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    1. Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The ...

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    2. Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions ...

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    3. Retinal Vessel Density in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Atrophy after Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Retinal Vessel Density in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Atrophy after Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Aims . To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) retinal vasculature measurements between normal and optic atrophy after nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) subjects. Design . This prospective observational study was conducted between July 2015 and August 2016 at the ophthalmology outpatient department of a referral center in Taiwan. Peripapillary (4.5 × 4.5 mm) and parafoveal (6 × 6 mm) OCT-A scans were acquired. Measurements of the peripapillary region were obtained in two areas: (1) circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) and (2) whole enface image vessel density (wiVD). Results . 13 participants with optic atrophy after NAION had lower peripapillary vessel density than ...

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    4. A Correlation Study between Two Adjacent Same-Meridian Acupoints after Laser-Needle Acupuncture with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

      A Correlation Study between Two Adjacent Same-Meridian Acupoints after Laser-Needle Acupuncture with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

      This study is to investigate the correlations among Sanjian (LI3), Hegu (LI4), and Yangxi (LI5) acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints on the Yangming Large Intestine Meridian of Hand before and after laser irradiation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance spectra. The experiment was conducted on 10 healthy people. A 658 nm laser with 50 mW output power was used for irradiating LI4, LI5 acupoints and their corresponding nonacupoints. As to LI4 acupoint with laser irradiation for duration of 15 or 45 minutes, the OCT backscattered light intensities of LI4 and LI5 acupoints increased significantly, and the reflectance intensities ...

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    5. In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. OCT images were obtained from the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats in control, model, and EA groups before modelling and 1 day, 8 days, 15 days, 22 days, and 29 days after modelling. Results demonstrated that the OCT signal of the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats was indistinct compared to 1 day after modelling and before modelling in the EA group. In the EA group, the light averaged attenuation ...

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    6. To Study and Determine the Role of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Corneal and Conjunctival Tumors

      To Study and Determine the Role of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Corneal and Conjunctival Tumors

      Purpose . To analyze and describe corneal and conjunctival tumor thickness and internal characteristics and extension in depth and size and shape measured by two noninvasive techniques, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Design . Systematic review. Methods . This systematic review is based on a comprehensive search of 4 databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Articles published between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2015, were included. We searched for articles using the following search terms in various combinations: “optical coherence tomography”, “ultrasound biomicroscopy”, “corneal neoplasm”, “conjunctival neoplasm”, “eye”, “tumor” and “anterior segment tumors”. Inclusion ...

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    7. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Purpose . To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods . Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument ...

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    8. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

      ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx) patients with coronary spasms and suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary spasms and sudden death are frequent complications after HTx. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are unknown. The present case displays the clinical course of a 19-year-old HTx patient who was hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction induced by severe coronary spasms. The patients remained unstable on conservative ...

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    9. Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To evaluate the correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and both age and refraction error in healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods . 80 healthy children with a mean age of 9.1 years (range 3.8 to 16.7 years) undergoing routine ocular examination at the orthoptic section of the Ophthalmology Department were recruited for this cross-sectional study. After applying cycloplegia, the peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured in both eyes using the Topcon 3D OCT 2000 device. Results . 138 eyes were included in the analysis. The average refractive error (SE) was +1 ...

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    10. Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography

      Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography

      Purpose . To compare fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods . The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FA and OCTA images were independently graded by 2 observers that reached agreement regarding quantitative DMI according established protocols. The ischemic area was divided into “large” macular ischemia (superior to 0.32 mm 2 ) and “small” (inferior to 0.32 mm 2 ) groups. Quantitative analyses of the FAZ were ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker for Diagnosis, Progression, and Prognosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker for Diagnosis, Progression, and Prognosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Neurodegenerative diseases present a current challenge for accurate diagnosis and for providing precise prognostic information. Developing imaging biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will improve the clinical management of these patients and may be useful for monitoring treatment effectiveness. Recent research using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has demonstrated that parameters provided by this technology may be used as potential biomarkers for MS, PD, and AD. Retinal thinning has been observed in these patients and new segmentation software for the analysis of the different retinal layers may provide accurate information on disease progression and ...

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    12. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

      Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

      Purpose . To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods . Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750  μ m from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm 2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 ...

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      Mentions: Vikas Chopra
    13. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

      Purpose . To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to image corneal vascularization. Methods . In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8  μ m and lateral resolution of 20  μ m. This was performed with manual “XYZ” focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image. En face scans were evaluated based on image quality score and repeatability. Results ...

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    14. Applications of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases

      Applications of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noncontact technology that produces high-resolution cross-sectional images of ocular tissues. Anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) enables the precise visualization of anterior segment structure; thus, it can be used in various corneal and ocular surface disorders. In this review, the authors will discuss the application of AS-OCT for diagnosis and management of various corneal and ocular surface disorders. Use of AS-OCT for anterior segment surgery and postoperative management will also be discussed. In addition, application of the device for research using human data and animal models will be introduced.

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    15. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm 3 (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm 3 ). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients ( ). ACV ...

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    16. Quantitative Analysis of Lens Nuclear Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with a Liquid Optics Interface: Correlation between OCT Images and LOCS III Grading

      Quantitative Analysis of Lens Nuclear Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with a Liquid Optics Interface: Correlation between OCT Images and LOCS III Grading

      urpose . To quantify whole lens and nuclear lens densities using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a liquid optics interface and evaluate their correlation with Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) lens grading and corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA). Methods . OCT images of the whole lens and lens nucleus of eyes with age-related nuclear cataract were analyzed using ImageJ software. The lens grade and nuclear density were represented in pixel intensity units (PIU) and correlations between PIU, BCVA, and LOCS III were assessed. Results . Forty-seven eyes were analyzed. The mean whole lens and lens nuclear densities were 26.99 ...

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    17. Multivendor Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Dataset, Observer Annotation Performance Evaluation, and Standardized Evaluation Framework for Intraretinal Cystoid Fluid Segmentation

      Multivendor Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Dataset, Observer Annotation Performance Evaluation, and Standardized Evaluation Framework for Intraretinal Cystoid Fluid Segmentation

      Development of image analysis and machine learning methods for segmentation of clinically significant pathology in retinal spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), used in disease detection and prediction, is limited due to the availability of expertly annotated reference data. Retinal segmentation methods use datasets that either are not publicly available, come from only one device, or use different evaluation methodologies making them difficult to compare. Thus we present and evaluate a multiple expert annotated reference dataset for the problem of intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRF) segmentation, a key indicator in exudative macular disease. In addition, a standardized framework for segmentation accuracy evaluation ...

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    18. Central Corneal Thickness in Spectral-Domain OCT and Associations with Ocular and Systemic Parameters

      Central Corneal Thickness in Spectral-Domain OCT and Associations with Ocular and Systemic Parameters

      Background . Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows quantitative analysis of the anterior segment of the eye with a noncontact examination. The aim of this study is to analyze associations of central corneal thickness (CCT) as measured by OCT with ocular and systemic cardiovascular parameters. Methods . A cross-sectional study of 734 persons was performed in a working age population. Only healthy eyes were included. A comprehensive ophthalmological examination including refraction, noncontact tonometry, and imaging of the anterior segment by SD-OCT was performed. In parallel, a broad range of systemic cardiovascular parameters were measured. Associations were analyzed using a generalized estimating equations’ model ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Morbidly Obese Patients Who Underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Morbidly Obese Patients Who Underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

      Purpose . To investigate changes in optical coherence tomography parameters in morbidly obese patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods . A total of 41 eyes of 41 morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40) who had undergone LSG were included in study. The topographic optic disc parameters, central macular thickness (CMT), total macular volume (TMV), and retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured by enhanced deep imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Results . The mean CMT was   μ m,   μ m, and   μ m preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively, respectively ( ). The ...

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    20. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) corneal mapping. Methods . Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic ( ) and normal fellow eyes ( ) in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes ( ) in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results . Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all ): minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and ...

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    21. Use of Mechanical Turk as a MapReduce Framework for Macular OCT Segmentation

      Use of Mechanical Turk as a MapReduce Framework for Macular OCT Segmentation

      Purpose . To evaluate the feasibility of using Mechanical Turk as a massively parallel platform to perform manual segmentations of macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images using a MapReduce framework. Methods. A macular SD-OCT volume of 61 slice images was map-distributed to Amazon Mechanical Turk. Each Human Intelligence Task was set to 0.01 and required the user to draw five lines to outline the sublayers of the retinal OCT image after being shown example images. Each image was submitted twice for segmentation, and interrater reliability was calculated. The interface was created using custom HTML5 and JavaScript code, and ...

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    22. Differences in Central Corneal Thickness between Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Patients with Dry Eye Disease

      Differences in Central Corneal Thickness between Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Pachymetry in Patients with Dry Eye Disease

      Purpose . To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) values via Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with severe dry eye disease (DED) to determine the level of agreement between these 2 methods. Methods . The paired samples -test was used to compare CCT values in severe DED patients. Matching analysis between methods was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intrasession reliability of the measurement methods was calculated via the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), variation equivalent, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman procedure was used to graphically represent the differences between CCT values. Results . The study included 56 ...

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    23. Daily Optical Coherence Tomography Examinations after First Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections: An Interventional Case Series

      Daily Optical Coherence Tomography Examinations after First Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections: An Interventional Case Series

      Purpose. To evaluate daily spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) changes in naive-treatment patients with diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreous bevacizumab (1.25 mg), during a 30-day follow-up period. Methods. In prospective, interventional study, SD-OCT was performed daily for 30 days after the first intravitreal injection. The baseline, initial-decrease, minimal, and final central retinal thicknesses (CRTs) were assessed. Results. Nine eyes of nine patients with neovascular AMD were enrolled. The mean baseline CRT was   μ m, and the mean final CRT was   μ m (mean difference,   μ m), a difference that reached significance ( ). After the first injection, the initial ...

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    24. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Comparison with Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

      The Diagnostic Accuracy of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Comparison with Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

      Purpose. To describe the morphological characteristics and efficacy of OCTA in detecting CNV in nAMD. We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients (86 eyes) with suspected CNV secondary to wet AMD. All the patients underwent a multimodal assessment for CNV. Two independent readers calculated the sensitivity and specificity of OCTA in detecting CNV compared with FA. A qualitative analysis of OCTA was also performed to describe the morphological appearance of CNV. Among 86 eyes of 53 patients, 52 eyes were diagnosed as having CNV based on the FA imaging analysis. According to FA, CNV was classified as classic in 28 eyes, predominantly ...

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