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    1. Assessing Light and Energy-Based Therapy by Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy: A Randomized Trial of Photoaged Skin

      Assessing Light and Energy-Based Therapy by Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy: A Randomized Trial of Photoaged Skin

      Background and Objectives: Image-guided quantitative and semi-quantitative assessment of skin can potentially evaluate treatment efficacy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are ideal for this purpose. This study assessed clinically relevant statistical changes in RCM and OCT features in photoaged skin after light and energy-based therapy. Methods: Novel statistical analyses were performed using OCT and RCM data collected during a previously published trial: a 12-week study of female décolleté skin randomized to four areas treated with thulium laser (L), photodynamic therapy (PDT), combined L-PDT, and control. Eight semi-quantitative RCM scores of photodamage and OCT measurements of ...

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    2. Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Introduction: This study aimed to reveal whether retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) inner plexiform layer, and choroidal layer (CL) thicknesses differed in patients with migraine. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to measure these neurovascular structural changes and determine the relationship between these structures and cranial white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Methods: This retrospective comparative registry study included a total of 155 individuals aged 18–55 (mean, 33.50 ± 8.34), consisting of 110 migraine patients and 45 healthy controls. Results: RNFLs were thinner in the migraine group than the control group but not to a statistically ...

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    3. A meta-analysis of alterations in the retina and choroid in high myopia assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      A meta-analysis of alterations in the retina and choroid in high myopia assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background: High myopia (HM) is a risk factor for several pathological structural changes in retinal and choroidal thickness or vessel. To date, changes in retinal and choroidal microvasculature circulations in HM have yielded inconsistent results. Objectives: To evaluate alternations in retinal and choroidal thickness, and capillary microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in HM. Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant published studies. Primary outcomes were foveal avascular zone, vessel density, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, foveal thickness, sub-foveal choroidal thickness and chorio-capillary density. Alterations in outcomes were evaluated by standardized mean difference ...

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    4. Successful Treatment of Post-Phacoemulsification Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Assessed by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Report

      Successful Treatment of Post-Phacoemulsification Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Assessed by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Report

      Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD) is a rare but serious complication of phacoemulsification surgery. A small DMD may resolve spontaneously, but extensive DMD often requires intracameral injection of air, nonexpansile gases, or expansile gases. A 92-year-old man who underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration with intraocular lens placement in the right eye had significantly reduced visual acuity, with a hazy cornea after surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) examination revealed extensive DMD throughout the cornea. He was treated with intracameral injection of 20% sulfur hexafluoride. As a result, the Descemet membrane was successfully reattached, and the corneal edema resolved. AS-OCT was ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Microvascular Variations in Pre- and Posttreatment of Retinoblastoma Tumors

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Microvascular Variations in Pre- and Posttreatment of Retinoblastoma Tumors

      Introduction: The purpose of this study is to describe variations in microvasculature before and after treatment of treatment-naive lesions and during consolidation therapy of retinoblastoma lesions using an investigational portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system. Methods: This study is a single-center, prospective, observational case series. Recruited subjects were either undergoing surveillance for retinoblastoma or had newly detected retinoblastoma. Nine tumors from 7 eyes in 6 patients were included. During exams under anesthesia, the tumors were imaged with an investigational portable OCTA system. OCTA images were analyzed to assess vascular changes before and after treatment. Results: In all 6 presented ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography and Microdialysis for Microneedle-Mediated Penetration Enhancement Study of Paeoniflorin-Loaded Ethosomes

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Microdialysis for Microneedle-Mediated Penetration Enhancement Study of Paeoniflorin-Loaded Ethosomes

      Background: To understand the cumulative effect of topical formulations after medication, evaluate the therapeutic effect of microneedle-assisted (MN-assisted) paeoniflorin-loaded ethosomes (TGP-E), and explore the potential for deep penetration of drugs, this paper uses microdialysis to systematically study the percutaneous pharmacokinetics of TGP-E. Methods: First, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to study the effectiveness of microneedle puncture. Second, a microdialysis method and a UPLC-MS method for determining the amount of paeoniflorin (Pae) in dialysate were established. Finally, the transdermal pharmacokinetics of TGP-E was studied using in vivo microdialysis in rats under the above MN-assisted conditions. Results: The optimal MN-assisted conditions ...

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    7. Application of Cellular Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in vivo for the Diagnosis of Skin Tumours and Inflammatory Skin Diseases

      Application of Cellular Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in vivo for the Diagnosis of Skin Tumours and Inflammatory Skin Diseases

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to provide non-invasive diagnosis of common skin neoplasms, especially basal cell carcinoma. OCT produces a cross-sectional view of the tissue, similar to a traditionally sectioned histopathological view, but the resolution of conventional OCT is low and thus limits clinical application. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the application ability of a full-field (FF)OCT system which was newly developed to scan the skin at the cellular level. Methods: Patients with skin tumours or inflammatory lesions warranting biopsy were consecutively enrolled. All lesions underwent clinical, dermoscopic, and OCT assessment, followed by routine biopsy ...

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    8. Accidental Corneal Intrastromal Intraocular Lens Implantation with the Wound-Assisted Technique and Clinical Course with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Accidental Corneal Intrastromal Intraocular Lens Implantation with the Wound-Assisted Technique and Clinical Course with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Accidental intraocular lens (IOL) implantation into the corneal stroma is a rare clinical entity that can occur during the wound-assisted technique. In this report, we describe a case of an 81-year-old man who underwent cataract surgery in which the IOL was implanted into the corneal stroma with the wound-assisted technique, and we present changes in anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The IOL was removed and reinserted after widening the incision. Air tamponade was created by intracameral injection. An anterior chamber tap was performed 10 h later to reduce increased intraocular pressure. Interlayer separation of the corneal stroma was confirmed 30 ...

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    9. Conjunctival Chemosis and Annular Ciliochoroidal Detachments Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in a Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      Conjunctival Chemosis and Annular Ciliochoroidal Detachments Detected by Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in a Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      A 61-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital for treatment of systemic serositis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). At the initial ophthalmologic examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 1.2 and 0.6 in her right and left eyes, respectively. Slit-lamp examination showed marked chemosis in both eyes (OU). Swept source-based, anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) clearly showed conjunctival elevations corresponding to the chemosis in all scan directions OU. In some scans, hyporeflective spaces with luminal structures corresponding to dilated lymphatic channels and nonluminal structures corresponding to interstitial fluid accumulation were seen clearly under the conjunctival epithelium and/or ...

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    10. Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Management of Secondary Choroidal Neovascularization in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

      Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Management of Secondary Choroidal Neovascularization in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

      The purpose was to demonstrate the diagnostic and therapeutic feasibility of swept source-optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) by picturing neovascular changes secondary to a rare white dot syndrome following long-term intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR). A 28-year-old Caucasian myopic female presented with visual loss in her right eye only. The clinical examination and multimodal imaging including spectral domain (SD)-OCT, blue-peak autofluorescence, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography (HRA Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering; Heidelberg, Germany) as well as SS-OCTA (DRI Triton, Topcon; Tokyo, Japan) led to the diagnosis of idiopathic punctate inner choroidopathy with secondary subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In addition to oral corticosteroids ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers - Vitreous Status Influence in Outcomes for Diabetic Macular Edema Therapy with 0.19 mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant

      Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers - Vitreous Status Influence in Outcomes for Diabetic Macular Edema Therapy with 0.19 mg Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant

      Background: The 0.19 mg fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) implant (ILUVIEN®; Alimera Sciences Ltd, Hampshire, UK) was approved for the treatment of vision impairment associated with chronic and refractory diabetic macular edema (DME). Objectives: To quantitatively assess functional and structural features in non-vitrectomized and vitrectomized DME patients after being treated with a FAc implant Methods: Retrospective review of patients with DME receiving single intravitreal injection of the FAc implant. The study was designed to analyze the presence of quantitative structural OCT biomarkers at baseline and 12 months after FAc therapy according to vitreous status. Results: A total of 41 eyes from ...

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    12. Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Glaucoma Surgery (Textbook)

      Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Glaucoma Surgery (Textbook)

      The advent of integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (i 2 OCT) has opened the door for safer and more complex surgeries in the retina and cornea. However, to limit its use to just two subspecialties within ophthalmology is an opportunity lost for many other subspecialties. Here, we describe the use of i 2 OCT in pediatric glaucoma surgery. It can be used to identify Schlemm’s canal, Barkan’s membrane, demonstrate the corneal pathology in Haab’s striae, and iris hypoplasia in cases of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. It can help identify drainage blebs that are filtering and those that are not ...

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    13. Evaluation of axial length measurement using enhanced retina visualization mode of the swept-source optical coherence tomography biometer in dense cataract

      Evaluation of axial length measurement using enhanced retina visualization mode of the swept-source optical coherence tomography biometer in dense cataract

      Introduction: It has been reported that even using the swept-source optical coherence biometer, it is challenging to measure the axial length (AL) in cases with advanced cataracts. The enhanced retina visualization (ERV) mode, which is equipped with OCTB1 (ARGOS), shifts the peak of measurement sensitivity to the retina side so that the AL can be measured even if the light energy is attenuated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of the ERV mode in measuring the AL of dense cataracts. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational case series conducted in Japan. We ...

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    14. Diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Web of Science. The pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), area under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (sROC), and the total accurate classification rate were used to evaluate OCTA' diagnostic value of CNV in AMD patients. Results: Seven studies involving 517 eyes were included in the analysis. The mean age of subjects in each study ranged from 58 ...

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    15. Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (Textbook)

      Clinical Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, rapid, and 3-dimensional evaluation of retinal vasculature well-suited for the evaluation of the microvasculopathy of diabetes. It visualizes the key clinical features of diabetic retinopathy (DR), including microaneurysms, non-perfusion, neovascularization, and capillary dilation. Several studies quantifying non-perfusion metrics in DR have demonstrated significant correlation between levels of retinopathy with these metrics. Segmentation schema, projection artifacts, image resolution, and signal strength remain a challenge, and careful attention to these and other technical issues is required for understanding the application of quantitative OCTA in DR.

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography of Peri-Ocular Skin Cancers: An Optical Biopsy

      Optical Coherence Tomography of Peri-Ocular Skin Cancers: An Optical Biopsy

      Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool for retinal disease for several years, and OCT apparatuses are becoming increasingly powerful. However, OCT has yet to reach its full potential in ophthalmology clinics. Alike retinal layers, it has been shown that OCT is able to generate cross-sectional images of the skin and allows visualization of skin lesions in a histopathology-like manner. Objective: We aim to validate OCT as an imaging modality for peri-ocular skin cancer. Through a series of cases, we highlight findings for 3 common eyelid malignancies: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and ...

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    17. Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Evaluation of Accuracy and Agreement of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Interpretation of Common Retinal Findings and Diagnoses

      Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and agreement of OCTA interpretation in cases of common retinal findings and diagnoses, and evaluate the effect of the OCT B-scans on OCTA interpretations. Methods: A case-series study, consisting of a questionnaire with 8 cases demonstrating common retinal conditions of normal, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Each case included OCTA images, and 58 participants were asked to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Following OCTA interpretation, the corresponding OCT B-scans were revealed and participants were asked again to identify retinal findings and provide a diagnosis. Rates of accuracy and agreement ...

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    18. Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Multimodal Imaging of Large Optic Disc Coloboma: A Report of Three Cases

      Optic disc coloboma (ODC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the optic nerve. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps to monitor the complications when there is associated retinoschisis, retinal detachment, or peripapillary neovascularization, while being minimally invasive. OCT angiography could help to better understand this entity from a vascular perspective. We report multimodal imaging of 3 children with large ODC associated with cat eye syndrome, CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities), and branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.

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