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    1. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Purpose: To report the characteristics of non-proliferative fellow eyes in patients with unilateral proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study and included fellow eyes of eyes with subretinal neovascular membrane (SRNVM). Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA) was performed. OCT and OCTA measurements included central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and qualitative parameters such as distortion or enlargement of FAZ, increased inter-vascular spacing, dilated, tortuous vessel at margin of FAZ, crowding of vessel, and loss of choriocapillaris (CC). Results: Thirteen ...

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    2. An anomalous foveal OCT-sign after posterior capsule rupture in cataract surgery: Complicated cataract surgery maculopathy

      An anomalous foveal OCT-sign after posterior capsule rupture in cataract surgery: Complicated cataract surgery maculopathy

      Purpose: To report a series of novel optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) foveal abnormalities, that we called “T-sign,” that were noticed after a complicated cataract surgery with posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss. Methods: Retrospective case series of persistent foveal changes that incurred after anteroposterior vitreo-foveal traction secondary to phacoemulsification in presence of posterior capsule rupture. Results: The study included three eyes of three patients that incurred in complicated cataract surgery and intraoperative vitreo-foveal traction. During 8-month follow-up period peculiar abnormalities in fundus examination and in OCT scans were reported in all cases. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification in presence of posterior capsule rupture ...

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    3. Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in multimodal imaging have significantly contributed to the management of many uveitis diseases in recent years. The most significant developments include the use of optical coherence tomography to obtain a more accurate and reproducible assessment of ocular inflammation, the application of optical coherence tomography angiography in choroiditis and retinal vasculitis, new possibilities for studying vitritis with ultrawide field imaging, and the most recent applications of fundus autofluorescence in uveitis. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant advances in multimodal imaging of uveitis achieved in recent years.

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography in quiescent choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus: 5 years follow-up

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in quiescent choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus: 5 years follow-up

      Purpose: To report a case of quiescent choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal nevus using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during 5 years follow-up. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 53-year old woman was referred our department with diagnosis of choroidal nevus. At 1 year follow-up, fundus autofluorescence revealed hyper/hypoautofluorescent area, infrared image showed hyperreflective area and enhanced depth imaging OCT presented a shallow pigment epithelium detachment without exudation or hemorrhage. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography suspected the presence of CNV. Finally, OCTA confirmed a quiescent CNV with an increased flow area of the vascular lesion without any ...

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    5. Predictive value of optical coherence tomography, multifocal visual evoked potentials, and full-field visual evoked potentials of the fellow, non-symptomatic eye for subsequent multiple sclerosis development in patients with acute optic neuritis

      Predictive value of optical coherence tomography, multifocal visual evoked potentials, and full-field visual evoked potentials of the fellow, non-symptomatic eye for subsequent multiple sclerosis development in patients with acute optic neuritis

      Background: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) may sometimes be ascertained at the time of optic neuritis (ON) but other times require the advent of new disease activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements of the non-symptomatic, fellow eye of ON patients, for conversion to MS. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study in patients with acute ON. OCT thickness measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell layer–inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL), and multifocal (mf) VEP and full-field (ff ...

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    6. In vivo optical biopsy of choroidal osteoma: a swept source optical coherence tomography–based tumor characterization

      In vivo optical biopsy of choroidal osteoma: a swept source optical coherence tomography–based tumor characterization

      Objective: To study tumor characteristics of choroidal osteoma by swept source optical coherence tomography. Methods: A retrospective case series done at tertiary referral center in northern India. All patients diagnosed with choroidal osteoma examined on swept source optical coherence tomography were included. Swept source optical coherence tomography images were analyzed for integrity of retinal layers—intraretinal layers, outer retinal layers (photoreceptor), retinal pigment epithelium, and contour abnormalities. Choroidal changes assessed were tumor attributes such as shape, depth of choroidal involvement, tumor mass reflectivity pattern, tumor vascularity, and evolutionary structural abnormalities such as deossification, focal depressions, or choroidal neovascular membrane. Results ...

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    7. CD4+/CD8+ ratio positively correlates with coronary plaque instability in unstable angina pectoris patients but fails to predict major adverse cardiovascular events

      CD4+/CD8+ ratio positively correlates with coronary plaque instability in unstable angina pectoris patients but fails to predict major adverse cardiovascular events

      Background: The association between CD4+/CD8+ ratio and coronary plaque instability in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) has not been investigated. We sought to elucidate the correlation between CD4+/CD8+ ratio and plaque instability in this patient population. Methods: We enrolled 266 UAP patients who underwent pre-intervention optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination and percutaneous coronary intervention in our center from January 2016 to January 2018. Features of coronary plaques in the culprit arteries were classified as unstable plaque and stable plaque. Primary endpoint was occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used ...

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    8. Structural assessment of the optic nerve in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Case–control study

      Structural assessment of the optic nerve in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Case–control study

      Objective Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has been identified as a possible risk factor for optic nerve pathology such as glaucoma, nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, and optic disk edema. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate structural changes of the apparently normal optic nerve in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with effects of its severity. Materials and methods In this prospective case–control study, 47 eyes of 47 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients diagnosed with polysomnography and 40 eyes of 40 healthy subjects were included. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to evaluate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, optic nerve head ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography angiography markers associated with treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography angiography markers associated with treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose: To investigate whether qualitative and quantitative features of choroidal neovascular membranes are associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment response in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A total of 41 eyes were included in this cross-sectional observational study and divided into “good responders” and “poor responders” based on the long-term functional changes, frequency of recurrent choroidal neovascular activity, and injection need. Enface optical coherence tomography angiography images were obtained and qualitative features of choroidal neovascular membranes were described based on vessel network density. Then, quantitative measurements including vessel area, vessel length, junction density, and lacunarity were calculated ...

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    10. Morphological analysis of functional filtering blebs with anterior segment optical coherence tomography: A short-term prediction for success of trabeculectomy

      Morphological analysis of functional filtering blebs with anterior segment optical coherence tomography: A short-term prediction for success of trabeculectomy

      Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze morphological parameters of apparently functional filtering blebs with anterior segment optical coherence tomography at 1 month post trabeculectomy and to correlate these parameters with intraocular pressure at 6 months of follow-up to predict the short-term success of trabeculectomy. Methods In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, apparently functional blebs were evaluated using anterior segment optical coherence tomography with crossline scans after 1 month of trabeculectomy. Results A total of 55 eyes of 55 cases with mean age 49.29 ± 13.72 years were included in the study. On anterior segment optical coherence tomography ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals vascular alterations in pediatric commotio retinae

      Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals vascular alterations in pediatric commotio retinae

      Introduction Aim of this study is to present the acute and long-term swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography findings in pediatric commotio retinae. Materials and methods Two children presented with reduced visual acuity and Berlin edema after blunt trauma. Results Swept-source optical coherence tomography revealed hyperreflectivity of the retinal nerve fiber layer and disruption of the ellipsoid zone and the retinal pigment epithelium. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography showed enlarged superficial foveal avascular zone in both cases. In the more severe case, there was enlargement of both superficial and deep foveal avascular zone, and reduction of the superficial vascular plexus density ...

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    12. Detection, localization, and characterization of vision-threatening features of microaneurysms using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic maculopathy

      Detection, localization, and characterization of vision-threatening features of microaneurysms using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic maculopathy

      Introduction Diabetic maculopathy is a leading retinal cause of blindness. This study was conducted using optical coherence tomography angiography and noninvasive imaging modalities. Microaneurysms were evaluated for location, flow, and adjacent retinal tissue changes to establish knowledge of possible vision-threatening features. Methodology: This is a hospital-based, cross-sectional observational study. Eighteen patients with diabetic maculopathy were included in the study. Fundus photo, red-free filter image, infrared images with shadowgrams, optical coherence tomography cross sections, and optical coherence tomography angiography were analyzed. Mean, standard deviation, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval were used for statistical analysis, and p -value of <0.05 ...

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    13. Quantitative measurements with optical coherence tomography angiography in Behçet uveitis

      Quantitative measurements with optical coherence tomography angiography in Behçet uveitis

      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with Behçet uveitis. Methods A total of 22 consecutive patients with Behçet uveitis and 19 age-matched healthy individuals were included in the study. Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography angiography images was performed. Comparisons between the patients and the control groups and correlation analysis between optical coherence tomography angiography results and age, visual acuity, duration of uveitis, central macular thickness, and fluorescein angiography scores in the patient group was performed. Results The mean superficial foveal avascular zone area ...

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    14. Subthreshold Exudative Choroidal Neovascularization Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identified by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Subthreshold Exudative Choroidal Neovascularization Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identified by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: This article describes the clinical and multimodal imaging characteristics of subthreshold exudative choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Among 3773 patients with AMD, 8 eyes (6 patients) were identified with the clinical phenotype of interest. Dilated fundus examinations, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA) were performed. Results: OCT typically showed a moderately reflective irregular pigment epithelial detachment with overlying subretinal fluid (SRF). Traditional FA did not show leakage and ICGA showed no definitive neovascular network or hot spots. However, OCTA clearly demonstrated a ...

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    15. Choroidal vascularity index determined by binarization of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration

      Choroidal vascularity index determined by binarization of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose To evaluate choroidal structural changes in patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration using choroidal vascularity index. Methods The eyes of patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and controls were evaluated with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images. Subfoveal choroidal area was segmented into luminal area and stromal area by the binarization technique on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images using ImageJ software. Choroidal vascularity index was defined as the ratio of luminal area to total circumscribed subfoveal choroidal area. Results Fifty-seven eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and 60 healthy control eyes were included in the study ...

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    16. Using optical coherence tomography angiography in assessment of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect for pathological vascular tissue in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Using optical coherence tomography angiography in assessment of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor effect for pathological vascular tissue in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Purpose: Using optical coherence tomography angiography to assess and compare changes in pathological vascular tissue, including choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal complex in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, after treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Methods: This is a retrospective observational case series study. Clinical data were collected, including that on the best-corrected visual acuity and images of spectrum domain optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography of consecutive patients with macula-involved lesions, active pathological vascular tissue in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and polypoidal complex in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy who were treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor ...

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    17. Fluorescein angiography versus optical coherence tomography angiography: FA vs OCTA Italian Study

      Fluorescein angiography versus optical coherence tomography angiography: FA vs OCTA Italian Study

      Purpose: To assess the current role of fluorescein angiography after the introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography in real-life clinical practice. Methods: This was a multicentric retrospective observational study to evaluate the number of fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography procedures performed by different devices from January 2013 to December 2018. The centers involved were Centro Italiano Macula (Rome), and ophthalmology departments of University “G. D’Annunzio” Chieti–Pescara (Chieti) and “Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi” (Florence). Results: Out of 19,898 total fluorescein angiography procedures performed in the observation period, 3444 (17.3%) were in 2013, 3972 (19.9 ...

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    18. Macular optical coherence tomography findings after vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

      Macular optical coherence tomography findings after vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

      The primary aim of this study was to summarize and illustrate the main structural cross-sectional optical coherence tomography findings encountered after vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. This was a non-systematic review of literature on structural cross-sectional optical coherence tomography findings after vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Adequate illustrations of the main findings described were found after a retrospective analysis of imaging and charts of patients operated at the department where this study was performed. The main structural cross-sectional optical coherence tomography findings after vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment included persistent subretinal fluid, subretinal blebs, retinal folds, subretinal ...

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    19. Role of visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography in the screening for optic pathway gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type I

      Role of visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography in the screening for optic pathway gliomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type I

      Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare visual function assessment, visual evoked potential, and optical coherence tomography with measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for the diagnosis of optic pathway glioma in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scan, visual evoked potential study, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer evaluation by optical coherence tomography. Patients were tested with pattern-reversal visual evoked potential and with flash visual evoked potential in case of poor cooperation. Optical coherence tomography was performed with HRA ...

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    20. Differences in the presentation of stage 1 macular holes illustration by optical coherence tomography

      Differences in the presentation of stage 1 macular holes illustration by optical coherence tomography

      Objective: To present two different phases of progression of Gass stage 1 foveolar detachment to lamellar or full-thickness macular holes revealed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Design: This is an observational study. Participants: The medical records of four patients (four eyes) with foveolar detachment that had evolved into stage 1 macular holes were compared. The patients manifested neither co-existing myopia nor any other ocular pathology. Methods: At each consultation, best-corrected visual acuity, dilated fundus examination, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were performed to ascertain whether the foveolar detachment was associated with posterior vitreal detachment. Results: In two of ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography in pediatric patients: a clinical review

      Optical coherence tomography in pediatric patients: a clinical review

      Optical coherence tomography has improved the ophthalmic clinical examination due to its ability to more accurately characterize pathology of the eye. Optical coherence tomography is now an integral imaging modality for many adult diseases of the retina and is a ubiquitous part of a retinal practice. However, although its use in adults is well recognized, the adoption of optical coherence tomography in pediatric patients may be undervalued as macular diseases in children are relatively uncommon. Recent technological advancements have made optical coherence tomography scans quicker and more precise, generating normative data and leading to more widespread use in children. In ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    22. Optical coherence tomography angiography for the measurement of optic disc: Macular relationship

      Optical coherence tomography angiography for the measurement of optic disc: Macular relationship

      Introduction: Fundus photography is the gold standard for assessing ocular torsion over the last 30 years. However, it is not a precise and reproducible tool during clinical practice. Optical coherence tomography angiography is characterized by precise identification of the macula and the optic disc, and it could be an effective method to easily calculate the angle of ocular torsion, compared to fundus photography. The aim of this study was to show whether any difference in the measurement and the accuracy of the angle of torsion between the head of the optic nerve and the fovea was present. Methods: This is ...

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    23. Otitis Media Middle Ear Effusion Identification and Characterization Using an Optical Coherence Tomography Otoscope

      Otitis Media Middle Ear Effusion Identification and Characterization Using an Optical Coherence Tomography Otoscope

      Objective To determine the feasibility of detecting and differentiating middle ear effusions (MEEs) using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) otoscope. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting US tertiary care children’s hospital. Subjects and Methods Seventy pediatric patients undergoing tympanostomy tube placement were preoperatively imaged using an OCT otoscope. A blinded reader quiz was conducted using 24 readers from 4 groups of tiered medical expertise. The primary outcome assessed was reader ability to detect presence/absence of MEE. A secondary outcome assessed was reader ability to differentiate serous vs nonserous MEE. Results OCT image data sets were analyzed from 45 of ...

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    24. Effects of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Effects of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate the effect of topical antiglaucomatous medications on central corneal epithelial thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Materials and methods: A total of 153 eyes of 153 patients using topical antiglaucomatous medications and 110 eyes of 110 control subjects were enrolled. Glaucoma type, duration of therapy, the number of drugs, and drops/day were noted in the patient group. Patients and control subjects underwent ocular examinations including Schirmer test, slit lamp examination for tear film break-up time, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography for central corneal thickness and central corneal epithelial thickness. Central corneal epithelial thickness ...

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