1. 1-24 of 422 1 2 3 4 ... 16 17 18 »
    1. Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      Impact of chronic kidney disease stages on atherosclerotic plaque components on optical coherence tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

      The progression of coronary atherosclerosis has been influenced by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the impact of CKD stages on coronary plaque components observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). We investigated 296 native coronary lesions with stable angina pectoris treated with stent implantation. All lesions were divided into the three groups according to the values of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL min −1 1.73 m −2 ): the non-CKD group (eGFR ≥60, n = 142), CKD group (15 ≤ eGFR < 60, n = 126), and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) group (eGFR <15 and/or hemodialysis, n = 28 ...

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    2. Coronary plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis typifies the culprit lesion of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, not unstable angina: non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome study

      Coronary plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis typifies the culprit lesion of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, not unstable angina: non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome study

      Recently, unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have been considered together because they exhibit indistinguishable clinical and electrocardiogram features, and constitute non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, no optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies have reported the association between vulnerable plaque morphology and clinical characteristics in NSTE-ACS patients based on assessment of clinical symptoms and myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in clinical characteristics and plaque morphology assessed by OCT between patients with UAP and NSTEMI. Preinterventional OCT images of 84 NSTE-ACS patients were studied, 19 with NSTEMI and 65 with UAP ...

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    3. Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Age-related differences in corneal epithelial thickness measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To measure corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in healthy adults and to investigate its variation with age by use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods A total of 210 healthy individuals were enrolled and divided into four, almost equally sized groups on the basis of age: 18–29 years (group 1), 30–44 years (group 2), 45–59 years (group 3), and 60–80 years (group 4). The CET and total corneal thickness in the central area (diameter 6.0 mm) of each patient were obtained by Fourier-domain OCT, and the regional thickness and topographic variability were compared ...

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    4. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

      Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

      The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larvae (2500–20,000 μm total length) are reported using time-resolved microscopic particle image velocimetry. For the larval stages studied, the maximum peak suction velocity of the inflow ...

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    5. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method

      Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method

      Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using ...

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    6. Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Accurate measurement of edema volume is essential for the investigation of tissue response and recovery following a traumatic injury. The measurements must be noninvasive and repetitive over time so as to monitor tissue response throughout the healing process. Such techniques are particularly necessary for the evaluation of therapeutics that are currently in development to suppress or prevent edema formation. In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to image and quantify edema in a mouse ear model where the injury is induced by a superficial-thickness burn. Extraction of edema volume is achieved by an attenuation compensation ...

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    7. An application of optical coherence tomography and a smart polymer gel to construct an enzyme-free sugar sensor

      An application of optical coherence tomography and a smart polymer gel to construct an enzyme-free sugar sensor

      This work reports a novel enzyme-free sugar sensor development based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid–acrylamide copolymer gel that swells when it binds sugar molecules. Utilizing OCT to measure the gel swelling in the presence of glucose and fructose, selected as model targets, the sensor provided a linear range of 2.5–20.0 mM for glucose and 0.01–0.20 mM for fructose detections with a good sensitivity for both sugars under optimal conditions. With some further improvements, the sensor could be used in harsh conditions that are not suitable for enzyme-based sugar sensors ...

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    8. iMAP™ imaging of tumorous lesions surrounding the coronary arteries in a patient with an elevated serum level of immunoglobulin G4

      iMAP™ imaging of tumorous lesions surrounding the coronary arteries in a patient with an elevated serum level of immunoglobulin G4

      A 76-year-old woman with multiple coronary risk factors was admitted to our hospital because of episodes of new-onset chest pain that had begun 3 days previously. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severe stenoses in the two high lateral (HL) branches. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) revealed massive stenotic lesions in the HL branches and tumorous nonstenotic lesions in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx). iMAP™, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were performed. iMAP depicted fibrosis in the vessel (green areas) and nonfibrotic tissue change suggestive of inflammation ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Sound-Induced Motions Within the Mouse Organ of Corti In Vivo

      The measurement of mechanical vibrations within the living cochlea is critical to understanding the first nonlinear steps in auditory processing, hair cell stimulation, and cochlear amplification. However, it has proven to be a challenging endeavor. This chapter describes how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure vibrations within the tissues of the organ of Corti. These experimental measurements can be performed within the unopened cochlea of living mice routinely and reliably.

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    10. Optical coherence tomography manifestations of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma

      Optical coherence tomography manifestations of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma

      Background Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), is a high-grade malignant tumor that shows various chorioretinal findings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for detecting these lesions, and various abnormalities on OCT images have been reported. The purpose of this report was to investigate retrospectively the OCT manifestations of various disease stages and compare the manifestations of pretreatment, recurrent, and chronic cases. Methods We reviewed the medical charts and OCT images of 38 consecutive cases with PVRL. When abnormalities were detected on OCT images, the patients were classified based on the treatment of ...

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    11. Monitoring the appositions of posterior graft–host junctions with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty

      Monitoring the appositions of posterior graft–host junctions with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty

      This study aimed to monitor the graft–host junction’s (GHJ’s) apposition with anterior segment optical coherence tomogram after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and correlate the analysis with the preoperative diagnosis. Fifty-one eyes of 50 patients with various preoperative diagnosis of adherent leucoma, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, corneal opacity or scarring, graft failure, corneal dystrophy and anterior staphyloma, who underwent PK for optical purposes were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the age, the patients were divided into groups 1 and II: those aged ≤40 and >40 years, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was done for all these eyes to evaluate the ...

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    12. Label-Free Imaging of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Mouse Models Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Label-Free Imaging of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Mouse Models Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by esophageal inflammation and related structural changes causing symptoms such as feeding difficulties and food impaction. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EoE remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies using mouse models have been critical in comprehending human disease mechanisms and associated pathways. In this chapter, we describe an experimental method using a noninvasive label-free optical imaging technique, optical coherence tomography, to characterize the pathophysiological changes in the esophagus of mice with EoE-like disease ex vivo.

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced in the beginning of the 1990s as a new imaging tool that enables the high-resolution in vivo examination of biological tissues. It was first used in ophthalmology where the OCT technology revolutionized the diagnostics of the conditions of the macula and the vitreo-retinal interface. Today, there is intensive research on the possible applications of OCT in other specialties, e.g., angiology, oncology, gastroenterology, dermatology, and dentistry. In the future, OCT may play an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases, owing to the fact that the retina is such a unique ...

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    14. Fusion of fibrous cap thickness and wall shear stress to assess plaque vulnerability in coronary arteries: a pilot study

      Fusion of fibrous cap thickness and wall shear stress to assess plaque vulnerability in coronary arteries: a pilot study

      Purpose Identification of rupture-prone plaques in coronary arteries is a major clinical challenge. Fibrous cap thickness and wall shear stress are two relevant image-based risk factors, but these two parameters are generally computed and analyzed separately. Accordingly, combining these two parameters can potentially improve the identification of at-risk regions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the fusion of wall shear stress and fibrous cap thickness of coronary arteries in patient data. Methods Fourteen patients were included in this pilot study. Imaging of the coronary arteries was performed with optical coherence tomography and with angiography ...

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    15. Impact of stent platform on longitudinal stent deformation: an in vivo frequency domain optical coherence tomography study

      Impact of stent platform on longitudinal stent deformation: an in vivo frequency domain optical coherence tomography study

      Recently, longitudinal coronary stent deformation has been highlighted as a possible cause of drug-eluting stent failure. Although bench tests and in vivo studies have demonstrated difference in longitudinal stent strength among the stents with different platforms, its clinical impact is still unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown if modified stent platform favorably affect the incidence of stent deformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal deformation of the everolimus-eluting stents (EES) with different stent platforms by using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Seventy-eight lesions treated with EES (Xience Prime: n = 26, Promus element: n = 29, Promus premier ...

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    16. Outer retinal deformity detected by optical coherence tomography in eyes with foveal hypoplasia

      Outer retinal deformity detected by optical coherence tomography in eyes with foveal hypoplasia

      Purpose To investigate the relationship between vision and foveal maturity, especially in foveal hypoplasia exhibiting severe structural immaturity. Methods This retrospective observational case series included 42 eyes of 23 patients (mean age, 7.0 ± 5.0 years; 9 patients with foveal hypoplasia as an isolated entity and 14 patients with aniridia). A complete ophthalmic examination included measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The sensory retina, ganglion cell complex (GCC), and outer retinal layers, including Henle’s fiber layer (HFL), were measured and analyzed. Results Using SD-OCT images, eyes were classified as having a differentiated ...

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    17. Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography

      Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography

      Purpose To evaluate if choriocapillaris (CC) vessel density and CC decorrelation signal index are compromised in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods Decorrelation values in OCT-A CC images of 20 RPD patients were measured in the outer superior and the outer inferior sector of the EDTRS grid and compared to age-matched healthy controls. CC vessel density and CC decorrelation signal index were measured within a 30 μm and a 10 μm OCT-A CC slab. CC data were correlated to number of RPD lesions, predominantly present RPD stage, predominantly present RPD type, retinal area affected ...

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    18. A case of unilateral circumscribed posterior keratoconus evaluated by three different imaging tools: optical coherence tomography, videokeratography, and Scheimpflug corneal tomography

      A case of unilateral circumscribed posterior keratoconus evaluated by three different imaging tools: optical coherence tomography, videokeratography, and Scheimpflug corneal tomography

      Posterior keratoconus is a rare corneal anomaly which is part of the ectatic corneal disorders. We report a clinical presentation of a unilateral posterior keratoconus in a 42-year-old man. At the time of presentation, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/20 with a correction of +2.50 +2.50 × 90° in the right eye and 20/40 with +1 +3.00 × 105° in the left eye. Slit lamp microscopy showed in the left eye an evidence of corneal thinning with a mild anterior protrusion and a remarkable posterior excavation. The intraocular pressure was 19 mmHg in right eye and ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography measurements in compressive optic neuropathy associated with dysthyroid orbitopathy

      Optical coherence tomography measurements in compressive optic neuropathy associated with dysthyroid orbitopathy

      Background The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of optic nerve compression on the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in eyes with acute and chronic dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Methods Patients with DON and healthy control subjects underwent peripapillary optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning with the Cirrus HD-OCT. Patients were classified as acute (within 6 months from the onset of DON) versus chronic (6 months or more from the onset of DON) DON. The thickness of peripapillary RNFL was compared between eyes with acute and chronic DON and control eyes. Baseline factors associated with visual ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography: Role in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography: Role in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that utilizes back-reflection of near-infrared light. Superior resolution intra-coronary imaging, including assessment of plaque morphology and characteristics as well as imaging stents and post-stent complications have made OCT a powerful research tool, and more recently a clinical tool for guidance of PCI. Visualization of coronary lesions with OCT and their characterization as lipid-rich, fibrous, or fibro-calcific plaque can influence percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedural planning. OCT has contributed significantly to the understanding of culprit lesion pathophysiology in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). ACS culprit lesions have been categorized by OCT features as resulting ...

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    21. Bright-Field Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomography of the Mouse Posterior Eye

      Bright-Field Imaging and Optical Coherence Tomography of the Mouse Posterior Eye

      Noninvasive live imaging has been used extensively for ocular phenotyping in mouse vision research. Bright-field imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are two methods that are particularly useful for assessing the posterior mouse eye (fundus), including the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid, and are widely applied due to the commercial availability of sophisticated instruments and software. Here, we provide a guide to using these approaches with an emphasis on post-acquisition image processing using Fiji, a bundled version of the Java-based public domain software ImageJ. A bright-field fundus imaging protocol is described for acquisition of multi-frame videos, followed by image ...

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    22. Timing of retinal neuronal and axonal loss in MS: a longitudinal OCT study

      Timing of retinal neuronal and axonal loss in MS: a longitudinal OCT study

      The objective of the study was to investigate the timing of central nervous system tissue atrophy in MS by evaluating longitudinal retinal volume changes in a broadly representative cohort with disease duration across the entire arc of disease. In this longitudinal study, 135 patients with MS and 16 healthy reference subjects underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at baseline and 2 years later. Following OCT quality control, automated segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), macular ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) and macular inner nuclear layer (mINL) was performed. Generalized estimation equations were used to analyze longitudinal ...

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