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    1. Pattern electroretinogram changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma in correlation with visual field and optical coherence tomography changes

      Pattern electroretinogram changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma in correlation with visual field and optical coherence tomography changes

      Purpose: To study the pattern electroretinogram changes in primary open-angle glaucoma patients in correlation with visual field changes and optical coherence tomography measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in the peripapillary region in an attempt to evaluate the clinical value of pattern electroretinogram as an objective test of functional deficit in glaucoma. Patients and Methods: The study included 81 eyes of 81 participants: 50 primary open-angle glaucoma patients, 16 primary open-angle glaucoma suspects, and 15 controls. All subjects underwent visual field testing using 24-2 Humphrey standard automated perimetry, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer average thickness using the 3.4-mm ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography and multiple sclerosis: Update on clinical application and role in clinical trials

      Optical coherence tomography and multiple sclerosis: Update on clinical application and role in clinical trials

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a fast, non-invasive, inexpensive, high-resolution imaging technique in multiple sclerosis (MS). Retinal layer quantification by OCT facilitates a ‘window’ into not only local retinal pathology but also global neurodegenerative processes, recognised to be the principal substrates of disability accumulation in MS. While OCT measures in MS have been demonstrated to reflect visual function, inflammatory activity outside of the visual pathways, disability measures including the prediction of disability progression, whole brain atrophy, and the differential neuroprotective effects of disease-modifying therapies, debate continues regarding the clinical utility of OCT in everyday practice. This review presents ...

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    3. Evaluation of acquired punctal stenosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of acquired punctal stenosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Background/objectives: The aim of this article was to study the lower punctum parameters in patients with acquired punctal stenosis using spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Subjects/methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized study that included two groups. Group 1 was composed of 32 puncta from 32 subjects (11 males and 21 females, aged 40–62 years) with epiphora and clinically diagnosed punctal stenosis. Group 2 (control group) included 30 puncta from 30 normal subjects (10 males and 20 females, aged 43–63 years). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was employed to evaluate lower punctum parameters in all subjects ...

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    4. Retinal Vascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-widefield Fluorescein Angiography in Patients With Chronic Leukemia

      Retinal Vascular Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-widefield Fluorescein Angiography in Patients With Chronic Leukemia

      Purpose: This article describes pathological retinal vascular changes on multimodal imaging in patients with chronic leukemia. Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted. Patients with chronic leukemia and concurrent leukocytosis were recruited from a tertiary-referral, academic medical center. Eligible patients received complete ophthalmic examinations and multimodal retinal imaging: spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWF FA). Results: Six patients (11 eyes) were consecutively enrolled. At presentation, mean age was 56.9 years, median visual acuity was Snellen 20/20, and median leukocyte count was 114.5 K/mm 3 (upper limit of ...

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    5. Does Projection Artifact Removal Improve Visualization of Images in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography?

      Does Projection Artifact Removal Improve Visualization of Images in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography?

      Purpose: This study assesses the frequency of projection artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) en face images and compares images before and after applying a 3-dimensional projection artifact removal (3D-PAR) algorithm. Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective study that included consecutive patients with any underlying diagnosis who had OCTA obtained from January to March 2017. Patients with various retinal diseases and also healthy eyes were included. All participants underwent imaging with a scan area of 3 mm × 3 mm. The 4 default en face slabs were analyzed: superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), outer retina (OR), and ...

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    6. Subclinical neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder revealed by optical coherence tomography

      Subclinical neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder revealed by optical coherence tomography

      Background: Neuroretinal atrophy is associated with whole-brain atrophy and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent findings support that subclinical visual pathway involvement might also occur in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Objective: The objective of this study is to assess retinal thinning in MS and NMOSD and its association with disease activity. Methods: In total, 27 NMOSD and 54 propensity-score-matched MS patients underwent optical coherence tomography, visual acuity, and visual-evoked potentials at 2.4 years apart, in addition to routine clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment. We excluded eyes with acute optic neuritis. Results: In NMOSD, we detected ...

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    7. Enhanced depth imaging in swept-source optical coherence tomography: Improving visibility of choroid and sclera, a masked study

      Enhanced depth imaging in swept-source optical coherence tomography: Improving visibility of choroid and sclera, a masked study

      Purpose To compare enhanced depth imaging in swept-source optical coherence tomography and non–enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in their ability to capture choroidal and scleral details. Methods Averaged foveal B-Scans were obtained from 40 eyes of 20 healthy volunteers by swept-source optical coherence tomography with and without enhanced depth imaging. Visibility and contrast of vascular details within the choroid, choroidoscleral junction, and sclera were evaluated by masked readers using an ordinal scoring scale. Outcomes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test. Results Visibility of the choroidal vascular details ( Z  = 5.94, p  < .001), the choroidoscleral junction ( Z ...

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    8. Functional OCT angiography reveals early physiological dysfunction of hyaloid vasculature in developing mouse eye

      Functional OCT angiography reveals early physiological dysfunction of hyaloid vasculature in developing mouse eye

      Hyaloid vascular system (HVS) is a transient capillary network nourishing developing eye. Better study of the HVS regression correlated with eye development is essential for in-depth understanding of the nature of vision system. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of longitudinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) monitoring of the HVS in C57BL/6J mice. OCT enables morphological monitoring of the HVS regression, and OCTA allows physiological assessment of the HVS involution correlated with eye development. Functional OCTA reveals early physiological dysfunction before morphological regression of the hyaloid vasculature in developing mouse eye. We anticipate that noninvasive ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    9. Optical coherence tomography angiography in contractile morning glory syndrome

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in contractile morning glory syndrome

      This study describes the optical coherence tomography and optical coherence tomography angiography features of three eyes of three patients affected by contractile morning glory syndrome. Optical coherence tomography angiography scans of the peripapillary retina revealed a dense microvascular network without any vascular difference between the superficial vascular plexus and the deep vascular plexus around the optic nerve. These optical coherence tomography angiography findings confirm that the contractile movement could be due to the presence of an autonomic cholinergic muscular mechanism in the posterior part of the globe. In fact in our cases, the contractile movement seemed to be induced by ...

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    10. Computed Tomography–Mediated Registration of Trapeziometacarpal Articular Cartilage Using Intraarticular Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryomicrotome Imaging: A Cadaver Study

      Computed Tomography–Mediated Registration of Trapeziometacarpal Articular Cartilage Using Intraarticular Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryomicrotome Imaging: A Cadaver Study

      Objective Accurate, high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage thickness is an important clinical challenge in patients with osteoarthritis, especially in small joints. In this study, computed tomography (CT) mediated catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to create a digital reconstruction of the articular surface of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint and to assess cartilage thickness in comparison to cryomicrotome data. Design Using needle-based introduction of the OCT probe, the articular surface of the TMC joint of 5 cadaver wrists was scanned in different probe positions with matching CT scans to record the intraarticular probe trajectory. Subsequently and based on the acquired ...

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    11. Subclinical Foveal Vasculopathy in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Subclinical Foveal Vasculopathy in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: This article identifies subclinical microvascular changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients using vascular perfusion densities derived from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: A retrospective review was performed on individuals with SLE (10 eyes of 5 patients) and age-matched controls imaged with a spectral-domain OCT system (XR Avanti, Optovue, Inc). A split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation algorithm (SSADA) generated OCTA of the superficial retinal capillaries, deep retinal capillaries, and foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Skeletonized OCTAs were used to create capillary vessel density (VD) values for each image. VD values were compared with clinical staging, and groups were compared using Kruskal–Wallis ...

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      Mentions: UC Irvine
    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Detects Choriocapillaris Loss in Decalcification of Choroidal Osteoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Detects Choriocapillaris Loss in Decalcification of Choroidal Osteoma

      Purpose: Choroidal osteoma, which typically affects young women, is a benign intraocular tumor composed of mature bone within the choroid. Tumor decalcification and subfoveal choroidal neovascularization often lead to poor visual acuity although the etiology is unknown. Choriocapillaris characteristics in choroidal osteoma also are unknown. Methods: We report 4 cases of choroidal osteoma with decalcification in which the choriocapillaris could be imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Results: OCTA showed that the choriocapillaris structure was maintained in the calcified portion, whereas a loss occurred in parts of the decalcified portion in all cases. Conclusions: OCTA may be useful for ...

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    13. Acute angle-closure glaucoma with choroidal effusion revealing a hantavirus infection: Description of ultrasound biomicroscopy imagery and optical coherence tomography Visante

      Acute angle-closure glaucoma with choroidal effusion revealing a hantavirus infection: Description of ultrasound biomicroscopy imagery and optical coherence tomography Visante

      Purpose: To report a case of bilateral angle-closure associated with systemic hantavirus infection. Materials and methods: A 32-year-old Caucasian man was referred with blurred vision, fever, cough, dyspnea and thrombocytopenia. Ophthalmologic examination revealed myopic shift, elevated intraocular pressure (30 mmHg right eye and 24 mmHg left eye), corneal edema, iridocorneal angle closure and shallow anterior chamber. Ciliochoroidal effusion was detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Serologic test and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis of hantavirus infection and the serotype Puumala. On the sixth day after he started topical anti-glaucoma and cycloplegic medications, the anterior chamber ...

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    14. Identification of separated lenticular planes using optical coherence tomography

      Identification of separated lenticular planes using optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To discuss how optical coherence tomography can be used to identify separated lenticular planes during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Methods: SMILE procedures were performed on 26 eyes of 13 patients. An anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination was performed after laser scan. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography examinations were conducted again both after separation of the anterior lenticular plane in the right eye and after separation of the posterior lenticular plane in the left eye. Lenticule extraction was then completed, followed by another anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was also conducted on ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    15. Is optical coherence tomography angiography helpful in the differential diagnosis of choroidal nevus versus melanoma?

      Is optical coherence tomography angiography helpful in the differential diagnosis of choroidal nevus versus melanoma?

      Purpose: To describe the imaging features of choroidal nevus and melanoma using optical coherence tomography angiography, and evaluate the ability of this technique to establish the differential diagnosis based on the display of the tumor’s intrinsic vasculature. Methods: Comparative analysis of optical coherence tomography angiography findings in consecutive patients diagnosed with choroidal nevus or choroidal melanoma following a complete ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity and several imaging studies: color fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to investigate qualitative differences in the tumor vasculature. Results: Thirty-six ...

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    16. Angiographic features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy using indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography: A comparative study

      Angiographic features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy using indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography: A comparative study

      Background: To compare the vascular lesion size using optical coherence tomography angiography and indocyanine green angiography in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Methods: Treatment-naïve cases (46 eyes of 44 patients) with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were retrospectively analyzed. The comparison of mean area of branching vascular network and polyp detection rate was done between indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography and correlated with various optical coherence tomography features. Results: The mean age of the study patients was 62.33 ± 10.74 years. The mean branching vascular network size was 7.47 ± 5.74 and 7.51 ± 5.69 ...

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    17. Near infrared oximetry-guided artery–vein classification in optical coherence tomography angiography

      Near infrared oximetry-guided artery–vein classification in optical coherence tomography angiography

      Differential artery–vein analysis is valuable for early detection of diabetic retinopathy and other eye diseases. As a new optical coherence tomography imaging modality, optical coherence tomography angiography provides capillary level resolution for accurate examination of retinal vasculatures. However, differential artery–vein analysis in optical coherence tomography angiography particularly for macular region in which blood vessels are small is challenging. In coordination with an automatic vessel tracking algorithm, we report here the feasibility of using near infrared optical coherence tomography oximetry to guide artery–vein classification in optical coherence tomography angiography of macular region. Impact statement It is known that ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    18. Subretinal pseudocyst: A novel optical coherence tomography finding in age-related macular degeneration

      Subretinal pseudocyst: A novel optical coherence tomography finding in age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose: To report the presence of a new structural optical coherence tomography finding, namely, subretinal pseudocysts, in a patient affected by age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Case report including multimodal imaging discussion. Case Report: We report a case of a 77-year-old woman affected by age-related macular degeneration from 7 years. Best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers and 20/40 in the right and left eye, respectively. The left eye was affected by type 1 macular neovascularization treated by 34 intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (22 ranibizumab and 12 aflibercept injections). Interestingly, structural optical coherence tomography showed the persistence ...

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    19. Best Clinical Practice for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaging

      Best Clinical Practice for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Imaging

      Purpose: To identify best clinical practices for macular degeneration imaging. Methods: We reviewed best clinical practices for imaging patients with age-related macular degeneration. These recommendations are based on different levels of evidence (I-III). Results: The type of imaging needed depends to some degree on the clinical scenario: first visit vs follow-up visit vs poorly responsive patient. Conclusions: Imaging technologies that may be useful include optical coherence tomography, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography.

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    20. Evaluation of amalgam-related retinal neurotoxicity with optical coherence tomography findings

      Evaluation of amalgam-related retinal neurotoxicity with optical coherence tomography findings

      Purpose: To evaluate the neurotoxic effect of amalgam dental fillings on plasma mercury (Hg) levels and retino-choroidal layers measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Materials/Methods: Study participants included 56 cases with amalgam dental fillings and 44 healthy controls. All participants were examined in terms of detailed ophthalmic examination, oral examination, and body mass index (BMI). The measurement of retinal layers and choroid was performed using SD-OCT. Venous blood samples were collected and blood Hg levels were measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric analysis. Correlations between SD-OCT measurement results and blood Hg levels were analyzed. Results: There ...

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    21. First in vivo visualization of the human subarachnoid space and brain cortex via optical coherence tomography

      First in vivo visualization of the human subarachnoid space and brain cortex via optical coherence tomography

      The present work explores optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a suitable in vivo neuroimaging modality of the subarachnoid space (SAS). Patients ( n = 26) with frontolateral craniotomy were recruited. The temporal and frontal arachnoid mater and adjacent anatomical structures were scanned using microscope-integrated three-dimensional OCT, (iOCT). Analysis revealed a detailed depiction of the SAS (76.9%) with delineation of the internal microanatomical structures such as the arachnoid barrier cell membrane (ABCM; 96.2%), trabecular system (50.2%), internal blood vessels (96.2%), pia mater (26.9%) and the brain cortex (96.2%). Orthogonal distance measuring was possible. The SAS showed a ...

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      Mentions: Haag-Streit OPMedt
    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Practical Usefulness

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Practical Usefulness

      Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the practical usefulness of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the management of a spectrum of retinal diseases and support it as a reimbursable diagnostic tool by third-party payers. Methods: Case presentations are discussed. Results: Noninvasive OCTA provides information to guide clinical decision making, prognosis, and treatment response across a wide variety of retinal disorders. Conclusions: OCTA is able to detect ischemic and neovascular processes in numerous retinal diseases and is valuable for diagnosis and treatment. OCTA is able to meet all the criteria required for reimbursement of a new diagnostic ...

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    23. Widefield OCT angiography and ultra-widefield multimodal imaging of Susac syndrome

      Widefield OCT angiography and ultra-widefield multimodal imaging of Susac syndrome

      The aim is to present the changes in ultra-widefield and widefield multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography angiography of a 33-year-old woman diagnosed with Susac syndrome, over 1 year of follow-up. Fundus examination and multimodal imaging revealed bilateral arterial occlusion of multiple vascular branches with retinal ischemia. Over 1 year follow-up, best-corrected visual acuity improved while retinal ischemia gradually resolved. Widefield optical coherence tomography angiography showed reperfusion of macular large vessels, but not of the small capillaries. Despite anatomical improvement, functional defects of the visual field persisted. In conclusion, widefield and ultra-widefield imaging provided high-resolution details of the central and ...

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    24. An overview of optical coherence tomography angiography and the posterior pole

      An overview of optical coherence tomography angiography and the posterior pole

      Optical coherence tomography angiography is a relatively new, noninvasive technology that has revolutionized imaging of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature. This technology is based on the detection of movement or changes that represent moving red cells in sequential optical coherence tomography scans. As with other established imaging technologies, it has unique benefits as well as certain disadvantages, which include a limited field of view and vulnerability to imaging artifacts. However, software and hardware improvements are continually evolving to mitigate these limitations. Optical coherence tomography angiography has been used to gain a better understanding of microvascular changes across a spectrum of ...

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