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    1. Comparison of the Repeatability of Macular Vascular Density Measurements Using Four Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Systems

      Comparison of the Repeatability of Macular Vascular Density Measurements Using Four Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Systems

      The aim of this study was to compare the repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) measurements of macular vessel density using four OCT-A systems, including Heidelberg Spectralis HRA, Optovue RTVue XR, Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000, and Topcon DRI OCT Triton. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. The vascular density and vascular length density of the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses were imaged with OCT-A using 3 mm and 6 mm scan patterns and were calculated using ImageJ. Comparisons of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were conducted. We found that the OCT-A systems had various levels of repeatability ...

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    2. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Ellipsoid Zone Regeneration in Laser-Induced and Solar Maculopathies

      En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Ellipsoid Zone Regeneration in Laser-Induced and Solar Maculopathies

      The purpose of the study was to analyze imaging findings in spectral domain en face optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in patients with laser‐induced and solar maculopathies focusing on the possible regeneration of the ellipsoid zone. In a retrospective case series of 3 patients (4 eyes) with solar maculopathy and 2 patients (3 eyes) with laser‐induced maculopathy who underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, ellipsoid zone (EZ) was segmented from SD OCT data. Evaluation of EZ in en face OCT revealed a hyporeflective lesion surrounded by a hyperreflective border. The area of EZ alteration was measured manually in en ...

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    3. Association between Hyperreflective Foci on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Early Recurrence of Diabetic Macular Edema after Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implantation

      Association between Hyperreflective Foci on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Early Recurrence of Diabetic Macular Edema after Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implantation

      Purpose . To investigate the associations between hyperreflective foci (HRF) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and early recurrence of macular edema after intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implantation in eyes with refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) to bevacizumab. Methods . Medical records of patients with refractory DME to bevacizumab, who underwent intravitreal DEX implantation and 12-month follow-up, were reviewed. Eyes in which central subfield thickness (CST) increased over 50  μ m at 3 months compared with the first month after intravitreal DEX implantation were categorized into the early recurrence group, and the others were categorized into the late recurrence group. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Assessed Retinal and Choroidal Microvasculature Features in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Meta-Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Assessed Retinal and Choroidal Microvasculature Features in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Meta-Analysis

      Background . The aim of this study was to assess the retinal and choroidal microvasculature features using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods . This study was a meta-analysis of relevant published studies that were included after a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval was used to assess continuous variable outcomes. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the chi-squared test based on the values of and I 2 . Results . Seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The vessel density values measured in the superficial ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography May Help Distinguish Glaucoma from Suprasellar Tumor-Associated Optic Disc

      Optical Coherence Tomography May Help Distinguish Glaucoma from Suprasellar Tumor-Associated Optic Disc

      Purpose . This study aimed to differentiate patients with bilateral disc cupping associated with suprasellar tumor from patients with open-angle glaucoma by analyzing differences in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve. Methods . In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected data from the eyes of 25 patients with suprasellar craniopharyngioma or pituitary macroadenomas (group 1) and 35 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (group 2), seen between 2001 and 2015, all with a visual acuity of ≥20/40, for whom Stratus Time-Domain (TD) optic nerve OCT scans were available. The main outcome measures were the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography of Animal Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa: From Animal Studies to Clinical Applications

      Optical Coherence Tomography of Animal Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa: From Animal Studies to Clinical Applications

      Purpose . The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the findings of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of previously reported animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) associated with known genetic mutations and their background structural and functional changes. Methods . We reviewed previous publications reporting the SD-OCT findings of animal models of RP and summarized the characteristic findings of SD-OCT in nine different animal models ( RCS –/– , RHO P23H, RHO S334ter, RHO –/– , Rpe65 –/– , rp12, Pde6β –/– (rd1 and rd10), and Arr1 –/– ) of human RP. Results . Despite the various abnormal structural changes found in these different animal models, progressive thinning of ...

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    7. To Evaluate the Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Retinal and Choroidal Thicknesses Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      To Evaluate the Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Retinal and Choroidal Thicknesses Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To evaluate the retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using optical coherence tomography. Methods . The study included 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 26 age-matched healthy control groups. Detailed ocular examinations were performed on all participants. Cirrus EDI-OCT (enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography) was used for choroidal thickness measurements with frame enhancement software. The subfoveal area was used for choroidal thickness measurements. Results . The patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had an average 239.13 ± 57.77  μ m subfoveal choroidal thickness, and the control group had an average 285.02 ...

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    8. Effect of Hemodialysis on Anterior Chamber Angle Measured by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Effect of Hemodialysis on Anterior Chamber Angle Measured by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To investigate the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on the anterior chamber angle by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) and other ophthalmologic parameters in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Methods . A prospective observational study was performed on 20 patients who underwent HD for ESKD. Anterior chamber angle images were obtained by 16 mm line scan of ASOCT. The angle opening distance (AOD) and the trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were determined using the ImageJ program. Additional 12 mm horizontal and 9 mm vertical wide-field scans centered on the posterior pole were performed for the measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve ...

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    9. Varicella Retinal Vasculopathy: Unilateral Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion Despite Acyclovir Therapy Caught Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography (OCTA)

      Varicella Retinal Vasculopathy: Unilateral Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion Despite Acyclovir Therapy Caught Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography (OCTA)

      Varicella zoster is known to be associated with vaso-occlusive pathologies, vasculitis, or optic neuritis, leading to profound visual loss. We report a case where a 13-year-old boy who initially presented to us with on and off diminution of vision in his right eye since 3 days and had normal ocular and OCT angiography findings followed up in 5 days with sudden painless diminution of vision in the same eye since one day this time revealing a pale macular region with rest of the retina being normal. Repeated OCT angiography showed loss of the capillary network around the perifoveal region suggesting ...

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    10. Relationship between Neovascular Density in Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Signs of Activity in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Relationship between Neovascular Density in Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Signs of Activity in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose . To assess the relationship between signs of activity in exudative neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment and morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) based on neovascular density as imaged using swept source-optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in a qualitative manner. Methods . A single-cohort retrospective data analysis from one tertiary eye care center. Seventy-seven eyes of 72 patients were included and their charts reviewed which had been started on intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF for nAMD at least one year prior to enrollment. Clinically active disease was evaluated by slit-lamp fundus examination and spectral domain-OCT B-scans ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) in a Patient with Occult Retinal Dysfunction

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) in a Patient with Occult Retinal Dysfunction

      Multimodal imaging techniques were performed in a patient with a newly emerged visual field defect; a missing retinal lesion on fundus examination made the diagnosis challenging but infrared imaging showed a larger area of retinal abnormality temporal to the fovea. Indocyanine green angiography (IA) showed late hypofluorescence and there was mild hyperautofluorescence which is known from acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Despite normal fluorescein angiography (FA) results, a perfusion loss in the outer retinal layer was detected by OCT-A. Similar OCT-A findings were recently described in patients with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). Methods . The methods included FA and IA ...

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    12. Determination of Length of Interdigitation Zone by Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Sensitivity by Microperimetry and Their Relationship to Progression of Retinitis Pigmentosa

      Determination of Length of Interdigitation Zone by Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Sensitivity by Microperimetry and Their Relationship to Progression of Retinitis Pigmentosa

      Purpose. To investigate the annual progression of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) by changes in retinal sensitivity and length of photoreceptor microstructures. Method. The medical records of patients with typical RP followed at Chiba University Hospital were reviewed. The retinal sensitivity was measured by Micro Perimeter-1, and the lengths of the intact external limiting membrane (ELM), ellipsoid zone (EZ), and interdigitation zone (IZ) were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The baseline values and annual progression rates were determined. The significance of the correlations among these factors was determined by generalized estimating equation regression analysis. Results . Forty-six eyes of 24 patients who ...

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    13. Morphology of Peripheral Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities Imaged with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Morphology of Peripheral Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities Imaged with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      The objective of this study is to describe the clinical utility and morphologic characteristics of peripheral vitreoretinal interface abnormalities with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A prospective imaging analysis of 43 patients with peripheral vitreoretinal interface abnormalities seen on binocular indirect examination with scleral indentation was done. SD-OCT was evaluated for image quality and structural findings. Laser retinopexy was performed to surround all retinal breaks containing a full-thickness component via SD-OCT. Acceptable image quality for inclusion was obtained in 39/43 (91%) patients. Mean age was 41 ± 22 years, and mean follow-up was 14 ± 1.6 months. Decision to ...

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    14. Early Detection of Microvascular Changes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus without and with Diabetic Retinopathy: Comparison between Different Swept-Source OCT-A Instruments

      Early Detection of Microvascular Changes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus without and with Diabetic Retinopathy: Comparison between Different Swept-Source OCT-A Instruments

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has recently improved the ability to detect subclinical and early clinically visible microvascular changes occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare early quantitative changes of macular perfusion parameters in patients with DM without DR and with mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR) evaluated by two different swept-source (SS) OCT-A instruments using two scan protocols ( mm and mm). One hundred eleven subjects/eyes were prospectively evaluated: 18 healthy controls (control group), 73 eyes with DM but no DR (no-DR group), and 20 eyes with mild NPDR (DR ...

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    15. Changes in Retinal Vasculature and Thickness after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Changes in Retinal Vasculature and Thickness after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose . To evaluate the changes in retinal vessel density and thickness after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in myopic patients. Methods . In this prospective study, SMILE surgeries were done in 46 eyes of 24 patients with spherical equivalent (SE) more than −6.0 diopters ( D ). Retinal vessel density and thickness at the macula and optic nerve were recorded with OCTA before and 1 day, 2 weeks, and 1 month after surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and refraction were taken at the same time. Results . The superficial retinal vessel density and ...

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    16. Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the retinal vasculature in children, adolescent, and young adults with type 1 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients underwent funduscopic examination for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening during an annual visit for the screening of diabetes-related complications which included the evaluation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, lipid profile, arterial pressure, and neurological assessment. In addition, OCTA of the retinal vasculature was performed. Quantitative analysis of the OCTA images evaluated the vessel density at the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexus of the retina. Structural vascular alterations were evaluated qualitatively. Results were ...

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    17. Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis by Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon: Serial Assessment with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis by Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon: Serial Assessment with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives . We aimed to compare the results of neointimal modification before drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment with excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) plus scoring balloon predilation versus scoring balloon alone in patients presenting with in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background . Treatment of ISR with ELCA typically results in superior acute gain by neointima debulking. However, the efficacy of combination therapy of ELCA and DCB remains unknown. Methods . A total of 42 patients (44 ISR lesions) undergoing DCB treatment with ELCA plus scoring balloon (ELCA group, n = 18) or scoring balloon alone (non-ELCA group, n = 24) were evaluated via serial assessment by optical coherence ...

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    18. Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections on the Macular Microvasculature of a Diabetic Patient Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections on the Macular Microvasculature of a Diabetic Patient Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A 53-year-old female patient with center-involving diabetic macular edema affecting the left eye was imaged using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in both eyes. She underwent three monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections in the left eye only and OCTA was repeated in both eyes one month following the last injection and showed decreased vascular density (VD) in the treated left eye but not in the untreated right eye compared to baseline. No further injections were required in either eye, and OCTA was done in both eyes 4 months following the last injection which showed improved VD of the left eye with ...

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    19. Scheimpflug Camera and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Pachymetry Evaluation of Diabetic Patients

      Scheimpflug Camera and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Pachymetry Evaluation of Diabetic Patients

      Aim . The comparative analysis of the central and peripheral corneal thicknesses using two different imaging systems: Scheimpflug camera and swept-source OCT was performed to investigate the differences in corneal thickness analysis in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods . The study group consisted of the 147 eyes of 107 diabetic patients who were examined and compared with 138 eyes of 89 nondiabetic cataract patients. The inclusion criteria for the study group was diabetes mellitus type II identified no less than 10 years ago, with NPDR not requiring prior laser treatment. The control group was recruited from nondiabetic patients. Measurements were obtained on ...

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    20. Automated Detection of Macular Diseases by Optical Coherence Tomography and Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Automated Detection of Macular Diseases by Optical Coherence Tomography and Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Purpose . Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is essential for ophthalmologists, reading of findings requires expertise. The purpose of this study is to test deep learning with image augmentation for automated detection of chorioretinal diseases. Methods . A retina specialist diagnosed 1,200 OCT images. The diagnoses involved normal eyes ( ) and those with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( ), diabetic retinopathy (DR) ( ), epiretinal membranes (ERMs) ( ), and another 19 diseases. Among them, 1,100 images were used for deep learning training, augmented to 59,400 by horizontal flipping, rotation, and translation. The remaining 100 images were used to evaluate the trained convolutional neural network ...

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    21. Prediction of Causative Genes in Inherited Retinal Disorders from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Utilizing Deep Learning Techniques

      Prediction of Causative Genes in Inherited Retinal Disorders from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Utilizing Deep Learning Techniques

      Purpose . To illustrate a data-driven deep learning approach to predicting the gene responsible for the inherited retinal disorder (IRD) in macular dystrophy caused by ABCA4 and RP1L1 gene aberration in comparison with retinitis pigmentosa caused by EYS gene aberration and normal subjects. Methods . Seventy-five subjects with IRD or no ocular diseases have been ascertained from the database of Japan Eye Genetics Consortium; 10 ABCA4 retinopathy, 20 RP1L1 retinopathy, 28 EYS retinopathy, and 17 normal patients/subjects. Horizontal/vertical cross-sectional scans of optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at the central fovea were cropped/adjusted to a resolution of 400 pixels/inch with ...

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    22. Analysis of Enamel Loss by Prophylaxis and Etching Treatment in Human Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vitro Study

      Analysis of Enamel Loss by Prophylaxis and Etching Treatment in Human Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vitro Study

      Bonding of braces is an essential part in contemporary orthodontic treatment. For the proper strength of bracket bonding, enamel conditioning or surface treatment on tooth surface is required. Treatment on the tooth surface such as prophylaxis smoothing with pumice and enamel etching results in considerable damages to the enamel surface of the tooth. In this study, we have proposed optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive imaging technique for the evaluation of damage induced during such treatment procedures. Using depth intensity analysis of the obtained cross-sectional images, the damage resulting to the enamel surface was studied after prophylaxis smoothening and etching ...

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    23. New Insights into the Association between Fibrinogen and Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      New Insights into the Association between Fibrinogen and Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background . Fibrinogen levels have been associated with coronary plaque vulnerability in experimental studies. However, it has yet to be determined if serum fibrinogen levels are independently associated with coronary plaque vulnerability as detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods . Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who underwent coronary angiography and OCT in our department from January 2015 to August 2018 were included in this study. Coronary lesions were categorized as ruptured plaque, nonruptured with thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), and nonruptured and non-TCFA. Presence of ruptured plaque and nonruptured with TCFA was considered to be vulnerable ...

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    24. Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aim . To summarize the spectrum of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) features after full-thickness macular hole (MH) repair surgery. Methods . A PubMed engine search was carried out using the terms “Macular Hole,” “Optical Coherence Tomography,” and “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.” All reports published in English up to October 2018, irrespective of their publication status, were included. Tomographic signs analyzed were divided according to the involved portion of the retina in “inner retinal layers” and “external retinal layers.” Despite predominantly involving the inner retinal layers, cystoid macular edema (CME) has been treated as a separate entity. Finally, report ...

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