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    1. The optoretinogram reveals the primary steps of phototransduction in the living human eye

      The optoretinogram reveals the primary steps of phototransduction in the living human eye

      Photoreceptors initiate vision by converting photons to electrical activity. The onset of the phototransduction cascade is marked by the isomerization of photopigments upon light capture. We revealed that the onset of phototransduction is accompanied by a rapid (<5 ms), nanometer-scale electromechanical deformation in individual human cone photoreceptors. Characterizing this biophysical phenomenon associated with phototransduction in vivo was enabled by high-speed phase-resolved optical coherence tomography in a line-field configuration that allowed sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to visualize the nanometer/millisecond-scale light-induced shape change in photoreceptors. The deformation was explained as the optical manifestation of electrical activity, caused due to rapid charge displacement ...

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    2. Tie2 activation promotes choriocapillary regeneration for alleviating neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Tie2 activation promotes choriocapillary regeneration for alleviating neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Choriocapillary loss is a major cause of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade for NV-AMD has shown beneficial outcomes, unmet medical needs for patients refractory or tachyphylactic to anti-VEGF therapy exist. In addition, the treatment could exacerbate choriocapillary rarefaction, necessitating advanced treatment for fundamental recovery from NV-AMD. In this study, Tie2 activation by angiopoietin-2–binding and Tie2-activating antibody (ABTAA) presents a therapeutic strategy for NV-AMD. Conditional Tie2 deletion impeded choriocapillary maintenance, rendering eyes susceptible to NV-AMD development. Moreover, in a NV-AMD mouse model, ABTAA not only suppressed choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular leakage but ...

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    3. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

      Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

      Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster . We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and ...

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