ...

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      Mentions: Masamichi Takano
    15. A Case of Retinal Detachment with Unique Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Gamma Knife® Radiosurgery Treatment for Choroidal Melanoma

      A Case of Retinal Detachment with Unique Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Gamma Knife® Radiosurgery Treatment for Choroidal Melanoma

      Purpose: To report a case of retinal detachment with unique optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings after Gamma Knife® (GK; Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) treatment for choroidal melanoma (CM). Case Report: A 48-year-old woman underwent GK therapy for CM in her right eye from the macula to the temporal side. While the tumor subsequently shrank, the patient developed radiation retinopathy, which was treated with laser photocoagulation. The tumor lesions later subsided; however, her visual acuity (VA) decreased 8 years after the initial treatment. Although the tumor lesions in the right eye had become scarred, a bullous retinal detachment with fixed ...

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      Mentions: Osaka University
    16. Longitudinal Analysis of Drusen Volume in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Two Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      Longitudinal Analysis of Drusen Volume in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Two Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      Purpose: To evaluate two different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan patterns in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for the longitudinal assessment of drusen volume. Methods: The data of 38 eyes of 38 AMD patients (age 69.97 ± 6.08 years) were included. The longitudinal drusen volume over 4 years was analyzed by annual SD-OCT raster scanning (field size 20 × 15°). Two raster scan patterns (A/B) differed in the distance between neighboring B-scans (240 vs. 30 µm) and in the number of averaged frames (4 vs. 15). Results: The mean drusen volume at baseline was 0.213 ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Healthy Subjects and Diabetic Patients

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Healthy Subjects and Diabetic Patients

      Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography provide information about the normal retinal and choroidal vascular perfusion. They allow the evaluation of different diseases and increase the capability to define and diagnose several pathological conditions. Fluorescein angio graphy is the “gold standard” in imaging the retinal vascular bed and its changes, although not all the different layers of the capillary network can be visualized in a bidimensional examination. Optical coherence tomography angiography allows a depth-resolved visualization of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature, by calculating the difference (decorrelation) between static and nonstatic tissue. Given that the main moving elements in the eye ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinicopathologic Correlations - The 2016 Gordon K. Klintworth Lecture

      Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinicopathologic Correlations - The 2016 Gordon K. Klintworth Lecture

      Background/Aims: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a mainstay of ophthalmic practice that has revolutionized the assessment and treatment of a variety of ocular disorders. Studies that directly correlate SD-OCT and histopathology are necessary to demonstrate the actual nature of the retinal pathology responsible for the images that resemble histologic sections, but are generated by mathematical algorithms. Methods: Careful correlative light microscopy was performed on a small number of eyes undergoing enucleation for intraocular tumors that had pertinent findings imaged by SD-OCT. Expeditious processing and a fixation technique that prevented retinal detachment minimized tissue distortion and sectioning ...

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    19. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Purpose: To compare the diagnostic ability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Methods: Retrospective review of 47 eyes with PCV imaged with ICGA and OCTA. For each eye, it was determined which imaging modality better delineated the PCV complex. The presence of a branching vascular network (BVN) and polyp(s) were noted. Results: PCV was better visualized with ICGA in 21 eyes (44.7%) and with OCTA in 9 eyes (19.2%). The results were comparable in 17 eyes (36.2%). Of the 44 eyes with BVN on ICGA, 41 ...

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    20. The Recovery of Microvascular Status Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients after Successful Macular Hole Surgery

      The Recovery of Microvascular Status Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients after Successful Macular Hole Surgery

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of patients who underwent successful macular hole (MH) surgery. Methods: Nineteen patients who underwent surgery in a single eye due to MH and 13 healthy subjects as a control group were included in the study. Vascular densities, flow indexes, and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses were evaluated by OCTA in the right eyes of the control group, and both the surgical and healthy fellow eyes of the patients. Results: The mean vascular densities of the superficial ...

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    21. Multimodal Evaluation of the Fellow Eye of Patients with Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation

      Multimodal Evaluation of the Fellow Eye of Patients with Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation

      Introduction: We conducted a multimodal, cross-sectional evaluation. Methods: Eyes were divided into 4 study groups: controls, early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fellow eyes of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and RAP eyes. Patients were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced depth imaging-OCT, and OCT angiography (OCTA). OCTA images were processed to generate maps of the vessel density and perfusion density of the superficial and deep retinal layers (SRL and DRL) and the choriocapillaris level (CL). The thickness of the outer nuclear layer and choroid was manually assessed. Results: We included 135 eyes of 100 patients (51 controls, 30 ...

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    22. Interocular Symmetry of Choroidal Thickness and Volume in Healthy Eyes on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Interocular Symmetry of Choroidal Thickness and Volume in Healthy Eyes on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: We aimed to determine the physiological symmetry, with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, of choroidal measurements in a healthy population in all the areas defined in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Methods: One hundred and fifty-four eyes of 77 healthy young adults between the ages of 19 and 32 years were enrolled. Differences in choroidal thickness (CT) and volume (CV) between the left and right eyes were calculated. Normal ranges of absolute interocular differences were established as the 95th percentile. Results: The mean ± SD subfoveal CT (SFCT) and total CV values in the right and left eyes were ...

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    23. Subfoveal Choroidal and Macular Thickness Changes after Phacoemulsification Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      Subfoveal Choroidal and Macular Thickness Changes after Phacoemulsification Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To assess changes in the thickness of the subfoveal retina and choroid after phacoemulsification using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured at 7 points and the retinal thickness was measured at 5 points (before surgery, and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery). Results: The foveal choroidal thickness showed a thickening trend (but p > 0.05). Compared to the change from baseline to day 1, the changes from baseline were significantly different at nasal 3 mm and 6 ...

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    24. Vitreomacular Changes after Intravitreal Gas Injection for Idiopathic Impending or Early Macular Hole: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Vitreomacular Changes after Intravitreal Gas Injection for Idiopathic Impending or Early Macular Hole: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose: To study the early changes of vitreomacular microstructure by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after intravitreal gas injection for the treatment of idiopathic impending or early full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). Methods: A retrospective, interventional case series. Results: A total of 21 eyes were included. In the impending macular hole, 8/8 achieved vitreomacular traction (VMT) release, while a macular hole developed in 1 case. On postoperative day 1, the vitreomacular configuration by OCT showed either a flattening ( n = 3) or elevation ( n = 1) pattern. In early FTMH, vitreomacular separation was achieved in 10/13 cases, but macular hole closure was ...

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