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    1. Intravascular Imaging to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Will Be Mandatory Soon

      Intravascular Imaging to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Will Be Mandatory Soon

      Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography provides superior information to coronary angiography, including cross-sectional true vessel size, amount of calcification, distribution of plaque to inform stent landing zone, stent expansion, and stent edge dissection or uncovered disease, which have been well known as key metrics in percutaneous coronary intervention avoiding future stent failure. 1 Complex lesion morphology is typically defined as an unprotected left main lesion, severely calcified lesion, long lesion, bifurcation lesion, chronic total occlusion, or in-stent restenosis in which optimal percutaneous coronary intervention is far more difficult than other lesions. 2-4 Thus, they have a greater chance ...

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    2. Stent Optimization Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Prognostic Implications After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

      Stent Optimization Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Prognostic Implications After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

      Background Stent underexpansion has been known to be associated with worse outcomes. We sought to define optical coherence tomography assessed optimal stent expansion index (SEI), which associates with lower incidence of follow-up major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Methods and Results A total of 315 patients (involving 370 lesions) who underwent optical coherence tomography-aided coronary stenting were retrospectively included. SEI was calculated separately for equal halves of each stented segment using minimum stent area/mean reference lumen area ([proximal reference area+distal reference area]/2). The smaller of the 2 was considered to be the SEI of that case. Follow-up MACE ...

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    3. Layered Plaque in Organic Lesions in Patients With Coronary Artery Spasm

      Layered Plaque in Organic Lesions in Patients With Coronary Artery Spasm

      Background Coronary artery spasm plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of coronary plaques. We sought to investigate the plaque characteristics of co‐existing organic lesions in patients with coronary artery spasm in comparison to those without coronary artery spasm by intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods and Results We included 39 patients who presented with a symptom suspected of coronary spastic angina and had an organic lesion, defined as ≥plaque burden of 50% assessed by OCT. Coronary artery spasm was diagnosed by positive acetylcholine provocation test, or by spontaneous spasm detected during coronary angiography. A total of 51 vessels ...

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    4. Patterns of Early Coronary Artery Changes in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Detected Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Patterns of Early Coronary Artery Changes in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Detected Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the leading cause of graft failure in pediatric heart transplant recipients, is characterized by diffuse and concentric coronary intimal thickening. Early treatment yields better outcomes. While coronary angiography is the standard for cardiac allograft vasculopathy screening and diagnosis, it only identifies luminal narrowing, which occurs in more severe disease. Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-definition intravascular imaging modality that may offer earlier diagnosis. We used OCT to investigate coronary intimal thickening in pediatric transplant recipients and examined its (1) location (ie, vessel type and location) and (2) nature (ie, characteristics of cross-sectional and longitudinal ...

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    5. Role of Multimodality Imaging in the Assessment of Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries: Beyond Conventional Coronary Angiography

      Role of Multimodality Imaging in the Assessment of Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries: Beyond Conventional Coronary Angiography

      Myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a heterogeneous clinical entity, encompassing multiple different causes, and a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines suggest a multimodality imaging approach in establishing the underlying cause for MINOCA, which is considered a working diagnosis. Recent studies have suggested that an initial workup consisting of cardiac magnetic resonance and invasive coronary imaging can yield the diagnosis in most patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance is particularly helpful in excluding nonischemic causes that can mimic MINOCA including myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, as well as for long‐term prognostication. Additionally, intracoronary imaging with intravascular ultrasound ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography in Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: State-of-the-Art Review

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: State-of-the-Art Review

      Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a challenging complication of heart transplantation. CAV pathophysiology is incompletely understood, standard screening modalities such as angiography have significant limitations, and currently available therapies have only modest efficacy in preventing progression. Optical coherence tomography is a light-based technique that provides microscopic level catheter-based intravascular imaging and has dramatically expanded our understanding of CAV, demonstrating it to be a complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic process. This review covers characteristics and uses of optical coherence tomography, including vessel characterization, serial use to assess progression of disease, guiding percutaneous intervention, and monitoring response to CAV therapies. We also discuss ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

      Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

      Background: Specific algorithms for use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are scarce. Also, the relative benefits of intravascular imaging guidance have not been tested against an optimized angiography-guided PCI strategy. In iSIGHT (Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions), we aimed to investigate whether OCT-guided PCI achieves noninferior stent expansion compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance and if both imaging modalities lead to superior stent expansion compared with an optimized angiography-based strategy. Methods: Patients ≥18 years old undergoing PCI for ≥1 lesion in native coronaries of 2.25 ...

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    8. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Patients Treated With Rotational Atherectomy Versus Modified Balloons

      Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Patients Treated With Rotational Atherectomy Versus Modified Balloons

      Background: Percutaneous intervention of calcified coronary lesions often requires lesion preparation with either balloon dilatation or atherectomy. We sought to evaluate the impact of lesion preparation strategy on stent expansion following preparation of severely calcified coronary lesions with modified (cutting/scoring) balloons (MB) versus rotational atherectomy (RA) and to evaluate the impact of calcium burden as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) on acute stent performance. Methods: In the PREPARE-CALC trial (Comparison of Strategies to Prepare Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions), 200 patients with severely calcified coronary lesions were randomly assigned to receive either lesion preparation with MB or RA. In ...

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    9. Predictors for Rapid Progression of Coronary Calcification: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Predictors for Rapid Progression of Coronary Calcification: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background The role of coronary calcification in cardiovascular events and plaque stabilization is still being debated, and factors involved in the progression of coronary calcification are not fully understood. This study aimed to identify the predictors for rapid progression of coronary calcification. Methods and Results Patients with serial optical coherence tomography imaging at baseline and at 6 months were selected. Changes in the calcification index and predictors for progression of calcification were studied. Calcification index was defined as the product of the mean calcification arc and calcification length. Rapid progression of calcification was defined as an increase in the calcification ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Predictors for a Favorable Vascular Response to Statin Therapy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Predictors for a Favorable Vascular Response to Statin Therapy

      Background Specific plaque phenotypes that predict a favorable response to statin therapy have not been systematically studied. This study aimed to identify optical coherence tomography predictors for a favorable vascular response to statin therapy. Methods and Results Patients who had serial optical coherence tomography imaging at baseline and at 6 months were included. Thin‐cap area (defined as an area with fibrous cap thickness <200 μm) was measured using a 3‐dimensional computer‐aided algorithm, and changes in the thin‐cap area at 6 months were calculated. A favorable vascular response was defined as the highest tertile in the degree ...

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    11. Prevalence, Features, and Prognosis of Artery-to-Artery Embolic ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Prevalence, Features, and Prognosis of Artery-to-Artery Embolic ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background The major underlying mechanisms contributing to acute coronary syndrome are plaque rupture, plaque erosion, and calcified nodule. Artery-to-artery embolic myocardial infarction (AAEMI) was defined as ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction caused by migrating thrombus formed at the proximal ruptured plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of AAEMI by using optical coherence tomography. Methods and Results This study retrospectively enrolled 297 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent optical coherence tomography before percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were divided into 4 groups consisting of plaque rupture, plaque erosion, calcified nodule, and AAEMI according to optical ...

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    12. Intravascular Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Universal Approach for Optimization of Stent Implantation

      Intravascular Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Universal Approach for Optimization of Stent Implantation

      Despite consistent clinical data supporting the use of intravascular imaging with percutaneous coronary intervention, utilization remains low. A practical and standardized approach to incorporating intravascular imaging with percutaneous coronary intervention may overcome the barriers to utilization. This review focuses on basic image interpretation with intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography and proposes an algorithmic approach to stent sizing and optimization. Incorporation of this strategic method for percutaneous coronary intervention may aid in the greater adoption of intravascular imaging for percutaneous coronary intervention.

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    13. Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women

      Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women

      Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated ...

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    14. Frequency, Predictors, Distribution, and Morphological Characteristics of Layered Culprit and Nonculprit Plaques of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

      Frequency, Predictors, Distribution, and Morphological Characteristics of Layered Culprit and Nonculprit Plaques of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

      Background: Subclinical atherothrombosis and plaque healing may lead to rapid plaque progression. The histopathologic healed plaque has a layered appearance when imaged using optical coherence tomography. We assessed the frequency, predictors, distribution, and morphological characteristics of optical coherence tomography layered culprit and nonculprit plaques in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: A prospective series of 325 patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 native coronary arteries. Layered plaque phenotype had heterogeneous signal-rich layered tissue located close to the luminal surface that was clearly demarcated from the underlying plaque. Results: Layered plaques were detected in ...

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    15. Effects of Fatty Acid Therapy in Addition to Strong Statin on Coronary Plaques in Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Effects of Fatty Acid Therapy in Addition to Strong Statin on Coronary Plaques in Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      ACKGROUND Vascular healing response associated with adjunctive n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy therapy in patients receiving strong statin therapy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to strong statin therapy on coronary atherosclerotic plaques using optical coherence tomography. METHODS AND RESULTS This prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial included 130 patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with strong statins. They were assigned to either statin only (control group, n=42), statin+high‐dose EPA (1800 mg/day) (EPA group, n ...

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    16. Nonculprit Lesion Plaque Morphology in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From the COMPLETE Trial Optical Coherence Tomography Substudys

      Nonculprit Lesion Plaque Morphology in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From the COMPLETE Trial Optical Coherence Tomography Substudys

      Background: Complete revascularization with routine percutaneous coronary intervention of nonculprit lesions after primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves outcomes in ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction. Whether this benefit is associated with nonculprit lesion vulnerability is unknown. Methods: In a prospective substudy of the COMPLETEs trial (Complete vs Culprit-Only Revascularization to Treat Multi-Vessel Disease After Early PCI for STEMI), we performed optical coherence tomography of at least 2 coronary arteries before nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention in 93 patients with ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease; and the ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction culprit vessel if there was unstented segment amenable to imaging ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation:  A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Background: We investigated whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance would reduce nonoptimal bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) deployment. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. Patients who required percutaneous coronary intervention for ischemic heart disease were recruited from 2 centers in Korea. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either OCT-guided BVS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) implantation or angiography-guided BVS implantation using an optimized technique. The primary outcome was nonoptimal deployment, which was a composite outcome of the following parameters assessed by OCT: a minimal scaffold area <5 mm 2 , residual area stenosis >20%, incomplete apposition of the scaffold struts >5 ...

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    18. Mechanism of Drug-Eluting Absorbable Metal Scaffold Restenosis: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Mechanism of Drug-Eluting Absorbable Metal Scaffold Restenosis: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background: The pathomechanisms underlying restenosis of the bioabsorbable sirolimus-eluting metallic scaffold (Magmaris) remain unknown. Using serial optical coherence tomography, we investigated causes of restenosis, including the contribution of late scaffold recoil versus neointimal hyperplasia. Methods: Patients enrolled in BIOSOLVE-II undergoing serial angiography and optical coherence tomography (post-intervention and follow-up: 6 months and/or 1 year) were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to angiographic in-scaffold late lumen loss (LLL) <0.5 or ≥0.5 mm. End points were late absolute scaffold recoil and neointimal hyperplasia area as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Results: Serial data were available for ...

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    19. Competency-Based Assessment of Interventional Cardiology Fellows’ Abilities in Intracoronary Physiology and Imaging

      Competency-Based Assessment of Interventional Cardiology Fellows’ Abilities in Intracoronary Physiology and Imaging

      Although coronary angiography remains necessary for percutaneous coronary intervention, it provides limited information about lesion morphology, functional significance, and percutaneous coronary intervention results-limitations that are addressed by intravascular imaging and invasive physiology with demonstrated improve procedural and clinical outcomes.

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation

      Background: We investigated whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) guidance would reduce nonoptimal bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) deployment. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. Patients who required percutaneous coronary intervention for ischemic heart disease were recruited from 2 centers in Korea. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive either OCT-guided BVS (Absorb; Abbott Vascular) implantation or angiography-guided BVS implantation using an optimized technique. The primary outcome was nonoptimal deployment, which was a composite outcome of the following parameters assessed by OCT: a minimal scaffold area <5 mm 2 , residual area stenosis >20%, incomplete apposition of the scaffold struts >5 ...

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    21. Inadequate Intimal Angiogenesis as a Source of Coronary Plaque Instability

      Inadequate Intimal Angiogenesis as a Source of Coronary Plaque Instability

      It is a widely believed paradigm that intimal angiogenesis in coronary atherosclerosis contributes to plaque instability through both hemorrhagic plaque expansion and cholesterol deposition. 1 However, this article supports an alternative concept in which angiogenesis is actually essential for plaque stabilization and healing. 2 , 3 The prevailing paradigm has its origins primarily in histopathology work from the 1980s by Barger’s group reported by Kamat et al. 4 We argue that misinterpretation of their results has skewed the understanding of vulnerable plaque for >35 years. This misconception still endures in recent plaque angiogenesis reviews, affecting understanding of acute coronary syndromes ...

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    1-24 of 30 1 2 »
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