1. Articles from PhysOrg.com

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    1. A sharper look at the interior of semiconductors

      A sharper look at the interior of semiconductors

      Images provide information—what we can observe with our own eyes enables us to understand. Constantly expanding the field of perception into dimensions that are initially hidden from the naked eye, drives science forward. Today, increasingly powerful microscopes let us see into the cells and tissues of living organisms, into the world of microorganisms as well as into inanimate nature. But even the best microscopes have their limits. "To be able to observe structures and processes down to the nanoscale level and below, we need new methods and technologies," says Dr. Silvio Fuchs from the Institute of Optics and Quantum ...

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    2. Researchers demonstrate nondestructive mid-infrared imaging using entangled photons

      Researchers demonstrate nondestructive mid-infrared imaging using entangled photons

      Researchers have shown that entangled photons can be used to improve the penetration depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering materials. The method represents a way to perform OCT with mid-infrared wavelengths and could be useful for non-destructive testing and analysis of materials such as ceramics and paint samples.

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      Mentions: RECENDT
    3. Researchers peer deep inside tissue with new high-resolution techniques

      Researchers peer deep inside tissue with new high-resolution techniques

      One of the challenges in optical imaging is to visualize the inside of tissue in high resolution. Traditional methods allow researchers to look to a depth of approximately 1 millimeter. Researchers at Delft University of Technology have now developed a new method that can penetrate up to four times as deep, up to around 4 millimeters. The healthcare sector in particular may benefit from the new technique in the future. The new imaging method brings together a number of existing techniques. The most important of these is optical coherence tomography , a technique ophthalmologists use to image the retina. OCT is ...

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    4. Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography: 3-D live-imaging of retinal organoids

      Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography: 3-D live-imaging of retinal organoids

      Optical coherence tomography offers astounding opportunities to image the complex structure of living tissue but lacks functional information. We present dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as a technique to noninvasively image living human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal organoids. Colored images with an endogenous contrast linked to organelle motility are generated, with submicrometer spatial resolution and millisecond temporal resolution, creating a way to identify specific cell types in living tissue via their dynamic profile.

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      Mentions: Kate Grieve
    5. Innovative method offers a new way of studying developmental cardiac biomechanics, live in 4-D

      Innovative method offers a new way of studying developmental cardiac biomechanics, live in 4-D

      How a valveless embryonic heart tube pumps blood is a long-standing scientific mystery. Thanks to innovations in light-based technology, fresh insights are now available into the biomechanics of mammalian cardiogenesis—and in particular, the pumping dynamics of the mammalian tubular embryonic heart.

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    6. In vivo imaging of the human cornea at high speed and high resolution

      In vivo imaging of the human cornea at high speed and high resolution

      If the eyes are the mirror of the soul, then thanks to the translucent corneas, we can look deep into that soul. And thanks to the work of scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences, we can look into the depths of the cornea itself. And that without touching it. All thanks to the introduction of an innovative method of holographic optical tomography.

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    7. Laser-based technique captures 3-D images of impressionist-style brushstrokes

      Laser-based technique captures 3-D images of impressionist-style brushstrokes

      Researchers have developed a new strategy that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) to acquire both the surface and underlying details of impressionist style oil paintings. This information can be used to create detailed 3-D reconstructions to enhance the viewing experience and offer a way for the visually impaired to experience paintings.

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      Mentions: Yi Yang
    8. Cardiac imaging with 3-D cellular resolution using few-mode interferometry to diagnose coronary artery disease

      Cardiac imaging with 3-D cellular resolution using few-mode interferometry to diagnose coronary artery disease

      A new imaging technique developed by Biwei Yin and interdisciplinary researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in the U.S., provides resolution at the subcellular-level to image the heart's vascular system. As a result, heart researchers can study and diagnose human coronary artery disease with greater precision. Conventionally, cardiologists employ intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess the buildup of coronary plaque, which can narrow arteries to cause coronary artery disease.

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    9. Miniaturizing medical imaging, sensing technology

      Miniaturizing medical imaging, sensing technology

      Scientists in Christine Hendon's and Michal Lipson's research groups at Columbia University, New York, have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis. The interference technology, like bat sonar but using light instead of sound waves , used in the microchip has been around for a little while. This is the first time that technical obstacles have been overcome to fabricate a miniature device able to capture high quality images. Ophthalmologists' current optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices and surveyors' light detection and ranging (LIDAR) machines are bulky and expensive. There is a push for ...

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    10. Laser-based technology helps doctors image full eye in 3-D

      Laser-based technology helps doctors image full eye in 3-D

      It is estimated that in 2015, 217 million people had moderate to severe vision impairment, while 36 million were blind, according to an article in the journal The Lancet Global Health. The World Health Organization predicts that about 80 % of vision impairment globally is preventable or curable. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective interventions.

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    11. This compact and cheap lidar could steer small autonomous vehicles

      This compact and cheap lidar could steer small autonomous vehicles

      Researchers in Sweden have developed cheaper, lighter and more efficient lidar technology that could pave the way for smaller autonomous craft such as drones and robots, and help enable better profitability in the vehicle industry. For autonomous vehicles, lidar is an essential technology to recognize and detect surrounding objects. A team at KTH Royal Institute of Technology has taken aim at the key component of lidar, optical beam-stearing, and developed a device that is significantly cheaper to manufacture, lighter and more resource-efficient than previous variations of the technology. Carlos Errando-Herranz, a postdoc at KTH's 's Division of Micro and ...

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    12. Low-bandwidth radar technology provides improved detection of objects

      Low-bandwidth radar technology provides improved detection of objects

      Radar technologies were originally designed to identify and track airborne military targets. Today they're more often used to detect motor vehicles, weather formations and geological terrain. Until now, scientists have believed that radar accuracy and resolution are related to the range of frequencies or radio bandwidth used by the devices. But a new Tel Aviv University study finds that an approach inspired by optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires little to no bandwidth to accurately create a high-resolution map of a radar's surrounding environment. "We've demonstrated a different type of ranging system that possesses superior range resolution and ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – longer wavelengths can improve imaging depths

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – longer wavelengths can improve imaging depths

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging technique currently used in clinical diagnostics to examine organs in vivo. The technique uses interferometry ; in which light reflected from an examined object combines with reference light that does not encounter the object to generate interference patterns that form 2-D and 3-D OCT images. It is possible to use longer wavelengths of light in the imaging technique for deeper penetration in light scattering materials. Such features offer possibilities for OCT in non-destructive testing (NDT) of samples, and improved non-invasive biomedical imaging. In a recent study, Niels M. Israelsen and co-workers at the ...

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    14. Faster 3-D imaging could aid diagnosis of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal disease

      Faster 3-D imaging could aid diagnosis of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal disease

      Researchers have developed a faster way to acquire 3-D endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. With further development, the new approach could be useful for early detection and classification of a wide range of diseases. The new method uses computational approaches that create a full 3-D image from incomplete data. In the Optical Society journal Applied Optics , the researchers report that useful 3-D images could be constructed using 40 percent less data than traditional 3-D OCT approaches, which would decrease imaging time by 40 percent. OCT is a biomedical imaging technique that has seen expanding clinical use in recent years ...

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    15. Using a crystal to link visible light to infrared opens a window on infrared sensing

      Using a crystal to link visible light to infrared opens a window on infrared sensing

      A cheap, compact technique for analyzing samples at infrared wavelengths using visible-wavelength components could revolutionize medical and material testing. Infrared spectroscopy is used for material analysis, in forensics and in the identification of historical artifacts, for example,—but scanners are bulky and expensive. Visible- wavelength technology is cheap and accessible in items such as smartphone cameras and laser pointers. This led Leonid Krivitsky and colleagues at the A*STAR Data Storage Institute to develop a method in which a laser beam was converted into two linked lower energy beams: The link between the two beams allowed experiments using one beam ...

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    16. Study shines light on alternative medical imaging techniques

      Study shines light on alternative medical imaging techniques

      ith a thin probe and a burst of microwaves, doctors can eradicate cancer cells without opening up a patient for surgery. But when you're trying to cook a tiny amount of precancerous tissue to death in an area as delicate as, say, the esophagus—where muscles control the flow of food into the stomach—precision is paramount. A team of University of Wisconsin-Madison biomedical engineers is working to hone new imaging techniques that could allow for finer monitoring of this kind of minimally invasive ablation treatment. In an exploratory study recently published in the journal Biomedical Optics Express , College ...

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    17. Award winning algorithm could improve accuracy and speed of diagnosis of retinal disease

      Award winning algorithm could improve accuracy and speed of diagnosis of retinal disease

      A new technique for identifying and diagnosing damage to the human retina has been awarded 'Best Student Paper' at the industry-leading BIOIMAGING 2018 conference in Portugal. Doctoral candidate Bashir Dodo, from Brunel University London's Department of Computer Science, demonstrated a new algorithm for OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) equipment which can automatically segment images of the retina into distinct layers. It's hoped the new technique, which can separate the retina into seven distinct layers, could improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis , and help save the sight of patients by identifying damage earlier. Having taken inspiration from the psychological ...

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    18. Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Mark Wolff wanted to know. To him, the thought of suffering through Alzheimer's disease the way his father did—without knowing, and without his family knowing, what he was up against until late in its progression— is worse than learning, even while he's still perfectly healthy, that a possible precursor of the disease has gained a toehold Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-08-alzheimer-early-peeking-eyes.html#jCp

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    19. Scientists turbocharge high-resolution, 3-D imaging

      Scientists turbocharge high-resolution, 3-D imaging

      You may not have heard of optical coherence tomography, or OCT. But if you've visited an ophthalmologist recently, chances are your eye came within an inch or two of a scanning device employing the technology. Tens of thousands of these devices are in place in doctors' offices, where they're widely used to check for eye diseases. Now, Stanford University scientists have figured out how to retrofit these high-performance machines with off-the-shelf components, increasing OCT's resolution by several-fold and promising earlier detection of retinal and corneal damage, incipient tumors and more. The relatively simple, low-cost fix—entailing a ...

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    20. Breakthrough in live coral imaging

      Breakthrough in live coral imaging

      Corals are calcifying animals and are the prime architects of the most diverse marine ecosystem, the coral reefs. The coral animal harbors tiny microalgae as symbionts in its tissue, where they fix CO2 via photosynthesis and provide the animal host with organic carbon for its respiration. In turn, the microalgae obtain shelter and nutrients in the coral tissue, which extends over a complex calcium carbonate skeleton deposited by the animal host. The coral host takes several measures to optimize light harvesting of its symbionts, while avoiding excess light exposure. This includes tissue contraction and relaxation as well as synthesis of ...

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    21. Internal fingerprint sensor peers inside fingertips for more surefire ID

      Internal fingerprint sensor peers inside fingertips for more surefire ID

      In the 1971 film Diamonds are Forever, British secret agent James Bond uses fake fingerprints as part of a ploy to assume the identity of a diamond smuggler. At the time, sham prints were purely a futuristic bit of Bond gadgetry, but technology has since caught up. In 2002, the Japanese cryptographer Tsutomu Matsumoto showed that imitation fingerprints made cheaply from gelatin, a main component of gummy sweets, could trick up to 80 percent of standard fingerprint sensors. The sensors also sometimes fail to recognize legitimate prints when the finger being scanned is dirty, worn, scarred, or too wet or ...

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    22. Noninvasive imaging method looks deeper inside the body to study living brain

      Noninvasive imaging method looks deeper inside the body to study living brain

      Researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have used a noninvasive light-based imaging technology to literally see inside the living brain, providing a new tool to study how diseases like dementia, Alzheimer's, and brain tumors change brain tissue over time. The work is reported by Woo June Choi and Ruikang Wang of the UW Department of Bioengineering, today in the Journal of Biomedical Optics . "The paper shows significantly enhanced imaging depth using a noninvasive laser-enabled technique for deep tissue imaging. In the brain, the imaging depth is almost doubled," said journal editorial board member Martin Leahy of the National ...

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    23. New lasers offer low cost industrial processing and novel surgical possibilities

      New lasers offer low cost industrial processing and novel surgical possibilities

      EU scientists have developed efficient new fibre optic lasers that deliver short wavelengths for accurate polymer material processing, at incredible strength and low cost. The consortium behind the new innovations, developed through the ISLA project, is now in the process of marketing some of these cutting edge devices.

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    1-24 of 28 1 2 »
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