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    1. Post-dilatation after implantation of bioresorbable everolimus- and novolimus-eluting scaffolds: an observational optical coherence tomography study of acute mechanical effects

      Post-dilatation after implantation of bioresorbable everolimus- and novolimus-eluting scaffolds: an observational optical coherence tomography study of acute mechanical effects

      bjectives The objective was to investigate the acute mechanical effects of post-dilatation on bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Post-dilatation with high-pressure balloons is regarded as a key component of BRS implantation for treatment of coronary artery stenoses. However, the impact of post-dilatation on BRS in vivo has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods OCT was performed after the implantation procedure of 51 everolimus-eluting or novolimus-eluting polylactic acid-based BRS with ( n = 27) or without non-compliant balloon post-dilatation ( n = 24). The number of malapposed struts, strut fractures, edge dissections, residual in-scaffold area stenosis, and incomplete scaffold apposition ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography and Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography in Retinopathy of Prematurity (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography in Retinopathy of Prematurity (Book Chapter)

      The advent and adaptation of many imaging modalities promise to revolutionize our understanding of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by improving the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of response to treatment of this disease. Diagnosis and classification of ROP traditionally relies on an eye exam by an ophthalmologist expert in this area who characterizes extent and character of retinal vascularization via indirect ophthalmoscopy. Many tools now exist that allow for data acquisition by nurses, technicians, and other trained staff with the images analyzed in a more centralized location. We will focus on two rapidly evolving technologies, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and wide ...

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    3. A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      SCA3 presents with a CAG expansion at 14q24.3-q32 while SCA10 shows an ATTCT expansion at 22q13-qter. SCA10 seems to be less aggressive than SCA3. For an in vivo, noninvasive approach of the correlation between central nervous system and clinical evolution, we can use optic coherence tomography (OCT) to measure retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. To describe OCT findings in SCA10, correlate it with expansion size and disease severity and compare with those of SCA3. We analyzed ten individuals with SCA3 and nine with SCA10 recruited from the neurology service of Hospital de Clínicas ...

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    4. Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinae of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as part of the central nervous system (CNS), display inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. There is increasing evidence suggesting that retinal changes, and in particular neurodegeneration, mirror global CNS alterations in MS. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is an inexpensive, rapid, non-invasive, and reproducible imaging technique that generates high-resolution images of tissues such as the retina. An advantage of SD-OCT over magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the assessment of neurodegeneration may be its sensitivity to capture changes at the individual patient level. Several studies demonstrate that changes within the inner retina (primarily as ...

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    5. Assessment of choroidal osteoma complicating choroidal neovascularization by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Assessment of choroidal osteoma complicating choroidal neovascularization by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose Choroidal osteoma (CO) frequently leads to progressive visual loss due to complications of secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV).We report herein the function of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in observation of CO complicating CNV. Methods A 25-year-old female presented to our hospital with chief complaint of sudden unilateral visual acuity decrease for one week, with metamorphopsia in the left eye. Her best corrected visual acuity was 0.12 in the left eye. Then complete ophthalmological examinations including fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound, fundus fluorescent angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed. She was diagnosed as CO on the ...

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    6. Neoatherosclerosis assessed with optical coherence tomography in restenotic bare metal and first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

      Neoatherosclerosis assessed with optical coherence tomography in restenotic bare metal and first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

      Although reported in bare metal stents (BMS) and first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), little is known about neoatherosclerosis in second-generation DES. We used optical coherence tomography to evaluate neoatherosclerosis among different stent generations. Overall, 274 in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions (duration from implantation 56.9 ± 47.2 months) in 274 patients were assessed for the presence of neoatherosclerosis. Neoatherosclerosis was identified in 38.7% of lesions (106/274): 23.0% second-generation DES (38/165), 65.1% first-generation DES (54/83), and 53.8% BMS (14/26). In the neoatherosclerosis cohort (n = 106), more stent underexpansion or fracture/deformation was observed in second-generation ...

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      Mentions: Gary S. Mintz
    7. The effect of center point shift on the measurement of macular thickness: a spectral domain-optical coherence tomography study

      The effect of center point shift on the measurement of macular thickness: a spectral domain-optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose To evaluate the effect of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurement center shift on the measurement of macular thickness. Methods This was a prospective observational case series. A total of 60 normal eyes of 60 subjects included in the study. SD-OCT macular scanning (macular cube 512 × 128 scan) was performed twice by an experienced examiner. The average retinal thicknesses of the nine macular sectors as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) were recorded. Each coefficient of repeatability was calculated for the macular thickness measurements of the ETDRS subfields. Thereafter, the measurement center was manually decentered to ...

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    8. GPU-Based Image Geodesics for Optical Coherence Tomography

      GPU-Based Image Geodesics for Optical Coherence Tomography

      Within a manifold framework, the interpolation of tomographic image time series is investigated. To this end, the metamorphosis model of a manifold of images is taken into account. Based on a variational time discretization, discrete geodesic paths in this space of images are computed. The space discretization is based on finite elements spanned by tensor product cubic B-splines. An efficient implementation is obtained by utilizing graphics hardware and a proper combination of GPU and CPU computation. First results for time series of optical coherence tomography images of a macular degeneration demonstrate the applicability of this geometric concept.

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    9. Early vascular responses after everolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by serial observations of intracoronary optical coherence tomography

      Early vascular responses after everolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by serial observations of intracoronary optical coherence tomography

      A recent OCT study revealed that the lack of stent strut endothelial coverage is associated with late stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation. However, the sequential changes of stent strut endothelial coverage in the extremely early period have never been reported. Serial OCTs were performed in 35 patients with 35 EES (everolimus-eluting stent)-treated de novo lesions at 0, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after EES implantation. Serial changes in quantitative parameters of the neointima (neointimal thickness, stent strut coverage, and apposition of each strut) were analyzed. Mean neointimal thickness significantly increased from 35.9 to 51.8 and 108 ...

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    10. Vehicle type affects filling of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography

      Vehicle type affects filling of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography

      Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an emerging method that enhances topical drug delivery. Penetrating the skin in microscopic, vertical channels, termed microscopic treatment zones (MTZs), the fractional technique circumvents the skin barrier and allows increased uptake of topically applied drugs. This study aims to elucidate the impact of vehicle type on the filling of MTZs from application of liquid, gel, and cream vehicles. Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO 2 laser at 5% density, 120 μm beam diameter, and fluences of 40 and 80 mJ/microbeam (mJ/mb). Six repetitions were performed for each ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetes

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetes

      Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized. OCTA offers several advantages over fluorescein angiography (FA) in that it is faster, safer, and non-invasive, allows better visualization of retinal vessels in both the superficial ...

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    12. Peripapillary retinal vessel density in eyes with acute primary angle closure: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Peripapillary retinal vessel density in eyes with acute primary angle closure: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose The purpose was to investigate peripapillary retinal vessel density in resolved acute primary angle closure (APAC) eyes. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients with unilateral APAC were included, together with the fellow eyes with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) as controls. Peripapillary retinal vessel density was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Peripapillary retinal vessel density was compared in both eyes and the potential relationship with visual field (VF) test results was evaluated. Results After an acute attack, the peripapillary retinal vessel density was lower in the APAC than in the ...

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      Mentions: Chunhui Jiang
    13. Study of aqueous cytokines in patients with different patterns of diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography

      Study of aqueous cytokines in patients with different patterns of diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To compare aqueous angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in different patterns of diabetic macular edema (DME) based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods This prospective study was conducted between July 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, for 9 months. Aqueous samples were obtained from 52 consecutive DME patients and 16 controls. DME patients were divided according to OCT patterns into diffuse retinal thickening (DRT; n = 17), cystoid macular edema (CME; n = 20) and serous retinal detachment (SRD; n = 15) groups. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ) levels were measured by ...

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    14. Two- and three-dimensional topographic analysis of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Two- and three-dimensional topographic analysis of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To investigate the posterior anatomical structure of pathologically myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Our database of 260 pathologically myopic eyes was analyzed retrospectively to identify patients with dome-shaped macula and inferior staphyloma. All patients underwent vertical and horizontal SD-OCT scans across the central fovea, with three-dimensional macular map reconstruction. Best-corrected visual acuity, axial length, and choroidal thickness measurements were recorded. The macular bulge height was also analyzed in eyes with dome-shaped macula. In the three-dimensional images, the symmetry and orientation of the main plane of the inward incurvation ...

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    15. Multimodal imaging analyses of hyperreflective dot-like lesions in acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy

      Multimodal imaging analyses of hyperreflective dot-like lesions in acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy

      Background Retrospective review of one acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) case with serological evidence of syphilis who had ocular signs and symptoms not attributable to other diseases. Enface and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT were analyzed at the time of presentation and at 1-month visit following initiation of treatment. The study patient underwent standard treatment for neurosyphilis. Results Ophthalmic examination and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of ASPPC. The patient age was 33 year-old and the baseline visual acuity was 20/400 and 20/80 in the right and left eyes, respectively. At presentation, SD-OCT scans showed ...

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    16. Development of a new catheter prototype for laser thrombolysis under guidance of optical coherence tomography (OCT): validation of feasibility and efficacy in a preclinical model

      Development of a new catheter prototype for laser thrombolysis under guidance of optical coherence tomography (OCT): validation of feasibility and efficacy in a preclinical model

      In this feasibility study, a novel catheter prototype for laser thrombolysis under the guidance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) was designed and evaluated in a preclinical model. Human arteries and veins were integrated into a physiological flow model and occluded with thrombi made from the Chandler Loop. There were four experimental groups: placebo, 20 mg alteplase, laser, 20 mg alteplase + laser. The extent of thrombolysis was analyzed by weighing, OCT imaging and relative thrombus size. In the alteplase group, thrombus size decreased to 0.250 ± 0.036 g (p < 0.0001) and 14.495 ± 0.526 mm 2 (p < 0 ...

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    17. Effects of age and gender on macular thickness in healthy subjects using spectral optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

      Effects of age and gender on macular thickness in healthy subjects using spectral optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

      Purpose To examine healthy subjects for normal macular thickness values and determine the effects of gender and age in a Turkish population, using spectral optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (OCT/SLO). Material and method Six hundred fourteen eyes of 307 subjects with no history of ocular diseases and normal ophthalmic examination were recruited in this cross-sectional, prospective study. The participants were divided into three groups based on age (between 20 and 29 years: group 1, between 30 and 39 years: group 2, between 40 and 49 years: group 3). All subjects were scanned with spectral OCT/SLO, performed by ...

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    18. Morphological differences between optic disc collaterals and neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Morphological differences between optic disc collaterals and neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background To study morphological features of optic disc venous collaterals (OVCs) and neovascularization of optic disc (NVD) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Patients with OVCs and NVDs secondary to ischemic retinal diseases were prospectively enrolled. Multimodal imaging was performed using color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCTA. Morphological evaluation of en-face structural OCT, cross-sectional and en-face OCTA was performed. Results Twenty eyes (20 patients; OVCs: n  = 10 and NVD: n  = 10) were included. OVCs appeared as small, loopy vessels distinct from surrounding peripapillary capillaries on OCTA in the radial peripapillary capillary frame. NVDs appeared as a mesh ...

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      Mentions: Vishali Gupta
    19. Optical coherence tomography findings after longitudinal ablation for an underexpanded stent in a heavily calcified lesion: a case repor

      Optical coherence tomography findings after longitudinal ablation for an underexpanded stent in a heavily calcified lesion: a case repor

      Background Heavy coronary artery calcification is responsible for stent underexpansion, which is associated with increased in-stent restenosis. Here we report a case in which optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated that the metal component of an underexpanded stent previously implanted in a heavy calcified lesion had been completely removed after ablation with rotational atherectomy. Case presentation An 83-year-old man with exertional angina was referred to our hospital. Coronary angiography revealed severe stenosis in the proximal portion of the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery and chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the mid portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD ...

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    20. Accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography for bioresorbable scaffold luminal investigation: a comparison with optical coherence tomography

      Accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography for bioresorbable scaffold luminal investigation: a comparison with optical coherence tomography

      To establish the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for in-scaffold quantitative evaluation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a reference. The translucent backbone of the bioresorbable scaffold allow us to evaluate non-invasively the coronary lumen with coronary CTA. In the ABSORB first-in-man studies, coronary CTA was shown to be feasible for quantitative luminal assessment. Nevertheless, a comparison with an intravascular modality with higher resolution has never been performed. In the ABSORB Cohort B trial, 101 patient with non-complex lesions were treated with the fully biodegradable vascular scaffold. For this analysis, all patients who underwent coronary CTA at 18 ...

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    21. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Diseases (Textbook)

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Diseases (Textbook)

      Undoubtedly, optical coherence tomography has changed the approach of clinicians in their daily practice. The evolution of technology from time domain to spectral domain and swept source OCT increased the possibilities of imaging the retinal and choroidal details. Newer evaluations are now available to better understand the diseases and to fi nd new biomarkers for retinal and choroidal pathologies. From measurement to morphology could be the right description of changes occurring from time domain to spectral domain. The possibility to visualize retinal and choroidal morphology in real life and not only post-mortem allowed a better understanding not only of the ...

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    22. Different foveal schisis patterns in each retinal layer in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis evaluated by en-face optical coherence tomography

      Different foveal schisis patterns in each retinal layer in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis evaluated by en-face optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To analyze the structures of schisis in eyes with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis using en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the medical records of patients with hereditary juvenile retinoschisis who underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations including swept-source OCT. Results OCT images were obtained from 16 eyes of nine boys (mean age ± standard deviation, 10.6 ± 4.0 years). The horizontal OCT images at the fovea showed inner nuclear layer (INL) schisis in one eye (6.3 %), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and INL schisis in 12 eyes (75.0 %), INL and outer plexiform layer ...

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