1. Articles from Cureus

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    1. Multimodal Imaging in Iris Vascular Tumors: A Case Series

      Multimodal Imaging in Iris Vascular Tumors: A Case Series

      Iris vascular tumors are very unusual and tend to affect middle-aged and older adults. We report a case series of four adult patients with vascular alterations of the iris. Two patients were diagnosed with simple iris arteriovenous malformation (IAVM) and two with iris microhemangiomatosis (IM). Although the diagnosis is typically clinic, multimodal imaging techniques, especially anterior segment fluorescein angiography (AS-FA), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), improve the accuracy and delimitation of their attributes and extension. Differential diagnosis with angle or iris neovascularization, melanoma, and other iris vascular tumors is essential to avoid unnecessary ...

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    2. A Comparative Study of Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Macular Edema: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      A Comparative Study of Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Macular Edema: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Aim This study aims to compare the ganglion cell complex changes in diabetic macular edema (DME) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) macular edema using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted for six months. All patients having DME and CRVO macular edema presenting to the Ophthalmology Department at Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital were included in the study. A detailed and comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, and OCT was done for each patient. Results The incidence of both DME and CRVO macular edema were both found to be maximum in the age group of ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Diagnosis and Monitoring of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Associated Choroidopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Diagnosis and Monitoring of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Associated Choroidopathy

      A 55-year-old female presented with bilateral lower limb swelling and facial swelling along with a decreased frequency of micturition. Baseline investigations revealed an elevated serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Subsequent investigations revealed a positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) +++ (titer 1:10,000, serum immunofluorescence method) and positive anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) testing. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation was performed. Her visual acuity was 6/36 improving to 6/18 in either eye. The near vision was found to be N36 without any further improvement. A dilated fundus examination revealed multiple yellowish lesions throughout the posterior pole consistent with pockets of subretinal fluid ...

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    4. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability Between Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Maps and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 Optic Nerve Head Assessment to Discriminate Glaucomatous and Non-glaucomatous Eyes

      Comparison of Diagnostic Ability Between Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Maps and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 Optic Nerve Head Assessment to Discriminate Glaucomatous and Non-glaucomatous Eyes

      Background In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of optic nerve head (ONH), macular, and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements of wide-field maps (12 × 9 mm) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) compared to measurements of the ONH and RNFL parameters measured by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3). Methodology This case-control study included 39 eyes of 39 glaucoma patients and 36 eyes of 36 normal subjects (control group). All participants underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) as well as structural measurements by SS-OCT (DRI-OCT, Triton; Topcon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and HRT3 (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The ...

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    5. Evaluating the Quantitative Foveal Avascular Zone and Retino-Choroidal Vessel Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Healthy Indian Population

      Evaluating the Quantitative Foveal Avascular Zone and Retino-Choroidal Vessel Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Healthy Indian Population

      Objective: The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is the round capillary-free zone within the macula and is supplied only by a single-layered parafoveal capillary arcade. This study aimed to evaluate the quantitative FAZ and retino-choroidal vessel density (VD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a healthy Indian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study that was conducted for evaluating the quantitative FAZ and retino-choroidal VD of 200 eyes of 100 healthy Indian subjects, including 62 males and 38 females (age range 17-50 years) having the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of logMAR 0 (20/20; 6/6) and spherical equivalent ...

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    6. Malignant Hypertension and the Role of Ophthalmologists: A Review Article - Cureus

      Malignant Hypertension and the Role of Ophthalmologists: A Review Article - Cureus

      Morphological and structural abnormalities of the retinal layers due to severe hypertension are better visualized by OCT. Newer OCT machines with spectral-domain (SD) and swept-source (SS) technologies provide better image resolution that helps in the detailed analysis of the retina and choroid [53] . Features of macular edoema, irregular reflection or thickening of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), SRF, inner retinal fluid, and hyperreflective dots within the retina are observed in severe hypertension. Irregular reflections from the retinal nerve fibre layer may be caused by ischaemic damage to the nerve fibre layer and flame-shaped haemorrhages. Hyperreflective dots within the retina ...

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    7. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Following the First Dose of COVID Vaccine

      Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Following the First Dose of COVID Vaccine

      The reports of vascular adverse events in the eye following COVID-19 vaccination are infrequent. We report the case of a healthy male who developed central retinal vein occlusion in his left eye three days following administration of the first dose of Covishield vaccine. As the underlying systemic and ocular risk factors were absent and laboratory investigations were normal, vein occlusion appeared to probably result from the vaccine. The patient developed retinal hemorrhages and non-perfusion ischemic areas all over the fundus. The macular edema was reduced with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, but the visual gain was not much, which appears to be ...

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    8. Acute Myocardial Infarction Caused by Plaque Erosion After Recovery From COVID-19 Infection Assessed by Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging

      Acute Myocardial Infarction Caused by Plaque Erosion After Recovery From COVID-19 Infection Assessed by Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging

      We report a case of non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction after recovery from COVID-19 infection. An emergency coronary angiography revealed 50% stenosis with thrombotic occlusion in the middle left anterior descending artery. Optical coherence tomography and coronary angioscopy revealed plaque erosion with mixed thrombus on a lipid-rich plaque. This case report may help to understand the underlying mechanisms of cardiac complications following COVID-19 infection.

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      Mentions: Abbott
    9. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patient With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      Role of Optical Coherence Tomography to Measure Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patient With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      Aim: This study aimed to measure retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients diagnosed with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. And, comparing the RNFL thickness of stable patients with mild to moderate COPD and severe to very severe COPD patients Patients and methods: In this prospective case-control study, a total of 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been selected for measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer on spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study included 120 eyes of participants among which 80 were COPD patients (G1) and 40 were healthy participants ...

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    10. Myocardial Infarction With Non-obstructive Coronary Arteries: An Updated Overview of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management

      Myocardial Infarction With Non-obstructive Coronary Arteries: An Updated Overview of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management

      Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) refers to acute myocardial infarction with normal or near-normal coronary arteries. The MINOCA is a heterogeneous group of conditions, and possible etiologies are coronary artery spasm, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, coronary thromboembolism, coronary plaque disruption, coronary microvascular dysfunction, supply and demand mismatch. It is more common in young adults, with women having a higher chance of getting MINOCA than men. Considering MINOCA as a clinically dynamic working diagnostic that needs further investigation rather than a "true" diagnosis is proposed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravenous ultrasound (IVUS), cardiac MRI may be required to stratify ...

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    11. Interventional Dilemma in a Young Woman With Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Who Presented With High-Risk Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) Progressing to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)

      Interventional Dilemma in a Young Woman With Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Who Presented With High-Risk Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) Progressing to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)

      Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent presentation of acute myocardial infarction in young women and denotes the non-atherosclerotic separation of the coronary artery wall. Precipitating causes include fibromuscular dysplasia, postpartum hormonal changes, multiparity, connective tissue diseases like Marfan syndrome, autoimmune conditions, and hormonal therapy. It is often underdiagnosed due to a low index of suspicion based on age and gender bias as well as knowledge about different angiographic variants in SCAD. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is used for patients where coronary angiography fails to secure a diagnosis to increase the diagnostic ...

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    12. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosu

      The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosu

      A 15-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with a history of bilateral blurred vision for one day, with greater severity in the right eye. Fundus examinations revealed cotton wool spots, dot hemorrhage, and hard exudate. She underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), which showed the presence of macula ischemia, decreased vascular density, mild retinal fluid, severe ischemia, some macular edema, and vascular sheathing, indicating active vasculitis in the right eye. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect many organs in the body, including the eye. Ocular involvement is one of the most well-known features ...

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    13. Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

      Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

      A 61-year-old male presented with visual loss in the left eye. A CT scan of the chest revealed multiple lung cavities in both lungs. He had a positive C-ANCA suggestive of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. There were multiple areas of superficial retinal opacification in the right eye and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in the left eye. An optical coherence tomography (OCT)/optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) revealed areas of superficial capillary dropout and areas of flow void in the choriocapillaris. The patient underwent immunosuppressive therapy and at follow-up, there was a reduction in the flow voids. Use of the OCT/OCTA ...

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    14. Imaging of Classic Dalén Fuchs Nodules in Sympathetic Ophthalmia With Spectral Domain OCT

      Imaging of Classic Dalén Fuchs Nodules in Sympathetic Ophthalmia With Spectral Domain OCT

      Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare, severe condition that typically presents as bilateral diffuse granulomatous uveitis secondary to trauma in one eye. The variability of symptoms requires that diagnosis depends heavily on the correlation of these symptoms with relevant imaging. Visualisation of characteristic nodules seen between the Bruchs membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium, and the presence of Dalén Fuchs nodules, can be diagnostic when coupled with the clinical findings. This report discusses the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to indicate the presence of Dalén Fuchs nodules, which have previously not been identified on OCT ...

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    15. Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Underweight Women Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Analysis of Retinochoroidal Vasculature in Underweight Women Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Introduction Being underweight (body-mass index < 18.50 kg/m 2 ) is associated with significantly higher morbidity than having normal weight. We aimed to investigate the changes in choroid and retinal capillary microcirculation with optical coherence tomography angiography in underweight female subjects compared with an age- and sex-matched population of healthy subjects. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional study included 48 eyes of 48 healthy female subjects, of whom 23 were underweight and 25 had normal weight. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used for the evaluation of retinal vessel density, foveal avascular zone, subfoveal central macular thickness, subfoveal choroidal thickness, and choriocapillaris flow ...

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    16. Evaluation of Retinal Changes in Varicocele Patients With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of Retinal Changes in Varicocele Patients With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Objective: To evaluate the macula and optic disc in varicocele patients with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: The right eyes of 30 patients with varicocele and 30 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Superficial and deep capillary plexus vascular densities, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) width, and optic disc parameters were measured with OCTA. Results: There was a significant decrease in vascular density in the superficial and deep capillary plexus in the varicocele group compared to the control group, but no difference was found in FAZ and optic disc parameters. Conclusion: Patients with varicocele have reduced microvascular density in the retina; therefore ...

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      Mentions: Visionix
    17. Correlation Between Retrograde Trans-Synaptic Degeneration of Ganglion Cells and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Following Ischemic Stroke

      Correlation Between Retrograde Trans-Synaptic Degeneration of Ganglion Cells and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Following Ischemic Stroke

      Objective Following nerve injury, the projection of posterior visual pathway lesions into the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) region indicates retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) as a mechanism of functional damage. Our purpose is to assess GCL damage and the impacts of ischemic brain lesions affecting the visual pathway on macular microvascularization in patients with stroke. Methods In a case-control study, we examined 15 ischemic stroke patients who showed visual field defects and 50 healthy controls using the high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques such as spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and GCL thicknesses, and OCT ...

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    18. Therapeutic Efficacy of Difluprednate 0.05% Versus Prednisolone Acetate 1% in Controlling Inflammation and Macular Oedema Following Phacoemulsification: An Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Study

      Therapeutic Efficacy of Difluprednate 0.05% Versus Prednisolone Acetate 1% in Controlling Inflammation and Macular Oedema Following Phacoemulsification: An Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Study

      Background: Topical corticosteroids have been the cornerstone in the management of postoperative inflammation following cataract surgery. Due to potential side effects of the older topical steroids like prednisolone acetate and dexamethasone or betamethasone, newer potent steroids preparation like difluprednate, loteprednol or fluorometholone are now being used at lesser dose and frequency to control inflammation. There is scanty literature on the efficacy of these drugs in preventing inflammation and macular oedema in the Indian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% against prednisolone 1% eye drops for control of inflammation following phacoemulsification ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomographic Finding in a Case of Congenital Macular Coloboma at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah

      Optical Coherence Tomographic Finding in a Case of Congenital Macular Coloboma at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah

      Macular coloboma is a rare eye condition that affects around 0.5-0.7/10,000 of live births. Macular coloboma appears as a well-demarcated atrophic lesions that could affect one eye or both eyes on fundus examination. This is a case of a 33-year-old male patient who presented to the outpatient clinic with a history of poor vision in the left eye since childhood. He had a history of strabismus surgery for sensory exotropia (XT) in the left eye. Anterior segment examination of both eyes was normal while the fundus examination of both eyes revealed bilateral chorioretinal lesions in the ...

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    20. Reduction of Foveal Avascular Zone After Vitrectomy Demonstrated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Reduction of Foveal Avascular Zone After Vitrectomy Demonstrated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To investigate the effect of pars plana vitrectomy on foveal circulation, and in particular the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized, comparative case series of patients that underwent vitrectomy. Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients that underwent vitrectomy were studied postoperatively by OCTA. Our patients underwent 23 or 25G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for any posterior segment pathology. Three-dimensional OCTAs (DRI Triton Swept Source OCT; Topcon) of the capillary plexus were obtained three months post-operatively. The FAZ measurements of the fellow eyes were used as controls. Main outcome measures: Change ...

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    21. Association of Intimal Neovessels Noted by Optical Coherence Tomography with Cardiac Allograft ...

      Association of Intimal Neovessels Noted by Optical Coherence Tomography with Cardiac Allograft ...

      Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of graft failure in cardiac transplant recipients. Progression of intimal thickening noted during routine surveillance intracoronary imaging is associated with the development of CAV. However, mechanisms of CAV development are poorly understood and targets for therapy modification remain elusive. We investigated the association of neovessels (INs) within the intima, noted by optical coherence tomography (OCT) during routine CAV surveillance imaging, with intimal thickening and co-incident CAV. Methods Coronary angiography and OCT images of 45 consecutive cardiac transplant recipients undergoing surveillance coronary imaging were reviewed. The presence of INs, defined as dark ...

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    22. Features and Diagnostic Accuracy of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

      Features and Diagnostic Accuracy of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

      Introduction Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the important causes of visual impairment in aging population. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is gold standard for the diagnosis of neovascular AMD (nAMD) while optical coherence tomography (OCT) aids in the diagnosis of nAMD and is very useful for follow-up. OCT angiography (OCTA) is an evolving imaging technology that can be used as a valid diagnostic tool to study morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) that is seen in nAMD. This study was conducted with the objective to determine diagnostic accuracy and OCTA features of occult and classic CNV in patients with nAMD ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in a Case of Cosmetic Laser Induced Retinal Injury

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in a Case of Cosmetic Laser Induced Retinal Injury

      We report the first known case of iris and retinal injury using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images following cosmetic laser injury. A 23-year-old female developed left iris and retinal injury post inadvertent firing of a 755 nm Alexandrite cosmetic laser. The patient had no significant past medical history and the injury resulted from inappropriate eye protection during laser use. Injury from the laser caused damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), iris pigment epithelium (IPE), and ciliary body epithelium (CPE). The OCTA imaging modality detected the vascular injury caused by the Alexandrite 755 nm laser to the choroid and ...

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    24. Frequency Domain-optical Coherence Tomography of Coronary Arteries Using a Diluted Iodinated Contrast-saline Mix with 5-Fr Guide Catheters

      Frequency Domain-optical Coherence Tomography of Coronary Arteries Using a Diluted Iodinated Contrast-saline Mix with 5-Fr Guide Catheters

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently mostly performed using 6-Fr coronary guide catheters via femoral access. Catheters with such large internal diameters are necessary to deliver viscous contrast media and achieve sufficient red blood cell washout. Currently, undiluted iodinated contrast media (15 mL/injection) is used to clear the coronary arteries of red blood cells (RBCs). This leads to an increase in the total amount of contrast used and often the need for femoral artery access. Our objective is to assess the feasibility of performance of OCT using a 5-Fr guide catheter via radial access using diluted iodinated contrast ...

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