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    1. Circumpapillary collateral vessel development in iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion observed using OCT angiography

      Circumpapillary collateral vessel development in iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion observed using OCT angiography

      Purpose It has been reported that peripapillary loops develop after central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Although cilioretinal anastomoses have been shown by fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography, these examinations cannot confirm the structural continuity between the retinal arteries and the posterior ciliary arteries. In the current report, we followed a patient with iatrogenic CRAO in which circumpapillary collaterals formed and assessed the connection between these two vascular systems using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Observation Iatrogenic CRAO developed in the left eye of a 30-year-old woman during preoperative embolization of a convexity meningioma. FA and OCTA showed complete ...

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    2. Deep learning with 4D spatio-temporal data representations for OCT-based force estimation

      Deep learning with 4D spatio-temporal data representations for OCT-based force estimation

      Estimating the forces acting between instruments and tissue is a challenging problem for robot-assisted minimally-invasive surgery. Recently, numerous vision-based methods have been proposed to replace electro-mechanical approaches. Moreover, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and deep learning have been used for estimating forces based on deformation observed in volumetric image data. The method demonstrated the advantage of deep learning with 3D volumetric data over 2D depth images for force estimation. In this work, we extend the problem of deep learning-based force estimation to 4D spatio-temporal data with streams of 3D OCT volumes. For this purpose, we design and evaluate several methods extending ...

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    3. Reversible retinoschisis following high voltage electrical injury evaluated with optical coherence tomography and electrophysiology

      Reversible retinoschisis following high voltage electrical injury evaluated with optical coherence tomography and electrophysiology

      Purpose To report a carefully studied case of high voltage electrical injury of the retina and optic nerve with anatomically reversible retinoschisis. Methods Observational case report. Results A 22 year old power company worker was electrocuted with 12,000 V, with his left forehead being the exit point of the current. After regaining consciousness he reported decreased vision with both eyes. He was extensively tested with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography (OCT-A), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), full field electroretinography (ffERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and Goldmann-type Octopus automated perimetry in addition to careful clinical examinations ...

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    4. Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings in ocular and non-ocular Behҫet’s disease

      Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings in ocular and non-ocular Behҫet’s disease

      Aim of the work This study aimed at early detection of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) findings and optical coherence tomography (OCT) changes denoting active posterior uveitis in Behçet’s Disease (BD) patients before they are clinically evident. Patients and methods This study included 50 BD patients subgrouped according to ocular involvement into ocular and non-ocular Behçet patients. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination. Fundus examination was done to detect signs of intermediate and/or posterior uveitis. OCT conventional and enhanced depth techniques were used for assessment of the macular area and choroidal thickness respectively. FFA was done for ...

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    5. Deep learning architectures analysis for age-related macular degeneration segmentation on optical coherence tomography scans

      Deep learning architectures analysis for age-related macular degeneration segmentation on optical coherence tomography scans

      Background and Objectives: Aged people usually are more to be diagnosed with retinal diseases in developed countries. Retinal capillaries leakage into the retina swells and causes an acute vision loss, which is called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The disease can not be adequately diagnosed solely using fundus images as depth information is not available. The variations in retina volume assist in monitoring ophthalmological abnormalities. Therefore, high-fidelity AMD segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality has raised the attention of researchers as well as those of the medical doctors. Many methods across the years encompassing machine learning approaches and convolutional ...

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    6. Utility of imaging modalities in coronary lesions with borderline fractional flow reserve

      Utility of imaging modalities in coronary lesions with borderline fractional flow reserve

      Background Coronary intervention is routinely deferred in intermediate lesions with fractional flow reserve (FFR) ≥ 0.80. Patients with borderline FFR (0.80–0.85) who were initially deferred, have been shown to have higher risk of future interventions; however, the data is limited, and the long term prognosis in these patients remains unknown. We assessed the utility of adjunctive imaging modalities to determine the need for intervention in lesions with borderline FFR. Methods We retrospectively evaluated consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography at Einstein Medical Center from January 2013 to April 2016. All patients with borderline FFR (0.80–0 ...

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    7. Cilioretinal arteries and macular vasculature in highly myopic eyes: an OCT–angiography-based study

      Cilioretinal arteries and macular vasculature in highly myopic eyes: an OCT–angiography-based study

      Purpose To determine the association between the presence of cilioretinal arteries and the macular vasculature in highly myopic eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective, observational case series. Participants 481 highly myopic eyes of 481 patients. Methods Fundus photographs were reviewed to determine the presence of a cilioretinal artery and its distribution, based on whether its path or visible branches reached the region within 500 μm of the foveal center. The macular vasculature was analyzed in OCTA images, including the vessel density (VD), fractal dimension (FD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ). The associations between the presence of a ...

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    8. Texture preservation and speckle reduction in poor optical coherence tomography using the convolutional neural network

      Texture preservation and speckle reduction in poor optical coherence tomography using the convolutional neural network

      For a poor quality optical coherence tomography (OCT) image, quality enhancement is limited to speckle residue and edge blur as well as texture loss, especially at the background region near edges. To solve this problem, in this paper we propose a de-speckling method based on the convolutional neural network (CNN). In the proposed method, we use a deep nonlinear CNN mapping model in the serial architecture, here named as OCTNet. Our OCTNet in the proposed method can fully utilize the deep information on speckles and edges as well as fine textures of an original OCT image. And also we construct ...

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    9. Pentosan polysulfate maculopathy versus inherited macular dystrophies: comparative assessment with multimodal imaging

      Pentosan polysulfate maculopathy versus inherited macular dystrophies: comparative assessment with multimodal imaging

      Purpose To evaluate whether pentosan polysulfate maculopathy manifests distinctive characteristics that permit differentiation from hereditary maculopathies with multimodal fundus imaging. Design Retrospective Review Subjects Emory Eye Center databases were queried for the following International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes between May 20, 2014 through October 22, 2019: 362.70 (unspecified hereditary retinal dystrophy), 362.74 + H35.52 (pigmentary retinal dystrophy), 362.76 +H35.54 (dystrophies primarily involving the retinal pigment epithelium), and H35.50 (unspecified macular degeneration). Methods Fundus images for each patient were evaluated, including color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Cases ...

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      Mentions: Emory University
    10. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography–based prevalence of hydroxychloroquine maculopathy in Indian patients on hydroxychloroquine therapy: A utopia of underdiagnosis

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography–based prevalence of hydroxychloroquine maculopathy in Indian patients on hydroxychloroquine therapy: A utopia of underdiagnosis

      Background Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) detects early structural damage to macula in patients on Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy. The current screening protocols emphasize concurrent use of both SD-OCT and Visual field analysis (VFA) which detects functional damage to detect Hydroxychloroquine maculopathy. However, VFA is a time-consuming and subjective test which is often neglected. This study gives the prevalence of Hydroxychloroquine maculopathy using SD-OCT alone which often fails to detect macular damage in peri-foveal and extra-foveal area of the retina. Methods Three hundred thirty four eyes of 167 patients taking systemic Hydroxychloroquine were studied with SD-OCT macular cube 512 x ...

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    11. Evaluation of Neurodegenerative and Inflammatory Processes in Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Neurodegenerative and Inflammatory Processes in Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) is a process with systemic effects rather than local effects. The purpose of this study is to examine the retinal layer structure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) method in order to detect possible degenerative and inflammatory process in patients with TMD. Material and Methods: 35 healthy controls and 34 TMD patients were evaluated bilaterally in this study. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL) and choroidal thickness were analyzed using OCT. Results: When TMD patients were compared with healthy controls, GCL and IPL volumes and RNFL thickness decreased ...

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    12. Coronary Artery Occlusion Caused by Intramural Hematoma Due to In-Stent Dissection

      Coronary Artery Occlusion Caused by Intramural Hematoma Due to In-Stent Dissection

      A 54-year-old man developed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 1 week after percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending artery. Optical coherence tomography at the emergent percutaneous coronary intervention revealed an intramural hematoma extending from the in-stent dissection. We highlight that in-stent dissection, although generally considered a benign finding, can extend and cause intramural hematoma, resulting in coronary artery occlusion.

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    13. Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Introduction and objectives Neoatherosclerosis is one of the causes of in-stent restenosis (ISR). Our objective was to evaluate the influence of neoatherosclerosis on prognosis and treatment response in patients with ISR. Methods This is a pooled analysis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-substudies of 2 multicenter, randomized clinical trials , RIBS IV and V, comparing treatment with paclitaxel-coated balloon vs everolimus-eluting stent in patients with ISR. OCT evaluation was performed at baseline and at 6 to 9 months. Neoatherosclerosis was defined in baseline OCT as neointima with calcified or lipid content. We evaluated the angiographic and OCT results at 6 ...

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    14. Standard 6 mm Compared to Wide Field 16.5 mm Optical Coherence Tomography for Staging of Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Standard 6 mm Compared to Wide Field 16.5 mm Optical Coherence Tomography for Staging of Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Objective To assess whether 6 mm optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, which image the macula, can distinguish complete from partial posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in comparison to 16.5 mm OCT scans, which image the macula, optic nerve, and midperiphery. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Subjects We compared 6 mm and 16.5 mm scans in 157 eyes of 157 retina clinic patients (mean age 50 years; range 10–64) with diabetic retinopathy (36%), no retinal disease (19%), and various retinal conditions (55%). We analyzed 16.5 mm scans in 35 normal eyes (asymptomatic fellow eyes of unilateral retinal conditions; mean ...

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    15. Towards multi-center glaucoma OCT image screening with semi-supervised joint structure and function multi-task learning

      Towards multi-center glaucoma OCT image screening with semi-supervised joint structure and function multi-task learning

      Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Structure and function assessments play an important role in diagnosing glaucoma. Nowadays, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging gains increasing popularity in measuring the structural change of eyes. However, few automated methods have been developed based on OCT images to screen glaucoma. In this paper, we are the first to unify the structure analysis and function regression to distinguish glaucoma patients from normal controls effectively. Specifically, our method works in two steps: a semi-supervised learning strategy with smoothness assumption is first applied for the surrogate assignment of missing function regression ...

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    16. Extended sub-surface imaging in industrial OCT using ‘non-diffracting’ Bessel beams

      Extended sub-surface imaging in industrial OCT using ‘non-diffracting’ Bessel beams

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique which can provide sub-surface evaluation of defects in optically compliant components such as those manufactured by polymeric selective laser sintering. In OCT systems, achieving lateral imaging resolutions of <10 µm means that full-depth imaging requires multiple scans due to the limited depth of focus (DOF). We present a study on the application of ‘non-diffracting’ Bessel beams to extend system DOF and enable deeper imaging with a single scan. Such capability expands the potential for OCT as a rapid tool for sub-surface assessment, either in-line or in-process, by greatly reducing acquisition times.

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    17. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography findings of diabetic papillopathy after intravitreal bevacizumab

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography findings of diabetic papillopathy after intravitreal bevacizumab

      Purpose We report a case of diabetic papillopathy (DP) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections and evaluated for disc vessel changes using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Observations A 52-year-old man was referred with a 1-week history of acute painless decreased vision in both eyes (OU). His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40 in the right eye (OD) and 20/100 in the left eye (OS). Fundus examination showed swollen optic discs with superficial radially oriented telangiectatic vessels, peripapillary splinter hemorrhages, and hard exudates OU. On SS-OCTA, B-scan images displayed blood flow signals in the thickened retinal nerve fiber ...

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    18. Thresholding strategies to measure vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Thresholding strategies to measure vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Objective A variety of binarization strategies have been used to measure vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), but it is uncertain if they produce similar results. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of different thresholding methods and contrast and brightness adjustment on OCT-A vessel density metrics. Design Observational, cross-sectional case series. Participants Consecutive healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers underwent fovea-centred 3 mm × 3 mm OCT-A scans using PlexElite 9000. Images of the superficial vascular plexus were generated using the instrument’s automated segmentation. Images were thresholded with 5 different threshold tools in ImageJ (Default ...

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    19. Evaluation of changes in choroidal vascularity during acute anterior uveitis attack in patients with ankylosing spondylitis by using binarization of EDI-optical coherence tomography images

      Evaluation of changes in choroidal vascularity during acute anterior uveitis attack in patients with ankylosing spondylitis by using binarization of EDI-optical coherence tomography images

      Background To evaluate the effect of the first acute anterior uveitis (AAU) attack on the choroid by using an image binarization tool on images from enhanced depth imaging (EDI)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods In this study, three groups were formed: uveitic eyes (UE; n = 20) of patients with AS, the non-uveitic eyes (NUE; n = 20) of these patients, and the eyes of healthy controls (n = 20). EDI-OCT images were obtained during the first AAU attack and at three months after treatment in patients with AS. An image binarization tool (ImageJ software; Bethesda ...

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    20. Assessment of changes in the macula and optic nerve head using optical coherence tomography in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Assessment of changes in the macula and optic nerve head using optical coherence tomography in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Introduction To assess if there are any differences in macular and papillary thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with a control group, including if there are differences between ADHD patients with and without treatment. Methods Prospective observational study including 92 eyes of 46 patients divided into 2 groups: 46 eyes of 23 patients with ADHD, and a control group of 46 eyes of 23 healthy patients. The group of patients with ADHD was subdivided into those on treatment with methylphenidate (n = 28) and those not on treatment (n = 18). The macular ...

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    21. Posterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in a Case of Nephropathic Cystinosis

      Posterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in a Case of Nephropathic Cystinosis

      Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal accumulation of intracellular cystine in various tissues including the brain, kidneys, bones, and eyes. Infantile nephropathic cystinosis is the most severe phenotype of cystinosis that has been associated with a wide spectrum of ocular features. In this report, the author describes a posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) finding that has not been previously reported in a case of nephropathic cystinosis.

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    22. Intraretinal fluid map generation in optical coherence tomography images (book chapter)

      Intraretinal fluid map generation in optical coherence tomography images (book chapter)

      The retina represents one of the most studied parts of the human body, thanks to its easy access for any ophthalmological study. It represents the main neurosensory part of the eye and, by its study, pathologies not only from the visual system but also from different body systems (like the neural system or vascular system) can be detected. Among the principal medical imaging modalities that are used to study the eye fundus and the retinal histological structures, the optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be one of the most reliable techniques. It is widely used for the detection of ...

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    23. Longitudinal Swept Source OCT Angiography of Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioblastoma

      Longitudinal Swept Source OCT Angiography of Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioblastoma

      In this case report, SS-OCTA identified the key diagnostic features of JRCH seen with multimodal imaging. Serial SS-OCTA imaging showed transient decreases in vascular congestion and exudation after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. SS-OCTA may be the sole imaging modality needed for the diagnosis of JRCH, an important entity that is commonly misdiagnosed as disc edema or choroidal neovascularization. Transient responses to anti-VEGF therapy suggests that higher dose or sustained-release anti-VEGF therapy may be effective for retinal capillary hemangioblastomas.

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