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    1. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of patients under treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of patients under treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

      Purpose To investigate the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Methods Children that were diagnosed with precursor B-cell ALL and classified as belonging to the medium-risk group for relapse were selected for this study. Individuals who were in continuous remission and on maintenance therapy were included in the study group. Cases that had central nervous system involvement were excluded. Age-matched, otherwise healthy children were selected for the control group. Each study participant underwent a comprehensive eye examination and SD-OCT evaluation. Thickness measurements were made within the retinal nerve fiber layer ...

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    2. New Insights into the Pathoanatomy of Macular Holes Based on Features of Optical Coherence Tomography

      New Insights into the Pathoanatomy of Macular Holes Based on Features of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Various important findings related to the development and progression of idiopathic macular holes (MHs) have been described using optical coherence tomography (OCT) since Gass first described the stages of MH development using biomicroscopy in 1988 and 1995. We believe that a system for classifying and staging MHs should reflect the degree of disease status and its progression and have value not only from a practical point of view (by predicting the chance of closure or visual recovery) but also provides researchers and clinicians with insights into the pathogenesis and disease progression of MH. These data pave the way for the ...

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      Mentions: Hyewon Chung
    3. Comparison of Coronary Intimal Plaques by Optical Coherence Tomography in Arteries With versus Without Internal Running Vasa Vasorum

      Comparison of Coronary Intimal Plaques by Optical Coherence Tomography in Arteries With versus Without Internal Running Vasa Vasorum

      It has been reported the internal running vasa vasorum was associated with plaque vulnerability, and microchannels in optical coherence tomography (OCT) are consistent pathologically with vasa vasorum. We investigated plaque vulnerability and incidence of slow flow during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the internal longitudinal running vasa vasorum. Subjects were 71 lesions undergoing OCT before PCI. Internal running vasa vasorum was defined as intraplaque neovessels running from the adventitia to plaque. Lesions with internal running vasa vasorum were found in 47% (33/71). Compared to lesions without internal running vasa vasorum, lesions with internal running vasa vasorum showed significantly higher ...

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    4. Vessel density and structural measurements of optical coherence tomography in primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

      Vessel density and structural measurements of optical coherence tomography in primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

      Purpose To evaluate the vessel density measurements of the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary and macular regions on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare their diagnostic abilities with the ONH rim area, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness measurements on OCT in PACG. Design Cross-sectional study Methods Seventy-seven eyes of 50 control subjects, 65 eyes of 45 patients with PACG, and 31 eyes of 22 PAC patients with a history of high IOP, underwent imaging with ...

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    5. En Face OCT Analysis to Assess the Spectrum of Perivenular Ischemia and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy in Retinal Vein Occlusion

      En Face OCT Analysis to Assess the Spectrum of Perivenular Ischemia and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy in Retinal Vein Occlusion

      Purpose To assess the spectrum of perivenular ischemia in eyes with retinal vascular obstruction (typically central or hemicentral retinal vein obstruction) using en face optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Retrospective observational case series. Methods Eyes with recent retinal vascular occlusion illustrating paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in a perivenular fern-like pattern with en face OCT were evaluated in this study. Multimodal retinal imaging including en face OCT segmentation of the inner nuclear layer was performed in all patients. Color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) images were used to create a vascular overlay of the retinal veins versus the retinal ...

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    6. Evaluation of macular vascular abnormalities identified by optical coherence tomography angiography in sickle cell disease

      Evaluation of macular vascular abnormalities identified by optical coherence tomography angiography in sickle cell disease

      Purpose To evaluate macular vascular flow abnormalities identified by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with various sickle cell genotypes. Design Prospective, observational case series. Methods This is a single institution case series of adult patients with various sickle cell genotypes. All patients underwent macular OCT-A (Avanti RTVue XR, Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Images were analyzed qualitatively for areas of flow loss and quantitatively for measures of foveal avascular area, parafoveal flow, and vascular density. The findings were compared by sickle cell genotype and retinopathy stage and correlated to retinal thickness and visual acuity. Results OCT-A scans of 82 ...

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    7. Relationship between quantities of tissue prolapse after percutaneous coronary intervention and neointimal hyperplasia at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography examination

      Relationship between quantities of tissue prolapse after percutaneous coronary intervention and neointimal hyperplasia at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography examination

      The clinical significance of the extent of tissue prolapse (TP) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for long-term outcomes remains undetermined. This study investigated the relationship between the quantities of TP immediately after PCI and neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) at follow-up on serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination.

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    8. Detailed Phenotyping and Characterization of Choroidal Morphological and Vascular Features in Young Men with High Myopia Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Detailed Phenotyping and Characterization of Choroidal Morphological and Vascular Features in Young Men with High Myopia Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To describe detailed morphological and vascular features of the choroid in eyes with high myopia. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods 515 eyes of young men (mean age 21.59±1.15) years) with high myopia (defined as -6.0 D or worse, mean spherical equivalent -8.66±2.00 D) and 88 controls with emmetropia in both eyes underwent choroidal imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging (EDI-OCT). Raw OCT images were loaded on a custom-written application on MATLAB that enabled delineation for detailed morphological and vascular analyses, including the distance of thickest point from the ...

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    9. Coronary Plaque Characteristics in Hemodialysis-Dependent Patients as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Coronary Plaque Characteristics in Hemodialysis-Dependent Patients as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Coronary arteries in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been shown to exhibit more extensive atherosclerosis and calcium. We aimed to assess characteristics of coronary plaque in hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 124 patients with stable angina who underwent OCT imaging. Sixty-two HD-dependent patients who underwent pre-intervention OCT for coronary artery disease (CAD) were compared 1:1 with a cohort of patients without CKD, matched for age, diabetes mellitus, sex, and culprit vessel. Baseline characteristics were comparable. Pre-intervention OCT imaging identified 62 paired culprit, 53 paired non-culprit, and ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy

      Purpose To describe the anatomic changes and natural history of vitelliform lesions in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Prospective comparative case series. Participants Twenty patients (40 eyes) with molecular confirmation of mutation in the BEST1 gene and 20 age-matched controls were included. Methods Color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral-domain OCT were obtained, and these findings were compared between the 2 groups. Fifteen of the 20 patients with Best disease had more than 1 visit, and the imaging studies from each visit were compared with each other over time. Main Outcome Measures Evolution ...

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    11. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular features associated with dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pilot study (with video)

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular features associated with dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pilot study (with video)

      Background and Aims Angiogenesis is associated with neoplastic progression of Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Volumetric optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) visualizes subsurface microvasculature without exogenous contrast agents. We investigated the association of OCTA microvascular features with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing BE surveillance or endoscopic eradication therapies for dysplasia were imaged using volumetric OCTA and corresponding histological diagnoses obtained, to yield 97 data sets (non-dysplastic BE (NDBE): N=74; LGD: N=10; HGD: N=13). After evaluating OCTA image quality, 54 datasets (NDBE: N=35; LGD: N=8; HGD: N=11) from 32 patients ...

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    12. Accuracy of optical coherence tomography measurements of rectus muscle insertions in adult patients undergoing strabismus surgery

      Accuracy of optical coherence tomography measurements of rectus muscle insertions in adult patients undergoing strabismus surgery

      Purpose To assess the accuracy of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in measuring the distance of extraocular muscle (EOM) insertion to the limbus to improve preoperative assessment of adult patients undergoing strabismus surgery. Design Reliability analysis. Setting An institutional practice. Patient Population 74 adult patients scheduled for strabismus surgery on rectus muscles. Observation Procedure The distance between the EOM insertion and the limbus was measured preoperatively with AS-OCT. The value was compared to intraoperative measurement obtained with calipers. Additional measurements included the limbus-anterior chamber angle distance with AS-OCT and the axial length with IOLMaster. Main Outcome Measure Agreement between ...

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      Mentions: Craig A. McKeown
    13. Histologic and Optical Coherence Tomographic Correlates in Drusenoid Pigment Epithelium Detachment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Histologic and Optical Coherence Tomographic Correlates in Drusenoid Pigment Epithelium Detachment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose Drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) is a known precursor to geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We sought histologic correlates for spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) signatures in DPED and determined the frequency and origin of these OCT signatures in a clinical cohort of DPED eyes. Design Laboratory imaging and histologic comparison, and retrospective, observational cohort study. Participants Four donor eyes with histopathologic diagnosis of AMD (2 with nonneovascular DPED and 2 with neovascular pigment epithelium detachment [PED]) and 49 eyes of 33 clinic patients with nonneovascular DPED more than 2 mm in diameter. Methods Donor eyes ...

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    14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Devices in Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

      Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Devices in Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

      Imaging devices such as the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT3), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), play an important role in glaucoma diagnosis. A system a tic search for evidence-based data was performed for prospective studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of HRT3, GDx and OCT. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated. To compare the accuracy among instruments and parameters, a meta-analysis considering the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (H-SROC) model was performed. The risk of bias was assessed using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Studies in the context of screening programs were used for qualitative ...

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    15. Choroidal neovascularization in Malattia Leventinese diagnosed using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Choroidal neovascularization in Malattia Leventinese diagnosed using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To compare Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) with traditional multimodal imaging in patients with Malattia Leventinese Design Retrospective case series. Methods Eight eyes of four consecutive patients with Malattia Leventinese were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including color fundus photography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. Results The choriocapillaris segmentation of OCT-A revealed the presence of a hyperflow signal corresponding to active choroidal neovascularization in 3 eyes and inactive choroidal neovascularization in one eye. Traditional multimodal imaging did not show each vascular layer and any leakage ...

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    16. Study of the Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Study of the Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Abstract Purpose To evaluate the radial peripapillary capillary network with optical coherence tomography angiography (angio-OCT) in morning glory syndrome (MGS), optic disc colobomas and optic disc pits, and to explore possible correlations between the neural vascular structure and the pathogenesis of congenital optic disc anomalies. Design Prospective observational comparative case series. Methods Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with congenital optic disc anomalies were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent angio-OCT. The scans were centered on optic discs. Results The mean age at presentation was 33 years (range: 19–50 years). Congenital optic disc anomalies were identified in all 15 ...

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    17. Difference in Vascular Response between Sirolimus-eluting- and Everolimus-eluting Stents in Ostial Left Circumflex Artery after Unprotected Left Main as Observed by

      Difference in Vascular Response between Sirolimus-eluting- and Everolimus-eluting Stents in Ostial Left Circumflex Artery after Unprotected Left Main as Observed by

      Background Kissing-balloon technique (KBT) is commonly performed during percutaneous coronary intervention of distal unprotected left main coronary artery (ULM) aiming at obtaining optimal opening of the side branch (left circumflex artery; LCX) ostium. Nonetheless, detailed evaluation of vascular response to stents in LCX ostium is lacking. We therefore evaluated the vascular response to different drug-eluting stents (DES) in ostial LCX after ULM by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods We prospectively enrolled 38 consecutive patients with ULM disease, whom were treated with single-stent procedure using DES, crossover the ULM-left anterior descending artery (LAD) following by KBT. Twelve patients were ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and retinal microvascular ramification in AMN and PAMM

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and retinal microvascular ramification in AMN and PAMM

      The recent review by Bhavsar and colleagues 2 on Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) makes important points drawing on the availability of new multimodal imaging modalities. We agree with the concept that capillary plexus ischemia causes AMN and Paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). In this context the authors make a convincing point for the future role optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) likely will play in the diagnostic work up.

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      Mentions: Axel Petzold
    19. Insights into epiretinal membranes: presence of ectopic inner foveal layers and a new optical coherence tomography staging scheme

      Insights into epiretinal membranes: presence of ectopic inner foveal layers and a new optical coherence tomography staging scheme

      Abstract Purpose To describe the presence of continuous ectopic inner foveal layers associated with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) and to present a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) staging system of ERMs. Design Retrospective multicenter observational case series. Methods Clinical charts and Spectral-Domain OCT images of 194 eyes of 172 consecutive patients diagnosed with ERMs were reviewed and analyzed. Results The presence of continuous ectopic inner foveal layers was identified in 63 out of 194 eyes (32.5%) and this morphology was significantly associated with lower visual acuity. ERMs were divided in four stages. Stage 1 (43 out of 194 eyes, 22 ...

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    20. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography–Derived Characteristics of Bruch Membrane Opening in a Young Adult Australian Population

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography–Derived Characteristics of Bruch Membrane Opening in a Young Adult Australian Population

      Purpose To characterize and quantify Bruch membrane opening (BMO)-based optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a large, young and healthy, predominantly white population. Design Cross-sectional study and reliability analysis. Methods The ONH of 1344 predominantly white subjects were imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A customized script, coded in Matlab, was used to manually segment and measure multiple BMO-based parameters of the ONH. Measurements were compared to those obtained with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph; HRT). Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between BMO parameters and other ocular and demographic variables. Results Mean BMO ...

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    21. Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence and Associated Factors in Clinically Normal Subjects Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optic Nerve Head Drusen Prevalence and Associated Factors in Clinically Normal Subjects Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a normative database of subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy young Indians using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Evaluation and comparison of CT of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and fellow eyes were also performed. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study. It included 112 normal eyes of 112 healthy volunteers who had no evidence of ocular or systemic disease, 84 CSC eyes with acute, treatment-naïve CSC, and 69 fellow eyes with no evidence of neurosensory detachment or pigment epithelium detachment on SD OCT. Complete ...

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    22. Estimating OCT Structural Measurement Floors to Improve Detection of Progression In Advanced Glaucoma

      Estimating OCT Structural Measurement Floors to Improve Detection of Progression In Advanced Glaucoma

      Purpose “Floor effects” in retinal imaging are defined as the points at which no further structural loss can be detected. We estimated the measurement floors for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurements and compared global change over time in advanced glaucoma eyes. Design Validity study to investigate measurement floors. Methods A longitudinal “Variability Group” of 41 eyes with moderate to advanced glaucoma (SAP MD ≤ -8 dB) was used to estimate measurement floors. Minimum rim width (MRW), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GC-IPLT) and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) were determined. Floors were defined as the average image area ...

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    23. Quantification of Diabetic Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Visual Acuity

      Quantification of Diabetic Macular Ischemia Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Visual Acuity

      Purpose To quantify foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and macular vascular density objectively using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to examine correlations with visual acuity in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the absence of diabetic macular edema. Design Retrospective observational case series. Participants Eighty-four eyes from 55 patients with DR and 34 control eyes from 27 age-matched healthy participants. Methods All eyes underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR Avanti; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA). Integrated automated algorithms were used to quantify FAZ area and macular vascular density. Main Outcome Measures FAZ area, vessel area density (VAD), vessel length density (VLD), and visual ...

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    24. Choroidal neovascularization secondary to Best vitelliform macular dystrophy detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Choroidal neovascularization secondary to Best vitelliform macular dystrophy detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) is a hereditary condition that causes childhood-onset macular dystrophy. In rare cases, VMD is accompanied by formation of a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM). We report a case of CNVM secondary to Best VMD in a 10-year-old boy that was detected using optical coherence tomography angiography, a new noninvasive diagnostic modality that detects motion contrast in repeated B-scans to identify blood flow within vessels.

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