1. Articles from atvb.ahajournals.org

  2. 1-11 of 11
    1. Postprandial Hyperchylomicronemia and Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma in Nonculprit Lesions A Multivessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Postprandial Hyperchylomicronemia and Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma in Nonculprit Lesions A Multivessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objective— Although postprandial hypertriglyceridemia can be a risk factor for coronary artery disease, the extent of its significance remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the postprandial lipid profiles rigorously estimated with the meal tolerance test and the presence of lipid-rich plaque, such as thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), in the nonculprit lesion. Approach and Results— A total of 30 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent a multivessel examination using optical coherence tomography during catheter intervention for the culprit lesion were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with TCFA (fibrous cap thickness ≤65 µm) in ...

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    2. Prevalence and Predictors of Multiple Coronary Plaque Ruptures In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Study

      Prevalence and Predictors of Multiple Coronary Plaque Ruptures In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Study

      Objective— Plaque rupture may be the local expression of a widespread coronary instability. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of nonculprit plaque rupture; (2) the pancoronary atherosclerotic phenotype in patients with and without nonculprit plaque rupture; and (3) the prevalence and predictors of multiple plaque ruptures. Approach and Results— Six hundred and seventy-five nonculprit plaques from 261 patients (34 acute myocardial infarction, 73 unstable angina pectoris, and 154 stable angina pectoris) were analyzed by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography. Nonculprit plaque ruptures were identified in 51 patients (20%). Patients with nonculprit plaque ruptures had higher prevalence of ...

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    3. Recent Highlights of ATVB: Systems Biology and Noninvasive Imaging of Atherosclerosis

      Recent Highlights of ATVB: Systems Biology and Noninvasive Imaging of Atherosclerosis

      Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease of the arterial vessel wall. Although the mortality due to cardiovascular events is decreasing, the prevalence of atherosclerosis and its comorbidities, and the consequent heath care costs are expected to rise sharply in the near future. 1 Because the precise cause and pathogenesis of this complex, multifactorial disease are still not fully understood, the clinical assessment of cardiovascular risk has been traditionally based on population risk factors (RFs). 2 However, this approach still largely fails to capture the individual’s cardiovascular risk: most cardiovascular events occur in patients with 1 or few traditional RFs, whereas ...

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    4. Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction Is Associated With Inflammation and Vasa Vasorum Proliferation in Patients With Early Atherosclerosis

      Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction Is Associated With Inflammation and Vasa Vasorum Proliferation in Patients With Early Atherosclerosis

      Objective— Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of atherosclerosis . Inflammation and vasa vasorum play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of plaque in itiation, development, and complications. Optical coherence tomography allows high-resolution imag in g of t is sue microstructure. Therefore, the aim of th is study was to test the hypothes is that segments with endothelial dysfunction show macrophages and vasa vasorum in patients with early coronary artery d is ease. Approach and Results— Optical coherence tomography images were obta in ed from 40 patients with mild coronary atherosclerosis who underwent coronary endothelial function assessment. Optical coherence tomography f ...

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    5. Tissue Characterization After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Tissue Characterization After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective— To validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for assessment of vascular healing in a preclinical animal model and human autopsy cases and to translate the findings to the assessment of vascular healing after drug-eluting stent implantation in clinical practice. Approach and Results— Drug-eluting stent and bare metal stents were imaged 28 and 42 days after implantation in atherosclerotic rabbits using OCT and simultaneously evaluated by histology. After coregistration with histology, gray-scale signal intensity (GSI) was measured for identified mature or immature neointimal tissue. Autopsy specimens were imaged with OCT and GSI values correlated with histology. Finally, prospective OCT imaging ...

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    6. Shining Light and Illuminating Murine Atherosclerosis via Optical Coherence Tomography

      Shining Light and Illuminating Murine Atherosclerosis via Optical Coherence Tomography

      In vivo visualization and quantification of plaque burden and plaque macrophages are major goal in the field of atherosclerosis imaging, particularly in highly utilized mouse models of atherosclerosis. Thus far, vascular MRI has demonstrated the ability to quantify and track murine atherosclerosis at moderate resolution.1,2 In addition, molecular imaging approaches have illuminated plaque macrophages in vivo.3,4 However, only a few approaches, such as intravital fluorescence microscopy, have provided high-resolution (<100 micrometer) imaging of plaque macrophages in murine atherosclerosis.5,6 Intravital fluorescence microscopy imaging, however, is limited by light penetration and is also impractical to use for comprehensive aortic imaging, a major zone of atherosclerosis in genetically altered mice.

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    7. Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Detection of Atherosclerosis and Inflammation in Murine Aorta

      Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Detection of Atherosclerosis and Inflammation in Murine Aorta

      Objective—The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of imaging the aorta of apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice for the detection of atherosclerosis and macrophages using optical coherence tomography (OCT) compared with histology. Methods and Results—Atherosclerosis was induced by high-fat diet in 7-week-old ApoE−/− mice for 10 (n=7) and 22 (n=7) weeks. Nine-week-old ApoE−/− mice (n=7) fed a standard chow diet were used as controls. OCT images of a 10-mm descending aorta in situ were performed in 4 mice for each, and plaque and macrophages were determined at 0.5-mm intervals. Automated detection ...

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    8. Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque

      Concept of Vulnerable/Unstable Plaque

      Today’s concept of vulnerable plaque has evolved primarily from the early pioneering work uncovering the pivotal role of plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis as the major cause of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Since the first historical description of plaque rupture in 1844, several key studies by leading researchers and clinicians have lead to the current accepted views on lesion instability. Important to the complex paradigm of plaque destabilization and thrombosis are many discoveries beginning with the earliest descriptions of advanced plaques, reminiscent of abscesses encapsulated by fibrous tissue capable of rupture. It was not until the ...

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    9. Altered Plasma Fibrin Clot Properties Are Associated With In-Stent Thrombosis

      Altered Plasma Fibrin Clot Properties Are Associated With In-Stent Thrombosis

      Objectives— We sought to investigate whether patients with in-stent thrombosis (IST) display altered plasma fibrin clot properties. Methods and Results— We studied 47 definite IST patients, including 15 with acute, 26 subacute and 6 late IST, and 48 controls matched for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, concomitant treatment and angiographic/stent parameters. Plasma clot permeability (Ks), which indicates a pore size, turbidity (lag phase, indicating the rate of fibrin clot formation, Absmax, maximum absorbance of a fibrin gel, reflecting the fiber thickness), lysis time (t50%) and maximum rate of D-dimer release from clots (D-Drate) were determined 2 to 73 (median 14 ...

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    10. Molecular Imaging in Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Inflammation

      Appreciation of the molecular and cellular processes of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular inflammation has identified new targets for imaging. The common goals of molecular imaging approaches are to accelerate and refine diagnosis, provide insights that reveal disease diversity, guide specific therapies, and monitor the effects of those therapies. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of imaging modalities that have been used in this disease area. We consider the elements of contrast agents, emphasizing how an understanding of the biology of atherosclerosis and its complications can inform optimal design. We address the potential and limitations of current contrast approaches in respect ...
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    11. Optical and Multimodality Molecular Imaging. Insights Into Atherosclerosis

      Optical and Multimodality Molecular Imaging. Insights Into Atherosclerosis
      Abstract—Imaging approaches that visualize molecular targets rather than anatomic structures aim to illuminate vital molecular and cellular aspects of atherosclerosis biology in vivo. Several such molecular imaging strategies are poised for rapid clinical application. This review describes the growing role of in vivo optical molecular imaging in atherosclerosis and highlights its ability to visualize atheroma inflammation, calcification, and angiogenesis. In addition we discuss advances in multimodality probes, both in the context of multimodal imaging as well as multifunctional, or "theranostic," nanoparticles. This review highlights particular molecular imaging strategies that possess strong potential for clinical translation.
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    1-11 of 11
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