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    1. Repeatability of Manual Measurement of Foveal Avascular Zone Area in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images in High Myopia

      Repeatability of Manual Measurement of Foveal Avascular Zone Area in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images in High Myopia

      Purpose To analyze the repeatability of manual measurement of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in an optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) image in high myopia. Methods This study comprised patients with high myopia and controls. Two consecutive FAZ areas of the superficial and deep capillary plexus were obtained using OCTA. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were assessed, and univariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed models were conducted to identify factors related to repeatability. Results Thirty eyes with high myopia and 34 eyes of healthy subjects were included in the study. The mean age in high ...

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    2. Long-term Follow-up Results of Patients with Welding-arc Maculopathy Assessed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Long-term Follow-up Results of Patients with Welding-arc Maculopathy Assessed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose We present four cases of welding arc maculopathy as observed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Case summary Four patients, who performed welding without wearing protective eye gear, presented to the hospital due to poor visual acuity. The mean visual acuity of the patients was 0.6. Fundus photographs of the four patients revealed a yellowish retinal scar at the fovea. SD-OCT images of the four patients showed photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS junction) disruption and retinal pigment epithelium injury. We diagnosed the patients with welding arc maculopathy, and three of them were treated with oral ...

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    3. Accuracy of Predicting Refractive Outcomes Using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Nuclear Cataracts

      Accuracy of Predicting Refractive Outcomes Using Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Nuclear Cataracts

      Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of predicting refractive outcomes of swept-source optical coherence tomography based biometry (ARGOS; Movu Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) in nuclear cataracts. Methods A total of 107 eyes (107 nuclear cataract patients) were analyzed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maximum nuclear density of Pentacam HR (A, lower tertile; B, medium tertile; C, upper tertile). The keratometry and axial length measured by IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) and ARGOS systems were compared for each group. The correlation between maximum nuclear density and axial length difference readings from the two instruments was evaluated ...

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    4. Analysis of Choroidal Thickness and Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Laser Photocoagulation

      Analysis of Choroidal Thickness and Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Laser Photocoagulation

      Purpose To evaluate the changes in choroidal thickness and superficial vascular density of the macula and optic disc using optical coherence tomography angiography after laser photocoagulation. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of 25 eyes of diabetic retinopathy patients who underwent panretinal photocoagulation. The macula and optic disc were divided into nine areas, and the vascular density of each area was quantitatively measured using optical coherence tomography angiography. The changes in vascular density and choroidal thickness were analyzed before laser photocoagulation and at 1 week after, 1 month after, and 3 months after treatment. Results In the panretinal photocoagulation ...

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    5. Influence of Epiretinal Membranes on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Influence of Epiretinal Membranes on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Purpose We investigated changes in the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) following the onset of an epiretinal membrane (ERM) in glaucoma patients. Methods Among regularly monitored glaucoma patients, patients with a newly diagnosed ERM were consecutively enrolled. Before and after the onset of ERM, the RNFL thickness was measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and a visual field examination was performed using a Humphrey field analyzer. Changes in RNFL thickness parameters and global indices of the visual field analyzer were assessed. Results In a total of 28 eyes from 28 patients, the average RNFL thickness ...

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    6. New Method of Quantitative Analysis of Hard Exudate Using Optical Coherence Tomography: Application in Diabetic Macular Edema

      New Method of Quantitative Analysis of Hard Exudate Using Optical Coherence Tomography: Application in Diabetic Macular Edema

      Purpose In the present study, the volume of hard exudates (HEs) was quantitatively measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the agreement and correlation with area of HEs in fundus photography were analyzed. Methods The medical records of patients with diabetic macular edema who underwent focal laser treatment and were followed up more than 3 months were retrospectively evaluated. An automated customized program designed for measuring HE volume was used. The HEs in each OCT B-scan binary image were measured using 512 × 128 pixels, 6 mm × 6 mm OCT cube scans. The volume was measured by summing the segmented HEs ...

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    7. The Shortest Radius of Curvature of Bruch's Membrane in Macular Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Shortest Radius of Curvature of Bruch's Membrane in Macular Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To develop software to measure the shortest radius in curvature of Bruch's membrane from optical coherence tomography (OCT), and then to apply it to various types of eyes. Methods Macular OCT images consisting of 12 images of 9 mm radial scans were studied. The horizontal to vertical pixel ratios were changed to 1:1, and Bruch's membrane was marked automatically on each image. Software to measure the radius of Bruch's membrane curvature was developed. The shortest radius on each image was defined as r (mm) and the average r of 12 images was defined as R ...

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    8. Optimization of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optimization of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Compared to the luminogram obtained by angiography, intravascular modalities produce cross-sectional images of coronary arteries with a far greater spatial resolution. It is capable of accurately determining the vessel size and plaque morphology. It also eliminates some disadvantages such as contrast streaming, foreshortening, vessel overlap, and angle dependency inherent to angiography. Currently, the development of its system and the visualization of coronary arteries has shown significant advancement. Of those, optical coherence tomography (OCT) makes it possible to obtain high-resolution images of intraluminal and transmural coronary structures leading to navigation of the treatment strategy before and after stent implantations. The aim ...

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    9. Interocular Symmetry of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Normal Eyes of Korean Adults

      Interocular Symmetry of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Normal Eyes of Korean Adults

      Purpose To evaluate the interocular symmetry of microvascular parameters measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal eyes of Korean adults. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the retinal microvascular structure of 91 healthy Korean subjects (182 eyes). We used OCTA to measure the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), vessel density (VD), and perfusion density (PD) in both eyes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the extent of agreement and correlations between binocular OCTA measurements. Results Both eyes had similar microvascular characteristics: FAZ area (right eye: 0.31 ± 0 ...

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    10. Successful Treatment of Genital Warts with Ingenol Mebutate Monitored with Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

      Successful Treatment of Genital Warts with Ingenol Mebutate Monitored with Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

      Ingenol mebutate (IM) is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis and induces cell death in precancerous lesions. The efficacy of IM in the treatment of genital warts was investigated in a therapy-refractory patient. The 74-year-old male was treated with IM gel for three consecutive days. Treatment course and efficacy were evaluated by clinical inspection and non-invasive diagnostics namely optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Within 24 to 48 hours IM induced a strong local inflammatory reaction. One week later a complete response was observed. OCT and RCM showed a strong reaction after treatment with erosions, swelling ...

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    11. Comparison of Macular Retinal Thickness among Four Optical Coherence Tomography Devices in Healthy Young Subjects

      Comparison of Macular Retinal Thickness among Four Optical Coherence Tomography Devices in Healthy Young Subjects

      Purpose This study was performed to compare macular retinal thickness measured by four different optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices. Methods Macular retinal thicknesses were measured in 32 healthy eyes of 32 subjects by using Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA, USA), Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), Topcon DRI OCT (Topcon Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and RS-3000 Advance OCT (Nidek, Co., Ltd., Gamagori, Japan). Macular retinal thickness measurements were compared among the devices. Results Average macular retinal thickness ranged 288.7 to 313.3 µm ( p < 0.01). Differences in average macular retinal thickness among the devices ranged from ...

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    12. Measurement of Vessel Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography-angiography in Normal Subjects: Difference by Analysis Area

      Measurement of Vessel Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography-angiography in Normal Subjects: Difference by Analysis Area

      Purpose To evaluate the vessel density of macula according to analysis area in health subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 30 eyes of 20 healthy people who underwent OCTA. We measured vessel density (VD) according to analysis area and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size of superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). The analysis areas were classified as 3 × 3 mm scan area (Box), Box area excluding FAZ (Box-FAZ), fovea centered 3 mm circle area (Circle), Circle area excluding FAZ (Circle-FAZ) and area between fovea centered 1 mm circle and 3 mm circle ...

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    13. Comparison of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Flap Morphology and Predictability by WaveLight FS200 Femtosecond Laser and Moria Microkeratome: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Comparison of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Flap Morphology and Predictability by WaveLight FS200 Femtosecond Laser and Moria Microkeratome: An Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose To evaluate laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap thickness predictability and morphology by femtosecond (FS) laser and microkeratome (MK) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Methods Fifty-two candidates for the LASIK procedure were stratified into two groups: FS laser-assisted (Allegretto FS-200) and MK flap creation (Moria 2). Flap thickness was determined at five points. The side-cut angle was measured in three directions at the margin interface. LASIK flap assessment was performed one month postoperatively by Spectralis anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Results Fifty-two patients (93 eyes) were recruited; 49 eyes were stratified to the FS group and 44 eyes ...

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    14. Novel Findings of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy via Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Novel Findings of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy via Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To introduce novel findings of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) via optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) Methods This study is a retrospective chart review of 16 patients (16 eyes) with PCV. OCTA (Avanti RTVue XR) findings were evaluated and selected for analysis after agreement by two retina specialists . Results Twenty one polyps in 16 eyes (16 patients) with PCV were included in this study. The mean patient age was 67 years (13 men and three women). The shape of polypoidal lesions on OCTA at initial were halo (five polyps), rosette (seven polyps), and vascular network (nine polyps). Eight months after ...

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    15. Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer in the Macular Hole: The Repeatability Study of Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer in the Macular Hole: The Repeatability Study of Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose We measured the thicknesses of the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), the macula, and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with idiopathic macula holes to analyze the repeatability of these measurements and compare them with those of the fellow eye. Methods We evaluated 85 patients who visited our retinal clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to their macular hole size: group A had a size of <400 µm, while group B had a size of ≥400 µm. Repeatability was determined by comparing the thicknesses of the GCIPL ...

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    16. Posterior Vitreous Structures Evaluated by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography with En Face Imaging

      Posterior Vitreous Structures Evaluated by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography with En Face Imaging

      Purpose To evaluate posterior vitreous structures using swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) with en face imaging. Methods We retrospectively reviewed OCT images of healthy individuals who did not have intra-ocular disease. We obtained high-definition horizontal and vertical line scans crossing the fovea and 3D scans using SS-OCT, with the 3D scan centered between the fovea and the optic-nerve head. An enhanced vitreous visualization function was used to highlight vitreous structures. En face mode was used to measure the area of Martegiani (AM) and bursa premacularis (BP). We performed all measurements using a built-in function of the viewing software. Results ...

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    17. Changes in Tear Meniscus Height Following Lower Blepharoplasty as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Changes in Tear Meniscus Height Following Lower Blepharoplasty as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose The lower eyelid serves important roles in tear distribution and drainage. The purpose of this study was to measure the tear meniscus height (TMH) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography after lower blepharoplasty. Methods A total of 52 eyes from 26 patients treated between July 2012 and June 2015 were included in the study. A transcutaneous or transconjunctival approach was performed, depending on whether (1) the supportive lower lid orbicularis oculi muscle was tightened, (2) the middle lamella was elongated, (3) minimal fat was removed or transpositioned, and (4) lateral canthal support was established. Marginal reflex distance 2 and ...

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    18. Diagnostic Ability of Swept-Source and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Glaucoma

      Diagnostic Ability of Swept-Source and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Glaucoma

      Purpose To compare the diagnostic abilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) [Deep Range Imaging OCT-1 (DRI-OCT)] and spectral-domain OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) for glaucoma in Korean adults. Materials and Methods This retrospective study involved measuring peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (PP-RNFL) thickness, full macular thickness, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness on two different OCT systems. We used three-dimensional optic disc scanning of DRI-OCT and included 12 clock-hour sectors for measurement of the PP-RNFL. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated and compared to determine how well each system could distinguish control and glaucomatous patients. Results Ninety-one ...

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    19. Choroidal Thickness Changes Following Vitrectomy in Epiretinal Membrane Based on the Optical Coherence Tomography Pattern

      Choroidal Thickness Changes Following Vitrectomy in Epiretinal Membrane Based on the Optical Coherence Tomography Pattern

      Purpose To analyze the influence of morphological classification in epiretinal membrane (ERM) based on surgical outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the postoperative choroidal thickness. Methods This observational study included 122 eyes with ERM who underwent vitrectomy. Using OCT, the preoperative ERM was classified into six types: cystoid macular edema (CME), convex, flat, normal foveal contour (Normal), pseudolamellar hole (PLH), and vitreomacular traction (VMT). The preoperative multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), postoperative change in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT), central macular thickness (CMT), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared. Results Preoperative subfoveal choroidal thickness increased in the VMT type compared to ...

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    20. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements between Scheimpflug Camera and New Module of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements between Scheimpflug Camera and New Module of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose We compared the anterior segment measurements using a Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam® [Oculus Inc., Wetzlar, Germany]) and a new anterior segment module of optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT 5000® [Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA]). Methods Anterior segment measurements were evaluated in 47 eyes of 26 patients who visited for the purpose of cataract surgery. Measurements of the central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA; nasal and temporal side), and angle to angle distance (ATA) were compared between the Pentacam® and the new anterior segment module of the Cirrus HD-OCT 5000®. Results The mean CCTs ...

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    21. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Koreans

      Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Koreans

      Purpose To determine normal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by age and to investigate the relationships of the RNFL with clinical variables using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in healthy Koreans. Methods The peripapillary RNFL thicknesses were measured around the optic disc using consecutive circular B-scans with 3.5 mm diameter and automatically calculated using a SD-OCT. Results Three hundreds fifty-two eyes of 205 healthy subjects were included in the study and RNFL thickness were measured by SD-OCT. Overall average RNFL thickness was 100.2 ± 10.9 µm, and significantly and negatively correlated with age ( r = −0.164 ...

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    22. Randomized Comparison of Strut Coverage between Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Acute Myocardial Infarction at 3-Month Optical Coherence Tomography

      Randomized Comparison of Strut Coverage between Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel in Acute Myocardial Infarction at 3-Month Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose This study aimed to compare the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel on early neointimal healing assessed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods AMI patients were randomly assigned to either the ticagrelor or clopidogrel arm. After DES implantation, OCT was performed to assess the percentages of uncovered struts immediately after procedure and 3 months later. Results Due to early termination, 83 patients out of 106 initially enrolled patients (24% of planned participants) underwent 3-month OCT. Differences in vascular healing patterns between the two groups, including percentage ...

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    23. The Correlation between Preoperative En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Postoperative Visual Prognoses in Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes

      The Correlation between Preoperative En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Postoperative Visual Prognoses in Idiopathic Epiretinal Membranes

      Purpose To investigate the correlation between en face optical coherence tomography and improvements in the postoperative prognoses of idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Methods The medical records of 59 epiretinal membrane patients who had epiretinal membrane peeling between January 2005 and January 2016, and were followed up for > 12 months, were retrospectively reviewed. The preoperative en face images were divided into four sections involving three circular areas (6,000 µm diameter circle, 3,000 µm diameter circle, and 1,000 µm diameter circle) and one square (6,000 × 6,000 µm). The surface area where no epiretinal adhesion was present was quantified ...

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    24. A Case of a Visual Field Defect with Optical Coherence Tomography Changes after Sildenafil Citrate Overdose

      A Case of a Visual Field Defect with Optical Coherence Tomography Changes after Sildenafil Citrate Overdose

      Purpose A case of a transient visual field defect and a change in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after an overdose of sildenafil citrate is described. Case summary A 67-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with a bluish tinge and visual field defect in both eyes. He had consumed eight tablets of sildenafil citrate (800 mg) 3 days before the visit. His best-corrected visual acuity was 14/20 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. No specific finding was noted on slit-lamp examination. Fundus examination and fundus photography revealed focal foveal hypopigmentation in both ...

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