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    1. Changes in Retinal Vasculature and Thickness after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Changes in Retinal Vasculature and Thickness after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose . To evaluate the changes in retinal vessel density and thickness after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in myopic patients. Methods . In this prospective study, SMILE surgeries were done in 46 eyes of 24 patients with spherical equivalent (SE) more than −6.0 diopters ( D ). Retinal vessel density and thickness at the macula and optic nerve were recorded with OCTA before and 1 day, 2 weeks, and 1 month after surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and refraction were taken at the same time. Results . The superficial retinal vessel density and ...

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    2. Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Analysis of Retinal Perfusion in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We performed a cross-sectional study to analyze the retinal vasculature in children, adolescent, and young adults with type 1 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients underwent funduscopic examination for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening during an annual visit for the screening of diabetes-related complications which included the evaluation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), microalbuminuria, lipid profile, arterial pressure, and neurological assessment. In addition, OCTA of the retinal vasculature was performed. Quantitative analysis of the OCTA images evaluated the vessel density at the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexus of the retina. Structural vascular alterations were evaluated qualitatively. Results were ...

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    3. Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis by Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon: Serial Assessment with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis by Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon: Serial Assessment with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives . We aimed to compare the results of neointimal modification before drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment with excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) plus scoring balloon predilation versus scoring balloon alone in patients presenting with in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background . Treatment of ISR with ELCA typically results in superior acute gain by neointima debulking. However, the efficacy of combination therapy of ELCA and DCB remains unknown. Methods . A total of 42 patients (44 ISR lesions) undergoing DCB treatment with ELCA plus scoring balloon (ELCA group, n = 18) or scoring balloon alone (non-ELCA group, n = 24) were evaluated via serial assessment by optical coherence ...

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    4. Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections on the Macular Microvasculature of a Diabetic Patient Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injections on the Macular Microvasculature of a Diabetic Patient Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A 53-year-old female patient with center-involving diabetic macular edema affecting the left eye was imaged using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in both eyes. She underwent three monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections in the left eye only and OCTA was repeated in both eyes one month following the last injection and showed decreased vascular density (VD) in the treated left eye but not in the untreated right eye compared to baseline. No further injections were required in either eye, and OCTA was done in both eyes 4 months following the last injection which showed improved VD of the left eye with ...

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    5. Scheimpflug Camera and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Pachymetry Evaluation of Diabetic Patients

      Scheimpflug Camera and Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Pachymetry Evaluation of Diabetic Patients

      Aim . The comparative analysis of the central and peripheral corneal thicknesses using two different imaging systems: Scheimpflug camera and swept-source OCT was performed to investigate the differences in corneal thickness analysis in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods . The study group consisted of the 147 eyes of 107 diabetic patients who were examined and compared with 138 eyes of 89 nondiabetic cataract patients. The inclusion criteria for the study group was diabetes mellitus type II identified no less than 10 years ago, with NPDR not requiring prior laser treatment. The control group was recruited from nondiabetic patients. Measurements were obtained on ...

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    6. Automated Detection of Macular Diseases by Optical Coherence Tomography and Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Automated Detection of Macular Diseases by Optical Coherence Tomography and Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Purpose . Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is essential for ophthalmologists, reading of findings requires expertise. The purpose of this study is to test deep learning with image augmentation for automated detection of chorioretinal diseases. Methods . A retina specialist diagnosed 1,200 OCT images. The diagnoses involved normal eyes ( ) and those with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( ), diabetic retinopathy (DR) ( ), epiretinal membranes (ERMs) ( ), and another 19 diseases. Among them, 1,100 images were used for deep learning training, augmented to 59,400 by horizontal flipping, rotation, and translation. The remaining 100 images were used to evaluate the trained convolutional neural network ...

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    7. Prediction of Causative Genes in Inherited Retinal Disorders from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Utilizing Deep Learning Techniques

      Prediction of Causative Genes in Inherited Retinal Disorders from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Utilizing Deep Learning Techniques

      Purpose . To illustrate a data-driven deep learning approach to predicting the gene responsible for the inherited retinal disorder (IRD) in macular dystrophy caused by ABCA4 and RP1L1 gene aberration in comparison with retinitis pigmentosa caused by EYS gene aberration and normal subjects. Methods . Seventy-five subjects with IRD or no ocular diseases have been ascertained from the database of Japan Eye Genetics Consortium; 10 ABCA4 retinopathy, 20 RP1L1 retinopathy, 28 EYS retinopathy, and 17 normal patients/subjects. Horizontal/vertical cross-sectional scans of optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at the central fovea were cropped/adjusted to a resolution of 400 pixels/inch with ...

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    8. Analysis of Enamel Loss by Prophylaxis and Etching Treatment in Human Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vitro Study

      Analysis of Enamel Loss by Prophylaxis and Etching Treatment in Human Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography: An In Vitro Study

      Bonding of braces is an essential part in contemporary orthodontic treatment. For the proper strength of bracket bonding, enamel conditioning or surface treatment on tooth surface is required. Treatment on the tooth surface such as prophylaxis smoothing with pumice and enamel etching results in considerable damages to the enamel surface of the tooth. In this study, we have proposed optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive imaging technique for the evaluation of damage induced during such treatment procedures. Using depth intensity analysis of the obtained cross-sectional images, the damage resulting to the enamel surface was studied after prophylaxis smoothening and etching ...

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    9. New Insights into the Association between Fibrinogen and Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      New Insights into the Association between Fibrinogen and Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background . Fibrinogen levels have been associated with coronary plaque vulnerability in experimental studies. However, it has yet to be determined if serum fibrinogen levels are independently associated with coronary plaque vulnerability as detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods . Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who underwent coronary angiography and OCT in our department from January 2015 to August 2018 were included in this study. Coronary lesions were categorized as ruptured plaque, nonruptured with thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), and nonruptured and non-TCFA. Presence of ruptured plaque and nonruptured with TCFA was considered to be vulnerable ...

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    10. Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Inner Retinal Layer and Outer Retinal Layer Findings after Macular Hole Surgery Assessed by means of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Aim . To summarize the spectrum of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) features after full-thickness macular hole (MH) repair surgery. Methods . A PubMed engine search was carried out using the terms “Macular Hole,” “Optical Coherence Tomography,” and “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.” All reports published in English up to October 2018, irrespective of their publication status, were included. Tomographic signs analyzed were divided according to the involved portion of the retina in “inner retinal layers” and “external retinal layers.” Despite predominantly involving the inner retinal layers, cystoid macular edema (CME) has been treated as a separate entity. Finally, report ...

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    11. Anterior Segment Biometry with Phenylephrine and Tropicamide during Accommodation Imaged with Ultralong Scan Depth Optical Coherence Tomography

      Anterior Segment Biometry with Phenylephrine and Tropicamide during Accommodation Imaged with Ultralong Scan Depth Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To investigate the influence of phenylephrine and tropicamide on anterior segment biometry with ultralong scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT) during accommodation. Methods . In this study, 20 left eyes of healthy volunteers with a mean ± standard deviation age of 31.05 ± 5.84 years and a mean refraction of −1.16 ± 1.11 diopters (range 0∼−3.0 D) were imaged using UL-OCT after instillation of artificial tears, phenylephrine, and tropicamide in three follow-up trials, respectively. At each follow-up trial, two repeated measurements were performed at states of relax and 5D accommodative stimulation. The dimensional parameters included central corneal ...

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    12. Glaucoma Diagnosis with Machine Learning Based on Optical Coherence Tomography and Color Fundus Image

      Glaucoma Diagnosis with Machine Learning Based on Optical Coherence Tomography and Color Fundus Image

      This study aimed to develop a machine learning-based algorithm for glaucoma diagnosis in patients with open-angle glaucoma, based on three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) data and color fundus images. In this study, 208 glaucomatous and 149 healthy eyes were enrolled, and color fundus images and volumetric OCT data from the optic disc and macular area of these eyes were captured with a spectral-domain OCT (3D OCT-2000, Topcon). Thickness and deviation maps were created with a segmentation algorithm. Transfer learning of convolutional neural network (CNN) was used with the following types of input images: (1) fundus image of optic disc in ...

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    13. Increased Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Retinal Structure Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Alport Syndrome Patients

      Increased Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Retinal Structure Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Alport Syndrome Patients

      Objective . To evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of pediatric Alport syndrome (AS) patients with no retinal pathology on fundus examination. Materials and Methods . Twenty-one patients being followed up with the diagnosis of AS (Group 1) and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Group 2) were prospectively evaluated. All participants underwent standard ophthalmologic examination, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis, and horizontal and vertical scan macula enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT). Statistical analysis of the data obtained in this study was performed with SPSS 15.0. Results . Macula thickness was significantly decreased in the temporal quadrant in Group 1 compared ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Choroidal Rupture Managed by Intravitreal Bevacizumab

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Choroidal Rupture Managed by Intravitreal Bevacizumab

      Purpose . To describe a case of a 25-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and to evaluate the vascular structure of the area near the traumatic choroidal rupture. Methods . The patient underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, anterior segment and funds examination, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at baseline and on each follow-up visit. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed at baseline. Intravitreal bevacizumab was administered at the time of choroidal neovascular membrane diagnosis. Results . At baseline, ophthalmoscopic examination of the left eye revealed four subretinal macular ...

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    15. Fully Automated Lumen Segmentation Method for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

      Fully Automated Lumen Segmentation Method for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background . Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an innovative imaging technique that generates high-resolution intracoronary images. In the last few years, the need for more precise analysis regarding coronary artery disease to achieve optimal treatment has made intravascular imaging an area of primary importance in interventional cardiology. One of the main challenges in OCT image analysis is the accurate detection of lumen which is significant for the further prognosis. Method . In this research, we present a new approach to the segmentation of lumen in OCT images. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Central Corneal Opacity in the Pediatric Population

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Central Corneal Opacity in the Pediatric Population

      Purpose . To report the outcomes of optical coherence tomography- (OCT-) guided transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for central corneal opacity in the pediatric population. Methods . The charts of 10 eyes of 8 children aged 9 to 17 with central corneal opacity from various pathologies who underwent a standardized OCT-guided transepithelial PTK technique at a single private practice institution were retrospectively reviewed. The corneal topographic findings, OCT measurements, and visual results with refractive outcomes were analyzed 6 months after the PTK treatment. Results . All 10 eyes tolerated the procedure well without any significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual ...

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    17. Application of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Objectively Evaluate Posterior Capsular Opacity In Vivo

      Application of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Objectively Evaluate Posterior Capsular Opacity In Vivo

      Objectives . To objectively evaluate posterior capsular opacification (PCO) with RTVue-100 spectral domain-OCT and assess the agreement with the Pentacam system. Methods . Sixty-seven eyes diagnosed with PCO were included. RTVue-100 SD-OCT was used to scan the IOL outline and PCO at horizontal and vertical meridians. PCO was also imaged with a Pentacam and slit-lamp photography system. With RTVue-100 SD-OCT, the PCO area, thickness, density, and objective scores were recorded and used to evaluate the severity of PCO at 3 mm and 5 mm diameter ranges of the IOL optic region. We assessed the correlation of visual acuity, PCO characteristics, and PCO ...

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    18. Analysis in Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis in Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives . The objective of the study is to observe changes in choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods . The right eyes of 36 patients (27 females and 9 males) with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) and those of 36 age-, gender-, and diopter-level-matched healthy participants were evaluated. The patients’ data were obtained within 3 months after the onset of Graves’ disease (GD). Thyroid hormone levels and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured, and the degree of exophthalmos was measured in all patients. Activity is measured by the clinical activity score (CAS). A ...

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    19. A Case Series of Bowen’s Disease Treated with the Combination of Cryosurgery and Ingenol Mebutate and Followed Up with Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Case Series of Bowen’s Disease Treated with the Combination of Cryosurgery and Ingenol Mebutate and Followed Up with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Bowen’s disease (BD) is a relatively rare in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a limited potential of becoming invasive. Ingenol mebutate (IM) was relatively successful for the treatment of BD lesions in small case series. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method for the diagnosis of cutaneous keratinocytic carcinomas, including BD. Herein we report the treatment of BD with the combination of cryosurgery and IM and the application of OCT imagining in treatment monitoring. Patients treated within a period of 12 months are retrospectively compiled. Treatment consisted of a mild cryosurgery session (liquid N 2 , open spray ...

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    20. The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      Abstract Purpose. To characterize the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of the rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) in relation to the morphologic and electroretinographic features. Materials and Methods. Rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) were employed as a model of retinal degeneration. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as a wild-type control. SD-OCT (Micron IV®; Phoenix Research Labs, Pleasanton, CA, USA) was performed on the S334ter rats (line 4) from postnatal days (P) 13−110. The longitudinal changes of the SD-OCT images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in comparison to those of SD rats. The SD-OCT images ...

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    21. Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose . To evaluate the ability of new swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to detect changes in retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods . A total of 101 healthy and 97 MS eyes underwent retinal and choroidal assessment using SS Triton OCT (Topcon). Macular thickness and peripapillary data (retinal, ganglion cell layer (GCL+, GCL++) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness) were analyzed, including choroidal thickness evaluation. Results . Significant macular thinning was observed in all ETDRS areas ( ) in MS patients. Peripapillary retinal, RNFL, and GCL ++ thickness showed a significant reduction in patients in all sectors ...

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    22. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is a potentially life-threatening complication of cardiovascular interventions. The optimal management of iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is not clear; however, both conservative management and percutaneous or surgical revascularization have been performed depending on the patient’s clinical status and the extent of dissection. We present the first reported case of right coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure performed for ascending aortic aneurysm. Urgent percutaneous intervention using adjunctive coronary imaging was performed with excellent clinical recovery. In this article, we highlight coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure as a possible complication, provide an insight into various options ...

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    23. Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      This report describes the first case of extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen (EMAP) imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A 58-year-old Caucasian man presented with decreased central vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed large areas of macular atrophy centered on the fovea surrounded by diffuse reticular pseudodrusen. Spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) revealed outer retinal and choriocapillaris atrophy. OCTA demonstrated marked absence of choriocapillaris flow. Extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen is a rare clinical entity and a new extreme phenotype of macular degenerations that could shed more light on the role of pseudodrusen and choriocapillaris compromise in the pathogenesis ...

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    24. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Introduction . To evaluate the sectorial thickness of single retinal layers and optic nerve using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and highlight the parameters with the best diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing between normal and glaucoma subjects at different stages of the disease. Material and Methods . For this cross-sectional study, 25 glaucomatous (49 eyes) and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (35 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing. Sectorial thickness values of each retinal layer and of the optic nerve were measured using SD-OCT Glaucoma Module Premium Edition (GMPE) software. Each parameter was compared between the groups, and the ...

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