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    1. State-of-the-art in retinal optical coherence tomography image analysis

      State-of-the-art in retinal optical coherence tomography image analysis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging modality that has been widely used in the field of biomedical imaging. In the recent past, it has found uses as a diagnostic tool in dermatology, cardiology, and ophthalmology. In this paper we focus on its applications in the field of ophthalmology and retinal imaging. OCT is able to non-invasively produce cross-sectional volumetric images of the tissues which can be used for analysis of tissue structure and properties. Due to the underlying physics, OCT images suffer from a granular pattern, called speckle noise, which restricts the process of interpretation. This requires specialized ...

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    2. Handheld swept-source optical coherence tomography with angiography in awake premature neonates

      Handheld swept-source optical coherence tomography with angiography in awake premature neonates

      Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can lead to retinal detachment and severe vision loss and is a common cause of childhood blindness. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive imaging modality that can be used to detect potential abnormalities in the microvasculature in this population. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a newly developed handheld swept source OCT (SS-OCT) device to successfully acquire structural vitreoretinal and retinal microvascular images in awake premature infants. Methods: OCT and OCTA images were acquired at the time of routine ROP examinations from awake, unsedated preterm infants in the ...

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    3. Characterizing optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectra of mammary organoids during suppression of intracellular motility

      Characterizing optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectra of mammary organoids during suppression of intracellular motility

      Background: An understanding of how the mammary gland responds to toxicant and drug exposures can shed light on mechanisms of breast cancer initiation/progression and therapeutic effectiveness, respectively. In this study, we employed noninvasive, label-free and high-throughput optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectroscopy (OCT-SFS) to track exposure-response relationships in three-dimensional (3D) mammary epithelial organoid models. Methods: OCT-SFS is sensitive to relatively high speed (~0.16–8 µm/min) motions of subcellular light scattering components occurring over short (~2–114 s) time scales, termed “intracellular motility.” In this study, OCT speckle fluctuation spectra are quantified by two metrics: the intracellular motility ...

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    4. Innovative use of optical coherence tomography catheter via nipple orifice: a case report of first intraductal images of florid ductal hyperplasia

      Innovative use of optical coherence tomography catheter via nipple orifice: a case report of first intraductal images of florid ductal hyperplasia

      The incidence of malignancy in patients with pathologic nipple discharge (PND) varies from 1% to 23% (1). Currently, methylene blue dye or lacrimal probe guided isolated duct excision is still the standard treatment of PND. Majority of those patients are not with cancer-involved ducts and have unnecessary surgery to reveal the definitive histopathology. With conventional imaging, it is not possible to understand whether those ducts involve cancer or not (2). It is well established that ductoscopy is a novel technique that could diagnose a single papilloma; however, it is insufficient to diagnose an in situ or invasive cancer (3,4 ...

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    5. Quantitative assessment of rat bone regeneration using complex master-slave optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative assessment of rat bone regeneration using complex master-slave optical coherence tomography

      ackground: The need for hard and soft tissues in oral implantology determined the development of methods and techniques to increase bone volume and their quality with different alternative materials used as substituents of patient’s natural bone. In addition, laser radiation can be used to accelerate the repair of fractures and to produce an increased volume of formed callus, as well as an increased bone mineral density. Methods: The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of an in-house developed multimodal complex master slave (CMS) enhanced swept source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging instrument to analyze the ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography correlates multiple measures of tissue damage following acute burn injury

      Optical coherence tomography correlates multiple measures of tissue damage following acute burn injury

      Background: The visual assessment of burned skin is inherently subjective, and whilst a number of imaging modalities have identified quantifiable parameters to characterize vascular and structural changes following burn damage, none have become common place in the assessment protocol. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA) to introduce novel correlations between vessel depth, i.e., the depth of functional blood vessels beneath the tissue surface, edema depth, i.e., the depth of interstitial fluid buildup beneath the tissue surface, and tissue injury depth, i.e., the depth of collagen denaturation beneath the tissue surface, following burn injury ...

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    7. Designing visible-light optical coherence tomography towards clinics

      Designing visible-light optical coherence tomography towards clinics

      Background: The capabilities of visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) in noninvasive anatomical and functional retinal imaging have been demonstrated by multiple groups in both rodents and healthy human subjects. Translating laboratory prototypes to an integrated clinical-environment-friendly system is required to explore the full potential of vis-OCT in disease management. Methods: We developed and optimized a portable vis-OCT system for human retinal imaging in clinical settings. We acquired raster- and circular-scan images from both healthy and diseased human eyes. Results: The new vis-OCT provided high-quality retinal images of both subjects without any known eye diseases and patients with various retinal diseases ...

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    8. Multi-scale and -contrast sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

      Multi-scale and -contrast sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

      Background: The roles of the retinal microvasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in maintaining the health and metabolic activity of the retina lend great clinical value to their high-resolution visualization. Methods: By integrating polarization diversity detection (PDD) into multi-scale and -contrast sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (MSC-SAO-OCT), we have developed a novel multi-contrast SAO OCT system for imaging pigment in the RPE as well as flow in the retinal capillaries using OCT angiography (OCTA). Aberration correction was performed based on the image quality using transmissive deformable optical elements. Results: MSC-SAO-OCTA imaging was performed at multiple fields-of-view (FOVs) with ...

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    9. Revealing the morphology and function of the cochlea and middle ear with optical coherence tomography

      Revealing the morphology and function of the cochlea and middle ear with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized physiological studies of the hearing organ, the vibration and morphology of which can now be measured without opening the surrounding bone. In this review, we provide an overview of OCT as used in the otological research, describing advances and different techniques in vibrometry, angiography, and structural imaging.

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    10. Optical coherence tomography imaging of cardiac substrates

      Optical coherence tomography imaging of cardiac substrates

      Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Knowledge of a patient’s heart structure will help to plan procedures, potentially identifying arrhythmia substrates, critical structures to avoid, detect transplant rejection, and reduce ambiguity when interpreting electrograms and functional measurements. Similarly, basic research of numerous cardiac diseases would greatly benefit from structural imaging at cellular scale. For both applications imaging on the scale of a myocyte is needed, which is approximately 100 µm × 10 µm. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a tool for characterizing cardiac tissue structure and function has been ...

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    11. The evaluation of spontaneous Descemet’s membrane reattachment using swept-source optical coherence tomography: a case report

      The evaluation of spontaneous Descemet’s membrane reattachment using swept-source optical coherence tomography: a case report

      A 29-year old man presented with a history of facial burn in August of 2017. Slit lamp examination revealed significant central corneal stromal scarring in the right eye. The patient received deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the right eye. Three weeks post operatively, the patient was found to have recurrent corneal edema on slit lamp exam, and standard anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a central detachment of Descemet’s membrane.

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    12. Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Background: To implement an ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography imaging (UW-OCTA) modality in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the aim of quantifying the burden of microvascular disease at baseline and subsequent clinic visits. Methods: UW-OCTA was implemented on a 1,060 nm swept source (SS) OCTA engine running at 100 kHz A-line rate with a motion tracking mechanism. A montage scanning protocol was used to capture a 100-degree field of view (FOV) using a 4×4 grid of sixteen total individual 6×6 mm 2 scans. Typical OCTA images with a FOV of 3×3, 6×6 and 12 ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography angiography monitors human cutaneous wound healing over time

      Optical coherence tomography angiography monitors human cutaneous wound healing over time

      Background: In vivo imaging of the complex cascade of events known to be pivotal elements in the healing of cutaneous wounds is a difficult but essential task. Current techniques are highly invasive, or lack the level of vascular and structural detail required for accurate evaluation, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to use an advanced optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA) technique for the non-invasive, high resolution imaging of cutaneous wound healing. Methods: We used a clinical prototype OCTA to image, identify and track key vascular and structural adaptations known to occur throughout the healing process. Specific vascular parameters, such ...

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    14. Optic nerve head perfusion in normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

      Optic nerve head perfusion in normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

      Background: To investigate the differences of perfusion in the optic nerve head (ONH) between normal and glaucomatous eyes using optical microangiography (OMAG) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography technique. Methods: One eye from each subject was scanned with a 68 kHz Cirrus 5000 HD-OCT-based OMAG prototype system centered at the ONH (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA, USA). Microvascular images were generated from the OMAG dataset by detecting the differences in OCT signal between consecutive B-scans. The pre-laminar layer (preLC) was isolated by a semi-automatic segmentation program. En face OMAG images for preLC were generated using signals with highest blood ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity

      Optical coherence tomography based microangiography findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity

      Optical coherence tomography based microangiography (OMAG) is a new, non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing three dimentional (3D) retinal and choroidal microvascular maps without a need for exogenous dye. In this study, we evaluated the retinal and choroidal microvascular architecture of the macula in a patient with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity using OMAG. Detailed microvascular information of the retina and the underlying choroid showed loss of parafoveal outer retinal vasculature with sparing of the central fovea vasculature.

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