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    1. OCT-Based Biomarkers are Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Patients with Treatment-Naïve Diabetic Macular Edema

      OCT-Based Biomarkers are Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Patients with Treatment-Naïve Diabetic Macular Edema

      Introduction: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the major sight-threatening complications of diabetic retinopathy, which is associated with retinal inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether DME is associated with systemic inflammation. The study aimed to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory and optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers in patients with treatment-naïve center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME) and to further explore the role of systemic inflammation in DME. Methods: Medical records including clinical characteristics and ophthalmic examinations were collected from patients with treatment-naïve center-involving DME. Systemic inflammation markers including systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and ...

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    2. Evaluation of macular microvascular structure with optical coherence tomography angiography in children with history of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity

      Evaluation of macular microvascular structure with optical coherence tomography angiography in children with history of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity

      Purpose: To compare macula vascular parameters in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of children with history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who were treated with laser photocoagulation (LPC) or intravitreal Bevacizumab therapy. Methods: Forty eyes of 28 ROP children treated with LPC and 36 eyes of 22 ROP children treated with intravitreal Bevacizumab and 40 eyes of 40 age-gender matched term children were included the study. Capillary plexus densities in macula, FAZ parameters, outer retina and choriocapillaris flow rates, and central foveal thickness were measured. Results: Foveal superficial and deep capillary plexus densities were found significantly higher in LPC and ...

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    3. Structure-function models for estimating retinal ganglion cell count using steady-state pattern electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in glaucoma suspects and preperimetric glaucoma: an electrophysiological pilot study

      Structure-function models for estimating retinal ganglion cell count using steady-state pattern electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in glaucoma suspects and preperimetric glaucoma: an electrophysiological pilot study

      Purpose: To derive and validate structure-function models for estimating retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and steady-state pattern electroretinography (ssPERG) parameters in glaucoma suspects (GS) and preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 25 subjects (50 eyes) were recruited at the Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examinations, OCT, standard automated perimetry (SAP), and ssPERG testing. Eyes were divided into three groups based on the Global Glaucoma Staging System: healthy (N = 30), GS (N = 10), and PPG (N = 10) eyes. The combined structure-function index (CSFI), which estimates retinal ganglion cell ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Choroidal Structural Analysis and Vascularity Index in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Choroidal Structural Analysis and Vascularity Index in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Introduction: This study investigated choroidal structural changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT) using choroidal vascularity index (CVI) and choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD). Methods: This retrospective case control study included 78 patients with BVMD of different clinical stages and 242 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Subfoveal OCT scans were analysed. Total choroidal area (TCA), luminal area (LA) and CT were measured after image segmentation and binarization. CVI, a novel marker for choroidal angioarchitecture, was defined as the ratio of LA to TCA. CVI and CT were compared between BVMD and control group, as well ...

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    5. Validation of a semi-automatic software for optical coherence tomography - analysis in heart transplanted patients

      Validation of a semi-automatic software for optical coherence tomography - analysis in heart transplanted patients

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an intravascular imaging modality enabling detailed evaluation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation (HTx). However, its clinical application remains hampered by time-consuming manual quantitative analysis. We aimed to validate a semi-automated quantitative OCT analysis software (Iowa Coronary Wall Analyzer, ICWA-OCT) to improve OCT-analysis in HTx patients. 23 patients underwent OCT evaluation of all three major coronary arteries at 3 months (3M) and 12 months (12M) after HTx. We analyzed OCT recordings using the semiautomatic software and compared results with measurements from a validated manual software. For semi-automated analysis, 31,228 frames from 114 ...

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    6. Automated machine learning-based classification of proliferative and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography vascular density maps

      Automated machine learning-based classification of proliferative and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography vascular density maps

      Purpose: The study aims to classify the eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) based on the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) vascular density maps using a supervised machine learning algorithm. Methods: OCTA vascular density maps (at superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and total retina (R) levels) of 148 eyes from 78 patients with diabetic retinopathy (45 PDR and 103 NPDR) was used to classify the images to NPDR and PDR groups based on a supervised machine learning algorithm known as the support vector machine (SVM) classifier optimized by a genetic evolutionary algorithm ...

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    7. Optical clearing and testing of lung tissue using inhalation aerosols: prospects for monitoring the action of viral infections

      Optical clearing and testing of lung tissue using inhalation aerosols: prospects for monitoring the action of viral infections

      Optical clearing of the lung tissue aims to make it more transparent to light by minimizing light scattering, thus allowing reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of the tissue with a much better resolution. This is of great importance for monitoring of viral infection impact on the alveolar structure of the tissue and oxygen transport. Optical clearing agents (OCAs) can provide not only lesser light scattering of tissue components but also may influence the molecular transport function of the alveolar membrane. Air-filled lungs present significant challenges for optical imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy ...

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    8. Evaluation of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature changes in cases of sarcoid and tuberculosis-associated posterior uveitis using OCT angiography

      Evaluation of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature changes in cases of sarcoid and tuberculosis-associated posterior uveitis using OCT angiography

      Purpose: Using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to evaluate retinal microvascular changes in sarcoid and tuberculous (TB) posterior uveitis. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study includes 30 eyes. FFA and OCTA images were acquired. OCTA images were analyzed for areas of capillary hypo-perfusion, disorganization of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP and DCP) and intraretinal cystoid spaces and for measuring the size of the foveal avascular zone and vessel density (VD) in the SCP and DCP. Results: A total of 11 eyes were associated with TB and 19 with sarcoidosis. By OCTA, 100% had areas of capillary non-perfusion, 36.7% choroidal ...

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    9. Comparison of retinochoroidal microvascular circulation in menstrual and postmenopausal periods using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Comparison of retinochoroidal microvascular circulation in menstrual and postmenopausal periods using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: We aimed to examine the possible effects of the postmenopausal period on retinal and choroidal microvascular circulation using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 45 eyes of 45 subjects in menstrual group and 40 eyes of 40 subjects in postmenopausal group. SS-OCTA was used for the assessment of vessel density (VD), foveal avascular zone (FAZ), choroidal thickness (CT), choriocapillaris VD, central macular thickness (CMT), nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL) measurements. Result: The VDs of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) measurements were similar in both ...

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    10. OCT Macular Volume as a Predictor of Vascular Leakage in Uveitis

      OCT Macular Volume as a Predictor of Vascular Leakage in Uveitis

      Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume as a marker for active vascular leakage in patients with intermediate and pan uveitis. Methods In this single-center prospective longitudinal study, patients were included under three criteria: diagnosed with noninfectious intermediate or pan uveitis; presented vascular leakage at their initial visit; and were imaged with concurrent wide-field fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT. A scoring system was employed to measure vascular leakage. OCT volume scans were performed on the patients to produce the corresponding thickness map. The central subfield thickness (CST) and macular volume (MV) were calculated. CST ...

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    11. An IoT based predictive modeling for Glaucoma detection in optical coherence tomography images using hybrid genetic algorithm

      An IoT based predictive modeling for Glaucoma detection in optical coherence tomography images using hybrid genetic algorithm

      The primary cause of irreversible blindness due to glaucoma is a silent, progressive disease with no noticeable symptoms. This eye disease gradually and rapidly damages the optic nerve, resulting in visual field defects. Glaucoma can cause substantial vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and proper treatment help limit those severe consequences. The benefits of screening for glaucoma while reducing the workload on eye specialists outweigh the extra effort required for screening. With unmanned aircraft, self-driving cars, facial recognition, and language processing, artificial intelligence (AI) has altered our way of life. AI is capable of outperforming humans in tasks like ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography and convolutional neural networks can differentiate colorectal liver metastases from liver parenchyma ex vivo

      Optical coherence tomography and convolutional neural networks can differentiate colorectal liver metastases from liver parenchyma ex vivo

      Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry, which provides non-invasive, high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues. A potential clinical application is the intraoperative examination of resection margins, as a real-time adjunct to histological examination. In this ex vivo study, we investigated the ability of OCT to differentiate colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) from healthy liver parenchyma, when combined with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Methods: Between June and August 2020, consecutive adult patients undergoing elective liver resections for CRLM were included in this study. Fresh resection specimens were scanned ex vivo, before fixation in formalin, using ...

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    13. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography findings and visual evoked potentials in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

      Evaluation of optical coherence tomography findings and visual evoked potentials in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

      Purpose: To evaluate the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings and pattern visual evoked potential (VEP) in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Methods: Seventeen patients with CMT disease and 17 control subjects were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to conduction velocity and inheritance pattern as demyelinating type (CMT 1) and axonal type (CMT 2). The average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, RNFL thicknesses of all quadrants, and thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer complex (GCC) were measured using SD-OCT. Pattern VEP recordings were evaluated in both groups. Results: The average and four quadrants of ...

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    14. Self-supervised patient-specific features learning for OCT image classification

      Self-supervised patient-specific features learning for OCT image classification

      Deep learning's great success in image classification is heavily reliant on large-scale annotated datasets. However, obtaining labels for optical coherence tomography (OCT) data requires the significant effort of professional ophthalmologists, which hinders the application of deep learning in OCT image classification. In this paper, we propose a self-supervised patient-specific features learning (SSPSF) method to reduce the amount of data required for well OCT image classification results. Specifically, the SSPSF consists of a self-supervised learning phase and a downstream OCT image classification learning phase. The self-supervised learning phase contains two self-supervised patient-specific features learning tasks. One is to learn to ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography reveals retinal thinning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

      Optical coherence tomography reveals retinal thinning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

      Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are presumed to be associated with retinal thinning. However, evidence is lacking as to whether these retinal alterations reflect a disease-specific process or are rather a consequence of comorbid diseases or concomitant microvascular impairment. Methods: The study included 126 eyes of 65 patients with SSDs and 143 eyes of 72 healthy controls. We examined macula and optic disc measures by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Additive mixed models were used to assess the impact of SSDs on retinal thickness and perfusion and to explore the association of retinal and clinical disease-related parameters ...

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    16. Vascular healing in high-bleeding-risk patients at 3-month after everolimus-eluting stent versus biolimus A9-coated stent implantation: insights from analysis of optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy

      Vascular healing in high-bleeding-risk patients at 3-month after everolimus-eluting stent versus biolimus A9-coated stent implantation: insights from analysis of optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy

      The prevalence of high-bleeding-risk (HBR) patients who undergo coronary stenting has been reported as 20–40%. This study sought to assess vascular healing in HBR patients by coronary angioscopy (CAS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We prospectively analyzed 38 HBR patients with coronary artery disease who successfully underwent everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation (20 patients, 23 lesions) or drug-coated stent (DCS) implantation (18 patients, 18 lesions). Follow-up coronary angiography, CAS, and OCT were planned at 3 months after the procedure. The clinical characteristics and inclusion criteria of HBR were comparable between groups. CAS analysis showed that mean yellow color grade was ...

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    17. Identification of post-procedural optical coherence tomography findings associated with the 1-year vascular response evaluated by coronary angioscopy

      Identification of post-procedural optical coherence tomography findings associated with the 1-year vascular response evaluated by coronary angioscopy

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides higher resolution intravascular imaging and allows detailed evaluations of stent implantation sites post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angioscopy (CAS) can evaluate the vascular response after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. The post-PCI OCT findings that are associated with the CAS 1-year vascular response have not been known. We enrolled 168 lesions from 119 patients who underwent OCT-guided PCI using DES and follow-up CAS observation at 1 ± 0.5 year from August 2012 to December 2019. Outcome measures were sufficient neointimal coverage (NIC) defined as stent struts embedded in the neointima, subclinical intrastent thrombus, and vulnerable stented ...

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    18. Structural and functional changes among diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography and photopic negative response

      Structural and functional changes among diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography and photopic negative response

      Purpose To assess the structural and functional changes among diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA) and photopic negative response (PhNR) and to find the earliest changes. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional, case–control study. Participants with minimum 5 years of diabetes mellitus (DM) were recruited and classified as NDR and mild NPDR based on fundus findings. Age-matched normals with nil ocular pathology were considered as controls. SSOCTA scan acquisition (6*6 mm angiography), followed by full field photopic electroretinography (FFERG) and red on blue PhNR (R ...

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    19. Generating Synthesized Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Images from Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography Images by Generative Adversarial Networks for Iridociliary Assessment

      Generating Synthesized Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Images from Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography Images by Generative Adversarial Networks for Iridociliary Assessment

      Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of generating synthesized ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images from swept-source anterior segment optical coherent tomography (SS-ASOCT) images using a cycle-consistent generative adversarial network framework (CycleGAN) for iridociliary assessment on a cohort presenting for primary angle-closure screening. Methods: The CycleGAN architecture was adopted to synthesize high-resolution UBM images trained on the SS-ASOCT dataset from the department of ophthalmology, Xinhua Hospital. The performance of the CycleGAN model was further tested in two separate datasets using synthetic UBM images from two different ASOCT modalities (in-distribution and out-of-distribution). We compared the ability of glaucoma ...

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    20. Evaluation of the visual system with visual evoked potential and optical coherence tomography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with multiple system atrophy

      Evaluation of the visual system with visual evoked potential and optical coherence tomography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with multiple system atrophy

      Background: In addition to motor findings, non-motor findings including alterations in visual acuity, decrease in blink reflex, and pupil reactivity cause the impaired quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Our study aimed to examine possible latency and amplitude changes in pattern visual evoked potentials (pVEP) along with retinal and macular changes in optical coherence tomography (OCT) in PD and MSA groups. We also intended to investigate whether any OCT parameters could be a biomarker for Parkinson's or MSA. Methods: Our study included 50 patients with PD, 15 with MSA, and 50 ...

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    21. Characteristic retinal atrophy pattern allows differentiation between pediatric MOGAD and MS after a single optic neuritis episode

      Characteristic retinal atrophy pattern allows differentiation between pediatric MOGAD and MS after a single optic neuritis episode

      Background Optic neuritis (ON) is the most prevalent manifestation of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS ped ) and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD ped ) in children > 6 years. In this study, we investigated retinal atrophy patterns and diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in differentiating between both diseases after the first ON episode. Methods Patients were retrospectively identified in eight tertial referral centers. OCT, VEP and high/low-contrast visual acuity (HCVA/LCVA) have been investigated > 6 months after the first ON. Prevalence of pathological OCT findings was identified based on data of 144 age-matched healthy controls. Results Thirteen MOGAD ped (10 ...

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    22. Evaluation of the repeatability of optical coherence tomography in patients with age-related cataract associated with dry eye

      Evaluation of the repeatability of optical coherence tomography in patients with age-related cataract associated with dry eye

      Aim To assess the repeatability of a new optical biometer (OA-2000, Tomey, Japan) based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and Placido-disk topography in dry eyes with cataracts. Method A cross-sectional study was performed. Two hundred sixteen eyes of 216 cataract patients were enrolled in our hospital from March 2020 to December 2020. According to the subjective symptoms and objective examination of dry eye, the patients were assigned to dry eye group and non-dry eye group. Axial length (AL), keratometry readings (K), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT) and white-to-white (WTW) distance were measured by ...

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    23. Precision of limbal ischemia evaluation in ocular chemical injuries with anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      Precision of limbal ischemia evaluation in ocular chemical injuries with anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To evaluate the limbal ischemia objectively in ocular surface chemical injuries by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA). Methods In this cross-sectional study, acute ocular surface chemical injury patients with less than 1 week injury history were enrolled. Demographic data of the patients were noted, and detailed ophthalmological examination with Dua classification was performed. AS photographs and AS-OCTA images were obtained and used for the assessment of limbal ischemia. To visualize the limbal vasculature, the device was focused manually to get a sharp image for all 4 quadrants of the limbus. The absence of vasculature was regarded ...

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    24. Use of optical coherence tomography angiography in the uveitis clinic

      Use of optical coherence tomography angiography in the uveitis clinic

      As optical coherence tomography angiography is revolutionizing the ophthalmology world, the uveitis community is learning to understand where and how this new powerful imaging tool fits into the management of the panorama of ocular inflammations and infections. A non-invasive method of studying the retinal and choroidal vasculature, OCTA allows for the assessment of vessel density changes during active and inactive uveitis making it the natural imaging application of choice in uveitis clinical trials. However, these data and results are of limited utility to the ophthalmologists who are looking to apply OCTA in their everyday uveitis clinic. If employed strategically, OCTA ...

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