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    1. Optical coherence tomography angiography of central serous chorioretinopathy: quantitative evaluation of the vascular pattern and capillary flow density

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of central serous chorioretinopathy: quantitative evaluation of the vascular pattern and capillary flow density

      Background: This study aimed to evaluate the vascular pattern and capillary flow density (CFD) map on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images of patients affected by central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, OCTA (AngioVue RTVue XR Avanti, Optovue) 3 × 3 mm macula scans of both eyes of patients with CSC were taken at baseline; the images were segmented and compared with OCTA scans of fellow eyes without CSC as well as age-matched healthy subjects. OCTA images were processed by quantitative textural analysis (ImageJ software) to provide an objective grading of choroidal capillary alterations. The texture of ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    2. Macular, papillary and peripapillary perfusion densities measured with optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

      Macular, papillary and peripapillary perfusion densities measured with optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

      Purpose: To compare the blood flow situation in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this prospective study a total of 26 POAG and 23 PXG eyes were included. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including standard automated perimetry, stereoscopic photographs of the optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer analysis and examination of vascular parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH), the peripapillary region and macula using OCTA. In addition to the vascular parameters recorded by the device, the vascular images were graphically evaluated using Image J. All recorded ...

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    3. Assessment of the anterior scleral thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy patients by optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of the anterior scleral thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy patients by optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To assess the anterior scleral thickness (AST) and describe the presence of a visible supraciliary space (SCS) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Study design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Material and methods: Three groups were studied: 1) 64 eyes of 54 patients with CSC with persistent subretinal fluid (SRF); 2) 42 fellow eyes of CSC patients without SRF; 3) 65 eyes of 65 controls matched by age, sex and axial length (AL). The AST was measured in the temporal and nasal quadrants at 0, 1, and 2 mm from the scleral spur by SS-OCT ...

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    4. Munch and optical coherence tomography: unravelling historical and artist applied varnish layers in painting collections

      Munch and optical coherence tomography: unravelling historical and artist applied varnish layers in painting collections

      Effective care of large-scale museum collections requires planning that includes the conservation treatment of specific groups of art works, such as appropriate cleaning strategies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied as a non-invasive method for the stratigraphic visualisation of the uppermost transparent and semi-transparent layers in paintings, such as varnishes. Several OCT case study examples have further demonstrated the capabilities of the non-contact interferometric technique to measure the thickness of the various varnish layers, to help monitor cleaning and associated optical changes, and to detect past restorations. OCT was applied for the detection of varnishes to 13 paintings ...

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    5. The evolution of image guidance in robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP): a glimpse into the future

      The evolution of image guidance in robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP): a glimpse into the future

      Objectives To describe the innovative intraoperative technologies emerging to aid surgeons during minimally invasive robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Methods We searched multiple electronic databases reporting on intraoperative imaging and navigation technologies, robotic surgery in combination with 3D modeling and 3D printing used during laparoscopic or robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Additional searches were conducted for articles that considered the role of artificial intelligence and machine learning and their application to robotic surgery. We excluded studies using intraoperative navigation technologies during open radical prostatectomy and studies considering technology to visualize lymph nodes. Summary of findings Intraoperative imaging using either transrectal ultrasonography or augmented reality ...

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    6. Toward a New Staging System for Diabetic Retinopathy Using Wide Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Toward a New Staging System for Diabetic Retinopathy Using Wide Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose of review: For over 50 years, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been classified by pathologic features seen on clinical examination and conventional retinal photographs. However, newer technology such as optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) now enables rapid acquisition of retinal structural and vascular information in a reliable, non-invasive, high-resolution fashion. Here, we highlight recent studies that have explored wide field swept-source OCTA (WF SS-OCTA) for the diagnosis and management of DR. Recent findings: Multiple studies have demonstrated the utility of WF SS-OCTA for detection of all clinically relevant features of DR. An updated DR staging system is proposed that leverages ...

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    7. Assessing the Impact of Colchicine on Coronary Plaque Phenotype After Myocardial Infarction with Optical Coherence Tomography: Rationale and Design of the COCOMO-ACS Study

      Assessing the Impact of Colchicine on Coronary Plaque Phenotype After Myocardial Infarction with Optical Coherence Tomography: Rationale and Design of the COCOMO-ACS Study

      Introduction: Recurrent event rates after myocardial infarction (MI) remain unacceptably high, in part because of the continued growth and destabilization of residual coronary atherosclerotic plaques, which may occur despite lipid-lowering therapy. Inflammation is an important contributor to this ongoing risk. Recent studies have shown that the broad-acting anti-inflammatory agent, colchicine, may reduce adverse cardiovascular events in patients post-MI, although the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. Advances in endovascular arterial wall imaging have allowed detailed characterization of the burden and compositional phenotype of coronary plaque, along with its natural history and responsiveness to treatment. One such example has been the ...

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    8. Evaluation of macular microvasculature and foveal avascular zone in patients with retinal vein occlusion using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of macular microvasculature and foveal avascular zone in patients with retinal vein occlusion using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purposes: To quantitatively evaluate the vessel density of macular microvasculature, choriocapillary, and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in both eyes of patients with unilateral retinal vein occlusion (RVO) using the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) compared with the normal controls. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 72 patients with unilateral RVO (72 eyes with RVO and 72 RVO fellow eyes) and 72 healthy individuals (72 normal control eyes). The 3 × 3 mm macular angiogram was acquired using the OCTA. The vessel densities of the retinal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and choriocapillary plexus (CCP) were measured, and ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography tissue coverage and characterization at six months after implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds versus conventional everolimus eluting stents in the ISAR-Absorb MI trial

      Optical coherence tomography tissue coverage and characterization at six months after implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds versus conventional everolimus eluting stents in the ISAR-Absorb MI trial

      Purpose: Data regarding vessel healing by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) implantation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is scarce. We compared OCT findings after BRS or EES implantation in patients with AMI enrolled in a randomized trial. Methods: In ISAR-Absorb MI, AMI patients were randomized to BRS or EES implantation, with 6-8 month angiographic follow-up. This analysis includes patients who underwent OCT during surveillance angiography. Tissue characterization was done using grey-scale signal intensity analysis. The association between OCT findings and target lesion failure (TLF) at 2 years was investigated. Results ...

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    10. Morphological differences of choroid in central serous chorioretinopathy determined by ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography

      Morphological differences of choroid in central serous chorioretinopathy determined by ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the morphology of the central and peripheral choroid of eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) to that of normal eyes using ultra-widefield optical coherence tomography (UWF-OCT). Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 29 eyes of 25 patients (23 men, 2 women; average age 44.4 years) with CSC and 34 eyes of 22 healthy subjects (19 men, 3 women; average age, 49.5 years) with normal eyes. The images obtained by a prototype swept source UWF-OCT (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) of about 31.5-mm wide and a depth of 10.9 ...

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    11. Carotid disease and retinal optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

      Carotid disease and retinal optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

      Purpose: In order to analyze the data and retinal microvasculature for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), patients were referred to have carotid Doppler ultrasound (CDU) from 2016 to 2020. Methods: In this case-control observational study, 30 NAION patients were evaluated with CDU. Twenty-two NAION patients (at least 3 months after the onset of symptoms) and 9 normal subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). NAION eyes and fellow eyes were further divided into two groups based on the presence of carotid stenosis (CS). NAION patients with CS were termed ...

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    12. Theranostic applications of optical coherence tomography in neurosurgery?

      Theranostic applications of optical coherence tomography in neurosurgery?

      In light of our own experiences, we value the existing literature to critically point out possible "near" future applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an intraoperative neurosurgical guidance tool. "Pub Med", "Cochrane Library", "Crossref Metadata Search", and "IEEE Xplore" databases as well as the search engine "Google Scholar" were screened for "optical coherence tomography + neurosurgery", "optical coherence tomography + intraoperative imaging + neurosurgery", and "microscope integrated optical coherence tomography + neurosurgery". n = 51 articles related to the use of OCT as an imaging technique in the field of neurosurgery or neurosurgical research. n = 7 articles documented the intraoperative use of OCT in ...

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    13. Dentin anti-demineralization potential of surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing self-adhesive resin cement

      Dentin anti-demineralization potential of surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing self-adhesive resin cement

      Objective To investigate the anti-demineralization potential of a newly developed surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler containing self-adhesive resin cement against acidic attacks on the dentin surface. Materials and methods A total of 32 bovine teeth were used. Cavities were prepared on crown dentin slaps and filled with three self-adhesive resin cement: (1) S-PRG-based cement, (2) Si-based cement, and (3) RelyX cement. Specimens were then subjected to pH cycling for 28 days, and the depth of demineralization was assessed using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Sixty-four root dentin blocks were divided into four ...

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    14. Does the ISNT rule apply to the radial peripapillary capillary vessel density in OCT angiography?

      Does the ISNT rule apply to the radial peripapillary capillary vessel density in OCT angiography?

      Purpose: To investigate the applicability of ISNT (inferior ≥ superior ≥ nasal ≥ temporal), IST (inferior ≥ superior ≥ temporal), and T min (temporal quadrant with the minimum value) rules to the peripapillary nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density (VD) using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 134 eyes of 74 healthy individuals. NFL thickness and RPC VD were measured in all four quadrants using OCT and OCT-A in order to determine the number of eyes that obey the ISNT, IST, and T min rules. Results: Mean age was 48 ...

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    15. Evaluation of a 3.8-µm laser-induced skin injury and their repair with in vivo OCT imaging and noninvasive monitoring

      Evaluation of a 3.8-µm laser-induced skin injury and their repair with in vivo OCT imaging and noninvasive monitoring

      To explore a 3.8-µm laser-induced damage and wound healing effect, we propose using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a noninvasive monitoring-based in vivo evaluation method to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the time-dependent biological effect of a 3.8-µm laser. The optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) is computed using a Fourier-domain algorithm. Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of OCT images has been implemented to visualize the burnt spots. Furthermore, the burnt spots from the 3-D volumetric data was segmented and visualized, and the quantitative parameters of the burnt spots, such as the mean OACs, areas, and volumes, were computed. Then, OCT ...

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    16. The role of quantitative deep capillary plexus in the pathogenesis of type 3 macular neovascularization: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      The role of quantitative deep capillary plexus in the pathogenesis of type 3 macular neovascularization: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose: To quantitatively investigate the role of deep capillary plexus (DCP) in patients affected by type 3 macular neovascularization (MNV), compared to patients with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) eyes and healthy controls, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In this prospective observational study, a total of seventy-eight eyes of 78 patients were included. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes of 40 patients with stage 1 of type 3 MNV (22 males, 18 females, mean age 73.7, SD ± 6.60) and group 2 included 38 eyes of 38 patients with RPD (17 males, 21 females, mean age 73.2, SD ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography angiography evaluation of the effects of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on macular hemodynamics in Chinese normal eyes

      Optical coherence tomography angiography evaluation of the effects of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on macular hemodynamics in Chinese normal eyes

      Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the possible effects of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on macular hemodynamics using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Superficial and deep macular vascular densities, as well as parameters of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), were measured preoperatively (baseline) and at 1 day, 1 week, and 4 weeks postoperatively in normal eyes (≥ 22 mm and ≤ 24 mm) of patients scheduled for phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. The correlations between the rate of change of pre- and postoperative vascular densities and surgical parameters were analyzed. Results: A total of 107 eyes of ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography-measured retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values compensated with a multivariate model and discrimination between stable and progressing glaucoma suspects

      Optical coherence tomography-measured retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values compensated with a multivariate model and discrimination between stable and progressing glaucoma suspects

      Purpose Our previously introduced multivariate model, compensating for intersubject variability, was applied to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) values measured with optical coherence tomography in glaucoma suspects with or without prior progressive optic disc (OD) change in a series of confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT, HRT III) measurements. Methods In this prospective study, OD change during CSLT follow-up was determined with strict, moderate, and liberal criteria of the topographic change analysis (TCA). Model compensation (MC) as well as age compensation (AC) was applied to RNFL sectors (RNFLMC vs. RNFLAC). Diagnostic performance of RNFLMC vs. RNFLAC was tested with an ...

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    19. Progression from normal vessel wall to atherosclerotic plaque: lessons from an optical coherence tomography study with follow-up of over 5 years

      Progression from normal vessel wall to atherosclerotic plaque: lessons from an optical coherence tomography study with follow-up of over 5 years

      The initial process of atherosclerotic development has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to observe atherosclerotic progression from normal vessel wall (NVW) to atherosclerotic plaque and examine local factors associated with such progression using > 5-year long-term follow-up data obtained by serial optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 49 patients who underwent serial OCT for lesions with NVW over 5 years (average: 6.9 years) were enrolled. NVW was defined as a vessel wall with an OCT-detectable three-layer structure and intimal thickness ≤ 300 μm. Baseline and follow-up OCT images were matched, and OCT cross sections with NVW > 30° were ...

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    20. Post-remission retinal microvascular and choroidal thickness changes in eyes with Behḉet’s disease posterior uveitis: an OCTA longitudinal study

      Post-remission retinal microvascular and choroidal thickness changes in eyes with Behḉet’s disease posterior uveitis: an OCTA longitudinal study

      Purpose: To investigate the retinal microvascular and choroidal thickness changes in eyes with active Behḉet's disease posterior uveitis and post-remission. Patients and methods: A prospective longitudinal observational analytic study where patients with active Behḉet's posterior uveitis (BU) were assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and enhanced depth imaging OCT during activity and after remission, for retinal microvascular and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) changes. Results: 26 eyes of 20 patients were included. With remission of active posterior uveitis, capillary density in both layers increased, only being significant in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) 1.81 ± 3.57% (p ...

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    21. Evaluation of the effect of the severity of diabetic retinopathy on microvascular abnormalities and vascular density using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of the effect of the severity of diabetic retinopathy on microvascular abnormalities and vascular density using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: To quantify and to study the relationship between retinal microvascular changes and different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This prospective observational study included the eyes of patients with different stages of DR. OCTA was performed in all eyes using a 9 × 9 mm protocol. We analyzed the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses, for the following OCTA parameters: number of microaneurysms (MA), number of intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA), the total surface of capillary non-perfusion (CNP) areas, and vascular density (VD). The association between those parameters and the severity of DR was studied ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography biomarkers of photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa

      Optical coherence tomography biomarkers of photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa

      Purpose Several parameters on optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been suggested as biomarkers for photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This study is to compare the spatial distribution of the changes of OCT biomarkers in RP patients. Methods OCT line scans of the horizontal meridian were conducted in 22 eyes of 22 RP patients and 30 eyes of 30 healthy controls. Longitudinal reflectance profiles were obtained using ImageJ at every 5 pixels. The following parameters on OCT were quantitatively measured: (1) relative optical intensity (ROI) of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ); (2) thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONLT ...

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    23. Evaluation of migraine patients with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of migraine patients with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in cases with migraine and healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients with migraine with aura and 38 eyes of 19 healthy subjects were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study. All patients and healthy controls were evaluated with OCTA (Triton, Topcon®, Tokyo, Japan). Central macular thickness (CMT), optic disc parameters (such as retinal nerve fibre layer [RNFL] thickness and rim and disc areas), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and parafoveal superficial vessel density (VD) measurements were analysed. Results: The optic disc rim area was significantly larger in the migraine group ...

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