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    1. Findings from retinal optical coherence tomography in a large cohort, UK Biobank (Thesis)

      Findings	from retinal optical coherence tomography in a	large cohort,  UK Biobank (Thesis)

      Background: UK Biobank is a large prospective multi-center community-based study, which included macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) of 67,321 people. OCT is a mainstay of ophthalmic imaging and is a potential screening test for dementia. Aim of research: Cross-sectional analysis examined retinal layers, to determine the range of findings in normal individuals, as well as describe associations with demographic and physiologic variation. Longitudinal analysis assessed associations with not only current cognitive function, but future cognitive decline. Results: All layers showed progressive thinning with older age. As compared to white people, black ethnicity was associated with significantly thicker retinal pigment ...

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      Mentions: Fang Sarah Ko
    2. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Tool for Dental Caries (Thesis)

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Tool for Dental Caries (Thesis)

      Dental caries is one of the most common human diseases, 60-90% of school children worldwide have dental cavities. Severity can vary, from early demineralisation, which preventive measures can improve, to cavitation, leading to fillings. Different diagnostic tools are available, such as clinical examination, radiographic investigation and Enhanced Visual examination/International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). To date, there is no universal diagnostic tool that can be used to detect carious lesions at the very early stages. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive and ionising radiation free technique that has been used in dentistry, but not to diagnose caries ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography in people with epilepsy: symmetry and clinical correlations (Thesis)

      Optical coherence tomography in people with epilepsy: symmetry and clinical correlations (Thesis)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides detailed images by assessing the scattering properties of a tissue (1)⁠. OCT is precise and easily repeatable. It is quick to obtain and does not cause any significant discomfort to patients. For these reasons, it is a useful clinical tool to diagnose and monitor many conditions. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness measured by OCT was recently confirmed as a biomarker of white matter (WM) integrity in various neurological conditions (2)⁠. In epilepsy, retinal thinning is found in people exposed to vigabatrin (3)⁠ but also in people not exposed to this antiepileptic drug (AED ...

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    4. Precision Microfabrication of Optical Probes for Intravascular Diagnostics (Thesis)

      Precision Microfabrication of Optical Probes for Intravascular Diagnostics (Thesis)

      This thesis details a collection of design, optimisation, fabrication and characterisation work to form fiber-optic probes and optical phantom devices for intravascular diagnostics in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Optically generated ultrasound is an emerging technique to create broadband high frequency ultrasound via the photoacoustic effect. In the first segment of this thesis, the development of a novel miniature fiber-optic ultrasound transmitter is detailed. A morphologically controlled coating was formed at the endface of a multimode optical fiber by controlled electrospinning of a carbon-nanotube composite. Efficient optical ultrasound generation was realised, with signal amplitude, bandwidth and device form factor suited to ...

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    5. Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. Selisistat is a novel, highly potent Sirt1 inhibitor with supportive pre-clinical data. Facilitation of autophagy and amelioration of transcriptional dysregulation are proposed as mechanisms of action. A first in disease Phase 1B study showed safety and tolerability. The peripheral immune dysfunction in HD could be modulated by Sirtuins which have both pro and anti-inflammatory activities. However selisistat did not alter the cytokine profile in this study. Phase 2 data over a longer duration was also well tolerated however potential hepatotoxicity is a concern. Sub-analysis of clinical assessments ...

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    6. A flow cytometric and optical coherence analysis of the role of microparticles as determinants of plaque instability in acute coronary syndrome (FOAM study) (Thesis)

      A flow cytometric and optical coherence analysis of the role of microparticles as determinants of plaque instability in acute coronary syndrome (FOAM study) (Thesis)

      Introduction: Microparticles (MPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). / Aims: To determine whether circulating MPs correlate with high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. / Methods: 25 patients with CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were recruited; 13 were diagnosed to have acute coronary syndrome (ACS) & 12 with stable angina (SA). We characterized and compared coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and vulnerable plaque phenotype by three-vessel optical coherence tomography (OCT) between ACS and SA groups. Endothelial (EMPs), platelet (PMPs), Neutrophil (NMPs), tissue factor (TFMPs) and smooth muscle (SMMPs) were quantified by flow cytometry, compared between groups pre PCI, post PCI ...

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    7. The Clinical Application of Optical Coherence Tomography for Head and Neck Premalignant/Malignant Lesions (Thesis)

      The Clinical Application of Optical Coherence Tomography for Head and Neck Premalignant/Malignant Lesions (Thesis)

      Abstract The principle of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is based on the property of light coherence. OCT generates cross-sectional images of two-dimensional objects to obtain in-vitro and in-vivo images of tissues. Non–commercially available OCT systems, which have a higher resolution and scanning rate, have been previously reported. However, some clinical research has already been conducted using the first commercially available OCT device (Niris system) to image the larynx; but applications on oral and skin tissue have not been tested yet. This thesis aims to explore, compare and validate three specific types of commercially available OCT equipment for imaging head ...

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    8. Retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss following retrogeniculate lesions of human visual pathway identified using optical coherence tomography (Thesis)

      Retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss following retrogeniculate lesions of human visual pathway identified using optical coherence tomography (Thesis)
      Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) in the human visual pathway has not been well clarified. Aims 1. To confirm the RTSD in human visual pathway. 2. To study the rate of RTSD. 3. To study the pupil function in the RTSD. Methods: 1. The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measured with optical coherence tomography was compared among patients with acquired and congenital retrogeniculate lesions and normal subjects. Humphrey perimetry and brain imaging were performed. 2. A relationship between the duration of the disease and the RNFL thickness measured at a single time point was evaluated. Additionally the RNFL thickness ...
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