1. 1-22 of 22
    1. Comparison between different approaches to evaluate fibrous cap thickness in sequential OCT studies

      Comparison between different approaches to evaluate fibrous cap thickness in sequential OCT studies

      BACKGROUND: In this in vivo human study we tested the reproducibility for optical coherence tomography (OCT) assessment of lumen area (LA) and plaque components measurements, such as lipid arc extension and fibrous cap thickness (FCt). METHODS: We tested the variability of LA, lipid arc and FCt assessments in two repeated OCT pullbacks from the same diseased coronary segment matched using fiduciary anatomical landmarks. In particular, for the reliability of minimal FCt measurement we compared four different approaches based on continuous (longitudinal) or segmental (spot) individuation of smaller thickness: 1) comparison of single minimal FCt individuated alongside all plaque extension in ...

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      Mentions: Francesco Prati
    2. Optical coherence tomography guided directional atherectomy with anti-restenotic therapy for femoropopliteal arterial disease

      Optical coherence tomography guided directional atherectomy with anti-restenotic therapy for femoropopliteal arterial disease

      BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided directional atherectomy enables a real-time visualization of the arterial wall during plaque debulking and might optimize vessel preparation prior to DCB angioplasty. Nonetheless there is a paucity of data reporting on the outcomes of OCT-guided directional atherectomy with anti-restenotic therapy (DAART). Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of OCT-guided DAART in the treatment of femoropopliteal atherosclerosis. METHODS: Patients treated by OCT-guided DAART for femoropopliteal occlusive disease between January 2015 and December 2016 were included into this retrospective, single center, single-arm analysis. The primary measure outcome of this study was primary patency ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography: guided therapy of instent restenosis for Peripheral Arterial Disease

      Optical coherence tomography: guided therapy of instent restenosis for Peripheral Arterial Disease

      Approximately 27 million people in Europe and North America currently have peripheral arterial disease (PAD)1. The endovascular treatment of stenosis or blocked peripheral arteries in PAD include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without a drug coated balloon, atherectomy (rotational, directional, orbital or laser), and stenting. The development of next generation peripheral stents and drug coated stents have led to the improved treatment of complex SFA lesions, and consequently increased their usage23. Additionally, the technologies developed for PAD intervention have further improved the overall adoption of endovascular procedures leading to increased utilization of stents to address procedural dissections (bail-out ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography in drug-eluting stent restenosis: a technique in need of a strategy

      Optical coherence tomography in drug-eluting stent restenosis: a technique in need of a strategy

      Despite the high anti-restenotic efficacy of contemporary percutaneous interventional techniques, a substantial number of patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) still present with restenosis. Despite iterations of devices– from plain balloon angioplasty to bare metal stenting (BMS) to drug-eluting stent (DES) therapy – have granted a progressive decline in the rate of this complication, in-stent restenosis remains a critical issue encountered in clinical practice. Owing to the overall increase in the use of DES, the number of patients presenting with DES restenosis is not insignificant in absolute terms. When DES restenosis occurs, it represents a challenging clinical entity in terms ...

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    5. Guidewire shadow artifacts in optical coherence tomography

      Guidewire shadow artifacts in optical coherence tomography

      BACKGROUND: Because of the high resolution made possible by optical coherence tomography (OCT), previously indistinguishable guidewire artifacts are recognized during coronary imaging, and these affect image interpretation. This study aimed to assess the effect of guidewire size and structure on the artifacts produced and to introduce a novel guidewire specifically for OCT imaging that produces fewer artifacts. Elimination or minimization of guidewire artifacts supports optimal OCT imaging. METHODS: Silicon tubes simulating the coronary arteries were used to assess guidewire shadow artifacts in OCT imaging. The angles of artifacts produced by 4 types of guidewires were evaluated, including our newly designed ...

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    6. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: optical coherence guided innovative treatment options with the bioresorbable vascular scaffold – proof of concept

      Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: optical coherence guided innovative treatment options with the bioresorbable vascular scaffold – proof of concept

      AIM: The aim of our work, was to assess a novel interventional therapy option in cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), a complex form of coronary disease presenting only in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. It is typically a rapidly progressing phenomenon, affecting the entire coronary circulation causing diffuse, severe coronary lesions and has no one unique cause. Treatment options are limited, but where eligible, palliation via percutaneous revascularization (PCI) mainly using new generation drug eluting stents (DES) is recommended. METHOD: Our working group sought to assess outcomes of CAV PCI using an Absorb (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) fully bioresorbable, everolimus ...

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    7. Update on non-invasive imaging techniques in early diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      Update on non-invasive imaging techniques in early diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in fair skinned populations. Dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are non-invasive imaging techniques that play an important role in diagnosis of skin tumors. AIM: To provide new insights into the role of non-invasive tecniques in the diagnosis of non melanoma skin cancers, concentrating especially on dermoscopy, RCM and OCT. METHODS: The analysis of the studies obtained from the most recent literature, taking into account previous essential reported information in this field. A search concerning the role of dermoscopy, RCM and OCT in the diagnosis of ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography in dermatology

      Optical coherence tomography in dermatology

      BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was first used in skin imaging in 1997, and since then the technology has undergone significant technological development. With its high resolution and moderate penetration depth OCT fills the imaging gap between High Frequency Ultrasound and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy. Different modalities of OCT have been developed either focusing on higher image resolution or special visualization of tissue with distinct optical properties, including collagen and blood flow. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe trends in OCT research on different dermatological diseases and review the results. METHODS: Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of science, Google Scholar ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography surveillance following drug-eluting stent implantation

      Optical coherence tomography surveillance following drug-eluting stent implantation

      Drug-­eluting stents are currently used in the majority of percutaneous coronary interventions. Preclinical investigations and human autopsy studies have shown that the high efficacy of drug‐eluting stents in preventing restenosis is achieved at the expense of a delay in healing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a novel intracoronary imaging tool to evaluate vascular healing response after stent implantation. Owing to its outstanding resolution in the catheter near­‐field, quantitative morphometric measures were complemented by more qualitative description of neointimal tissue characterization. Clinical imaging studies employing these methodologies gained valuable insights into vascular healing responses after DES implantation and ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography in bioabsorbable stents: mechanism of vascular response and guidance of stent implantation

      Optical coherence tomography in bioabsorbable stents: mechanism of vascular response and guidance of stent implantation

      Fully biodegradable L-polylactic acid stents (biodegradable vascular scaffold, BVS), the latest breakthrough in the area of coronary implants, entered clinical trials in 2005 and became commercially available in 2011. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used from the first implants to study the vessel wall response and the timing of the resorption process in man. Analysis of BVS with OCT has several advantages over that of metallic stents. BVS polymeric struts are transparent to the light so that scaffold integrity, apposition to the underlying wall, presence of thrombus and hyperplasia, and changes in the strut characteristics over time can be easily ...

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    11. Early vascular healing with biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation: assessed by optical coherence tomography results at 4-month follow-up

      Early vascular healing with biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation: assessed by optical coherence tomography results at 4-month follow-up

      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the strut apposition and neointimal coverage of Supralimus-Core stent struts at 4 months after implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: The Supralimus-Core OCT study is a retrospective, single-center study evaluating strut apposition and neointimal coverage with OCT at 4 months after stent implantation. A total of 12 patients, who had 15 stents implanted were included in the study. The OCT was obtained using a C7-XR FD-OCT (frequency-domain OCT) intravascular imaging system. Strut apposition, neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) thickness and stent coverage on each stent strut were evaluated. Results: A total of ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography: from research to clinical application

      Optical coherence tomography: from research to clinical application

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized intracoronary imaging. The unprecedented spatial resolution of this technique (15 μm) provides unique insights on the microstructure of the coronary wall. Currently, OCT is increasingly used in clinical practice and also constitutes an emerging, highly robust, research tool. OCT allows detailed visualization of atherosclerotic plaques and provides reliable information on plaque composition (lipid, fibrous, calcified) although its limited tissue penetration usually precludes a comprehensive analysis of the total plaque burden. OCT is the only technique allowing accurate measurements of the thickness of the fibrous cap, a classical marker of plaque vulnerability, and readily detects ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography evaluation in X-linked retinoschisis

      Optical Coherence Tomography evaluation in X-linked retinoschisis

      X-linked Retinoschisis is a bilateral retinal disease with a recessive X-linked inheritance, characterized by a macular involvement. Maculopathy consists of bilateral star-shaped microcystic changes. Peripheral retina is sometimes involved with schisis. In two years, were examined 10 eyes of 5 male patients (age range 20-25 years old) with X-linked Juvenile Retinoschisis and progressive reduction of visual acuity. Macular alterations were classified as: Typical foveal schisis; Altered foveal reflection; Lines of pigmentary demarcation; Retinal pigmentary epithelium atrophy; Hole in retinal internal layer. OCT images showed a separation of neurosensorial retina that coincided with classical histopathological findings. Examination results were correlated with ...

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    14. Restenosis in bare metal and drug-eluting stents: distinct mechanistic insights from histopathology and optical intravascular imaging

      Restenosis in bare metal and drug-eluting stents: distinct mechanistic insights from histopathology and optical intravascular imaging
      An increasing body of evidence points to the existence of important differences in the processes of restenosis following drug-eluting stent (DES) as compared to bare metal stent implantation. Preclinical investigation and human autopsy studies have shown that the high efficacy of DES in comparison with bare metal stents in preventing restenosis is achieved at the collateral cost of a delay in healing of the stented arterial segment. Moreover bare metal stent restenosis is typically characterised by a homogeneous tissue rich in smooth muscle cells; whereas DES restenosis is more often hypocellular and proteoglycan-rich. In addition, in-stent neoatherosclerosis appears to have ...
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    15. New techniques in imaging in Barrett’s esophagus

      New techniques in imaging in Barrett’s esophagus

      The presence of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus identifies who is at increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and who may most benefit from intervention. Several technologies have emerged as potent tools to identify subtle or occult neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract. Detailed inspection of the mucosa with high resolution white light endoscopy is the most critical tool to detect subtle neoplasia. This review also chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and spectroscopy in the context of detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus.

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    16. Invasive imaging of the coronary atherosclerotic plaque

      Invasive imaging of the coronary atherosclerotic plaque

      Coronary atherosclerosis has a high prevalence and is known as the leading cause of death worldwide. Clinically, coronary atherosclerosis is routinely evaluated by coronary angiography, which provides a luminogram of the coronary artery and allows for recognizing lumen narrowing. However, angiography does not allow for the direct assessment of the disease process within the coronary vessel wall. Today, a number of catheter-based imaging methods can overcome this shortcoming and provide physicians with additional information on specific morphological components of atherosclerotic lesions. This article discusses the abilities of intravascular imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), IVUS-VH, iMAP, integrated backscatter-IVUS, intravascular ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography: preliminary results with a new noninvasive technique for evaluating uterine cervical tissue and vulvar epithelium

      Optical coherence tomography: preliminary results with a new noninvasive technique for evaluating uterine cervical tissue and vulvar epithelium
      (Article in Itialian) AIM: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging technique that captures high-definition real-time images at near-microscopic resolution (1-2 mm below the surface) of biological tissue morphology. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of uterine cervical and vulvar pathologies by means of OCT and to compare OCT findings versus histopathological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective single-center study was approved by the regional ethical committee. The OCT scans were performed in women with suspected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). The suspicious lesions were identified using colposcopy, visualized by ...
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    18. Current use and future perspectives of diagnostic and therapeutic lasers in oral medicine

      Current use and future perspectives of diagnostic and therapeutic lasers in oral medicine
      Several diagnostic and therapeutic methods are based on the optical properties of lasers. In therapeutic applications, laser light is absorbed in a specific manner, whereas light is scattered, reflected, or transmitted from different structures. Improvements in laser technology allow new procedures and broaden the scope of applications for both diagnosis and therapy. The focus of laser application in Oral Medicine diagnosis should be early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Novel modalities for the detection of oral malignancy are urgently needed, while others must be continuously impro-ved. Optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are currently being studied. In addition ...
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    19. Recent advances and novel methods in pancreatic imaging

      Traditional imaging studies for evaluating pancreatic disease including abdominal ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) are widely utilized due to their availability, non-invasiveness, and familiarity to practitioners. The addition of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has contributed significantly to the clinician's the ability to safely sample tissue, stage malignancy, evaluate the pancreatic ductal anatomy, and look for subtle parenchymal changes in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has diminished with the use of these less invasive modalities. Limitations in these conventional techniques include a lack ...
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    1-22 of 22
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