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    1. Increased Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Retinal Structure Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Alport Syndrome Patients

      Increased Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness and Retinal Structure Changes on Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Alport Syndrome Patients

      Objective . To evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of pediatric Alport syndrome (AS) patients with no retinal pathology on fundus examination. Materials and Methods . Twenty-one patients being followed up with the diagnosis of AS (Group 1) and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Group 2) were prospectively evaluated. All participants underwent standard ophthalmologic examination, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis, and horizontal and vertical scan macula enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT). Statistical analysis of the data obtained in this study was performed with SPSS 15.0. Results . Macula thickness was significantly decreased in the temporal quadrant in Group 1 compared ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Choroidal Rupture Managed by Intravitreal Bevacizumab

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Evolution of Choroidal Neovascular Membrane in Choroidal Rupture Managed by Intravitreal Bevacizumab

      Purpose . To describe a case of a 25-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to traumatic choroidal rupture treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and to evaluate the vascular structure of the area near the traumatic choroidal rupture. Methods . The patient underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, anterior segment and funds examination, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at baseline and on each follow-up visit. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed at baseline. Intravitreal bevacizumab was administered at the time of choroidal neovascular membrane diagnosis. Results . At baseline, ophthalmoscopic examination of the left eye revealed four subretinal macular ...

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    3. Fully Automated Lumen Segmentation Method for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

      Fully Automated Lumen Segmentation Method for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background . Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an innovative imaging technique that generates high-resolution intracoronary images. In the last few years, the need for more precise analysis regarding coronary artery disease to achieve optimal treatment has made intravascular imaging an area of primary importance in interventional cardiology. One of the main challenges in OCT image analysis is the accurate detection of lumen which is significant for the further prognosis. Method . In this research, we present a new approach to the segmentation of lumen in OCT images. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Central Corneal Opacity in the Pediatric Population

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for Central Corneal Opacity in the Pediatric Population

      Purpose . To report the outcomes of optical coherence tomography- (OCT-) guided transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for central corneal opacity in the pediatric population. Methods . The charts of 10 eyes of 8 children aged 9 to 17 with central corneal opacity from various pathologies who underwent a standardized OCT-guided transepithelial PTK technique at a single private practice institution were retrospectively reviewed. The corneal topographic findings, OCT measurements, and visual results with refractive outcomes were analyzed 6 months after the PTK treatment. Results . All 10 eyes tolerated the procedure well without any significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual ...

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    5. Application of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Objectively Evaluate Posterior Capsular Opacity In Vivo

      Application of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography to Objectively Evaluate Posterior Capsular Opacity In Vivo

      Objectives . To objectively evaluate posterior capsular opacification (PCO) with RTVue-100 spectral domain-OCT and assess the agreement with the Pentacam system. Methods . Sixty-seven eyes diagnosed with PCO were included. RTVue-100 SD-OCT was used to scan the IOL outline and PCO at horizontal and vertical meridians. PCO was also imaged with a Pentacam and slit-lamp photography system. With RTVue-100 SD-OCT, the PCO area, thickness, density, and objective scores were recorded and used to evaluate the severity of PCO at 3 mm and 5 mm diameter ranges of the IOL optic region. We assessed the correlation of visual acuity, PCO characteristics, and PCO ...

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    6. Analysis in Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis in Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objectives . The objective of the study is to observe changes in choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods . The right eyes of 36 patients (27 females and 9 males) with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) and those of 36 age-, gender-, and diopter-level-matched healthy participants were evaluated. The patients’ data were obtained within 3 months after the onset of Graves’ disease (GD). Thyroid hormone levels and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured, and the degree of exophthalmos was measured in all patients. Activity is measured by the clinical activity score (CAS). A ...

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    7. A Case Series of Bowen’s Disease Treated with the Combination of Cryosurgery and Ingenol Mebutate and Followed Up with Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Case Series of Bowen’s Disease Treated with the Combination of Cryosurgery and Ingenol Mebutate and Followed Up with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Bowen’s disease (BD) is a relatively rare in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a limited potential of becoming invasive. Ingenol mebutate (IM) was relatively successful for the treatment of BD lesions in small case series. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method for the diagnosis of cutaneous keratinocytic carcinomas, including BD. Herein we report the treatment of BD with the combination of cryosurgery and IM and the application of OCT imagining in treatment monitoring. Patients treated within a period of 12 months are retrospectively compiled. Treatment consisted of a mild cryosurgery session (liquid N 2 , open spray ...

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    8. The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings Associated with the Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration, Rhodopsin S334ter-4 Rats

      Abstract Purpose. To characterize the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of the rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) in relation to the morphologic and electroretinographic features. Materials and Methods. Rhodopsin S334ter transgenic rats (line 4) were employed as a model of retinal degeneration. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as a wild-type control. SD-OCT (Micron IV®; Phoenix Research Labs, Pleasanton, CA, USA) was performed on the S334ter rats (line 4) from postnatal days (P) 13−110. The longitudinal changes of the SD-OCT images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in comparison to those of SD rats. The SD-OCT images ...

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    9. Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Ability of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose . To evaluate the ability of new swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to detect changes in retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods . A total of 101 healthy and 97 MS eyes underwent retinal and choroidal assessment using SS Triton OCT (Topcon). Macular thickness and peripapillary data (retinal, ganglion cell layer (GCL+, GCL++) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness) were analyzed, including choroidal thickness evaluation. Results . Significant macular thinning was observed in all ETDRS areas ( ) in MS patients. Peripapillary retinal, RNFL, and GCL ++ thickness showed a significant reduction in patients in all sectors ...

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    10. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Iatrogenic Right Coronary Artery Dissection Post Bentall Procedure: A Case Report and Minireview

      Iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is a potentially life-threatening complication of cardiovascular interventions. The optimal management of iatrogenic coronary artery dissection is not clear; however, both conservative management and percutaneous or surgical revascularization have been performed depending on the patient’s clinical status and the extent of dissection. We present the first reported case of right coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure performed for ascending aortic aneurysm. Urgent percutaneous intervention using adjunctive coronary imaging was performed with excellent clinical recovery. In this article, we highlight coronary artery dissection after Bentall procedure as a possible complication, provide an insight into various options ...

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    11. Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

      This report describes the first case of extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen (EMAP) imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A 58-year-old Caucasian man presented with decreased central vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed large areas of macular atrophy centered on the fovea surrounded by diffuse reticular pseudodrusen. Spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) revealed outer retinal and choriocapillaris atrophy. OCTA demonstrated marked absence of choriocapillaris flow. Extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen is a rare clinical entity and a new extreme phenotype of macular degenerations that could shed more light on the role of pseudodrusen and choriocapillaris compromise in the pathogenesis ...

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    12. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Macular and Optic Nerve Alterations in Patients with Glaucoma and Correlation with Visual Field Index

      Introduction . To evaluate the sectorial thickness of single retinal layers and optic nerve using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and highlight the parameters with the best diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing between normal and glaucoma subjects at different stages of the disease. Material and Methods . For this cross-sectional study, 25 glaucomatous (49 eyes) and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (35 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing. Sectorial thickness values of each retinal layer and of the optic nerve were measured using SD-OCT Glaucoma Module Premium Edition (GMPE) software. Each parameter was compared between the groups, and the ...

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    13. Analysis of Foveal Microvascular Abnormalities in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography with Projection Artifact Removal

      Analysis of Foveal Microvascular Abnormalities in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography with Projection Artifact Removal

      Abstract Purpose . To analyze foveal microvascular abnormalities in different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with projection artifact removal (PAR). Methods . We analyzed 93 eyes of 59 patients with diabetes—31 with no DR (no DR), 34 with mild to moderate nonproliferative DR (mild DR), and 28 with severe nonproliferative DR to proliferative DR (severe DR)—and 31 age-matched healthy controls. Sections measuring 3 × 3 mm 2 centered on the fovea were obtained using OCTA. The area, perimeter, and acircularity index (AI) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), vessel density within a 300  μ m wide ...

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    14. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography to Retinal Disease

      A little over two years ago, a hot new topic in retinal imaging caught the attention of ophthalmologists around the world. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), an innovative, fast, noninvasive, non-dye-based angiographic technique, quickly became a topic of great interest in major conferences and ophthalmology journals. Inquisitive minds applied the OCTA prototypes to understanding diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. The technology’s high resolution and ability to segment the different vascular layers provided novel insight into disease pathogenesis and morphology, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the ocular microvasculature in a level of anatomic detail that ...

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    15. Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

      We report two cases of peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The first patient had prolonged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, while the second had inflammatory arthritis by laboratory findings without any systemic findings as well as possible concurrent tuberculosis. In both patients, AS-OCT demonstrated corneal thinning at the onset of the disease with improvement six months after initiation of intensive medical therapy. Our cases highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach and careful monitoring in PUK cases, especially with objective measures such as corneal thickness assessed with AS-OCT.

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    16. Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis or Acute Coronary Syndrome? Optical Coherence Tomography to the Rescue

      Chest pain and troponin elevation may be due to an acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, acute cardiomyopathy, or other less common conditions. Management differs depending on the aetiology, and the pathophysiologic diagnosis has direct implications on treatment and patient outcomes. History and clinical examination is supplemented by selected investigations including the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and even myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Intravascular imaging can provide important insights into the underlying mechanism of acute coronary syndromes, especially when angiography is ambiguous.

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    17. Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab

      Purpose . To identify spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) predictive morphological features for the outcome of Ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods . This is a retrospective multicentric study that involved 64 eyes with naïve AMD. Patients who received three monthly intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab were stratified into (1) “responders” [≥ 5 letters gain on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale] and (2) “nonresponders” (< 5 letters gain). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SD-OCT morphological features were compared at baseline and one month after three consecutive injections of Ranibizumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate these ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Editorial: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a relatively new, noninvasive outpatient imaging test that provides both structural and functional information about the macula and midperipheral retina. OCT-A is complementary to traditional imaging modalities, such as fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Advantages of OCT-A include visualization of vascular flow signal, en face imaging, no need for dye injection, and segmentation of the posterior segment structures from the vitreomacular interface, through the retinal layers, and to the choroid. Disadvantages of OCT-A include increased costs and longer acquisition times than SD-OCT. Because of the longer ...

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    19. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF) underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods . Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years) were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral ...

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    20. The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      The CLASS Surgical Site Characteristics in a Clinical Grading Scale and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: A One-Year Follow-Up

      Purpose . We combined a clinical grading scale and swept source anterior segment OCT to describe the successful and failed CLASS. Material and Methods . 23 patients in the successful group and 17 patients in the failed group were compared in terms of the IBAGS grades and AS-OCT findings at one, three, and twelve months postoperatively. Results . The majority in the successful group presented shallow blebs (91%, 57%, and 52% at 1M, 3M, and 12M, resp.). 59% of the failed group presented no bleb (H0 E0) from the early postoperative period with the rate increasing to 88% at 3M and 100% at ...

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    21. Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      We report the sequential changes of retinal vessels observed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a case of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that converted to ischemic CRVO. An 81-year-old woman visited our Retina Clinic because of visual acuity loss in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed venous tortuosity and intraretinal hemorrhage in all four quadrants of the fundus. OCT showed macular edema. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCTA showed loss of small capillaries. Nonischemic CRVO was diagnosed. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment resolved the edema and improved visual acuity. However, during follow-up, capillary dropout was observed on ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, noninvasive technology that enables detailed evaluation of flow in the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The authors believe this to be the first report to describe the optical coherence tomography angiography findings associated with combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography versus Dye Angiography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sensitivity and Specificity Analysis

      Introduction . Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) could be a valid tool to detect choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), allowing the analysis of the type, the morphology, and the extension of CNV in most of the cases. Purpose . To determine the sensitivity and specificity of OCTA in detecting CNV secondary to nAMD, compared to fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods . Prospective observational study. Patients with suspected nAMD were recruited between May and December 2016. Patients underwent FA, ICGA, spectral domain OCT, and OCTA (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.). Sensitivity and specificity of FA, with or without ...

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    24. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm before and after Treatment

      A case of retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) is presented with multimodal imaging, including commercially available optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Following treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, reduction of flow signal through the RAM is documented. OCT-A provides useful information for the diagnosis and management of at least some patients with RAM, without the need for traditional fluorescein angiography.

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