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    1. Imaging vitreous cortex hyalocyte response to paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) using En Face OCT

      Imaging vitreous cortex hyalocyte response to paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) using En Face OCT

      Introduction: Vitreous cortex hyalocytes (VCH) are resident macrophage cells that provide immunosurveillance, respond to tissue injury and inflammation, and help maintain the transparency of the media. In this case report we demonstrate the use of en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image VCH in vivo in a patient presenting with PAMM secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome. Case description: A 38-year-old female with no known medical history presented with complaints of visual disturbances in the right eye. OCT revealed hyperreflective bands in the IPL and INL nasal to the fovea. A diagnosis of PAMM was made. Work-up revealed elevated titers of ...

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    2. X-linked retinoschisis: OCT-angiography in two brothers from a four-generation family with a p.Arg197Cys pathogenic variant in the RS1 gene

      X-linked retinoschisis: OCT-angiography in two brothers from a four-generation family with a p.Arg197Cys pathogenic variant in the RS1 gene

      Introduction X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a rare genetic disease causing retinal splitting. The aim of this work is to describe the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features in two brothers affected by an hemizygous c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys) pathogenic variant in exon 6 of the RS1 gene. Case decription Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including measurement of best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus color photographs, fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging, fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). En Face SD-OCT and OCTA revealed the presence of two different pattern ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Clinical Utility and Future Directions

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Clinical Utility and Future Directions

      Purpose: This work aims to review the principles of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), to survey its clinical utility, and to highlight the strengths of this technology as well as barriers to adoption. Methods: A literature review with editorial discussion of the current applications for OCTA is presented. Results: There have been recent advances in multiple domains in OCTA imaging, including devices, algorithms, and new observations pertaining to a range of pathologies. New devices have improved the scanning speed, signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial resolution and offer an increased field of view. New algorithms have been proposed to optimize image processing ...

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    4. Bioinspired Anti-demineralization Enamel Coating for Orthodontics

      Bioinspired Anti-demineralization Enamel Coating for Orthodontics

      White spot lesions and enamel cracks are the 2 most prominent diseases that occur after orthodontic treatment and are caused by enamel demineralization from accumulated bacterial biofilms and/or enamel damage caused by the removal of residual adhesive after bracket debonding. Inspired by the self-assembled amelogenin nanoribbons in enamel, we developed an enamel coating with a self-assembling antimicrobial peptide, D-GL13K, to simultaneously reduce demineralization and residual adhesive. The self-assembled amphiphilic nanoribbons significantly increased the hydrophobicity of the etched enamel, which reduced the permeability of the coated enamel surfaces as desired. The antimicrobial activity of this coating was evaluated against Streptococcus ...

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    5. OCT-A in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy treated with oral eplerenone and half-fluence photodynamic therapy: A comparative study

      OCT-A in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy treated with oral eplerenone and half-fluence photodynamic therapy: A comparative study

      Purpose: To evaluate retinal and choriocapillary vessel density (VD) changes in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) treated with half-fluence verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) or eplerenone, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Patients affected by CSC and treated with vPDT and eplerenone were retrospectively studied. At baseline and 3 months after each treatment, all patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including an evaluation of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and OCTA. Results: Forty-eight eyes of patients with CSC were analysed. Twenty-four eyes were ...

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    6. Evaluation of the optic nerve head and macular vessel density in keratoconus patients using optical coherence tomography angiography- a cross-sectional study

      Evaluation of the optic nerve head and macular vessel density in keratoconus patients using optical coherence tomography angiography- a cross-sectional study

      Purpose: Our study evaluated macular and optic disc vascular density (VD) changes in patients diagnosed with keratoconus, as compared with gender and age-matched healthy controls, in relation to the keratoconus stage. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study included adult patients who received a diagnosis of keratoconus at the Cornea Clinic. All scans consisted of two 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm images of the optic disc area and 6 × 6 mm images of the macular area using optical coherence tomography angiography. Results: The study included 67 patients (26 women (38.8%) and 41 men (61.2%)) and 74 controls (31 women ...

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    7. The Effects of chronic smoking on retinal vascular densities and choroidal thicknesses measured by optical coherence tomography angiography

      The Effects of chronic smoking on retinal vascular densities and choroidal thicknesses measured by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose: To examine the effects of chronic smoking on vascular density in superficial and deep retinal vascular plexuses and choroidal thicknesses. Method: Superficial and deep vessel densities and choroidal thicknesses of smoking volunteers and healthy non-smoking volunteers were measured with the Topcon DRI OCT-1 Tritron® device and compared with each other. Results: This study included 108 eyes of 54 smoking volunteers and 108 eyes of 54 healthy volunteers as a control group. The average superficial vascular density index and deep vascular density indexes of smokers were found to be 39.81 ± 1.5% and 42.53 ± 1.9%, respectively (P ...

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    8. Machine learning classification of multiple sclerosis in children using optical coherence tomography

      Machine learning classification of multiple sclerosis in children using optical coherence tomography

      Background: In children, multiple sclerosis (MS) is the ultimate diagnosis in only 1/5 to 1/3 of cases after a first episode of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As the visual pathway is frequently affected in MS and other CNS demyelinating disorders (DDs), structural retinal imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to differentiate MS. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the utility of machine learning (ML) based on OCT features to identify distinct structural retinal features in children with DDs. Methods: This study included 512 eyes from 187 ( n eyes = 374) children with demyelinating diseases ...

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    9. The effect of axial length to basement-membrane opening to fovea distance on optical coherence tomography

      The effect of axial length to basement-membrane opening to fovea distance on optical coherence tomography

      Background: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) lateral scaling is influenced by axial length (AL). There is a need to incorporate a method to correct this measurement bias for accurate lateral OCT measurement. Purpose: To identify the correlation of optic-nerve-to-fovea distance measurement to AL by OCT) as an internal factor for lateral scaling. Methods: Using Heidelberg Spectralis OCT, distance from the basement membrane opening at the optic disc margin to the centre of the fovea (BMO-fovea distance) was measured in 135 eyes (77 subjects, ages 25-85). These measurements were correlated with AL measurements from Zeiss IOLMaster 700 using linear regression before and ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT angiography) in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION): A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT angiography) in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION): A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Purpose To summarize the evidence available on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). Methods Systematic searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar Databases. The quality assessment of the included studies was performed using Newcastle -Ottawa Scale. The data were extracted to an Excel sheet. Vessel density (VD) data were pooled by random effects model, presented as pooled percentage change (PPC), and weighted mean differences (WMD). Additional subgroup analysis was also conducted. Results In initial searches in online databases, we found 3535 citations, and after screening and ...

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    11. Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer defect patterns in multiple sclerosis patients without optic neuritis: A Spectral-Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Cross-Sectional, Case-Control, Pilot Study

      Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer defect patterns in multiple sclerosis patients without optic neuritis: A Spectral-Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Cross-Sectional, Case-Control, Pilot Study

      Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to evaluate, in patients with multiple sclerosis without a history of optic neuritis (MSNON), the proportion of the different macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer complex (mGCIP) defect patterns. The results were compared with those of healthy controls (HCs). Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 34 eyes of 34 individuals, 17 with MSNON and 17 HCs, were evaluated. All participants underwent mGCIP thickness measurement using SD-OCT (Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 4000, macular cube protocol). The mGCIP defect patterns were classified in nine types (minimal, inner, outer, diffuse mild, diffuse severe inferior confined, inferior dominant ...

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    12. Macular microcirculation changes after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with silicone oil tamponade evaluated by OCT-A: preliminary results

      Macular microcirculation changes after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with silicone oil tamponade evaluated by OCT-A: preliminary results

      Background: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with macular involvement is a sight-threatening condition. Silicone oil (SO) is efficacious for retinal tamponade, especially in complex cases. Whether macular detachment per se or the potential tamponading agent may affect macular microcirculation after RRD repair is a matter of research. Objectives: To investigate macular microcirculation changes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with intravitreal SO for RRD repair in the early posttreatment period. Design: Prospective comparative cross-sectional study. Data sources and methods: Fourteen eyes of 14 patients were included in the study. All eyes underwent a single successful PPV ...

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    13. OCT-angiography follow-up of choroidal neovascularization treated with treat- and- extend aflibercept regimen to avoid over-treatment

      OCT-angiography follow-up of choroidal neovascularization treated with treat- and- extend aflibercept regimen to avoid over-treatment

      Purpose To propose optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) for the follow-up of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with a treat-and-extend (T&E) aflibercept regimen to avoid overtreatment. Methods Retrospective, cohort, pilot study. We analysed 16 consecutive-treatment naïve nAMD eyes following up 2-years at the Eye Clinic, Bari, Italy. Intravitreal aflibercept injections in the T&E regimen for no less than 12 months, during which the macula was dry without any sign of intraretinal or subretinal fluid (SRF) at each visit, were performed. Parametric data were evaluated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA); any non-parametric statistical calculations were performed ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography angiography as predictor of visual outcomes in retinal vein occlusion treated with antiangiogenic therapy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography as predictor of visual outcomes in retinal vein occlusion treated with antiangiogenic therapy

      Purpose: Evaluate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) features in retinal vein occlusions (RVO) associated with visual outcomes after anti-VEGF. Methods: Analytical observational study performed in eyes with macular edema secondary to RVO treated with anti-VEGF, with at least 6 months of follow-up. Bradley et al. classification of macular ischemia was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT-A. Results: A total of 62 eyes, 61 subjects, mean age of 70 ± 12,6 years were included. Median follow up time 21,2 months (IQR 24.8), 53,2% had central retinal vein ...

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    15. High-Risk Culprit Plaque Predicts Cardiovascular Outcomes Independently of Plaque Rupture in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Insight From Optical Coherence Tomography

      High-Risk Culprit Plaque Predicts Cardiovascular Outcomes Independently of Plaque Rupture in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Insight From Optical Coherence Tomography

      The present study explored the predictive value of culprit high-risk plaque (HRP) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) for predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). HRP was defined as the simultaneous presence of four criteria: minimum lumen area <3.5 mm 2 , fibrous cap thickness <75 μm, lipid plaque with lipid arc extension >180°, and presence of macrophages. Patients (n = 274) were divided into non-HRP group (n = 206) and HRP group (n = 68). MACEs were defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. During a mean follow-up of ...

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    16. Deep learning algorithms for detection of diabetic macular edema in OCT images: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Deep learning algorithms for detection of diabetic macular edema in OCT images: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) can detect diabetic macular edema (DME) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We aimed to evaluate the performance of deep learning neural networks in DME detection. Methods: Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, and IEEE Xplore were searched up to August 14, 2021. We included studies using deep learning algorithms to detect DME from OCT images. Two reviewers extracted the data independently, and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool was applied to assess the risk of bias. The study is reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic ...

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    17. Artificial intelligence based detection of age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography with unique image preprocessing

      Artificial intelligence based detection of age-related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomography with unique image preprocessing

      Purpose: The aim of the study is to improve the accuracy of age related macular degeneration (AMD) disease in its earlier phases with proposed Capsule Network (CapsNet) architecture trained on speckle noise reduced spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images based on an optimized Bayesian non-local mean (OBNLM) filter augmentation techniques. Methods: A total of 726 local SD-OCT images were collected and labelled as 159 drusen, 145 dry AMD, 156 wet AMD and 266 normal. Region of interest (ROI) was identified. Speckle noise in SD-OCT images were reduced based on OBNLM filter. The processed images were fed to proposed CapsNet ...

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    18. Use of intravascular optical coherence tomography to confirm the diagnosis of a carotid web in a patient with recurrent ipsilateral embolic strokes and evaluate the response to stenting

      Use of intravascular optical coherence tomography to confirm the diagnosis of a carotid web in a patient with recurrent ipsilateral embolic strokes and evaluate the response to stenting

      A Carotid web (CaW) is defined as a focal shelf-like projection of non-atheromatous, fibrous tissue along the posterior wall of the carotid bulb. CaW are rare and commonly overlooked lesions increasingly recognized as a cause of stroke in otherwise healthy patients. Intravascular imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed as an adjunct to digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of CaW. However, the use of OCT in CaW has yet to be described. This report investigated the utility of OCT as an adjunct imaging modality in the evaluation of CaW morphology in a ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography patterns of diabetic macular edema and treatment response to bevacizumab: a short-term study

      Optical coherence tomography patterns of diabetic macular edema and treatment response to bevacizumab: a short-term study

      Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term response of intravitreal bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME) and assess the variation in treatment outcomes in different morphology patterns using spectral domain–optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Objective: To study different morphological patterns of DME based on OCT and compare their treatment response to bevacizumab. Methods: Hundred and twelve eyes of 112 patients with DME were included and treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 ml monthly for 3 months). The morphological patterns of DME were classified on the basis of OCT into three groups – diffuse retinal ...

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    20. Change in contrast sensitivity and OCT parameters in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      Change in contrast sensitivity and OCT parameters in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      Background: Deterioration in peripheral contrast sensitivity (CS) can be an indicator to detect progressive deterioration of visual function in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in central and peripheral CS and optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters and in patients with IIH. Design and methods: In this pilot observational study, data of 20 eyes of 10 'treatment-naïve' IIH patients were analyzed. Detailed ocular examination was performed including CS assessment using both Pelli-Robson (PR) test and Spaeth-Richman Contrast Sensitivity Test (SPARCS) along with the OCT for macular and optic nerve ...

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    21. Success of iOCT in surgical management of ERM peeling

      Success of iOCT in surgical management of ERM peeling

      Purpose: Epiretinal membranes (ERM) are a disorder leading to progressive vision loss and metamorphopsia. The ERM is treated through a pars-plana vitrectomy (PPV) with membrane peeling. The aim of this study was to define the success of intraoperative optical coherence tomography ( i OCT) in ERM surgery to standard surgical visualization techniques and enhance our current approach to clinical practice. Methods: This study included 56 eyes of 54 patients who underwent surgical intervention for management of idiopathic ERM. Patients were recruited between February 2018 and March 2020 at "Francesco Miulli" Hospital ophthalmology department in Acquaviva delle Fonti, Bari, Italy. Results: in ...

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    22. One-year outcome of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients followed-up using different optical coherence tomography modalities

      One-year outcome of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients followed-up using different optical coherence tomography modalities

      Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the one year outcome of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients treated by a PRN regimen of Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections (IVTs), using optical coherence tomography B-scan (OCT-B) or OCT Angiography (OCT-A) imaging modalities during follow-up. Methods: Patients older than 50 years with nAMD currently treated by PRN regimen of Anti-VEGF IVTs were recruited from Rothschild Foundation Hospital - Paris and Centre Ophtalmologique Maison Rouge - Strasbourg and followed-up for a year. Patients were randomized in two groups: one group was followed by OCT-B while the other was followed by ...

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    23. Radiation optic neuropathy diagnosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation encephalopathy

      Radiation optic neuropathy diagnosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation encephalopathy

      Aim To develop a suitable radiation optic neuropathy (RON) diagnostic model based on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to reveal the correlation between endocrine and OCTA indexes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with radiation encephalopathy (RE). Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included seventy-seven male NPC patients with RE following radiotherapy (41 non-RON and 36 RON). Endocrine and OCTA indexes were collected. The macular and peripapillary vessel density (VD) were automatically analyzed using AngioVue 2.0 of the RTVue XR Avanti device. The OCTA indexes were included in the multivariable binary logistic regression model between non-RON and RON. For all ...

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    24. Changes in optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with vitamin D deficiency

      Changes in optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with vitamin D deficiency

      Purpose 25-hydroxyvitamin D [ 25(OH)D] sufficiency has critical biological importance for the human body. Although there are several studies on the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and macular structure, the data in this regard are limited. This study mainly aimed to investigate macular microvascular structure using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in 25(OH)D deficiency. Study Design Prospective, single-center, clinical study. Methods The study included 82 eyes of 82 patients with 25(OH)D deficiency (Group I) and 50 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (Group II). All participants underwent OCTA examinations. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ ...

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