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    1. Potential Utility of Adjunct Imaging with Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross and Microscopic Evaluation of Breast Specimens in Real-Time in the Operating Suite

      Potential Utility of Adjunct Imaging with Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross and Microscopic Evaluation of Breast Specimens in Real-Time in the Operating Suite

      One challenge in the surgical management of breast cancer is maximizing the preservation of healthy tissue while achieving acceptable negative margins. Tools capable of assessing disease-margin involvement intraoperatively and in real-time could provide clinically useful guidance regarding the adequacy of margin resection before the surgery is over. Here we report the intraoperative use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 3 patients with DCIS. In all 3 cases, additional lesions identified by OCT during surgery were also noted in histopathology reports 3 to 5 days post-surgery, suggesting that intraoperative use of OCT is a valuable tool for margin determination in real-time.

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    2. Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss After PRESERFLO™ MicroShunt Implantation in the Anterior Chamber: Anterior Segment OCT Tube Location as a Risk Factor

      Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss After PRESERFLO™ MicroShunt Implantation in the Anterior Chamber: Anterior Segment OCT Tube Location as a Risk Factor

      Introduction: To analyze the effects of PRESERFLO on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD). Methods: Forty-six eyes that underwent PRESERFLO implantation were followed up for 12 months. Specular microscopy was performed preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively to measure central ECD and mean monthly reduction (MMR). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was applied to measure the tube-endothelium (TE < 200 μm, 201-500 μm, > 500 μm) distance. The relationship between TE distance and ECD was analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model. Results: Central ECD decreased significantly at 1 year (7.4%, p = 0.04), with an MMR of ...

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    3. The effect of systemic factors on retinal blood flow in patients with carotid stenosis: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      The effect of systemic factors on retinal blood flow in patients with carotid stenosis: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disabilities in the Western world. CAS is a consequence of systemic atherosclerotic disease affecting the majority of the aging population. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel imaging technique for visualizing retinal blood flow. It is a noninvasive, fast method for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microcirculation. Cerebral and retinal circulation share similar anatomy, physiology, and embryology; thus, retinal microvasculature provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease in vivo. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of ...

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    4. Structural abnormalities associated with glaucoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with systemic sclerosis

      Structural abnormalities associated with glaucoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with systemic sclerosis

      Purpose: Vasospasm represents an early event in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Ocular vasospasm may induce optic nerve head (ONH) damage and has been involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, especially normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We aimed to investigate the presence of structural abnormalities associated with NTG using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and to correlate the OCT parameters with clinical, capillaroscopy and digital blood flow measures in patients with SSc. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients with SSc and 23 age-matched controls were included. The following parameters were measured using SS-OCT: mean and sectoral retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, macular ...

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    5. A Comparison Among Microperimetry, Standard Automated Perimetry and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of the Macula in Glaucoma Eyes with Hemifield Defects

      A Comparison Among Microperimetry, Standard Automated Perimetry and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of the Macula in Glaucoma Eyes with Hemifield Defects

      Introduction: To evaluate the correlation between macular integrity assessment (MAIA) and standard automated perimetry (SAP) in detecting macular function damage in glaucoma and to explore the relationship between macular structure and functional damage by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Seventy patients with glaucoma, with hemifield defects verified by Humphrey 24-2 examination, and 60 normal subjects underwent Humphrey 10-2 and MAIA expert 10-2 examinations. Patients with glaucoma with normal hemifields, as detected by SAP, were divided into a normal hemifield group and a visual field (VF) defect group. The difference in the retina ...

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    6. Synthetic OCT data in challenging conditions: three-dimensional OCT and presence of abnormalities

      Synthetic OCT data in challenging conditions: three-dimensional OCT and presence of abnormalities

      Nowadays, retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) plays an important role in ophthalmology and automatic analysis of the OCT is of real importance: image denoising facilitates a better diagnosis and image segmentation and classification are undeniably critical in treatment evaluation. Synthetic OCT was recently considered to provide a benchmark for quantitative comparison of automatic algorithms and to be utilized in the training stage of novel solutions based on deep learning. Due to complicated data structure in retinal OCTs, a limited number of delineated OCT datasets are already available in presence of abnormalities; furthermore, the intrinsic three-dimensional (3D) structure of OCT is ...

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    7. Reliability and efficiency of corneal thickness measurements using sterile donor tomography in the eye bank

      Reliability and efficiency of corneal thickness measurements using sterile donor tomography in the eye bank

      To evaluate the reliability and efficiency of sterile pachymetric measurements of donor corneas based on tomographic data using two different methods: a “manual” and a “(semi-)automated” method. Twenty-five (25) donor corneas (50%) stored in MI and 25 (50%) in MII were imaged 5 times consecutively using an anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT). The central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured both with the manual measurement tool of the AS-OCT (= CCTm) and with a MATLAB self-programmed software allowing (semi-)automated analysis (= CCTa). We analyzed the reliability of CCTm and CCTa using Cronbach´s alpha (α) and Wilcoxon signed-Rank Test. Concerning CCTm, 68 measurements ...

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    8. Evaluation of retinal microvascular structures by optical coherence tomography angiography in primary Sjögren’s syndrome

      Evaluation of retinal microvascular structures by optical coherence tomography angiography in primary Sjögren’s syndrome

      Objectives: There are insufficient data in the literature on how retinal capillaries are affected in primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the retinal capillary density (CD) in PSS using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this case-control study, 26 eyes from 13 PSS patients and 39 eyes from 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. The CD in the regions of the superior capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) as well as assessment parameters of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were examined by OCTA. Results: The ...

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    9. Temporal variation of optical coherence tomography biomarkers as predictors of anti-VEGF treatment outcomes in diabetic macular edema

      Temporal variation of optical coherence tomography biomarkers as predictors of anti-VEGF treatment outcomes in diabetic macular edema

      Purpose To report a longitudinal analysis of specific optical coherence tomography (OCT) features in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with anti-VEGF. Methods A total of 133 eyes of 103 consecutive patients with center-involving DME were included in the study. The eyes were treated between August 2008 and April 2019 with three monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, either with or without prompt or deferred laser, followed by pro re nata (PRN) re-treatment. The following OCT biomarkers were evaluated: subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND) (defined as present (SND+) or absent (SND-)), hyperreflective retinal foci (HRF) number (defined as: absent/few(HRF-) or ...

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    10. Zone-wise examination of optical coherence tomography features and their correspondence to multifocal electroretinography in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Zone-wise examination of optical coherence tomography features and their correspondence to multifocal electroretinography in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose To examine (1) the retinal structure by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and function by means of multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in eyes with and without nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (2) for correspondence between local retinal function and OCT zones with retinal lesions. Methods One hundred and thirty-two eligible participants (30 with nonproliferative DR (NPDR) and 102 with diabetes with no DR) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography for retinal thickness measures, mfERG, and ultra-wide field fundus photography. OCT Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid was overlaid on to mfERG plots. Results Those with NPDR had significantly thicker full ...

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    11. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging in Patients with Diabetes

      Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Imaging in Patients with Diabetes

      Purpose of Review Ocular manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) can present as microvascular changes. These microvascular changes can be challenging to identify on exams, and imaging technologies have commonly aided in the diagnosis and management of patients with DM. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides noninvasive image segmentation of various layers of the retina and choroid. Also, post-processing of images and associated quantitative measurements offer potential clinical enhancements. Our aim is to review the current evidence on the utility of OCTA for patients with DM. Recent Findings Research suggests OCTA to potentially provide potential clinical enhancements and alternative ...

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    12. Monitoring for glaucoma progression with SAP, electroretinography (PERG and PhNR) and OCT

      Monitoring for glaucoma progression with SAP, electroretinography (PERG and PhNR) and OCT

      Purpose: To investigate the value of pattern electroretinography (PERG) and photopic negative response (PhNR) in monitoring glaucoma compared to standard clinical tests (standard automated perimetry (SAP) and clinical optic disc assessment) and structural measurements using spectral-domain OCT. Methods: A prospective study included 32 subjects (32 eyes) with ocular hypertension, suspect or early glaucoma monitored for progression with clinical examination, SAP, PERG, PhNR and OCT for at least 4 years. Progression was defined clinically by the documented change of the optic disc and/or significant visual field progression (EyeSuite™ trend analysis). One eye per patient was included in the analysis. Results ...

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    13. Macular vessel density reduction in patients recovered from COVID-19: a longitudinal optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Macular vessel density reduction in patients recovered from COVID-19: a longitudinal optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Background/aims: To quantify the longitudinal changes of the macular microvasculature and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters in patients recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. Methods: This observational, longitudinal study was performed on patients recovered from COVID-19. The OCTA images were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 3 months at the follow-up examination. Vessel density (VD) of the retinal superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), as well as the area of the FAZ of patients who had recovered from COVID-19, were measured. Results: In total, 36 eyes of 18 patients (62 ...

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    14. Altered peripapillary vessel density and nerve fiber layer thickness in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Altered peripapillary vessel density and nerve fiber layer thickness in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Objective: To measure the peripapillary vessel density (VD) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) patients using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and determine their prognostic relevance. Methods: Forty-three TAO patients with or without DON (82 eyes in total) and 26 healthy subjects (52 eyes) were enrolled. All participants underwent ophthalmology and endocrinology tests. The peripapillary VD in retinal peripapillary capillary layer and RNFLT were analyzed using OCTA images. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between peripapillary VD /RNFLT and the relevant factors. Results: The total peripapillary ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography angiography characteristics and correlated factors with visual acuity in retinal arterial occlusion

      Optical coherence tomography angiography characteristics and correlated factors with visual acuity in retinal arterial occlusion

      Purpose: To reveal the characteristics of vascular changes in retinal arterial occlusion (RAO) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and determine the correlated factors with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods: This retrospective study recruited 54 RAO patients and 27 healthy individuals. Ophthalmic examinations including BCVA and OCTA were performed in all the patients and individuals. The OCTA outcomes were analyzed using SPSS software, and the characteristics of vascular changes and BCVA-related factors were summarized. Results: The vessel density in all areas except fovea of both superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) was significantly reduced in RAO eyes ...

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    16. Correlation of optical coherence tomography and Doppler ultrasonography findings in pseudoexfoliation syndrome

      Correlation of optical coherence tomography and Doppler ultrasonography findings in pseudoexfoliation syndrome

      Purpose: We aimed to investigate the correlation between the color Doppler imaging (CDI) results and parameters determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in cases with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS). Methods: 99 participants were included in this prospective study. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), optic nerve head (ONH) measurements were recorded. Perfusions of the ophthalmic artery (OA) and central retinal artery (CRA) were determined and resistivity indices (RI) were calculated. Results: No statistically significant differences were determined between the groups regarding the RNFL and ONH parameters. Only the minimum GCC thickness value was determined to be ...

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    17. Comparative analysis of two optical biometry devices: high wavelength swept source OCT versus partial coherence interferometry

      Comparative analysis of two optical biometry devices: high wavelength swept source OCT versus partial coherence interferometry

      Purpose: To study the reproducibility of measurements performed with a recently developed multimodal high resolution swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and to make comparisons with a partial coherence interferometry (PCI) biometer. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two eyes of 152 subjects were involved in this study with a mean age of 65.71 ± 13.86 years (26-85 years). Anterior surface keratometry (K), anterior chamber depth (ACD), white-to-white (WTW) and axial length (AL) values were recorded by the SSOCT (ANTERION, Heidelberg Engineering Ltd, Germany) and PCI (IOLMaster 500, version 5.5, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany). Intraocular lens (IOL) power was calculated ...

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    18. Evaluation of early retinal vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy

      Evaluation of early retinal vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose To evaluate macular and peripapillary vascular changes by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods This study included 46 patients with T1DM and 46 age-sex matched healthy subjects. All participants were evaluated in terms of macular and optic disk parameters by using AngioVue. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, macular and optic disk vessel density (VD) were analyzed. The correlation of these parameters with metabolic factors such as disease duration, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) standard deviation score (SDS), homocysteine (Hcy) level, body mass index ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography predictors of progression of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration to advanced atrophic and exudative disease

      Optical coherence tomography predictors of progression of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration to advanced atrophic and exudative disease

      Purpose: To study the natural history of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging-based findings seen in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (neAMD) and model their relative likelihood in predicting development of incomplete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy (iRORA), complete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), and neovascular AMD (nAMD). Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed at two academic practices. Patients diagnosed with neAMD for whom yearly OCT scans were obtained for at least 4 consecutive years were included. Baseline demographic, visual acuity, AREDS staging, and OCT data were collected. OCTs were assessed for the presence or absence of ...

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    20. The relationship of tear osmolarity with tear meniscus curvature and contact angles in healthy subjects: anterior segment optical coherence tomography study

      The relationship of tear osmolarity with tear meniscus curvature and contact angles in healthy subjects: anterior segment optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose To evaluate the relationship of tear osmolarity (TO) with tear meniscus curvature and contact angles by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in healthy subjects. Methods The right eyes of 64 consecutive healthy subjects were included in the study. The eyes were scanned by AS-OCT for the measurements of upper and lower tear menisci. The geometrical components of the upper and lower menisci, including height, depth, area, and radius of the menisci, cornea-meniscus angle (α-angle), meniscus-eyelid angle (β-angle), and curvature angle (θ-angle) were measured. TO was obtained by TearLab. All participants were administered Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaires (OSDI ...

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    21. A New Method for Automating the Diagnostic Analysis of Human Fundus Images Obtained Using Optical Coherent Tomography Angiography

      A New Method for Automating the Diagnostic Analysis of Human Fundus Images Obtained Using Optical Coherent Tomography Angiography

      This article presents the results of the joint work of image analysis specialists and ophthalmologists on the problem of analyzing images obtained by optical coherence tomography (angiography). A descriptive algorithmic scheme for analyzing images obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography was constructed to automate detection of pathological changes in the morphometric characteristics of the fundus. The algorithmic scheme is based on the image processing, analysis, and recognition methods. A feature space has been developed that makes it possible to identify pathological changes in the structure of the vascular plexuses of the human retina. It was possible to achieve high-accuracy classification ...

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    22. Improved U-Net for Plaque Segmentation of Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Improved U-Net for Plaque Segmentation of Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used in the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Traditional machine learning methods are mainly based on the image texture features for the plaque segmentation. However, the texture features only represent the information of the local area, which may lead to unsatisfactory results. U-Net and its improved versions use continuous convolution and pooling to extract more advanced features, resulting in the loss of image spatial information and low plaque segmentation accuracy. This paper introduces a spatial pyramid pooling module and a multi-scale dilated convolution module into the U-Net to capture more advanced features while ...

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    23. Nonexudative morphologic changes of neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography as predictive factors for exudative recurrence in age-related macular degeneration

      Nonexudative morphologic changes of neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography as predictive factors for exudative recurrence in age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose: To evaluate morphologic changes of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during the nonexudative period and to correlate the features and timing of recurrence in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. (AMD). Methods: Two hundred thirty-eight eyes with type 1 CNV were retrospectively reviewed. For cases with exudative recurrence, OCTA images were tracked for analysis between the recurrences. Qualitative parameters of morphologic changes of CNV on OCTA, including tiny branching vessels, anastomotic loops, peripheral vascular arcade, and perilesional halo, were correlated with the features of exudative recurrence. Results: Exudative recurrence was identified in 163 cases, and among them ...

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