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    1. The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      Abstract Purpose. To characterize the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of the rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) in relation to the morphologic and electroretinographic features. Materials and Methods. Rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) were employed as a model of retinal degeneration. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as a wild-type control. SD-OCT (Micron IV®; Phoenix Research Labs, Pleasanton, CA, USA) was performed on the S334ter rats (line 4) from postnatal days (P) 13−110. The longitudinal changes of the SD-OCT images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in comparison to those of SD rats. The SD-OCT images ...

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    2. Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose . To evaluate the ability of new swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to detect changes in retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods . A total of 101 healthy and 97 MS eyes underwent retinal and choroidal assessment using SS Triton OCT (Topcon). Macular thickness and peripapillary data (retinal, ganglion cell layer (GCL+, GCL++) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness) were analyzed, including choroidal thickness evaluation. Results . Significant macular thinning was observed in all ETDRS areas ( ) in MS patients. Peripapillary retinal, RNFL, and GCL ++ thickness showed a significant reduction in patients in all sectors ...

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    3. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is a potentially life-threatening complication of cardiovascular interventions. The optimal management of iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is not clear; however, both conservative management and percutaneous or surgical revascularization have been performed depending on the patient’s clinical status and the extent of dissection. We present the first reported case of right coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure performed for ascending aortic aneurysm. Urgent percutaneous intervention using adjunctive coronary imaging was performed with excellent clinical recovery. In this article, we highlight coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure as a possible complication, provide an insight into various options ...

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    4. Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      This report describes the first case of extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen (EMAP) imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A 58-year-old Caucasian man presented with decreased central vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed large areas of macular atrophy centered on the fovea surrounded by diffuse reticular pseudodrusen. Spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) revealed outer retinal and choriocapillaris atrophy. OCTA demonstrated marked absence of choriocapillaris flow. Extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen is a rare clinical entity and a new extreme phenotype of macular degenerations that could shed more light on the role of pseudodrusen and choriocapillaris compromise in the pathogenesis ...

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    5. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Introduction . To evaluate the sectorial thickness of single retinal layers and optic nerve using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and highlight the parameters with the best diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing between normal and glaucoma subjects at different stages of the disease. Material and Methods . For this cross-sectional study, 25 glaucomatous (49 eyes) and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (35 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing. Sectorial thickness values of each retinal layer and of the optic nerve were measured using SD-OCT Glaucoma Module Premium Edition (GMPE) software. Each parameter was compared between the groups, and the ...

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    6. Analysis of Foveal Microvascular Abnormalities in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography with Projection Artifact Removal

      Analysis of Foveal Microvascular Abnormalities in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography with Projection Artifact Removal

      Abstract Purpose . To analyze foveal microvascular abnormalities in different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with projection artifact removal (PAR). Methods . We analyzed 93 eyes of 59 patients with diabetes—31 with no DR (no DR), 34 with mild to moderate nonproliferative DR (mild DR), and 28 with severe nonproliferative DR to proliferative DR (severe DR)—and 31 age-matched healthy controls. Sections measuring 3 × 3 mm 2 centered on the fovea were obtained using OCTA. The area, perimeter, and acircularity index (AI) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), vessel density within a 300  μ m wide ...

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    7. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      A little over two years ago, a hot new topic in retinal imaging caught the attention of ophthalmologists around the world. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), an innovative, fast, noninvasive, non-dye-based angiographic technique, quickly became a topic of great interest in major conferences and ophthalmology journals. Inquisitive minds applied the OCTA prototypes to understanding diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. The technology’s high resolution and ability to segment the different vascular layers provided novel insight into disease pathogenesis and morphology, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the ocular microvasculature in a level of anatomic detail that ...

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    8. Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      We report two cases of peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The first patient had prolonged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, while the second had inflammatory arthritis by laboratory findings without any systemic findings as well as possible concurrent tuberculosis. In both patients, AS-OCT demonstrated corneal thinning at the onset of the disease with improvement six months after initiation of intensive medical therapy. Our cases highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach and careful monitoring in PUK cases, especially with objective measures such as corneal thickness assessed with AS-OCT.

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    9. Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Chest pain and troponin elevation may be due to an acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, acute cardiomyopathy, or other less common conditions. Management differs depending on the aetiology, and the pathophysiologic diagnosis has direct implications on treatment and patient outcomes. History and clinical examination is supplemented by selected investigations including the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and even myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Intravascular imaging can provide important insights into the underlying mechanism of acute coronary syndromes, especially when angiography is ambiguous.

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    10. Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Purpose . To identify spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) predictive morphological features for the outcome of Ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods . This is a retrospective multicentric study that involved 64 eyes with naïve AMD. Patients who received three monthly intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab were stratified into (1) “responders” [≥ 5 letters gain on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale] and (2) “nonresponders” (< 5 letters gain). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SD-OCT morphological features were compared at baseline and one month after three consecutive injections of Ranibizumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate these ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Editorial: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a relatively new, noninvasive outpatient imaging test that provides both structural and functional information about the macula and midperipheral retina. OCT-A is complementary to traditional imaging modalities, such as fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Advantages of OCT-A include visualization of vascular flow signal, en face imaging, no need for dye injection, and segmentation of the posterior segment structures from the vitreomacular interface, through the retinal layers, and to the choroid. Disadvantages of OCT-A include increased costs and longer acquisition times than SD-OCT. Because of the longer ...

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    12. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF) underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods . Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years) were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral ...

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    13. The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      Purpose . We combined a clinical grading scale and swept source anterior segment OCT to describe the successful and failed CLASS. Material and Methods . 23 patients in the successful group and 17 patients in the failed group were compared in terms of the IBAGS grades and AS-OCT findings at one, three, and twelve months postoperatively. Results . The majority in the successful group presented shallow blebs (91%, 57%, and 52% at 1M, 3M, and 12M, resp.). 59% of the failed group presented no bleb (H0 E0) from the early postoperative period with the rate increasing to 88% at 3M and 100% at ...

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    14. Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We report the sequential changes of retinal vessels observed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a case of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that converted to ischemic CRVO. An 81-year-old woman visited our Retina Clinic because of visual acuity loss in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed venous tortuosity and intraretinal hemorrhage in all four quadrants of the fundus. OCT showed macular edema. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCTA showed loss of small capillaries. Nonischemic CRVO was diagnosed. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment resolved the edema and improved visual acuity. However, during follow-up, capillary dropout was observed on ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, noninvasive technology that enables detailed evaluation of flow in the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The authors believe this to be the first report to describe the optical coherence tomography angiography findings associated with combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Introduction . Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be a valid tool to detect choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), allowing the analysis of the type, the morphology, and the extension of CNV in most of the cases. Purpose . To determine the sensitivity and specificity of OCTA in detecting CNV secondary to nAMD, compared to fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods . Prospective observational study. Patients with suspected nAMD were recruited between May and December 2016. Patients underwent FA, ICGA, spectral domain OCT, and OCTA (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.). Sensitivity and specificity of FA, with or without ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      A case of retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) is presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Following treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, reduction of flow signal through the RAM is documented. OCT-A provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of at least some patients with RAM, without the need for traditional fluorescein angiography.

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Purtscher Retinopathy after Severe Traffic Accident in 16-Year-Old Boy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Purtscher Retinopathy after Severe Traffic Accident in 16-Year-Old Boy

      Purpose . To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in a case of Purtscher retinopathy. Methods . A 16-year-old male underwent ophthalmological examination including color fundus photography, spectral domain OCT, OCTA, and microperimetry. Examination was performed 10 days, 1 month, and 6 months after the trauma. Diagnosis was based on the characteristic clinical presentation. Patients . A single patient case. Results . Only the right eye was affected, and all examinations of the left eye were normal. The visual acuity of the right eye was 0.03 (Snellen equivalent) at 10 days and at one month, improving to 0.16 at 6 months ...

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    19. Management of Patients with Graves’ Disease and Orbital Involvement: Role of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Management of Patients with Graves’ Disease and Orbital Involvement: Role of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To investigate the role of choroidal thickness evaluation with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and enhanced depth imaging (EDI) technique in the management of patients with Graves’ disease and orbitopathy (GO). Methods . Thirty-six eyes of 18 patients with GO and 36 eyes of 18 age-matched control subjects were included in this retrospective observational study. All the subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation, including clinical activity score (CAS) and exophthalmometry. The SDOCT images of the choroid were obtained by EDI modality. Results . Choroidal thickness was significantly increased in GO than in control eyes ( ). A significant correlation was found between ...

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    20. Design and Implementation Guidelines for a Modular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner

      Design and Implementation Guidelines for a Modular Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scanner

      In the past decades, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has transformed into a widely popular imaging technology which is used in many research and clinical applications. Despite such fast growth in the field, the technology has not been readily accessible to many research laboratories either due to the cost or inflexibility of the commercially available systems or due to the lack of essential knowledge in the field of optics to develop custom-made scanners that suit specific applications. This paper aims to provide a detailed discussion on the design and development process of a typical SD-OCT scanner. The effects of multiple ...

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    21. Correlation of Serum Uric Acid Levels with Nonculprit Plaque Instability in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Correlation of Serum Uric Acid Levels with Nonculprit Plaque Instability in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the correlation between SUA level and coronary plaque instability has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SUA level and plaque instability of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS using optical coherence tomography. A total of 150 patients with ACS who underwent 3-vessel optical coherence tomography were selected. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. There was a trend towards a thinner fibrous cap (0.15 ...

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    22. Changes in Flow Density Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after iStent Insertion in Combination with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Changes in Flow Density Measured Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after iStent Insertion in Combination with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Purpose . To evaluate changes in flow density after the implantation of a trabecular microbypass stent (iStent) in combination with cataract surgery. Methods . A total of 48 eyes of 48 patients, who underwent either cataract surgery alone (cataract group) or cataract surgery with implantation of two iStent inject devices (iStent group), were prospectively included in this study. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and flow density data before and after surgery were extracted and analyzed. Results . In the iStent group, the mean IOP was 18.2 ± 3.3 mmHg prior to surgery and 13.2 ± 2.3 at follow-up, and this difference was statistically ...

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    23. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Laser Speckle Flowgraphy for the Diagnosis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma

      Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Laser Speckle Flowgraphy for the Diagnosis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma

      Purpose . To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods . Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with NTG and 25 eyes of 25 normal subjects matched for age, refractive errors, systemic blood pressure, and central corneal thickness were evaluated. OCT-A was used to measure whole image vessel density, inside disc vessel density, and peripapillary vessel density; using LSFG, mean blur rate (MBR) inside the whole optic nerve head (ONH) area (MBR A ), and MBR of the vessel area (MBR V ) and tissue area (MBR T ) inside the ONH, were determined ...

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    24. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Signal Analysis and Numerical Modeling

      Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Signal Analysis and Numerical Modeling

      In this work the theory of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal after sampling, in dispersive media, with noise, and for a turbid medium is presented. The analytical theory is demonstrated with a one-dimensional numerical OCT model for (single) reflectors, dispersive media, and turbid media. For dispersive media the deterioration of the OCT axial resolution is quantified analytically and numerically. The OCT signal to noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed in the Fourier-domain and simulated with the numerical model. For an SNR based on the OCT intensity the conventional shot noise limited SNR is derived whereas for an SNR based on ...

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