1. Articles from Journals

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    1. The use of optical coherence tomography in neurology: a review

      The use of optical coherence tomography in neurology: a review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, cost-efficient technique that provides high-resolution in vivo imaging of retinal tissue. The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) are surrogate markers of neuroaxonal integrity in not only the eye, but also the central nervous system. Retinal atrophy may occur in tandem with central nervous system pathologies as a result of injury to ganglion cells, direct degeneration of the pregeniculate pathway, or retrograde transsynaptic degeneration secondary to postgeniculate lesions. In this review, we outline the basic principles of OCT and discuss its application to managing patients with demyelinating ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography imaging evidence of thrombus inside the tunnel of Patent Foramen Ovale

      Optical coherence tomography imaging evidence of thrombus inside the tunnel of Patent Foramen Ovale

      A 31-year-old male with a history of multiple cerebral infarctions ( Panel A ) attributed to patent foreman ovale (PFO) was admitted to our hospital for percutaneous closure of PFO confirmed by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a large size (2 mm), long tunnel (10 mm) PFO and a 1.5 mm × 3 mm low echo area suspected of thrombus in the tunnel ( Panel B ). Contrast TEE revealed the presence of a Grade 3 right to left shunt (more than 30 microbubbles seen in left atrium during Valsalva manoeuvre).

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    3. Unravelling the role of macrophages in cardiovascular inflammation through imaging: a state-of-the-art review

      Unravelling the role of macrophages in cardiovascular inflammation through imaging: a state-of-the-art review

      Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability for patients across the world. Our understanding of atherosclerosis as a primary cholesterol issue has diversified, with a significant dysregulated inflammatory component that largely remains untreated and continues to drive persistent cardiovascular risk. Macrophages are central to atherosclerotic inflammation, and they exist along a functional spectrum between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory extremes. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in major cardiovascular events with some, but not all, anti-inflammatory therapies. The recent addition of colchicine to societal guidelines for the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with chronic coronary ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography of conjunctival and episcleral vessels in carotid cavernous fistula

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of conjunctival and episcleral vessels in carotid cavernous fistula

      A 44-year-old man, who had craniofacial trauma due to a motorcycle accident 1 month ago and cerebral arteriography that revealed a right carotid-cavernous fistula, presented with unilateral proptosis and diplopia. On ocular examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. In the right eye, examination revealed restricted ocular motility, mild ptosis, 2-mm proptosis, dilation of the conjunctival and episcleral vessels in a medusa’s head ( Fig. 1A ). Intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg in the right eye. Dilated fundus examination showed dilated retinal veins but no venous stasis retinopathy, intraretinal hemorrhages, central retinal vein occlusion, choroidal folds, choroidal ...

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    5. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Demonstrate Dark and Light Adaptation in a Live Moth

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Demonstrate Dark and Light Adaptation in a Live Moth

      To work effectively, the eyes of nocturnal insects have a problem they must overcome. During the night, the light levels are low, so their eyes need to be very sensitive; but they also need a way of adapting to environmental light conditions, and protecting those sensitive organs, if a bright light is encountered. Human eyes have a pupil that changes size to regulate light input to the eye. Moths (Lepidoptera) use a light absorbing pigment that moves position to limit the light within the eye. This pigment migration is difficult to record because it is a dynamic process and will ...

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    6. Schizophrenia in Translation: Why the Eye?

      Schizophrenia in Translation: Why the Eye?

      Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a systemic disease, characterized by dysregulation in multiple physiological systems (eg, neural, cardiovascular, endocrine). Many of these changes are observed as early as the first psychotic episode, and in people at high risk for the disorder. Expanding the search for biomarkers of schizophrenia beyond genes, blood, and brain may allow for inexpensive, noninvasive, and objective markers of diagnosis, phenotype, treatment response, and prognosis. Several anatomic and physiologic aspects of the eye have shown promise as biomarkers of brain health in a range of neurological disorders, and of heart, kidney, endocrine, and other impairments in other ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography-derived lipid core burden index and clinical outcomes: results from the CLIMA registry

      Optical coherence tomography-derived lipid core burden index and clinical outcomes: results from the CLIMA registry

      Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the morphological characteristics and prognostic implications of the optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived lipid core burden index (LCBI). Methods and results: OCT-LCBI was assessed in 1003 patients with 1-year follow-up from the CLIMA multicentre registry using a validated software able to automatically obtain a maximum OCT-LCBI in 4 mm (maxOCT-LCBI4mm). Primary composite clinical endpoint included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization. A secondary analysis using clinical outcomes of CLIMA study was performed. Patients with a maxOCT-LCBI4mm ≥ 400 showed higher prevalence of fibrous cap thickness (FCT) <75 μm [odds ratio (OR ...

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    8. Very late stent thrombosis presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: serial optical coherence tomography observations

      Very late stent thrombosis presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: serial optical coherence tomography observations

      A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with anterior ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and subsequently underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the left anterior descending artery with the implantation of a 3.5×18 mm everolimus-eluting stent 3 years before. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and prasugrel was discontinued 3 years after the initial PCI because of haematuria and single antiplatelet therapy (aspirin) was continued thereafter with good adherence. Three-year follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) showed no significant angiographic restenosis, although optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination revealed the progression of stent malapposition and evagination with subclinical thrombosis. Two months later, he ...

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    9. Intravascular imaging assessment of pharmacotherapies targeting atherosclerosis: advantages and limitations in predicting their prognostic implications

      Intravascular imaging assessment of pharmacotherapies targeting atherosclerosis: advantages and limitations in predicting their prognostic implications

      Intravascular imaging has been often used over the recent years to examine the efficacy of emerging therapies targeting plaque evolution. Serial intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, or near infrared spectroscopy-intravascular ultrasound studies have allowed us to evaluate the effects of different therapies on plaque burden and morphology, providing unique mechanistic insights about the mode of action of these treatments. Plaque burden reduction, a decrease in necrotic core component or macrophages accumulation – that have been associated with inflammation - and an increase in fibrous cap thickness over fibroatheromas have been used as surrogate endpoints to assess the value of several drugs in ...

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    10. Retinal age gap as a predictive biomarker of future risk of Parkinson’s disease

      Retinal age gap as a predictive biomarker of future risk of Parkinson’s disease

      Introduction retinal age derived from fundus images using deep learning has been verified as a novel biomarker of ageing. We aim to investigate the association between retinal age gap (retinal age–chronological age) and incident Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods a deep learning (DL) model trained on 19,200 fundus images of 11,052 chronic disease-free participants was used to predict retinal age. Retinal age gap was generated by the trained DL model for the remaining 35,834 participants free of PD at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were utilised to investigate the association between retinal age ...

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    11. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with plaque erosion, to stent or not to stent: utility of intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging—a case report

      ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with plaque erosion, to stent or not to stent: utility of intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging—a case report

      Background Treating acute myocardial infarction in the setting of insignificant coronary obstruction is an emerging challenge especially with the application of intracoronary imaging like intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The cardiologists dealing with such patients may consider not to stent if there is intracoronary imaging evidence of minimal thrombus without plaque rupture and the vessel appears patent with settling of chest pain and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. Case summary A 47-year-old gentleman presented direct to the emergency department after experiencing retrosternal chest pain with an ECG showing hyperacute anterior T waves. He had ongoing chest pain and was therefore ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography findings after complicated coronary endarterectomy

      Optical coherence tomography findings after complicated coronary endarterectomy

      A 73-year-old male patient known to have hypertension and dyslipidaemia, underwent on pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery, saphenous vein graft to first diagonal branch, first obtuse marginal and right coronary artery (RCA) with coronary endarterectomy to first diagonal and to RCA. Plaque was removed successfully from the length of the posterior descending artery (PDA); however, only partial removal was possible from the postero-lateral (PL) as the plaque segment detached from the distal vessel during the endarterectomy attempt. The patient developed inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) 1 h after the ...

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    13. Type E coronary artery dissection caused by intravascular lithotripsy balloon rupture; vessel anatomy and characteristics in a lithoplasty complication case as detailed by optical coherence tomography: a case report

      Type E coronary artery dissection caused by intravascular lithotripsy balloon rupture; vessel anatomy and characteristics in a lithoplasty complication case as detailed by optical coherence tomography: a case report

      Background: Intravascular lithotripsy is a new method used to treat calcified coronary lesions (CCLs). Percutaneous coronary intervention of CCLs has conventionally been classified as a complex procedure. In the majority of calcified cases, atherectomy is required for sufficient plaque modification prior to stent implantation. Intravascular lithotripsy has been shown to be safe and effective in clinical trials, but as worldwide usage increases, cases of complications are beginning to emerge. Case summary: We describe a 71-year-old woman, who after an episode of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome underwent coronary angiography. The culprit vessel was identified to be a severely stenosed left anterior ...

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    14. Characterization of Biofilm Structure and Properties via Processing of 2D Optical Coherence Tomography Images in BISCAP

      Characterization of Biofilm Structure and Properties via Processing of 2D Optical Coherence Tomography Images in BISCAP

      Motivation: Processing of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) biofilm images is currently restricted to a set of custom-made MATLAB scripts. None of the tools currently available for biofilm image processing (including those developed for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy-CLSM) enable a fully automatic processing of 2D OCT images. Results: A novel software tool entitled BISCAP (Biofilm Imaging and Structure Classification Automatic Processor) is presented. It was developed specifically for the automatic processing of 2D OCT biofilm images. The proposed approach makes use of some of the key principles used in CLSM image processing, and introduces a novel thresholding algorithm and substratum detection ...

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    15. Have I lost my large rupture cavity? The fingerprint of atherosclerotic plaque healing detected by serial optical coherence tomography imaging

      Have I lost my large rupture cavity? The fingerprint of atherosclerotic plaque healing detected by serial optical coherence tomography imaging

      A 64-year-old man, prior smoker, with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to our hospital due to worsening dyspnoea, progressively worsening angina, and a positive stress EKG testing. Coronary angiography (CAG) showed an angiographically intermediate stenosis of the mid left anterior descending (LAD) artery and a focal, complex lesion of the distal right coronary artery (RCA) (Figure 1A and B, red arrow). Treatment of the LAD stenosis was deferred based on a negative fractional flow reserve value (i.e. 0.85). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging (ILUMIEN OPTIS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) was performed to better characterize ...

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      Mentions: Abbott
    16. In-stent restenosis: how optical coherence tomography can make the difference

      In-stent restenosis: how optical coherence tomography can make the difference

      Aims Patient male, 38 years old, affected by hypercholesterolaemia, carotid atherosclerosis, in 2014 NSTEMI (bivascular coronary artery disease treated by angioplasty and implantation of a medicated stent in the ostial and proximal tract of the right coronary artery). In September 2021 the patient went to the emergency room of our hospital for chest pain, that comes during physical exertion, with a spontaneous regression. We performed blood tests that showed phase rise of the Hs-TNI (>25 000 ng/dl). The ECG showed lateral sub-endocardial ischemia and the transthoracic echocardiogram a slight reduction in ejection fraction with hypochinesia of the inferior and ...

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    17. Coronary plaque healing and diabetes: insights from optical coherence tomography imaging

      Coronary plaque healing and diabetes: insights from optical coherence tomography imaging

      Aims Atherosclerotic plaque healing is a dynamic process developing after plaque rupture or erosion, which aims to prevent lasting occlusive thrombus formation and to promote plaque repair. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus, one of the major conventional cardiovascular risk factors, may influence the healing capacity after plaque destabilization. Methods and results In this single-centre observational cohort study, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli–IRCCS, Rome, were included. Patients were divided into two groups (i.e. diabetes vs. no diabetes), and stratified based on ...

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    18. ‘State of the Art’ PCI: bridging the implementation gap

      ‘State of the Art’ PCI: bridging the implementation gap

      In 2009, the landmark SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) trial was published. Patients with de novo three-vessel and/or left main coronary artery disease (CAD) were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). 1 It also gave birth to the SYNTAX score—one of the earliest classification systems to evaluate coronary anatomy complexity. Patients with higher SYNTAX scores had higher event rates and achieved better outcomes after CABG compared with PCI, while patients with low scores had lower event rates and did similarly well with ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomographic Insights of Very Late Stent Thrombosis of a Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent: A case report

      Optical Coherence Tomographic Insights of Very Late Stent Thrombosis of a Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent: A case report

      Background Very-very late stent thrombosis (VVLST) occurring more than five years after implantation of drug-eluting stent (DES) is extremely rare, being restricted to few case reports. Mainly described with 1 st generation stents, this life-threatening complication has not been described with later-generation stents. We describe the first case of VVLST occurring 3309 days (> 9 years) after implantation of 2nd generation DES Case summary A 62-year-old male presented with the acute coronary syndrome. He has a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to the right coronary artery (RCA) using the three second-generation DES more than nine years ago. Coronary angiogram revealed ...

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    20. A multi-scale/multi-physics model for the theoretical study of the vascular configuration of retinal capillary plexuses based on OCTA data

      A multi-scale/multi-physics model for the theoretical study of the vascular configuration of retinal capillary plexuses based on OCTA data

      The retinal tissue is highly metabolically active and is responsible for translating the visual stimuli into electrical signals to be delivered to the brain. A complex vascular structure ensures an adequate supply of blood and oxygen, which is essential for the function and survival of the retinal tissue. To date, a complete understanding of the configuration of the retinal vascular structures is still lacking. Optical coherence tomography angiography has made available a huge amount of imaging data regarding the main retinal capillary plexuses, namely the superficial capillary plexuses (SCP), intermediate capillary plexuses (ICP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP). However, the ...

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    21. Application of optical coherence tomography angiography macular analysis for systemic hypertension. A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Application of optical coherence tomography angiography macular analysis for systemic hypertension. A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Background: Microvascular rarefaction due to hypertension has been linked to disease severity and end-organ complications. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been explored as a potential tool to evaluate the retinal microvascular network in hypertensive patients. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane were systematically searched to 10th of September of 2021, along with a manual search. Studies that used OCTA as a primary diagnostic method to evaluate the macular microvasculature of hypertensive patients were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. Primary outcomes were macular vessel density and foveal avascular zone at the superficial and deep capillary ...

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    22. Prediction of the functional significance of the left main stenosis using frequency domain optical coherence tomography

      Prediction of the functional significance of the left main stenosis using frequency domain optical coherence tomography

      Background Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has been used for the assessment of non-ostial left main coronary artery stenosis (LM). However, no study has evaluated the use of this imaging technique for the prediction of functional significance of LM lesions determined by the fractional flow reserve (FFR). Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the safety and diagnostic efficacy of FD-OCT in identifying functional severity of the LM stenosis determined by (FFR). Methods One hundred one patients with LM lesion (20–70% diameter stenosis angiographically) underwent FFR measurement and FD-OCT imaging of the LM. The following parameters ...

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    23. Culprit-plaque morphology and residual SYNTAX score for predicting cardiovascular events in acute myocardial infarction: an optical coherence tomography study

      Culprit-plaque morphology and residual SYNTAX score for predicting cardiovascular events in acute myocardial infarction: an optical coherence tomography study

      Background Previous studies reported that different culprit-plaque morphologies [plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT)] might influence clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Moreover, residual SYNTAX score (rSS) was proved to be related to worse prognosis. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of culprit-plaque morphologies and rSS for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods A total of 369 STEMI patients undergoing preintervention optical coherence tomography examination were included and divided into 4 groups based on PR and rSS: PE/low-rSS ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography-defined vulnerable plaque characteristics in relation to functional severity of coronary stenoses stratified by quantitative flow ratio

      Optical coherence tomography-defined vulnerable plaque characteristics in relation to functional severity of coronary stenoses stratified by quantitative flow ratio

      Background The functional severity and morphological features of epicardial lesions are both related to plaque vulnerability and adverse coronary events. However, their relationship remains controversial, especially in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Purpose This study aimed to examine whether quantitative flow ratio (QFR), an angiography-based computation of fractional flow reserve, was associated with optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined vulnerable plaques such as thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) in a board spectrum of population, including patients presenting stable angina and NSTE-ACS. Methods We identified patients who underwent OCT examinations from 2 prospective cohorts and then assessed interrogated vessels with QFR ...

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    1-24 of 124 1 2 3 4 5 6 »
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