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    1. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      A little over two years ago, a hot new topic in retinal imaging caught the attention of ophthalmologists around the world. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), an innovative, fast, noninvasive, non-dye-based angiographic technique, quickly became a topic of great interest in major conferences and ophthalmology journals. Inquisitive minds applied the OCTA prototypes to understanding diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. The technology’s high resolution and ability to segment the different vascular layers provided novel insight into disease pathogenesis and morphology, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the ocular microvasculature in a level of anatomic detail that ...

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    2. Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      We report two cases of peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The first patient had prolonged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, while the second had inflammatory arthritis by laboratory findings without any systemic findings as well as possible concurrent tuberculosis. In both patients, AS-OCT demonstrated corneal thinning at the onset of the disease with improvement six months after initiation of intensive medical therapy. Our cases highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach and careful monitoring in PUK cases, especially with objective measures such as corneal thickness assessed with AS-OCT.

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    3. Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Chest pain and troponin elevation may be due to an acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, acute cardiomyopathy, or other less common conditions. Management differs depending on the aetiology, and the pathophysiologic diagnosis has direct implications on treatment and patient outcomes. History and clinical examination is supplemented by selected investigations including the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and even myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Intravascular imaging can provide important insights into the underlying mechanism of acute coronary syndromes, especially when angiography is ambiguous.

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    4. Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Purpose . To identify spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) predictive morphological features for the outcome of Ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods . This is a retrospective multicentric study that involved 64 eyes with naïve AMD. Patients who received three monthly intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab were stratified into (1) “responders” [≥ 5 letters gain on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale] and (2) “nonresponders” (< 5 letters gain). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SD-OCT morphological features were compared at baseline and one month after three consecutive injections of Ranibizumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate these ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Editorial: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a relatively new, noninvasive outpatient imaging test that provides both structural and functional information about the macula and midperipheral retina. OCT-A is complementary to traditional imaging modalities, such as fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Advantages of OCT-A include visualization of vascular flow signal, en face imaging, no need for dye injection, and segmentation of the posterior segment structures from the vitreomacular interface, through the retinal layers, and to the choroid. Disadvantages of OCT-A include increased costs and longer acquisition times than SD-OCT. Because of the longer ...

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    6. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF) underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods . Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years) were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral ...

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    7. The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      Purpose . We combined a clinical grading scale and swept source anterior segment OCT to describe the successful and failed CLASS. Material and Methods . 23 patients in the successful group and 17 patients in the failed group were compared in terms of the IBAGS grades and AS-OCT findings at one, three, and twelve months postoperatively. Results . The majority in the successful group presented shallow blebs (91%, 57%, and 52% at 1M, 3M, and 12M, resp.). 59% of the failed group presented no bleb (H0 E0) from the early postoperative period with the rate increasing to 88% at 3M and 100% at ...

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    8. Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We report the sequential changes of retinal vessels observed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a case of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that converted to ischemic CRVO. An 81-year-old woman visited our Retina Clinic because of visual acuity loss in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed venous tortuosity and intraretinal hemorrhage in all four quadrants of the fundus. OCT showed macular edema. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCTA showed loss of small capillaries. Nonischemic CRVO was diagnosed. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment resolved the edema and improved visual acuity. However, during follow-up, capillary dropout was observed on ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, noninvasive technology that enables detailed evaluation of flow in the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The authors believe this to be the first report to describe the optical coherence tomography angiography findings associated with combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Introduction . Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be a valid tool to detect choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), allowing the analysis of the type, the morphology, and the extension of CNV in most of the cases. Purpose . To determine the sensitivity and specificity of OCTA in detecting CNV secondary to nAMD, compared to fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods . Prospective observational study. Patients with suspected nAMD were recruited between May and December 2016. Patients underwent FA, ICGA, spectral domain OCT, and OCTA (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.). Sensitivity and specificity of FA, with or without ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      A case of retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) is presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Following treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, reduction of flow signal through the RAM is documented. OCT-A provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of at least some patients with RAM, without the need for traditional fluorescein angiography.

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Purtscher Retinopathy after Severe Traffic Accident in 16-Year-Old Boy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Purtscher Retinopathy after Severe Traffic Accident in 16-Year-Old Boy

      Purpose . To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in a case of Purtscher retinopathy. Methods . A 16-year-old male underwent ophthalmological examination including color fundus photography, spectral domain OCT, OCTA, and microperimetry. Examination was performed 10 days, 1 month, and 6 months after the trauma. Diagnosis was based on the characteristic clinical presentation. Patients . A single patient case. Results . Only the right eye was affected, and all examinations of the left eye were normal. The visual acuity of the right eye was 0.03 (Snellen equivalent) at 10 days and at one month, improving to 0.16 at 6 months ...

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    13. Management of Patients with Graves’ Disease and Orbital Involvement: Role of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Management of Patients with Graves’ Disease and Orbital Involvement: Role of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To investigate the role of choroidal thickness evaluation with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and enhanced depth imaging (EDI) technique in the management of patients with Graves’ disease and orbitopathy (GO). Methods . Thirty-six eyes of 18 patients with GO and 36 eyes of 18 age-matched control subjects were included in this retrospective observational study. All the subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation, including clinical activity score (CAS) and exophthalmometry. The SDOCT images of the choroid were obtained by EDI modality. Results . Choroidal thickness was significantly increased in GO than in control eyes ( ). A significant correlation was found between ...

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    14. Design and Implementation Guidelines for a Modular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner

      Design and Implementation Guidelines for a Modular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner

      In the past decades, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has transformed into a widely popular imaging technology which is used in many research and clinical applications. Despite such fast growth in the field, the technology has not been readily accessible to many research laboratories either due to the cost or inflexibility of the commercially available systems or due to the lack of essential knowledge in the field of optics to develop custom-made scanners that suit specific applications. This paper aims to provide a detailed discussion on the design and development process of a typical SD-OCT scanner. The effects of multiple ...

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    15. Correlation of Serum Uric Acid Levels with Nonculprit Plaque Instability in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Correlation of Serum Uric Acid Levels with Nonculprit Plaque Instability in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the correlation between SUA level and coronary plaque instability has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SUA level and plaque instability of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS using optical coherence tomography. A total of 150 patients with ACS who underwent 3-vessel optical coherence tomography were selected. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. There was a trend towards a thinner fibrous cap (0.15 ...

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    16. Changes in Flow Density Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after iStent Insertion in Combination with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Changes in Flow Density Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after iStent Insertion in Combination with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Purpose . To evaluate changes in flow density after the implantation of a trabecular microbypass stent (iStent) in combination with cataract surgery. Methods . A total of 48 eyes of 48 patients, who underwent either cataract surgery alone (cataract group) or cataract surgery with implantation of two iStent inject devices (iStent group), were prospectively included in this study. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and flow density data before and after surgery were extracted and analyzed. Results . In the iStent group, the mean IOP was 18.2 ± 3.3 mmHg prior to surgery and 13.2 ± 2.3 at follow-up, and this difference was statistically ...

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    17. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Laser Speckle Flowgraphy for the Diagnosis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma

      Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Laser Speckle Flowgraphy for the Diagnosis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma

      Purpose . To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods . Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with NTG and 25 eyes of 25 normal subjects matched for age, refractive errors, systemic blood pressure, and central corneal thickness were evaluated. OCT-A was used to measure whole image vessel density, inside disc vessel density, and peripapillary vessel density; using LSFG, mean blur rate (MBR) inside the whole optic nerve head (ONH) area (MBR A ), and MBR of the vessel area (MBR V ) and tissue area (MBR T ) inside the ONH, were determined ...

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    18. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Signal Analysis and Numerical Modeling

      Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Signal Analysis and Numerical Modeling

      In this work the theory of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal after sampling, in dispersive media, with noise, and for a turbid medium is presented. The analytical theory is demonstrated with a one-dimensional numerical OCT model for (single) reflectors, dispersive media, and turbid media. For dispersive media the deterioration of the OCT axial resolution is quantified analytically and numerically. The OCT signal to noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed in the Fourier-domain and simulated with the numerical model. For an SNR based on the OCT intensity the conventional shot noise limited SNR is derived whereas for an SNR based on ...

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    19. Automatic Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Level Set

      Automatic Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Level Set

      Automatic lumen segmentation from intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images is an important and fundamental work for diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. However, it is a very challenging task due to irregular lumen caused by unstable plaque and bifurcation vessel, guide wire shadow, and blood artifacts. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel automatic level set based segmentation algorithm which is very competent for irregular lumen challenge. Before applying the level set model, a narrow image smooth filter is proposed to reduce the effect of artifacts and prevent the leakage of level set meanwhile. Moreover, a ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 with Associated Subretinal Neovascular Membrane

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 with Associated Subretinal Neovascular Membrane

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a recently established noninvasive technology for evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The literature regarding the findings in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) is scarce. We report the OCTA findings associated with a subject with MacTel2 and secondary subretinal neovascularization (SNV). The commercially available Cirrus 5000 with AngioPlex (Zeiss, Jena, Germany) was used, without any subsequent image modification or processing. Subretinal neovascularization was detectable with OCTA at the level of the outer retina and choriocapillaris. Microvascular abnormalities associated with MacTel2 were present mostly in the deep capillary plexus of the retina temporally.

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    21. Comparison of Repeatability and Agreement between Swept-Source Optical Biometry and Dual-Scheimpflug Topography

      Comparison of Repeatability and Agreement between Swept-Source Optical Biometry and Dual-Scheimpflug Topography

      Purpose . To assess the repeatability and agreement of parameters obtained with two biometers and to compare the predictability. Methods . Biometry was performed on 101 eyes with cataract using the IOLMaster 700 and the Galilei G6. Three measurements were obtained per eye with each device, and repeatability was evaluated. The axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), white-to-white (WTW) corneal diameter, central corneal thickness (CCT), and lens thickness (LT) were measured and postoperative predictability was compared. Results . Measurements could not be obtained with the IOLMaster 700 in one eye and in seven eyes with the Galilei G6 due to ...

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    22. Detection of Silent Type I Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using En Face Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Detection of Silent Type I Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using En Face Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose . To evaluate the efficacy of SS-OCTA in the detection of silent CNV secondary to chronic CSCR compared to that of FFA and SS-OCT. Patients and Methods . A retrospective observational case series reviewing the clinical data, FFA, SS-OCT, and SS-OCTA images of patients with chronic CSCR, and comparing the findings. SS-OCTA detects the CNV complex and delineates it from the surrounding pathological features of chronic CSCR by utilizing the blood flow detection algorithm, OCTARA, and the ultrahigh-definition B-scan images of the retinal microstructure generated by swept-source technology. The bivariate correlation procedure was used for the calculation of the correlation matrix ...

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    23. Quantification of Macular Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Retinal Thickness in Myopic Eyes of Young Adults

      Quantification of Macular Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Its Relationship with Retinal Thickness in Myopic Eyes of Young Adults

      Purpose . To quantify macular vascular density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to investigate its relationship with retinal thickness in myopic eyes of young adults. Methods . In this cross-sectional study, 268 myopic eyes without pathological changes were recruited and divided into three groups: mild myopia ( ), moderate myopia ( ), and high myopia ( ). Macular vascular density was quantified by OCTA and compared among three groups. Average retinal thickness, central subfield thickness, and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness were also evaluated and compared. Correlations among these variables were analyzed. Results . There was no statistical difference in superficial (62.3 ± 5.7% versus ...

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    24. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

      Purpose . To report a case of bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) visualized utilizing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods . Case report. Results . A 29-year-old woman presented with new visual symptoms in both eyes. Fundoscopic exam revealed bilateral multifocal, small, well-defined lesions consistent with PIC. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated subretinal fluid and retinal pigment epithelium detachments (RPEDs) in both eyes. OCT-A revealed bilateral abnormal increased flow within the RPEDs consistent with CNV. Fluorescein angiography confirmed the presence of bilateral CNV. Conclusion . CNV secondary to PIC may be identified using noninvasive optical coherence tomography angiography.

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