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    1. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

      Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer”and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist ...

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    2. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

      Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature
      Background and objective : The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light cystoscopy: photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging and optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods : A PubMed search was performed for all articles on bladder cancer and photodynamic diagnosis, narrow-band imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Relevant papers on the working mechanism or clinical performance of the techniques were selected. Results : Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow-band imaging ...
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    3. Raman spectroscopy and its urological applications

      Purpose: The Raman spectroscopic technology can be utilized for the detection of changes occurring at the molecular level during the pathological transformation of the tissue. The potential of its use in urology is still in its infancy and increasing utility of this technology will transform noninvasive tissue diagnosis. The Nobel laureate, Sir C.V. Raman is credited for the discovery of the principles of Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Applications of Raman spectroscopy in the bladder, renal, prostate, and other urological disorders were gathered from Medline and abstracts from recent international urological meetings. Current status and future directions of Raman ...
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    4. Intravesical real-time imaging and staging of bladder cancer: Use of optical coherence tomography

      In this retrospective study, the authors have assessed the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to conventional cystoscopy in the endoscopic evaluation of bladder tumors. From December 2005 to April 2007, 32 patients (25 men and seven women with median age of 59 years), majority of whom were known or newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer, underwent OCT in addition to conventional rigid cystoscopy by a single surgeon. The US FDA-approved Niris Imaging System was used to acquire OCT images. The images of normal and suspicious areas were obtained prior to biopsy/resection using a flexible fiber ...
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      Mentions: Imalux Niris
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