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    1. Comparison between the Correlations of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Defects in Standard Automated White-on-White Perimetry versus Pulsar Perimetry

      Comparison between the Correlations of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Defects in Standard Automated White-on-White Perimetry versus Pulsar Perimetry

      Purpose. To compare the structure-function relationships between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and visual field defects measured either by standard automated perimetry (SAP) or by Pulsar perimetry (PP). Materials and Methods. 263 eyes of 143 patients were prospectively included. Depending on the RNFLT, patients were assigned to the glaucoma group (group A: RNFL score 3–6) or the control group (group B: RNFL score 0–2). Structure-function relationships between RNFLT and mean sensitivity (MS) measured by SAP and PP were analyzed. Results. Throughout the entire group, the MS assessed by PP and SAP correlated significantly with RNFLT in all ...

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    2. Changes in Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Blood Flow after Oral Sildenafil: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Changes in Retinal and Choroidal Vascular Blood Flow after Oral Sildenafil: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose . To describe changes in the retina and choroidal flow by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) after a single dose of oral sildenafil. Method . A case-control study. Patients in the study group received 50 mg of oral sildenafil. Patients in the control group received a sham pill. Retinal and choroidal images were obtained at baseline (before pill ingestion) and 1 hour after ingestion. Central macular and choroidal thickness, choroidal and outer retina flow, and the retinal and choroidal vascular density were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Twenty eyes were enrolled into the study group and 10 eyes in ...

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    3. Prospective 3D Investigation of Bleb Wall after Trabeculectomy Using Anterior-Segment OCT

      Prospective 3D Investigation of Bleb Wall after Trabeculectomy Using Anterior-Segment OCT

      Purpose . We used three-dimensional anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (3D AS-OCT) to evaluate time-dependent posttrabeculectomy changes in bleb wall volume and intensity. Methods . This prospective observational study included patients with open-angle glaucoma who underwent fornix-based trabeculectomy between January 2012 and October 2012. Twenty-nine eyes met inclusion criteria, and the bleb walls of 22 were amenable to three-dimensional analysis by 3D AS-OCT for 1 year after surgery. The high-intensity volume ratio was calculated as the proportion of the high-intensity region in the total bleb wall. Changes in the high-intensity volume ratio were of high intensity, and parameters influencing the ratio were analyzed ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography Observation of Gonio Structures during Microhook Ab Interno Trabeculotomy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Observation of Gonio Structures during Microhook Ab Interno Trabeculotomy

      Introduction . Intraoperative observation of ocular structures using microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (iOCT) has been adopted recently. I report my initial feasibility assessment of iOCT for the incised trabecular meshwork observation during microhook ab interno trabeculotomy. Case Series . Both the nasal and temporal sides or either side of the trabecular meshwork/inner wall of Schlemm’s canal was incised more than 3 clock hours. After then, under observation using a Swan-Jacob gonioprism lens with the real-time 5-line scan mode, OCT images of the area were successfully acquired in 10 (83%) of 12 sides in nine eyes. Based on the appearance of ...

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    5. Longitudinal Changes in Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluated Using Avanti Rtvue-XR Optical Coherence Tomography after 23G Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Longitudinal Changes in Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluated Using Avanti Rtvue-XR Optical Coherence Tomography after 23G Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Objectives . The aim of this study is to evaluate longitudinal RNFL thickness changes in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and ILM removal using OCT RTVue XR 100 Avanti. Methods . Retrospective analysis of OCT scans of 40 patients who underwent PPV or combined phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for the idiopathic ERM has been carried out. The patients were divided into two groups for the study: patients with the ERM and OAG and those with ERM without glaucoma. A trend analysis of the RNFL thickness changes in 1 month and 3, 6 ...

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    6. Quantitative Analysis of Macular Inner Retinal Layer Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Optic Tract Syndrome

      Quantitative Analysis of Macular Inner Retinal Layer Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Optic Tract Syndrome

      Objective . To evaluate macular inner retinal layers using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to optic tract syndrome (OTS). Methods . Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with OTS were studied. The macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL), and mRNFL and GCL + IPL (GCC) were measured by SS-OCT (DRI OCT-1 Atlantis®).The scanned area was divided into eight regions and two hemiretinae. Each retinal thickness of the OTS group was compared with that of the 25 control subjects. Results . The GCC thickness in the ipsilateral eyes was significantly ...

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    7. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Fitting Using Ultra-Long Scan Depth Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Fitting Using Ultra-Long Scan Depth Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives . To evaluate the centration and movement of soft contact lenses and to verify the repeatability of two repeated measurements of the lens centration and movement using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT). Methods . A 1-day Acuvue® Define™ lens was tested on both eyes of 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age, 31.6 years). The centration and blink-induced movement of the contact lens were measured using UL-OCT at 5 min and 30 min after insertion. The measurements were repeated once at each checkpoint. Results . Good repeatability was found in the lens centration and movement between the ...

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    8. Assessment of Vascular Change Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A New Theory Explains Central Visual Loss in Behcet’s Disease

      Assessment of Vascular Change Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A New Theory Explains Central Visual Loss in Behcet’s Disease

      Objective . To evaluate retinal vascular structural change in ocular Behcet’s using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and fluorescein angiography (FA). Methods . An analytic cross-sectional study of 37 eyes of 21 Behcet’s uveitic patients was performed. Foveal retinal thickness (FRT), perifoveal hypoperfusion areas in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography and OCTA. FA images were used for assessing the vascular features and correlation. Results . Twenty-one patients were enrolled (52.4% males). The average age at onset was 36.7 ± 12.93 years. The median of disease duration was 5 ...

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    9. Simultaneous Fluorescein Angiography and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Correlate Retinal Thickness Changes to Vascular Abnormalities in an In Vivo Mouse Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Simultaneous Fluorescein Angiography and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Correlate Retinal Thickness Changes to Vascular Abnormalities in an In Vivo Mouse Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Background . Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a condition of abnormal retinal vascular development (RVD) in premature infants. Fluorescein angiography (FA) has depicted phases (early, mid, late, and mature) of RVD in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice. We sought to establish the relationship between retinal structural and vascular changes using simultaneous FA and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Method . 63 mice were exposed to 77% oxygen at postnatal day 7 (P7) for 5 days, while 63 mice remained in room air (RA). Total retinal thickness (TRT), inner retinal thickness (IRT), and outer retinal thickness (ORT) were calculated at early (P19), mid ...

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    10. Fully Automated Robust System to Detect Retinal Edema, Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, and Age Related Macular Degeneration from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Fully Automated Robust System to Detect Retinal Edema, Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, and Age Related Macular Degeneration from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Maculopathy is the excessive damage to macula that leads to blindness. It mostly occurs due to retinal edema (RE), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), or age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is the latest eye testing technique that can detect these syndromes in early stages. Many researchers have used OCT images to detect retinal abnormalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research that presents a fully automated system to detect all of these macular syndromes is reported. This paper presents the world’s first ever decision support system to automatically detect RE, CSCR, and ARMD ...

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    11. Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The ...

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    12. Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions ...

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    13. Retinal Vessel Density in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Atrophy after Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Retinal Vessel Density in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Atrophy after Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Aims . To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) retinal vasculature measurements between normal and optic atrophy after nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) subjects. Design . This prospective observational study was conducted between July 2015 and August 2016 at the ophthalmology outpatient department of a referral center in Taiwan. Peripapillary (4.5 × 4.5 mm) and parafoveal (6 × 6 mm) OCT-A scans were acquired. Measurements of the peripapillary region were obtained in two areas: (1) circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) and (2) whole enface image vessel density (wiVD). Results . 13 participants with optic atrophy after NAION had lower peripapillary vessel density than ...

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    14. A Correlation Study between Two Adjacent Same-Meridian Acupoints after Laser-Needle Acupuncture with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

      A Correlation Study between Two Adjacent Same-Meridian Acupoints after Laser-Needle Acupuncture with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

      This study is to investigate the correlations among Sanjian (LI3), Hegu (LI4), and Yangxi (LI5) acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints on the Yangming Large Intestine Meridian of Hand before and after laser irradiation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance spectra. The experiment was conducted on 10 healthy people. A 658 nm laser with 50 mW output power was used for irradiating LI4, LI5 acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints. As to LI4 acupoint with laser irradiation for duration of 15 or 45 minutes, the OCT backscattered light intensities of LI4 and LI5 acupoints increased significantly, and the reflectance intensities ...

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    15. In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. OCT images were obtained from the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats in control, model, and EA groups before modelling and 1 day, 8 days, 15 days, 22 days, and 29 days after modelling. Results demonstrated that the OCT signal of the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats was indistinct compared to 1 day after modelling and before modelling in the EA group. In the EA group, the light averaged attenuation ...

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    16. To Study and Determine the Role of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Corneal and Conjunctival Tumors

      To Study and Determine the Role of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Corneal and Conjunctival Tumors

      Purpose . To analyze and describe corneal and conjunctival tumor thickness and internal characteristics and extension in depth and size and shape measured by two noninvasive techniques, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Design . Systematic review. Methods . This systematic review is based on a comprehensive search of 4 databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Articles published between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2015, were included. We searched for articles using the following search terms in various combinations: “optical coherence tomography”, “ultrasound biomicroscopy”, “corneal neoplasm”, “conjunctival neoplasm”, “eye”, “tumor” and “anterior segment tumors”. Inclusion ...

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    17. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Purpose . To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods . Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument ...

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    18. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

      ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx) patients with coronary spasms and suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary spasms and sudden death are frequent complications after HTx. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are unknown. The present case displays the clinical course of a 19-year-old HTx patient who was hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction induced by severe coronary spasms. The patients remained unstable on conservative ...

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    19. Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To evaluate the correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and both age and refraction error in healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods . 80 healthy children with a mean age of 9.1 years (range 3.8 to 16.7 years) undergoing routine ocular examination at the orthoptic section of the Ophthalmology Department were recruited for this cross-sectional study. After applying cycloplegia, the peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured in both eyes using the Topcon 3D OCT 2000 device. Results . 138 eyes were included in the analysis. The average refractive error (SE) was +1 ...

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    20. Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography

      Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography

      Purpose . To compare fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods . The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FA and OCTA images were independently graded by 2 observers that reached agreement regarding quantitative DMI according established protocols. The ischemic area was divided into “large” macular ischemia (superior to 0.32 mm 2 ) and “small” (inferior to 0.32 mm 2 ) groups. Quantitative analyses of the FAZ were ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker for Diagnosis, Progression, and Prognosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker for Diagnosis, Progression, and Prognosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Neurodegenerative diseases present a current challenge for accurate diagnosis and for providing precise prognostic information. Developing imaging biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will improve the clinical management of these patients and may be useful for monitoring treatment effectiveness. Recent research using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has demonstrated that parameters provided by this technology may be used as potential biomarkers for MS, PD, and AD. Retinal thinning has been observed in these patients and new segmentation software for the analysis of the different retinal layers may provide accurate information on disease progression and ...

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    22. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

      Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

      Purpose . To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods . Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750  μ m from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm 2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 ...

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      Mentions: Vikas Chopra
    23. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

      Purpose . To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to image corneal vascularization. Methods . In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8  μ m and lateral resolution of 20  μ m. This was performed with manual “XYZ” focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image. En face scans were evaluated based on image quality score and repeatability. Results ...

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    24. Applications of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases

      Applications of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noncontact technology that produces high-resolution cross-sectional images of ocular tissues. Anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) enables the precise visualization of anterior segment structure; thus, it can be used in various corneal and ocular surface disorders. In this review, the authors will discuss the application of AS-OCT for diagnosis and management of various corneal and ocular surface disorders. Use of AS-OCT for anterior segment surgery and postoperative management will also be discussed. In addition, application of the device for research using human data and animal models will be introduced.

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