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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that uses principles of light interferometry. It has achieved clinical application in several other specialties such as ophthalmology and cardiology where its high resolution and deeper penetration into the surface permits much more detailed examination of the mucosa. In the field of gastroenterology, the technology has evolved through several iterations beginning with a focal magnifying imaging technique and evolving into currently a widefield imaging modality that can scan a relatively large area of mucosa with high resolution. OCT has been used to detect dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus, differentiate between inflammatory ...

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    2. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times

      Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times

      We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered ...

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    3. The Role of Intracoronary Plaque Imaging with Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      The Role of Intracoronary Plaque Imaging with Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

      The development of multiple diagnostic intracoronary imaging modalities has increased our understanding of coronary atherosclerotic disease. These imaging modalities, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have provided a method to study plaques and introduced the concept of plaque vulnerability. They are being increasingly used for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization and are invaluable tools in research studying the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. IVUS has the ability to visualize the intracoronary lumen and the vessel wall and can be used to detect early atherosclerotic disease even in the setting ...

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    4. Intraocular foreign body removal: a novel technique using intraoperative imaging

      Intraocular foreign body removal: a novel technique using intraoperative imaging

      We describe a case illustrating a new technique of using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (IOCT) for foreign body removal from the limbus and cornea. In this case, fragments of a fish hook in the temporal limbus and cornea were identified on the OCT. The residual pieces were then removed, assisted by high-resolution, real-time cross-sectional imaging, IOCT. While this technique involves steep learning curve, we believe that it is safe for the patient and helps surgeon with instant decision making and reduce orbital manipulation.

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    5. Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Eyes of Children

      Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Eyes of Children

      OCT has found its niche within virtually all ophthalmic subspecialties, be it glaucoma, retina/vitreous, or anterior segment. OCT’s role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric eye disease continues to evolve. Monumental gains have been made in our understanding of various physiologic principles and pathological processes as a result of this relatively new technology. While not intended to be an exhaustive catalogue of the opportunities afforded by OCT, this chapter should provide the well-rounded pediatric ophthalmologist with the appropriate framework to better appreciate this new technology and its role in pediatric eye disease.

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    6. Two-year Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Balloon-Only Treatment of Bioresorbable Scaffold Restenosis in a Calcified Coronary Lesion: A Case Report

      Two-year Optical Coherence Tomography Findings after Balloon-Only Treatment of Bioresorbable Scaffold Restenosis in a Calcified Coronary Lesion: A Case Report

      We report a case of a 65-year-old female patient treated with an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) after rotational atherectomy of a severely calcified lesion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The implanted BRS restenosed 10 months after implantation and was treated with a scoring balloon followed by drug-eluting balloons with good immediate and long-term results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a balloon-only treatment of a restenosis occurring more than 6 months after BRS implantation; angiographic and optical coherence tomography images after treatment and at two-year follow-up are presented.

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    7. Intravascular MRI for Plaque Characterization: Are We Close to Reality?

      Intravascular MRI for Plaque Characterization: Are We Close to Reality?

      Non-invasive external magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of large vessel atherosclerosis is a robust and promising imaging modality that can be applied for the evaluation of the atherosclerotic process in large vessels. However, it requires expertise for setup and time for data acquisition and analysis. Intravascular MRI is a promising tool, but its use remains at the pre-clinical stage within selected research groups. In this review, the current status and future role of intravascular MRI for atherosclerotic plaque characterization are summarized, along with important challenges which will be necessary to overcome prior to the wide adoption of this technique.

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    8. Optical coherence tomography impacts the evaluation of visual pathway tumors

      Optical coherence tomography impacts the evaluation of visual pathway tumors

      The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the role of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the evaluation of patients with tumors of the visual pathway. We performed a PubMed database search according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The search was restricted to articles published in English between 2000 and 2016, with at least 10 human adult participants enrolled. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. All studies investigated tumors of the anterior visual pathway. Both time-domain and spectral-domain OCT technologies were used and the role of OCT as diagnostic ...

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    9. Impact of optical coherence tomography- and coronary angioscopy-assessed neointimal tissue characteristics on occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Impact of optical coherence tomography- and coronary angioscopy-assessed neointimal tissue characteristics on occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis in patients with in-stent restenosis

      Several characteristics of neointimal tissues, including neoatherosclerotic progression, have been reported in lesions with in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, the effects of these characteristics on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ISR lesions remain unclear. We assessed the relationships between neointimal tissue characteristics and the occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis (PMN) after PCI in ISR lesions. We investigated 72 ISR lesions in 72 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent pre- and post-revascularization optical coherence tomography (OCT) and coronary angioscopy (CAS). All lesions were classified as with PMN, defined by an elevated peak high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T level during the 24-h ...

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    10. Alzheimer’s disease: A review of its visual system neuropathology. Optical coherence tomography—a potential role as a study tool in vivo

      Alzheimer’s disease: A review of its visual system neuropathology. Optical coherence tomography—a potential role as a study tool in vivo

      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a prevalent, long-term progressive degenerative disorder with great social impact. It is currently thought that, in addition to neurodegeneration, vascular changes also play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Visual symptoms are frequent and are an early clinical manifestation; a number of psychophysiologic changes occur in visual function, including visual field defects, abnormal contrast sensitivity, abnormalities in color vision, depth perception deficits, and motion detection abnormalities. These visual changes were initially believed to be solely due to neurodegeneration in the posterior visual pathway. However, evidence from pathology studies in both animal models of ...

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    11. Fractional flow reserve-guided coronary angioplasty using paclitaxel-coated balloons without stent implantation: feasibility, safety and 6-month results by angiography and optical coherence tomography

      Fractional flow reserve-guided coronary angioplasty using paclitaxel-coated balloons without stent implantation: feasibility, safety and 6-month results by angiography and optical coherence tomography

      Background Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with drug-coated balloons (DCB) might be a promising trade-off between balloon angioplasty and drug-eluting stents, since DCB inhibit neointimal proliferation and limit duration of dual antiplatelet therapy. We investigated the safety, feasibility, and 6-month results of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided use of the paclitaxel-coated SeQuent Please ® balloon without stenting for elective PCI of de novo lesions. Methods and results In 46 patients (54 lesions) with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD), a FFR-guided POBA (plain old balloon angioplasty) was performed. In case of a sufficient POBA result with residual stenosis < 40 %, FFR > 0.8 ...

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      Mentions: Sylvia Otto
    12. Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      The progression of coronary atherosclerosis has been influenced by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the impact of CKD stages on coronary plaque components observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). We investigated 296 native coronary lesions with stable angina pectoris treated with stent implantation. All lesions were divided into the three groups according to the values of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL min −1 1.73 m −2 ): the non-CKD group (eGFR ≥60, n = 142), CKD group (15 ≤ eGFR < 60, n = 126), and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) group (eGFR <15 and/or hemodialysis, n = 28 ...

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    13. Coronary plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis typifies the culprit lesion of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, not unstable angina: non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome study

      Coronary plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis typifies the culprit lesion of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, not unstable angina: non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome study

      Recently, unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have been considered together because they exhibit indistinguishable clinical and electrocardiogram features, and constitute non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, no optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies have reported the association between vulnerable plaque morphology and clinical characteristics in NSTE-ACS patients based on assessment of clinical symptoms and myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in clinical characteristics and plaque morphology assessed by OCT between patients with UAP and NSTEMI. Preinterventional OCT images of 84 NSTE-ACS patients were studied, 19 with NSTEMI and 65 with UAP ...

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    14. Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To measure corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in healthy adults and to investigate its variation with age by use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods A total of 210 healthy individuals were enrolled and divided into four, almost equally sized groups on the basis of age: 18–29 years (group 1), 30–44 years (group 2), 45–59 years (group 3), and 60–80 years (group 4). The CET and total corneal thickness in the central area (diameter 6.0 mm) of each patient were obtained by Fourier-domain OCT, and the regional thickness and topographic variability were compared ...

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    15. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

      Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

      The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larvae (2500–20,000 μm total length) are reported using time-resolved microscopic particle image velocimetry. For the larval stages studied, the maximum peak suction velocity of the inflow ...

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    16. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method

      Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method

      Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using ...

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    17. Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Accurate measurement of edema volume is essential for the investigation of tissue response and recovery following a traumatic injury. The measurements must be noninvasive and repetitive over time so as to monitor tissue response throughout the healing process. Such techniques are particularly necessary for the evaluation of therapeutics that are currently in development to suppress or prevent edema formation. In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to image and quantify edema in a mouse ear model where the injury is induced by a superficial-thickness burn. Extraction of edema volume is achieved by an attenuation compensation ...

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    18. An application of optical coherence tomography and a smart polymer gel to construct an enzyme-free sugar sensor

      An application of optical coherence tomography and a smart polymer gel to construct an enzyme-free sugar sensor

      This work reports a novel enzyme-free sugar sensor development based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid–acrylamide copolymer gel that swells when it binds sugar molecules. Utilizing OCT to measure the gel swelling in the presence of glucose and fructose, selected as model targets, the sensor provided a linear range of 2.5–20.0 mM for glucose and 0.01–0.20 mM for fructose detections with a good sensitivity for both sugars under optimal conditions. With some further improvements, the sensor could be used in harsh conditions that are not suitable for enzyme-based sugar sensors ...

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    19. iMAP™ imaging of tumorous lesions surrounding the coronary arteries in a patient with an elevated serum level of immunoglobulin G4

      iMAP™ imaging of tumorous lesions surrounding the coronary arteries in a patient with an elevated serum level of immunoglobulin G4

      A 76-year-old woman with multiple coronary risk factors was admitted to our hospital because of episodes of new-onset chest pain that had begun 3 days previously. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severe stenoses in the two high lateral (HL) branches. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed massive stenotic lesions in the HL branches and tumorous nonstenotic lesions in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx). iMAP™, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were performed. iMAP depicted fibrosis in the vessel (green areas) and nonfibrotic tissue change suggestive of inflammation ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo

      The measurement of mechanical vibrations within the living cochlea is critical to understanding the first nonlinear steps in auditory processing, hair cell stimulation, and cochlear amplification. However, it has proven to be a challenging endeavor. This chapter describes how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure vibrations within the tissues of the organ of Corti. These experimental measurements can be performed within the unopened cochlea of living mice routinely and reliably.

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    21. Optical coherence tomography manifestations of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma

      Optical coherence tomography manifestations of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma

      Background Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), is a high-grade malignant tumor that shows various chorioretinal findings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for detecting these lesions, and various abnormalities on OCT images have been reported. The purpose of this report was to investigate retrospectively the OCT manifestations of various disease stages and compare the manifestations of pretreatment, recurrent, and chronic cases. Methods We reviewed the medical charts and OCT images of 38 consecutive cases with PVRL. When abnormalities were detected on OCT images, the patients were classified based on the treatment of ...

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    22. Monitoring the appositions of posterior graft–host junctions with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty

      Monitoring the appositions of posterior graft–host junctions with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty

      This study aimed to monitor the graft–host junction’s (GHJ’s) apposition with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and correlate the analysis with the preoperative diagnosis. Fifty-one eyes of 50 patients with various preoperative diagnosis of adherent leucoma, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, corneal opacity or scarring, graft failure, corneal dystrophy and anterior staphyloma, who underwent PK for optical purposes were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the age, the patients were divided into groups 1 and II: those aged ≤40 and >40 years, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was done for all these eyes to evaluate the ...

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