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    1. Coronary Atherosclerotic Phenotype and Plaque Healing in Patients With Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndromes Compared With Patients With Long-term Clinical Stability An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Coronary Atherosclerotic Phenotype and Plaque Healing in Patients With Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndromes Compared With Patients With Long-term Clinical Stability An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Importance At one end of the coronary artery disease (CAD) spectrum, there are patients with multiple recurrent acute coronary syndromes (rACS), and at the other end there are those with long-standing clinical stability. Predicting the natural history of these patients is challenging because unstable plaques often heal without resulting in ACS. Objective To assess in vivo the coronary atherosclerotic phenotype as well as the prevalence and characteristics of healed coronary plaques by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in patients at the extremes of the CAD spectrum. Design, Setting, and Participants This is an observational, single-center cohort study with prospective clinical ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal-Choroidal Anastomosis in Toxoplasmosis Chorioretinitis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal-Choroidal Anastomosis in Toxoplasmosis Chorioretinitis

      A young adult was examined for follow-up of toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis that was diagnosed and treated during early childhood. Two subsequent flare-ups were treated with atovaquone, combined trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, and oral prednisone. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD. Ophthalmoscopic examination results demonstrated an inactive temporal chorioretinal scar with an apparent retinal-choroidal anastomosis ( Figure ). Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed through the anastomosis. Enface images ( Figure ) of the retinal and choroidal circulations confirmed that there was an anastomotic flow between the retinal venous and choroidal circulations ( Figure ). We postulate that this anastomosis resulted from the structural damage that was caused by ...

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    3. Foveal Neovascularization Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Incontinentia Pigmenti

      Foveal Neovascularization Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Incontinentia Pigmenti

      A 5-year-old girl received a diagnosis of incontinentia pigmenti by skin biopsy results. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/32 OD. Fluorescein angiography showed nonperfusion and leakage from neovascularization (NV) in the temporal peripheral retina in that eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography results showed foveal NV and parafoveal capillary nonperfusion ( Figure ). Another OCT image demonstrated inner retinal thinning that corresponded to the region of parafoveal capillary nonperfusion. Scatter laser photocoagulation was applied to the peripheral nonperfusion areas of the retina.

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    4. Estimating Retinal Sensitivity Using Optical Coherence Tomography With Deep-Learning Algorithms in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Estimating Retinal Sensitivity Using Optical Coherence Tomography With Deep-Learning Algorithms in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Importance As currently used, microperimetry is a burdensome clinical testing modality for testing retinal sensitivity requiring long testing times and trained technicians. Objective To create a deep-learning network that could directly estimate function from structure de novo to provide an en face high-resolution map of estimated retinal sensitivity. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional imaging study using data collected between January 1, 2016, and November 30, 2017, from the Natural History Observation and Registry of macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) evaluated 38 participants with confirmed MacTel from 2 centers. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean absolute error of estimated compared with ...

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    5. Assessment of Postoperative Morphologic Retinal Changes by Optical Coherence Tomography in Recipients of an Electronic Retinal Prosthesis Implant

      Assessment of Postoperative Morphologic Retinal Changes by Optical Coherence Tomography in Recipients of an Electronic Retinal Prosthesis Implant

      Importance The postoperative retinal changes at the interface between an implant electrode array and the retina and whether these anatomic changes have an association with the patient visual performance are unknown. Objective To report morphologic changes in recipients of an Argus II Retinal Prosthesis. Design, Setting, and Participants This consecutive, noncomparative case series study included a retrospective review of the preoperative and postoperative optical coherence tomography of 33 eyes among 33 individuals who underwent Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation between October 28, 2011, and June 8, 2017, at 2 different centers, by the same surgeon (S.R.). Thirteen patients ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Anatomic Changes in Recipients of Electronic Retinal Implants Getting Closer to the Promised Land of Sight for All

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Anatomic Changes in Recipients of Electronic Retinal Implants Getting Closer to the Promised Land of Sight for All

      They came to Bethsaida. Some people brought a blind man to him and begged him to touch him. 23 He took the blind man by the hand and led him out of the village; and when he had put saliva on his eyes and laid his hands on him, he asked him, “Can you see anything?” 24 And the man looked up and said, “I can see people, but they look like trees, walking.” Mark 8:22-24 1

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    7. Vertical Hyperreflective Lesions on Optical Coherence Tomography in Vitreoretinal Lymphoma

      Vertical Hyperreflective Lesions on Optical Coherence Tomography in Vitreoretinal Lymphoma

      Importance Vitreoretinal lymphoma is a diagnostic challenge and the pathophysiology is still unclear. Objective To describe an imaging finding seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) of patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma. Design, Setting, and Participants This case series study was a retrospective medical record review of patients who received a diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma at the Department of Ophthalmology at Northwestern University between July 2014 and January 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Optical coherence tomography findings in vitreoretinal lymphoma. Results We identified 7 patients (4 women [57.1%]; mean [range] age, 62.4 [45-75] years; 12 eyes) with intraocular lymphoma involving ...

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    8. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiography, and Histopathologic Analysis in Assessing Coats Disease

      Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiography, and Histopathologic Analysis in Assessing Coats Disease

      Importance Coats disease is a rare pediatric vitreoretinopathy that can cause devastating visual and anatomic outcomes. Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA), and histopathologic findings in Coats disease. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a single tertiary institution (Duke Eye Center) and identified 28 children with Coats disease through a review of medical records from December 2002 to January 2018. Four eyes were obtained from a biorepository for histopathologic analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures Macular OCT, fundus photographs, and FA results were reviewed and compared for morphological changes ...

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    9. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient With Persistent Pupillary Membrane

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient With Persistent Pupillary Membrane

      The image depicts a 60-year-old woman with bilateral cataracts and no history of amblyopia, strabismus, or systemic diseases. Color slitlamp photography of the left eye ( Figure , A) showed a persistent pupillary membrane, with multiple iris strands extending from collarette to collarette and adhering to the anterior lens surface. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography ( Figure , B) showed vessels originating from the lesser arterial circle of the iris and anastomosing with one another centrally. Persistent pupillary membrane results from incomplete involution of the tunica vasculosa lentis, which supplies the epithelium of the lens during fetal development. 1

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    10. Evaluation of a Combined Reflectance Confocal Microscopy–Optical Coherence Tomography Device for Detection and Depth Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Evaluation of a Combined Reflectance Confocal Microscopy–Optical Coherence Tomography Device for Detection and Depth Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Importance The limited tissue sampling of a biopsy can lead to an incomplete assessment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes and depth. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may enable real-time, noninvasive, comprehensive three-dimensional sampling in vivo, which may improve the diagnostic accuracy and margin assessment of BCCs. Objective To determine the accuracy of a combined RCM-OCT device for BCC detection and deep margin assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants This pilot study was carried out on 85 lesions from 55 patients referred for physician consultation or Mohs surgery at Memorial Sloan Kettering Skin Cancer Center ...

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      Mentions: Nicusor Iftimia
    11. Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings

      Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings

      Importance Biomarker testing for asymptomatic, preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) is invasive and expensive. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive technique that allows analysis of retinal and microvascular anatomy, which is altered in early-stage AD. Objective To determine whether OCTA can detect early retinal alterations in cognitively normal study participants with preclinical AD diagnosed by criterion standard biomarker testing. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study included 32 participants recruited from the Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri. Results of extensive neuropsychometric testing determined that all participants were ...

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    12. Use of En Face Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Identifying Choroidal Flow Voids in 3 Patients With Birdshot Chorioretinopathy

      Use of En Face Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Identifying Choroidal Flow Voids in 3 Patients With Birdshot Chorioretinopathy

      Importance Patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) can experience a delay in diagnosis owing to the challenges of identifying the condition prior to evolution of characteristic choroidal scars. An objective, noninvasive method for detecting early lesions in BSCR might have an effect on preventing vision loss in these patients. Objective To test the feasibility of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in the detection of BSCR choroidal lesions and to use en face image analysis of choroidal layers to localize lesion depth. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, longitudinal, observational case series of 3 patients diagnosed as having BSCR at 1 of ...

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    13. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Microaneurysms in Myopic Retinoschisis

      Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Microaneurysms in Myopic Retinoschisis

      A woman in her early 30s presented with floaters that had been present for several years. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 1.5 (20/13) OU. Axial length was 27.93 mm OD and 27.35 mm OS. Numerous aneurysms were observed temporal to the macula, predominantly in the left eye ( Figure , A). Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography confirmed that these aneurysms were located in the retinoschisis cavity ( Figure , B). Fluorescein angiography showed tortuosity of capillaries and aneurysms around the macular with minimal leakage from the aneurysms. She did not have any history of systemic diseases, including diabetes. Aneurysmlike structures ...

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    14. Visualization of Capillary Dropout Emanating From an Optic Disc Pit Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Visualization of Capillary Dropout Emanating From an Optic Disc Pit Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A 9-year-old, healthy, asymptomatic child presented to our pediatric ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of optic disc anomalies. The patient was noted to have an optic disc pit in the left eye since the patient’s initial examination at 4 years of age by another pediatric ophthalmologist. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 OS. Optical coherence tomography angiography (AngioVue; OptoVue) was performed and demonstrated full vascularization of the right optic nerve head ( Figure , A) and a radial spoke of capillary dropout emanating from the optic disc pit of the left eye ( Figure , B). Because there were no signs of active maculopathy ...

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    15. Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography for Guiding Laser Therapy Among Patients With Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

      Importance Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a viral-induced disease caused by human papillomavirus and the second leading cause of dysphonia in children; however, neither a cure nor a definitive surgical treatment is currently available for RRP. Although laser therapy is often used in the treatment of RRP, the lack of real-time laser-tissue interaction feedback undermines the ability of physicians to provide treatments with low morbidity. Therefore, an intraoperative tool to monitor and control laser treatment depth is needed. Objective To investigate the potential of combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) with laser therapy for patient-tailored laryngeal RRP treatments. Design, Setting, and ...

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    16. Serial Combined Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Maps for Detection of Early Glaucomatous Structural Progression

      Serial Combined Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Maps for Detection of Early Glaucomatous Structural Progression

      Importance Both parapapillary and macular areas are important in determining the progression of early glaucoma. However, no attempt has been made to assess the progression of glaucoma in images that combine the 2 areas. Objective To evaluate the potential usefulness of serial analysis of combined wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) maps for detection of structural progression in patients with early glaucoma. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective observational study. Patients with early primary open-angle glaucoma with a minimum of 3-year follow-up involving serial spectral-domain OCT measurement were analyzed. Patients were divided into a nonprogressor group (n = 47) and a progressor group ...

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    17. Improving Access—but Not Outcomes—With Iris Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Improving Access—but Not Outcomes—With Iris Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Throughout the past 2 decades, the exquisite, real-time ocular imaging attainable with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed the practice of ophthalmology. Further increases in processing speed have led to the introduction of OCT angiography (OCT-A). 1 Preliminary work has shown that it is possible to use OCT-A to characterize the vasculature of the iris. 1 The current standard for assessing anterior segment circulation is iris angiography, but this approach has substantial drawbacks, most notably the need to administer an intravenous contrast agent, such as fluorescein or indocyanine green. In this issue of JAMA Ophthalmology , Velez and colleagues 2 explore ...

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    18. Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Importance Identifing potential screening tests for future cognitive decline is a priority for developing treatments for and the prevention of dementia. Objective To examine the potential of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline in a large community cohort of healthy people. Design, Setting, and Participants UK Biobank is a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of UK residents aged 40 to 69 years at enrollment who underwent baseline retinal optical coherence tomography imaging, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. The pilot study phase was conducted from March 2006 to June 2006, and ...

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    19. Association of Retinal Neurodegeneration on Optical Coherence Tomography With Dementia: A Population-Based Study

      Association of Retinal Neurodegeneration on Optical Coherence Tomography With Dementia: A Population-Based Study

      Importance Retinal structures may serve as a biomarker for dementia, but longitudinal studies examining this link are lacking. Objective To investigate the association of inner retinal layer thickness with prevalent and incident dementia in a general population of Dutch adults. Design, Setting, and Participants From September 2007 to June 2012, participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study who were 45 years and older and had gradable retinal optical coherence tomography images and at baseline were free from stroke, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinopathy, myopia, hyperopia, and optic disc pathology were included. They were followed up until January ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Evaluate Ischemia in Diabetic Eyes

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Evaluate Ischemia in Diabetic Eyes

      The retinal vasculature consists of a superficial vascular plexus (SVP), an intermediate capillary plexus (ICP), and a deep capillary plexus (DCP). There is also a fourth regional vascular network, the radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP). The RPCP runs in parallel with the nerve fiber layer, the SVP is located within the ganglion cell layer and the deeper plexuses, and the ICP and DCP are above and below the inner nuclear layer, respectively. The SVP receives a blood supply from the central retinal artery and the deeper vascular layers are supplied by vertical anastomoses from the SVP. 1

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    21. Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion Areas in 3 Vascular Plexuses With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes of Patients With Diabetes

      Automated Quantification of Nonperfusion Areas in 3 Vascular Plexuses With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes of Patients With Diabetes

      Importance Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss that is managed primarily through qualitative clinical examination of the retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) may offer an objective and quantitative method of evaluating DR. Objective To quantify capillary nonperfusion in 3 vascular plexuses in the macula of eyes patients with diabetes of various retinopathy severity using projection-resolved OCTA (PR-OCTA). Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study at a tertiary academic center comprising 1 eye each from healthy control individuals and patients with diabetes at different severity stages of retinopathy. Data were acquired and analyzed between January 2015 and ...

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    22. Use of a Binocular Optical Coherence Tomography System to Evaluate Strabismus in Primary Position

      Use of a Binocular Optical Coherence Tomography System to Evaluate Strabismus in Primary Position

      Importance Current clinical methods for assessing strabismus can be prone to error. Binocular optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to assess and quantify strabismus objectively and in an automated manner. Objective To evaluate the use of a binocular OCT prototype to assess the presence and size of strabismus. Design, Setting, and Participants Fifteen participants with strabismus were recruited in 2016 as part of the EASE study from Moorfields Eye Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, England, and 15 healthy volunteers underwent automated anterior segment imaging using the binocular OCT prototype. All participants had an orthoptic assessment, including alternating ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Compared With Optical Coherence Tomography Macular Measurements for Detection of Glaucoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Compared With Optical Coherence Tomography Macular Measurements for Detection of Glaucoma

      Importance Whether optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) outperforms OCT to detect glaucoma remains inconclusive. Objective To compare (1) the diagnostic performance for detection of glaucoma and (2) the structure-function association between inner macular vessel density and inner macular thickness. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study included 115 patients with glaucoma and 35 healthy individuals for measurements of retinal thickness and retinal vessel density, segmented between the anterior boundary of internal limiting membrane and the posterior boundary of the inner plexiform layer, over the 3 × 3-mm 2 macula using swept-source OCT. All participants were Chinese. Visual sensitivity corresponding to the ...

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    24. Developing Binocular Optical Coherence Tomography for Strabismus Not a Simple Task

      Developing Binocular Optical Coherence Tomography for Strabismus Not a Simple Task

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) use in ophthalmology continues to increase as more indications for and developments of OCT imaging are described. Optical coherence tomography provides objective, quantitative data that allow an accurate diagnosis and monitoring of eye disease, reducing the variability inherent in subjective patient evaluations. However, the increasing use of OCT in ophthalmology has created a burden to our health care system due to high operating costs. The idea of a compact binocular OCT device that is cheaper to build and patient operated is an attractive idea to reduce costs and improve the efficiency of delivering health care while ...

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