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    1. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome: A case report

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome: A case report

      Purpose: Since its first description by Chang et al. in 1995, the diagnosis of Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome has been based on the findings of Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA). Our purpose was to describe the utility of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in its diagnosis and management. Case description: A 40-year-old female presented with bilateral blurred vision. Her best corrected visual acuity was at 8/10. Fundus examination revealed blurred disc margins, perivascular exudates, arterial sheaths and retinal hemorrhages bilaterally. FFA showed staining of the optic disc with dye leakage in the right eye, a punctuate ...

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    2. Spontaneous resolution of optic pit maculopathy: an OCT report

      Spontaneous resolution of optic pit maculopathy: an OCT report

      The separation of the vitreous from the optic nerve head and the macula plays a primary role in the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helps in the non-invasive monitoring of this condition, when treated conservatively. The aim of this report was to describe a pediatric case of spontaneously resolved ODP maculopathy, managed conservatively and monitored by means of spectral domain (SD)-OCT. A 14-year-old girl presented with severe visual loss in the right eye (RE). Fundus examination demonstrated a temporal ODP with altered foveal reflex. The SD-OCT B-scans revealed severe intraretinal schisis-like changes ...

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    3. Correlation in acute CSCR between hyperreflectivity on the infrared image in optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography

      Correlation in acute CSCR between hyperreflectivity on the infrared image in optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography

      Background: To determine the association between hyperreflective area identified on the reference image (en-face image) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scan and the leak on fluorescein angiography in patients with acute treatment naive central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: Retrospective, observational chart review. The reference image (en-face) image on SD OCT raster scan was examined for the presence of a hyperreflective spot and an attempt was made to correlate its location on the actual leak seen on FFA using anatomical landmarks as reference. Follow up was 6 months after CSCR resolution. Appropriate statistical analysis was made. Results: Sixty-two patients ...

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    4. OCT based interpretation of the optic nerve head anatomy in young adults with retinal vascular occlusions and ischemic optic neuropathy

      OCT based interpretation of the optic nerve head anatomy in young adults with retinal vascular occlusions and ischemic optic neuropathy

      Purpose: To examine optic nerve head (ONH) anatomy in young adults with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) or nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) in order to look for associated, potentially predisposing anomalies. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 54 patients (ages 16–50 years) diagnosed from 2009 to 2018 with CRVO, BRVO, CRAO, BRAO, or NA-AION. Using Optical Coherence Tomography the presence of optic disc drusen (ODD), prelaminar hyperreflective lines and peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS), and determination of scleral canal size, retinal nerve fiber ...

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    5. Clear subretinal fluid in a case of non-neovascular early-onset drusen: Swept-source imaging evaluation

      Clear subretinal fluid in a case of non-neovascular early-onset drusen: Swept-source imaging evaluation

      A 50-year-old male presented with recent metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple cuticular drusen along with few large colloid drusen (phenotype 3 cuticular drusen). No vitelliform material was evident in the macula in either eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) did not demonstrate a macular neovascularization (MNV) in either eye. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) revealed sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) drusen and a clear space beneath the inter-digitation zone and above the RPE-Bruch’s complex. SS-OCTA did not reveal MNV in either eye. The patient was kept under observation, and follow-up at 3 months ...

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    6. Stepwise segmentation error correction in optical coherence tomography angiography images of patients with diabetic macular edema

      Stepwise segmentation error correction in optical coherence tomography angiography images of patients with diabetic macular edema

      Aim: To determine the minimum number of optical coherence tomography B-scan corrections required to provide acceptable vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography images in eyes with diabetic macular edema. Methods: In this prospective, noninterventional case series, the optical coherence tomography angiography images of eyes with center-involving diabetic macular edema were assessed. Optical coherence tomography angiography imaging was performed using RTVue Avanti spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system with the AngioVue software (V.2017.1.0.151; Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA). Segmentation error was recorded and manually corrected in the inner retinal layers in the central foveal, 100th and 200th ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    7. Longitudinal changes in fellow eyes of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy: Optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Longitudinal changes in fellow eyes of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy: Optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose: To report longitudinal changes in fellow eyes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and determine factors affecting neovascular conversion. Methods: Medical records of patients with chronic CSCR complicated by CNV and a minimum follow up of 6 months were reviewed. OCT and OCTA features were analyzed at baseline and final follow up. Baseline factors were assessed for predictive value against presence of CNV at follow up and conversion to exudative form. Results: Twenty-six subjects (26 CNV and 26 fellow eyes) were included in the study and followed up for ...

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    8. Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on macular vasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on macular vasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background: To evaluate the changes of macular vascular density in the superficial capillary (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular area (FAZ), choroidal flow, and macular thickness after pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP). Methods: In this prospective interventional non-comparative case series, patients with very severe nonproliferative (NPDR) and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and no significant macular edema who were candidates for pan-retinal photocoagulation underwent measurement of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at the baseline, 1, and 6 months following completion of PRP treatment. Results: Thirty-nine eyes from 21 patients with ...

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      Mentions: UC Irvine
    9. Quantifying Subclinical and Longitudinal Microvascular Changes Following Episcleral Plaque Brachytherapy Using Spectral Domain–Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantifying Subclinical and Longitudinal Microvascular Changes Following Episcleral Plaque Brachytherapy Using Spectral Domain–Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: This work assesses longitudinal microvascular changes in eyes treated with iodine-125 episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB). Methods: High-resolution optical coherence tomography angiograms (OCTAs) of the central 3 × 3-mm macula were obtained from iodine-125 EPB–treated and untreated fellow eyes of 61 patients. Previously validated semiautomated algorithms quantified capillary density (vessel skeleton density [VSD]) and caliber (vessel diameter index). Nonperfusion was also quantified as flow impairment region (FIR). Examinations from treated and fellow eyes obtained before treatment and at 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals were compared using generalized estimating equation linear models. Dosimetry maps evaluated spatial correlation between radiation dose and ...

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    10. Imaging depth extension of optical coherence tomography in rabbit eyes using optical clearing agents

      Imaging depth extension of optical coherence tomography in rabbit eyes using optical clearing agents

      Optical coherence tomography has become an indispensable diagnostic tool in ophthalmology for imaging the retina and the anterior segment of the eye. However, the imaging depth of optical coherence tomography is limited by light attenuation in tissues due to optical scattering and absorption. In this study of rabbit eye both ex vivo and in vivo , optical coherence tomography imaging depth of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye was extended by using optical clearing agents to reduce multiple scattering. The sclera, the iris, and the ciliary body were clearly visualized by direct application of glycerol at an incision on ...

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    11. SD-OCT parameters and visual field defect in chiasmal compression and the diagnostic value of neural network model

      SD-OCT parameters and visual field defect in chiasmal compression and the diagnostic value of neural network model

      Purpose: To evaluate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with chiasmal compression and analyze the diagnostic value of a neural network model. Methods: Forty-seven patients with chiasmal compressive disorder were recruited and divided into two groups depending on the visual field defect (perimetric; group 1 and preperimetric; group 2). Fifty-seven normal subjects were also recruited (group 3). Peripapillary RNFL and macular GCIPL were analyzed in each group. A multilayer perceptron was trained using a training dataset and derived a neural network model ...

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    12. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography vitreo-retinal segmentation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography vitreo-retinal segmentation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose: To identify a new cortical vitreous segmentation protocol for non invasive standardised investigation of Neovascularisation (NV) with detection of regression of NV activity in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR). Design: Retrospective study. Participants: One hundred and eighty-six eyes of 93 consecutive diabetic patients (mean age: 52.6 ± 11.0 years) imaged using Topcon Triton ® Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (SS-OCTA) from June 2015 to January 2017. Methods: Scans were performed through the macula, optic disc and areas of possible NV in mid-peripheral retina using 6 × 6 mm and/or 9 × 9 mm raster-patterns in three segmentation protocols: Vitreo-Retinal (VRS), Outer-Vitreous ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography angiography in Tuberous sclerosis complicated with macular choroidal neovascularization

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in Tuberous sclerosis complicated with macular choroidal neovascularization

      This study describe the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of a young patient with Tuberous sclerosis complicated with CNV unilateral macular choroidal neovascularization during the ranibizumab therapy. OCTA scans of macular region of right eye, revealed a dense microvascular network confirming the diagnosis of CNV. After four monthly intravitreal injections, OCTA revealed a decrease of size and activity of CNV. OCTA is a valid, non-invasive, dyeless, and reliable method that could improve the diagnosis and management of CNV in child with Tuberous sclerosis.

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    14. Corneal optical density in Fuchs endothelial dystrophy determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Corneal optical density in Fuchs endothelial dystrophy determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: In this study, we propose a method to grade corneal stromal opacity using optical density measurements by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and validate the approach in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods: A retrospective analysis of human corneal OCT scans was performed on 48 eyes of 32 patients with FECD and 33 control eyes of 21 patients using the Carl Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000. In addition, corneal edema in fresh rabbit cadaver eyes was artificially induced by distilled water and imaged with the Thorlabs TELESTO-II spectral domain OCT at different time points during saturation. The increase of ...

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    15. Repeatability of whole-cornea measurements using a new swept-source optical coherence tomographer

      Repeatability of whole-cornea measurements using a new swept-source optical coherence tomographer

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of several corneal parameters provided by a high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomographer (SS-OCT). Methods: One eye from each of 74 patients was measured five times consequently using the ANTERION SS-OCT. The following corneal parameters were analyzed: average, steep and flat keratometry (K), astigmatism for anterior, posterior and total at 3-mm, average K and astigmatism at 6-mm, anterior and posterior eccentricity, higher-order aberrations (HOA) and spherical aberration (

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    16. Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

      Purpose: To evaluate endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography system combined with a pressure sensor to concurrently measure internal nasal valve cross-sectional area and intraluminal pressure. Methods: A pressure sensor was constructed using an Arduino platform and calibrated using a limiter-controlled vacuum system and industrial absolute pressure gauge. Long-range optical coherence tomography imaging and pressure transduction were performed concurrently in the naris of eight healthy adult subjects during normal respiration and forced inspiration. The internal nasal valve was manually segmented using Mimics software and cross-sectional area was measured. Internal nasal valve cross-sectional area measurements were correlated with pressure recordings. Results: Mean ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography angiography in myopic peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation complicated by choroidal neovascularization

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in myopic peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation complicated by choroidal neovascularization

      Purpose: To detect the vessel density (VD) of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) in eyes affected by pathological myopia with or without a peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation (PICC) and in eyes with PICC complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: We prospectively enrolled highly myopic patients from January 2016 to December 2019 at the Eye Clinic of the University of Naples “Federico II.” We divided included patients into three groups: group 1 including patients with PICC complicated by CNV; group 2 including patients with PICC without complications; group 3 including patients with high myopia without PICC ...

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    18. Effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement on Retinal Layer Thickness Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement on Retinal Layer Thickness Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with clinically significant cerebral microembolism and cognitive status changes. There are no data on the impact of TAVR on retinal layers. We assessed the influence of TAVR on the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex (GCC), and macular thickness (MT) measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Elderly patients (n = 50) with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR were included in this study (mean age: 78.5 ± 6.9 years). Retinal nerve fiber layer, GCC, and MT were measured with SD-OCT by an ophthalmologist before and on the first day and in ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings of fellow eye of proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2: Long term study

      Purpose: To report the characteristics of non-proliferative fellow eyes in patients with unilateral proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study and included fellow eyes of eyes with subretinal neovascular membrane (SRNVM). Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA) was performed. OCT and OCTA measurements included central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and qualitative parameters such as distortion or enlargement of FAZ, increased inter-vascular spacing, dilated, tortuous vessel at margin of FAZ, crowding of vessel, and loss of choriocapillaris (CC). Results: Thirteen ...

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    20. An anomalous foveal OCT-sign after posterior capsule rupture in cataract surgery: Complicated cataract surgery maculopathy

      An anomalous foveal OCT-sign after posterior capsule rupture in cataract surgery: Complicated cataract surgery maculopathy

      Purpose: To report a series of novel optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) foveal abnormalities, that we called “T-sign,” that were noticed after a complicated cataract surgery with posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss. Methods: Retrospective case series of persistent foveal changes that incurred after anteroposterior vitreo-foveal traction secondary to phacoemulsification in presence of posterior capsule rupture. Results: The study included three eyes of three patients that incurred in complicated cataract surgery and intraoperative vitreo-foveal traction. During 8-month follow-up period peculiar abnormalities in fundus examination and in OCT scans were reported in all cases. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification in presence of posterior capsule rupture ...

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    21. Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in imaging of uveitis

      Advances in multimodal imaging have significantly contributed to the management of many uveitis diseases in recent years. The most significant developments include the use of optical coherence tomography to obtain a more accurate and reproducible assessment of ocular inflammation, the application of optical coherence tomography angiography in choroiditis and retinal vasculitis, new possibilities for studying vitritis with ultrawide field imaging, and the most recent applications of fundus autofluorescence in uveitis. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant advances in multimodal imaging of uveitis achieved in recent years.

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    22. Optical coherence tomography angiography in quiescent choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus: 5 years follow-up

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in quiescent choroidal neovascularization associated with choroidal nevus: 5 years follow-up

      Purpose: To report a case of quiescent choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with choroidal nevus using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during 5 years follow-up. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 53-year old woman was referred our department with diagnosis of choroidal nevus. At 1 year follow-up, fundus autofluorescence revealed hyper/hypoautofluorescent area, infrared image showed hyperreflective area and enhanced depth imaging OCT presented a shallow pigment epithelium detachment without exudation or hemorrhage. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography suspected the presence of CNV. Finally, OCTA confirmed a quiescent CNV with an increased flow area of the vascular lesion without any ...

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    23. Predictive value of optical coherence tomography, multifocal visual evoked potentials, and full-field visual evoked potentials of the fellow, non-symptomatic eye for subsequent multiple sclerosis development in patients with acute optic neuritis

      Predictive value of optical coherence tomography, multifocal visual evoked potentials, and full-field visual evoked potentials of the fellow, non-symptomatic eye for subsequent multiple sclerosis development in patients with acute optic neuritis

      Background: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) may sometimes be ascertained at the time of optic neuritis (ON) but other times require the advent of new disease activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements of the non-symptomatic, fellow eye of ON patients, for conversion to MS. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study in patients with acute ON. OCT thickness measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell layer–inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL), and multifocal (mf) VEP and full-field (ff ...

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    24. In vivo optical biopsy of choroidal osteoma: a swept source optical coherence tomography–based tumor characterization

      In vivo optical biopsy of choroidal osteoma: a swept source optical coherence tomography–based tumor characterization

      Objective: To study tumor characteristics of choroidal osteoma by swept source optical coherence tomography. Methods: A retrospective case series done at tertiary referral center in northern India. All patients diagnosed with choroidal osteoma examined on swept source optical coherence tomography were included. Swept source optical coherence tomography images were analyzed for integrity of retinal layers—intraretinal layers, outer retinal layers (photoreceptor), retinal pigment epithelium, and contour abnormalities. Choroidal changes assessed were tumor attributes such as shape, depth of choroidal involvement, tumor mass reflectivity pattern, tumor vascularity, and evolutionary structural abnormalities such as deossification, focal depressions, or choroidal neovascular membrane. Results ...

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