1. 1-15 of 15
    1. Choroidal imaging biomarkers

      Choroidal imaging biomarkers

      The choroid is the vascular coat of the eye,and its role has been studied in multiple chorioretinal disorders. The recent advancements in choroidal imaging techniques including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), swept source (SS-OCT), enface OCT and OCT angiography have facilitated an in-depth analysis of choroid. The gradual shift from manual to automated segmentation and binarization methods have led to precise and reproducible measurements of choroidal parameters. These qualitative and quantitative parameters, called choroidal imaging biomarkers, have evolved over the past decade from a simple linear subfoveal choroidal thickness to more complex 3 dimensional (3-D) choroidal reconstruction ...

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    2. Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

      Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes. Vascular abnormalities such as changes in the retinal vessels caliber, architectural indices, and blood flow have been investigated ...

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    3. We cannot see what we cannot ignore Letter to the Editor

      We cannot see what we cannot ignore Letter to the Editor

      We enjoyed reading the recent article regarding acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) by Pellegrini et al in Surv Ophthalmol. 2017;62:882-5 1 . Recently, we published a similar case of a young woman with bilateral AMN 2 , and like your case, the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was instrumental to the diagnosis especially since the visual fields and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) were completely normal in our case. Our case, like yours, also had a normal fundus examination lacking the classic “flower petal” macular appearance that generally accompanies AMN as well as normal automated visual fields 2 .

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    4. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Corneal Dystrophies according to the IC3D Classification

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for the Diagnosis of Corneal Dystrophies according to the IC3D Classification

      Corneal dystrophies are categorized according to the International Committee for Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) classification, and their treatment depends on the affected structures and layer of the cornea. Therefore, estimating the depth and extent of the morphological changes due to the specific dystrophy is crucial when deciding between different treatment options. Besides superficial laser treatments and penetrating keratoplasty, minimal invasive lamellar keratoplasties such as Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, or Descemet stripping automated keratoplasty have become increasingly popular to exchange the specific opaque layers in dystrophic eyes. To determine the morphological changes of the cornea in ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a new imaging modality that provides non-invasive characterization and quantification of the microvasculature in different retinal conditions. The purpose of this paper is to give an updated review of the features of dry age-related macular degeneration investigated by means of new generation OCT-A. We searched PubMed and Medline using the terms “optical coherence tomography angiography” associated with “age-related macular degeneration”, “drusen”, “reticular pseudodrusen,” and “geographic atrophy” and reviewed publications up to January, 2017.

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    6. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases

      The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates real time volumetric data of chorioretinal vasculature and its flow pattern. With the advent of high-speed optical coherence tomography, established en-face chorioretinal segmentation, and efficient algorithms, OCTA generate images that resembles an angiogram. The principle of OCTA involves determining the change in backscattering between consecutive B-scans and then attributing the differences to the flow of erythrocytes through retinal blood vessels. OCTA has shown promise in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal vascular occlusions. It quantifies vascular ...

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    7. New Insights into the Pathoanatomy of Macular Holes Based on Features of Optical Coherence Tomograph

      New Insights into the Pathoanatomy of Macular Holes Based on Features of Optical Coherence Tomograph

      Various important findings related to the development and progression of idiopathic macular holes (MHs) have been described using optical coherence tomography (OCT) since Gass first described the stages of MH development using biomicroscopy in 1988 and 1995. We believe that a system for classifying and staging MHs should reflect the degree of disease status and its progression and have value not only from a practical point of view (by predicting the chance of closure or visual recovery) but also provides researchers and clinicians with insights into the pathogenesis and disease progression of MH. These data pave the way for the ...

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      Mentions: Hyewon Chung
    8. Corneal assessment technologies: Current status

      Corneal assessment technologies: Current status

      There are now many devices that acquire data about the cornea: shape, power, pachymetry at any desired point of the cornea, corneal hysteresis, flap thickness (in LASIK procedures), endothelial cell count and morphology, and so forth. We review the literature on corneal assessment techniques and devices available in clinical practice. Specifically, we discuss slit lamp biomicroscopy, specular microscopy, ultrasound pachymetry, confocal microscopy, very-high-frequency digital ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Placido disk-based keratoscopy, slit-scanning elevation topography, Scheimpflug imaging, and dynamic applanation procedures—all of which can be used to assess the morphology of the cornea. In addition, we present a critical ...

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    9. Imaging of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer: An essential part of glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring

      Imaging of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer: An essential part of glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring

      Because glaucomatous damage is irreversible early detection of structural changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer is imperative for timely diagnosis of glaucoma and monitoring of its progression. Significant improvements in ocular imaging have been made in recent years. Imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy rely on different properties of light to provide objective structural assessment of the optic nerve head, retinal nerve fiber layer and macula. In this review, we discuss the capabilities of these imaging modalities pertinent for diagnosis of glaucoma and detection of progressive ...

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    10. Application of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

      Application of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional, three-dimensional, high-resolution imaging modality that uses low coherence interferometry to achieve axial resolution in the range of 3–20 μm. Two OCT platforms have been developed: time domain (TD-OCT) and spectral (or Fourier) domain (SD/FD-OCT). Visante anterior segment OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec) is a TD-OCT widely used for anterior segment imaging. The SD-OCT systems with both posterior and anterior segment imaging capabilities include the RTVue, iVue (Optovue), the Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec), and the Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc.). Each of the SD-OCTs has a wavelength in the range of 820–879 nm ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography: Imaging of the choroid and beyond

      Optical coherence tomography: Imaging of the choroid and beyond

      Seventy percent of the blood flow to the eye goes to the choroid, a structure that is vitally important to the function of the retina. The in vivo structure of the choroid in health and disease is incompletely visualized with traditional imaging modalities, including indocyanine green angiography, ultrasonography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Use of new OCT modalities, including enhanced depth imaging OCT, image averaging, and swept-source OCT, have led to increased visualization of the choroidal anatomy. The correlation of these new anatomical findings with other imaging modalities results increases understanding of many eye diseases and recognises of ...

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    12. Evaluation of Age-related Macular Degeneration With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Age-related Macular Degeneration With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual loss in people aged 50 years or older in the developed world. In recent years, major advances have been made in the treatment of AMD, with the introduction of anti-angiogenic agents, offering the first hope of significant visual recovery for patients with neovascular AMD. In line with these advances, a new imaging modality—optical coherence tomography (OCT)—has emerged as an essential adjunct for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with AMD. The ability to accurately interpret OCT images is thus a prerequisite for both retina specialists and ...

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    13. Measurement of Normal Optic Nerve Head Parameters

      Measurement of Normal Optic Nerve Head Parameters

      Abstract: All optic nerve pathologies, including the glaucomas and disorders such as non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, affect the appearance of the optic nerve head. Morphological examination of the optic nerve head in a qualitative and quantitative manner is therefore clinically mandatory. With the advent of modern imaging modalities such as confocal scanning laser tomography and optical coherence tomography, new diagnostic avenues have opened up to further refine the examination. The new imaging devices are now becoming a major adjunct to the diagnosis and long-term management of optic nerve head pathology; before it is possible to identify an abnormal optic disk ...

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    14. High-resolution Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Multifocal Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Abstract: We describe the abnormalities seen in the mid periphery and posterior pole of two patients with multifocal vitelliform macular distrophy as evaluated by high-definition spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). In patient 1, HD-OCT scans revealed, in the central area, a thicker and more reflective layer compared with the normal macula, located between the retinal pigment epitelium and the interface of the inner segment /outer segment, corresponding to the Verhoeff‘s membrane. Moreover, HD-OCT macular scans, as well as C-scans, revealed a slight hyper-reflective lesion just above an area of reduced reflectivity between the photoreceptor layer (interface of the ...

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    15. Diagnostic Tools for Glaucoma Detection and Management

      Early diagnosis of glaucoma is critical to prevent permanent structural damage and irreversible vision loss. Detection of glaucoma typically relies on examination of structural damage to the optic nerve combined with measurements of visual function. To aid the clinician in evaluation of visual function and structure, computer-based devices such as confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography provide quantitative assessments of structural damage, and visual function testing includes standard automated perimetry as well as selective techniques, including short-wavelength automated perimetry and frequency-doubling technology perimetry are available. This article will review current literature on diagnostic modalities available ...
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