1. 1-21 of 21
    1. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Patients Treated With Rotational Atherectomy Versus Modified Balloons

      Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Patients Treated With Rotational Atherectomy Versus Modified Balloons

      Background: Percutaneous intervention of calcified coronary lesions often requires lesion preparation with either balloon dilatation or atherectomy. We sought to evaluate the impact of lesion preparation strategy on stent expansion following preparation of severely calcified coronary lesions with modified (cutting/scoring) balloons (MB) versus rotational atherectomy (RA) and to evaluate the impact of calcium burden as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) on acute stent performance. Methods: In the PREPARE-CALC trial (Comparison of Strategies to Prepare Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions), 200 patients with severely calcified coronary lesions were randomly assigned to receive either lesion preparation with MB or RA. In ...

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    2. Predictors for Rapid Progression of Coronary Calcification: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Predictors for Rapid Progression of Coronary Calcification: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background The role of coronary calcification in cardiovascular events and plaque stabilization is still being debated, and factors involved in the progression of coronary calcification are not fully understood. This study aimed to identify the predictors for rapid progression of coronary calcification. Methods and Results Patients with serial optical coherence tomography imaging at baseline and at 6 months were selected. Changes in the calcification index and predictors for progression of calcification were studied. Calcification index was defined as the product of the mean calcification arc and calcification length. Rapid progression of calcification was defined as an increase in the calcification ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Predictors for a Favorable Vascular Response to Statin Therapy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Predictors for a Favorable Vascular Response to Statin Therapy

      Background Specific plaque phenotypes that predict a favorable response to statin therapy have not been systematically studied. This study aimed to identify optical coherence tomography predictors for a favorable vascular response to statin therapy. Methods and Results Patients who had serial optical coherence tomography imaging at baseline and at 6 months were included. Thin‐cap area (defined as an area with fibrous cap thickness <200 μm) was measured using a 3‐dimensional computer‐aided algorithm, and changes in the thin‐cap area at 6 months were calculated. A favorable vascular response was defined as the highest tertile in the degree ...

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    4. Prevalence, Features, and Prognosis of Artery-to-Artery Embolic ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Prevalence, Features, and Prognosis of Artery-to-Artery Embolic ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background The major underlying mechanisms contributing to acute coronary syndrome are plaque rupture, plaque erosion, and calcified nodule. Artery-to-artery embolic myocardial infarction (AAEMI) was defined as ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction caused by migrating thrombus formed at the proximal ruptured plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of AAEMI by using optical coherence tomography. Methods and Results This study retrospectively enrolled 297 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent optical coherence tomography before percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were divided into 4 groups consisting of plaque rupture, plaque erosion, calcified nodule, and AAEMI according to optical ...

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    5. Intravascular Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Universal Approach for Optimization of Stent Implantation

      Intravascular Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Universal Approach for Optimization of Stent Implantation

      Despite consistent clinical data supporting the use of intravascular imaging with percutaneous coronary intervention, utilization remains low. A practical and standardized approach to incorporating intravascular imaging with percutaneous coronary intervention may overcome the barriers to utilization. This review focuses on basic image interpretation with intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and proposes an algorithmic approach to stent sizing and optimization. Incorporation of this strategic method for percutaneous coronary intervention may aid in the greater adoption of intravascular imaging for percutaneous coronary intervention.

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    6. Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women

      Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women

      Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated ...

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    7. Frequency, Predictors, Distribution, and Morphological Characteristics of Layered Culprit and Nonculprit Plaques of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

      Frequency, Predictors, Distribution, and Morphological Characteristics of Layered Culprit and Nonculprit Plaques of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

      Background: Subclinical atherothrombosis and plaque healing may lead to rapid plaque progression. The histopathologic healed plaque has a layered appearance when imaged using optical coherence tomography. We assessed the frequency, predictors, distribution, and morphological characteristics of optical coherence tomography layered culprit and nonculprit plaques in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: A prospective series of 325 patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 native coronary arteries. Layered plaque phenotype had heterogeneous signal-rich layered tissue located close to the luminal surface that was clearly demarcated from the underlying plaque. Results: Layered plaques were detected in ...

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    8. Effects of Fatty Acid Therapy in Addition to Strong Statin on Coronary Plaques in Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Effects of Fatty Acid Therapy in Addition to Strong Statin on Coronary Plaques in Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      ACKGROUND Vascular healing response associated with adjunctive n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy therapy in patients receiving strong statin therapy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to strong statin therapy on coronary atherosclerotic plaques using optical coherence tomography. METHODS AND RESULTS This prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial included 130 patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with strong statins. They were assigned to either statin only (control group, n=42), statin+high‐dose EPA (1800 mg/day) (EPA group, n ...

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    9. Nonculprit Lesion Plaque Morphology in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From the COMPLETE Trial Optical Coherence Tomography Substudys

      Nonculprit Lesion Plaque Morphology in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From the COMPLETE Trial Optical Coherence Tomography Substudys

      Background: Complete revascularization with routine percutaneous coronary intervention of nonculprit lesions after primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves outcomes in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction. Whether this benefit is associated with nonculprit lesion vulnerability is unknown. Methods: In a prospective substudy of the COMPLETEs trial (Complete vs Culprit-Only Revascularization to Treat Multi-Vessel Disease After Early PCI for STEMI), we performed optical coherence tomography of at least 2 coronary arteries before nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention in 93 patients with ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease; and the ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction culprit vessel if there was unstented segment amenable to imaging ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation:  A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Background: We investigated whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance would reduce nonoptimal bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) deployment. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. Patients who required percutaneous coronary intervention for ischemic heart disease were recruited from 2 centers in Korea. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either OCT-guided BVS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) implantation or angiography-guided BVS implantation using an optimized technique. The primary outcome was nonoptimal deployment, which was a composite outcome of the following parameters assessed by OCT: a minimal scaffold area <5 mm 2 , residual area stenosis >20%, incomplete apposition of the scaffold struts >5 ...

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    11. Mechanism of Drug-Eluting Absorbable Metal Scaffold Restenosis: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Mechanism of Drug-Eluting Absorbable Metal Scaffold Restenosis: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background: The pathomechanisms underlying restenosis of the bioabsorbable sirolimus-eluting metallic scaffold (Magmaris) remain unknown. Using serial optical coherence tomography, we investigated causes of restenosis, including the contribution of late scaffold recoil versus neointimal hyperplasia. Methods: Patients enrolled in BIOSOLVE-II undergoing serial angiography and optical coherence tomography (post-intervention and follow-up: 6 months and/or 1 year) were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to angiographic in-scaffold late lumen loss (LLL) <0.5 or ≥0.5 mm. End points were late absolute scaffold recoil and neointimal hyperplasia area as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Results: Serial data were available for ...

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    12. Competency-Based Assessment of Interventional Cardiology Fellows’ Abilities in Intracoronary Physiology and Imaging

      Competency-Based Assessment of Interventional Cardiology Fellows’ Abilities in Intracoronary Physiology and Imaging

      Although coronary angiography remains necessary for percutaneous coronary intervention, it provides limited information about lesion morphology, functional significance, and percutaneous coronary intervention results-limitations that are addressed by intravascular imaging and invasive physiology with demonstrated improve procedural and clinical outcomes.

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation

      Background: We investigated whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance would reduce nonoptimal bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) deployment. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. Patients who required percutaneous coronary intervention for ischemic heart disease were recruited from 2 centers in Korea. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either OCT-guided BVS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) implantation or angiography-guided BVS implantation using an optimized technique. The primary outcome was nonoptimal deployment, which was a composite outcome of the following parameters assessed by OCT: a minimal scaffold area <5 mm 2 , residual area stenosis >20%, incomplete apposition of the scaffold struts >5 ...

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    14. Inadequate Intimal Angiogenesis as a Source of Coronary Plaque Instability

      Inadequate Intimal Angiogenesis as a Source of Coronary Plaque Instability

      It is a widely believed paradigm that intimal angiogenesis in coronary atherosclerosis contributes to plaque instability through both hemorrhagic plaque expansion and cholesterol deposition. 1 However, this article supports an alternative concept in which angiogenesis is actually essential for plaque stabilization and healing. 2 , 3 The prevailing paradigm has its origins primarily in histopathology work from the 1980s by Barger’s group reported by Kamat et al. 4 We argue that misinterpretation of their results has skewed the understanding of vulnerable plaque for >35 years. This misconception still endures in recent plaque angiogenesis reviews, affecting understanding of acute coronary syndromes ...

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    15. Prospective Randomized Comparison of Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Optical Coherence Tomography to Guide Revascularization of Intermediate Coronary Stenoses: One-Month Results

      Prospective Randomized Comparison of Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Optical Coherence Tomography to Guide Revascularization of Intermediate Coronary Stenoses: One-Month Results

      Background-—Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may help both in assessment and in percutaneous coronary intervention optimization of angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. We designed a prospective trial comparing the clinical and economic outcomes associated with FFR or OCT in angiographically intermediate coronary lesions. Methods and Results-—Three hundred fifty patients with angiographically intermediate coronary lesions (n=446) were randomized to FFR or OCT guidance. In the FFR arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if FFR was ≤0.80 aiming for a postprocedure FFR >0.90. In the OCT arm, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed if percentage ...

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      Mentions: Rocco Vergallo
    16. Long‐Term Clinical Outcomes of Late Stent Malapposition Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography After Drug‐Eluting Stent Implantation

      Long‐Term Clinical Outcomes of Late Stent Malapposition Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography After Drug‐Eluting Stent Implantation

      Background The relationship between late stent malapposition (LSM) and adverse cardiovascular events is controversial. Studies are needed to evaluate long‐term (>5 years) clinical outcomes of LSM detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) after drug‐eluting stent implantation. Methods and Results We investigated long‐term clinical outcomes of OCT‐detected LSM in 351 patients who received drug‐eluting stents and were examined by both poststent and follow‐up OCT (175±60 days after drug‐eluting stent implantation) from January 2009 to December 2011. LSM was observed in 99 patients (28%). We evaluated the cumulative rate of composite events (cardiovascular death ...

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    17. The “Oculo‐Appositional Reflex”: Should Optical Coherence Tomography–Detected Stent Malapposition Be Corrected?

      The “Oculo‐Appositional Reflex”: Should Optical Coherence Tomography–Detected Stent Malapposition Be Corrected?

      Stent malposition, recognized as an entity with the advent of intravascular imaging, refers to the lack of full contact between stent struts and the vessel wall after percutaneous coronary intervention ( Figure ). Malapposition may be present immediately after placement of stents (acute stent malapposition), or it may develop later (late stent malapposition), which can, in turn, be categorized as late persistent malapposition (ongoing since the time of implantation) or late acquired malapposition (developing de novo during follow‐up). 1

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    18. Early Follow-Up Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Significant Drug-Eluting Stent Malapposition

      Early Follow-Up Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Significant Drug-Eluting Stent Malapposition

      Background: Using optical coherence tomography, we evaluated early follow-up findings of significant stent malapposition (SSM) in patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent. Methods and Results: From the DETECT-OCT randomized trial (Determination of the Duration of the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy by the Degree of the Coverage of the Struts on Optical Coherence Tomography From the Randomized Comparison Between Everolimus- Versus Biolimus-Eluting Stent), a total of 386 patients (390 lesions) who underwent both postintervention and 3-month follow-up optical coherence tomography examinations were included for the present analysis. SSM was defined as a stent that had a strut with a maximal wall-to-strut distance ...

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    19. Management of Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

      Management of Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

      Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) portends higher prognostic risk as a result of the large myocardial territory at risk, ranging from 75% to 100%, depending on the dominance of the left coronary circulation. Diagnosis and management of significant LMCAD continues to be a source of clinical apprehension and uncertainty. LMCAD is not uncommonly found in stable patients undergoing coronary angiography and is often associated with concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD). Current clinical practice guidelines from both the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology recommend revascularization for all patients with ≥50% stenosis of ...

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