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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      This book focuses on the practical aspects of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in glaucoma diagnostics offering important theoretical information along with many original cases. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that acquires high-resolution images of the ocular structures. It enables clinicians to detect glaucoma in the early stages and efficiently monitor the disease. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma features updated information on technical applications of OCT in glaucoma, reviews recently published literature and provides clinical cases based on Cirrus and Spectralis OCT platforms. In addition, newer techniques like event and trend analyses for progression, macular ganglion cell analysis, and OCT ...

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    2. Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To explore the relationship between the bleb vasculature and surgical outcome after trabeculectomy (TRAB) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods A prospective study was conducted, which included 26 eyes of 26 primary glaucoma patients in the final analysis. Thereinto, six patients underwent TRAB combined 5-FU and 12 patients received subconjunctival 5-FU injection postoperation. The bleb vessel was evaluated using OCT-A 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after TRAB. Intraocular pressure (IOP), filtering bleb height, and bleb wall thickness were recorded at the same time. Pearson’s correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were ...

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    3. Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Improved analysis of foveal avascular zone area with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To investigate the relationship between the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the inner nuclear layer (INL)-free zone in the center of the fovea in order to provide an improved approach to evaluation of the FAZ area with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Thirty-six healthy individuals (36 eyes) and 15 age-matched patients (15 eyes) with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (nPDR) were included in this study. The FAZ, as well as INL-free zone, was measured on OCTA images. The FAZ area, INL-free zone area, and the ratio of the INL-free zone area to the FAZ area were compared between healthy ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography assessment of the macular capillary plexus after surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

      Optical coherence tomography angiography assessment of the macular capillary plexus after surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

      Dear Editor, Macula-involved rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a condition that can cause severe central visual disturbance, even after successful retinal re-attachment. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can measure vessel density (VD) in the macular capillary plexus (MCP), both superficially (the SCP) and deeply (the DCP), and can measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in these layers. Previous research used OCTA to evaluate the correlation between the FAZ and visual acuity (VA) in the eyes with macula-off RRD [ 1 ]. Here, we extend previous results by including measurements of OCTA-measured VD in both the SCP and DCP, and compared these measurements ...

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    5. Microbubble contrast enhancement of neointima after drug-eluting stent implantation: an optical coherence tomography study

      Microbubble contrast enhancement of neointima after drug-eluting stent implantation: an optical coherence tomography study

      Microvessels within neoatherosclerosis are associated with vulnerability and increase from the early to the very late phase after drug-eluting stent implantation. Microbubble contrast agents have been suggested to enhance tissue microvasculature for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The present study investigated whether OCT signal intensity of neointima within stented segments was enhanced after intracoronary administration of microbubble contrast agents. A total of 40 patients who underwent follow-up coronary angiography after drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled. At the time of follow-up coronary angiography, OCT images of the stented segments were recorded before and after intracoronary administration of microbubble contrast agents. Mean ...

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      Mentions: Kenichi Fujii
    6. Retinal flow density by optical coherence tomography angiography is useful for detection of nonperfused areas in diabetic retinopathy

      Retinal flow density by optical coherence tomography angiography is useful for detection of nonperfused areas in diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose Fluorescein angiography (FA) has been conventionally used for detection of retinal nonperfused area (NPA) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) in spite of its qualitative evaluation. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been recently reported to be useful for the quantification of retinal vascular disorder in DR. In this study, we examined whether retinal flow density (FD) measurement in OCTA was useful for NPA detection in DR. Methods The study included 41 eyes from 29 patients with DR who underwent FA and OCTA. Regions surrounded by arteries or veins were extracted in the OCTA image, and the FDs in each region ...

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    7. An investigation on optic nerve head involvement in Fuchs uveitis syndrome using optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography

      An investigation on optic nerve head involvement in Fuchs uveitis syndrome using optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography

      Purpose To investigate optic nerve head involvement in patients with Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS). Methods Optic nerve head of 43 FUS eyes without clinical optic disc edema and 37 unaffected fellow eyes were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) of peripapillary retina and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and fundus fluorescein angiography. Results Seventy-one percent of FUS eyes showed optic nerve head hyperfluorescence. The mean average RNFL thickness in FUS eyes was 115.0 ± 11.9 μm, which was thicker than unaffected eyes (103.0 ± 10.7 μm, p  < 0.001). Mean average of peripapillary retinal thicknesses in FUS eyes ...

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    8. Observation of anterior chamber volume after cataract surgery with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Observation of anterior chamber volume after cataract surgery with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To investigate the changes in the anterior chamber volume (ACV) with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) after cataract surgery and the factors that influence these ACV changes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Fifty-one patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled. Their ACV, anterior chamber depth, and angle widths were measured with SS-OCT before and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery. The associations between the changes in ACV and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and axial length (AXL) were determined. Results Compared with the preoperative volume, ACV increased significantly at all three time points after surgery ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography findings of falciform retinal detachment complicated with persistent fetal vasculature

      Optical coherence tomography findings of falciform retinal detachment complicated with persistent fetal vasculature

      Background Falciform retinal detachment (FRD) usually causes pronounced retinal wrinkles, and the prognosis of visual function is poor. In this present study, we report a rare case of FRD in which optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings revealed a relatively good visual function. Case presentation This study involved a 22-year-old female who had previously been diagnosed with FRD at 2 years of age, and who presented with microphthalmus in both eyes with pronounced retinal folds from the optic disc to the inferior-temporal side. Based on the clinical findings, we diagnosed it as persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). We found the visual function ...

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    10. The impact of tissue characterization for in-stent restenosis with optical coherence tomography during excimer laser coronary angioplasty

      The impact of tissue characterization for in-stent restenosis with optical coherence tomography during excimer laser coronary angioplasty

      We aimed to evaluate the impact of tissue characterization for in-stent restenosis (ISR) with optical computed tomography (OCT) during excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. The effect of ELCA for ISR according to differences in tissue characteristics is unclear. Fifty-three ISR lesions (7 bare metal stents and 46 drug-eluting stents) were treated with an ELCA catheter. After ELCA, balloon dilatation with either the scoring or non-compliant balloons was conducted. The procedure was completed by applying a drug-coated balloon. Tissue characterization and lumen measurement with OCT were performed thrice: (1) before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), (2 ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography for NDE (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for NDE (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, interferometric imaging modality using near-infrared light to acquire cross sections and three-dimensional images of the subsurface microstructure of samples. Because of the rapid enhancement of OCT with respect to acquisition speed and axial resolution over the past years, OCT is becoming more and more attractive for applications in nondestructive testing and evaluation. In this chapter, a brief introduction to the technique and the instrumentation is first given, followed by an overview of application of OCT in NDE reported so far.

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    12. Optical coherence tomography retinal ganglion cell complex analysis for the detection of early chiasmal compression

      Optical coherence tomography retinal ganglion cell complex analysis for the detection of early chiasmal compression

      Purpose To report patients with sellar tumors and chiasmal compression with normal visual fields, who demonstrate damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Seven patients with sellar tumors causing mass effect on the optic chiasm without definite visual field defect, but abnormal GCC are described. GCC/RNFL analyses using Cirrus-OCT were classified into centiles based on the manufacturer’s reference range. Results In seven patients with radiologic compression of the chiasm by a sellar tumor, OCT-GCC thickness detected compressive chiasmopathy before visual defects became apparent on standard automated ...

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      Mentions: Emory University
    13. Impact of low tissue backscattering by optical coherence tomography on endothelial function after drug-eluting stent implantation

      Impact of low tissue backscattering by optical coherence tomography on endothelial function after drug-eluting stent implantation

      This study evaluated the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived low-backscattered tissue on mid-term coronary endothelial function after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Although OCT enables detailed in vivo evaluation of neointimal tissue characterization after DES implantation, its association with physiological vascular healing response is unclear. Thirty-three stable angina pectoris patients underwent OCT examination and endothelial function testing with intracoronary infusion of incremental doses of acetylcholine 8-month after DES implantation in a single lesion of the left anterior descending artery. Neointimal tissue was classified into two patterns based on the predominant OCT light backscatter: high backscatter and low backscatter. Although ...

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      Mentions: Kenichi Fujii
    14. Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      OCT is an interferometry based three-dimensional imaging modality that can be used on scattering media, including several types of body tissues. It provides physicians with in-situ image data in micrometer resolution within seconds. OCT’s working principle is similar to ultrasound but uses light instead of sound waves and is also free of potentially harmful ionizing radiation while being non-invasive. OCT in ophthalmology (the branch of medicine concerned with the eyes) has been pioneered by David Huang, Eric Swanson, and James G. Fujimoto and has since become a standard modality and is widely used by clinicians on a daily basis ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of neurovascular changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without clinical diabetic retinopathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of neurovascular changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without clinical diabetic retinopathy

      Aims To evaluate the effect of early screening with OCTA in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without clinical DR (NDR). Methods This was a cross-sectional case–control clinical study. Eighty-four eyes of 84 patients (44 T2DM and 40 control subjects) were included. Images were obtained using AngioVue software 2.0 of the OCTA device. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ perimeter (PERIM), choriocapillary flow area (CCF), acircularity index (AI), foveal vessel density in a 300-µm-wide region around FAZ (FD), macular-associated vessel density (VD) and optic disc-associated capillary density (CD) were compared between the T2DM and control groups. In ...

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    16. Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation

      Combined OCT distance and FBG force sensing cannulation needle for retinal vein cannulation: in vivo animal validation

      Purpose Retinal vein cannulation is an experimental procedure during which a clot-dissolving drug is injected into an obstructed retinal vein. However, due to the fragility and minute size of retinal veins, such procedure is considered too risky to perform manually. With the aid of surgical robots, key limiting factors such as: unwanted eye rotations, hand tremor and instrument immobilization can be tackled. However, local instrument anatomy distance and force estimation remain unresolved issues. A reliable, real-time local interaction estimation between instrument tip and the retina could be a solution. This paper reports on the development of a combined force and ...

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    17. Effects of lowest-dose vs. highest-dose pitavastatin on coronary neointimal hyperplasia at 12-month follow-up in type 2 diabetic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography analysis

      Effects of lowest-dose vs. highest-dose pitavastatin on coronary neointimal hyperplasia at 12-month follow-up in type 2 diabetic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: an optical coherence tomography analysis

      Current ACC/AHA guidelines recommend high-dose statin therapy after coronary stenting, especially in diabetic patients; however, pitavastatin 4 mg or pitavastatin 1 mg are frequently used after coronary stenting in Asia, even in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We compared the effects of highest-dose and lowest-dose pitavastatin therapy on coronary neointimal hyperplasia at 12-month follow-up in diabetic patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) using optical coherence tomography. A total of 72 diabetic patients with NSTE-ACS were randomized to lowest-dose pitavastatin [1 mg ( n  = 36)] or highest-dose pitavastatin [4 mg ( n  = 36)] after everolimus-eluting stent implantation. The primary endpoint was ...

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    18. Role of Intravascular Imaging in Primary PCI (Book Chapter)

      Role of Intravascular Imaging in Primary PCI (Book Chapter)

      Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is always targeted on the angiographically identified culprit lesion. However, the actual culprit lesion may not compromise the lumen and can be located proximally or distally to the angiographic target lesion. As a result, the risk of incomplete lesion coverage can be high when the PPCI is guided solely by angiography. Furthermore, stent implantation must be optimized, as incomplete apposition and/or edge dissection may result in in-stent restenosis or acute thrombotic events. Thus, invasive coronary imaging using intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography can be useful to guide the PPCI procedure by locating the ...

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    19. Changes in conjunctival–scleral thickness after strabismus surgery measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Changes in conjunctival–scleral thickness after strabismus surgery measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To evaluate changes in conjunctival–scleral thickness following strabismus surgery with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Study Design Prospective, observational, consecutive case series. Methods Distances between the conjunctival epithelium and inner scleral wall were measured with AS-OCT before and 3–5 months after strabismus surgery. The measurements were performed at 1.5 mm (limbus), 7.0 mm (insertion), and 8.0 mm (tendon) posterior to the scleral spur on the lateral rectus muscle (LR); and 1.5 mm (limbus), 4.0 mm (insertion), and 5.5 mm (tendon) posterior to the scleral spur on the medial rectus muscle ...

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    20. In-Vitro Detection of Small Isolated Cartilage Defects: Intravascular Ultrasound Vs. Optical Coherence Tomography

      In-Vitro Detection of Small Isolated Cartilage Defects: Intravascular Ultrasound Vs. Optical Coherence Tomography

      This experimental work focused on the sensor selection for the development of a needle-like instrument to treat small isolated cartilage defects with hydrogels. The aim was to identify the most accurate and sensitive imaging method to determine the location and size of defects compared to a gold standard (µCT). Only intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) vs. optical coherent tomography (OCT) were looked at, as they fulfilled the criteria for integration in the needle design. An in-vitro study was conducted on six human cadaveric tali that were dissected and submerged in saline. To simulate the natural appearance of cartilage defects, three types ...

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    21. The clinical usefulness of optical coherence tomography during cancer interventions

      The clinical usefulness of optical coherence tomography during cancer interventions

      Introduction Tumor detection and visualization plays a key role in the clinical workflow of a patient with suspected cancer, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Several optical imaging techniques have been evaluated for guidance during oncological interventions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique which has been widely evaluated during the past decades. This review aims to determine the clinical usefulness of OCT during cancer interventions focussing on qualitative features, quantitative features and the diagnostic value of OCT. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for articles published before May 2018 using OCT in the field of surgical oncology. Based ...

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    22. Automatic Detection and Characterization of Biomarkers in OCT Images

      Automatic Detection and Characterization of Biomarkers in OCT Images

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most advanced, non-invasive method of eye examination. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most frequent reasons of acquired blindness. Our aim is to develop automatic methods that can accurately identify and characterize biomarkers in OCT images, related to AMD. We present methods for quantizing hyperreflective foci (HRF) with deep learning. We also describe an algorithm for determining pigmentepithelial detachment (PED) and localizing outer retinal tubulation (ORT) that appears between the layers of the retina.

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    23. Innovative Endoscopies to Be Clinically Used in the Near Future

      Innovative Endoscopies to Be Clinically Used in the Near Future

      In contrast to traditional single-lens endoscopies, recently introduced full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) scopes include multiple lenses providing a much wider field of view. In many studies, FUSE was shown to be feasible, effective, and safe, and FUSE colonoscopy yielded higher polyp (PDR), adenoma (ADR), and diverticular (DDR) detection rates than did traditional colonoscopy, without therapeutic failure or complications. Moreover, using FUSE gastroscopy, the prevalence of duodenal peri-ampullary diverticula (DPAD) in the general population could be analyzed without using ERCP. In the future, the next generation of modified FUSE system is expected to be useful in direct peroral cholangioscopy and in simultaneous ...

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    24. Clinical efficacy of aspirin with identification of intimal morphology by optical coherence tomography in preventing event recurrence in patients with vasospasm-induced acute coronary syndrome

      Clinical efficacy of aspirin with identification of intimal morphology by optical coherence tomography in preventing event recurrence in patients with vasospasm-induced acute coronary syndrome

      Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we found that there were morphological differences in the coronary intima between patients with vasospasm-induced acute coronary syndrome (VACS) and those with stable variant angina. We investigated whether aspirin use would protect against chest pain recurrence in patients with VACS. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients with ST-segment elevation who were confirmed to have VACS by a provocation test were included. OCT was performed at the index event and when chest pain recurred to assess intimal morphology. Chest pain recurrence was defined as the first revisit to the emergency room with angina. Propensity score ...

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