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    1. Conjunctival and Intrascleral Vasculatures Assessed Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Eyes

      Conjunctival and Intrascleral Vasculatures Assessed Using Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Eyes

      Purpose To investigate conjunctival and intrascleral vasculatures using anterior-segment (AS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal eyes. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods AS-OCTA images of the corneal limbus were acquired circumferentially using a swept-source OCT system in 10 eyes of 10 healthy subjects. AS-OCTA flow patterns with en face maximum projection were compared between the superficial (from the conjunctival epithelium to a depth of 200 μm) and deep (from a depth of 200 μm to 1000 μm) layers. The OCTA images were also compared with fluorescein scleral angiography and indocyanine green aqueous angiography images. Quantitative parameters (vessel density, vessel length ...

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    2. Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography of the Vitreopapillary Interface in Acute Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography of the Vitreopapillary Interface in Acute Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Purpose To use spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to assess whether epipapillary vitreous traction from evolving posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is mechanistically involved in the pathogenesis of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods.Setting Single academic center. Patient or study population Eighty eyes in 74 subjects presenting within 2 weeks of symptom onset of NAION. Intervention or observation procedures SD-OCT imaging of the optic nerve head, macula, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) were reviewed for PVD and vitreopapillary traction (VPT). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and incidence of PVD and VPT, logMAR best-corrected visual ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    3. Advanced optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of age-related macular degeneration complicated by onset of unilateral choroidal neovascularization.

      Advanced optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of age-related macular degeneration complicated by onset of unilateral choroidal neovascularization.

      Purpose To analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantitative features in patients affected by new-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in one eye and early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye. Design Case-control study. Settings Clinical Practice. Study Population Thirty patients and thirty age-matched controls. Observation Procedures Both cohorts underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination (Spectralis HRA; Heidelberg Engineering, Germany), OCT and OCTA scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corporation, Japan). The one-way ANOVA test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess statistical significance and ...

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    4. Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters among Vietnamese, Chinese, and Caucasians

      Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters among Vietnamese, Chinese, and Caucasians

      Purpose To evaluate the difference in anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters among ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese, and Caucasians Design Cross-sectional study Methods We prospectively recruited phakic non-glaucomatous participants (based on intraocular pressure <21 mmHg, normal optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber, and cup-to-disc ratio <0.6) of three ethnic groups— Vietnamese, Chinese, and Caucasians. AS-OCT parameters including angle (angle opening distance, trabecular-iris space area, and angle recess area), iris (iris thickness, iris area, and iris curvature (Icurv)), and anterior chamber parameters (anterior chamber depth, width (ACW), area, and lens vault (LV)) were obtained. A linear regression model with ...

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      Mentions: Shan C. Lin UCSF
    5. OCT-Angiography Quantitative Assessment of Choriocapillaris Blood Flow in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      OCT-Angiography Quantitative Assessment of Choriocapillaris Blood Flow in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose To investigate choriocapillaris (CC) blood flow in unaffected fellow eyes of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. Design Case-control study. Methods Patients with acute, recurrent or persistent CSC, along with healthy gender- and age-matched subjects were included. Objective assessment of CC blood flow was performed using OCTA measurements. Total area of flow signal voids was quantified at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Active serous retinal detachment (SRD) was considered as a potential source of false positive flow impairment, affected eyes were therefore excluded at onset and during follow-up, if this ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography angiography in intermediate uveitis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in intermediate uveitis

      Purpose To investigate the involvement of the retinal and choriocapillaris microvasculature in intermediate uveitis on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) Design Case-control study Methods Patients and age-matched controls were imaged with swept-source OCT-A (PLEX Elite 9000, Zeiss). Using ImageJ superficial and deep retinal vasculature were semi-automatically analyzed for vessel (VD) and skeleton density (SD), vessel diameter index (VDI) and fractal dimension (FD). Choriocapillaris layer was automatically graded for mean signal intensity, signal intensity standard deviation, kurtosis of signal intensity distribution and flow-signal-voids. Results Twentynine intermediate uveitis eyes and 30 control eyes were included. Both superficial and deep retinal layers showed ...

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    7. Reproducibility of Vessel Density, Fractal Dimension, and Foveal Avascular Zone Using 7 Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Devices

      Reproducibility of Vessel Density, Fractal Dimension, and Foveal Avascular Zone Using 7 Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Devices

      We applaud Corvi and associates for their well-powered study entitled “Reproducibility of vessel density, fractal dimension, and foveal avascular zone using 7 different optical coherence tomography angiography devices.”1 In this paper the authors compared quantitative retinal vascular parameters obtained with 7 different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) devices. Although we certainly appreciate this study, the authors failed to comment on some technical aspects that should be kept in mind when interpreting these results.

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    8. Characteristics of Neovascularization in Early Stages of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Characteristics of Neovascularization in Early Stages of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To classify retinal neovascularization in untreated early stages of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) based on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Thirty-five eyes were included. They underwent color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCTA examinations. Neovascularizations elsewhere (NVEs), neovascularizations of the optic disc (NVDs), and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs) were scanned by OCTA. The origin and morphology of NVE/NVD/IRMA on OCTA were evaluated. Retinal nonperfusion areas (NPAs) were measured using Image J software. Results In 35 eyes successfully imaged, 75 NVEs, 35 NVDs and 12 IRMAs were captured. Three proposed subtypes of ...

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    9. Color Fundus Photography, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Fluorescein Angiography in Diagnosing Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Color Fundus Photography, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Fluorescein Angiography in Diagnosing Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Purpose To determine sensitivity and specificity of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) diagnosis using color fundus photography (CFP), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) without indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA). Design Validity analysis. Methods Treatment-naïve eyes with serous/serosanguinous maculopathy undergoing CFP, OCT, FFA and ICGA imaging before treatment at a university-hospital in Thailand (January 2013 to June 2015) were identified. Images of each subject were categorized into 4 sets (set A: CFP; set B: CFP+OCT; set C: CFP+FFA; set D: CFP+OCT+FFA). Six graders, 3 from Thailand (PCV endemic area) and 3 from U.S ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Disc Swelling

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Disc Swelling

      Purpose To compare optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) of peripapillary total vasculature and capillaries in patients with optic disc swelling. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty nine eyes with acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), 44 eyes with papilledema, 8 eyes with acute optic neuritis, and 48 eyes of normal subjects were imaged using OCT-A. Peripapillary total vasculature information was recorded using a commercial vessel density map. Customized image analysis with major vessel removal was also used to measure whole-image capillary density and peripapillary capillary density (PCD). Results Mixed models showed that the peripapillary total vasculature density values were significantly ...

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    11. Automated segmentation of lesions including subretinal hyperreflective material in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Automated segmentation of lesions including subretinal hyperreflective material in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose To evaluate an automated segmentation algorithm with a convolutional neural network (CNN) to quantify and detect intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), pigment epithelial detachment (PED), and subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) through analyses of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images from patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Design Reliability and validity analysis of a diagnostic tool. Methods We constructed a dataset including 930 B-scans from 93 eyes of 93 patients with nAMD. A CNN-based deep neural network was trained using 11550 augmented images derived from 550 B-scans. The performance of the trained network was evaluated using a ...

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    12. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency. A Case Control Study

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency. A Case Control Study

      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of optical coherence tomography as a non-contact method for imaging the ocular surface in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and normal eyes. Design Retrospective case-control study. Methods: Setting Institutional. Study population 22 eyes with LSCD (study group, 22 patients) and 10 normal eyes (control group, 10 patients). Observation procedures SD-OCT and confocal microscopy in both the limbal and central corneal zones. Main outcome measures Pachymetry data from the central cornea, presence of the palisades of Vogt, limbal crypts and clear transition between the hyporeflective corneal epithelium and the hyperreflective conjunctival epithelium assessed on cross-sections parallel ...

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      Mentions: Kate Grieve
    13. Dense B-scan Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Dense B-scan Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To describe a novel imaging technique, we call “dense B-scan optical coherence tomography angiography” (DB OCTA) in which thin dense raster scans are used to produce highly resolved structural B-scans with superimposed flow signal that provide precise correlation between retinal microstructure and blood flow. Design Observational case series Methods Normal eyes and eyes with macular findings of interest were imaged with DB OCTA in which 150-400 OCT B-scans were acquired within a narrow area (from a single line to 1°) with a width of 10 to 30°. B-scans containing 5-7 consecutive frames were processed for OCTA signal and then ...

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      Mentions: K. Bailey Freund
    14. Inter-eye Asymmetry of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density in Bilateral Glaucoma, Glaucoma Suspect, and Healthy Eyes

      Inter-eye Asymmetry of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density in Bilateral Glaucoma, Glaucoma Suspect, and Healthy Eyes

      Purpose To investigate inter-eye retinal vessel density asymmetry in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and mild to moderate glaucoma subjects, and its potential utility for early detection of glaucomatous damage. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods 153 subjects including 55 healthy, 32 glaucoma suspect, and 66 glaucoma subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study(DIGS). Vessel density was obtained from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) macular and optic nerve head scans. Thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. Inter-eye asymmetry was calculated by taking the absolute ...

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    15. Analysis of Retinal Thinning Using Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Sickle Cell Retinopathy Eyes Compared to Age- and Race-Matched Control Eyes

      Analysis of Retinal Thinning Using Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Sickle Cell Retinopathy Eyes Compared to Age- and Race-Matched Control Eyes

      Purpose To determine whether the retina is thinner in sickle cell patients than in race- and age-matched controls, and, if it is thinner, whether there is any association with systemic diseases. Methods Sickle cell and control (age- and race-matched) patients were prospectively enrolled from a university retina clinic into this observational study. Participants underwent visual acuity testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated ophthalmoscopy, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Sickle cell retinal lesions, degree of vascular tortuosity, caliber of arteriovenous anastomosis, and stage of retinopathy were noted. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfield measurements were compared between sickle cell and control ...

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    16. Macular displacement after vitrectomy in eyes with idiopathic macular hole determined by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Macular displacement after vitrectomy in eyes with idiopathic macular hole determined by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To determine whether the macula is displaced after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in eyes with an idiopathic macular hole. Design A retrospective, observational case series Methods Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to obtain 3 mm × 3 mm en face images before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the vitrectomy with ILM peeling for 20 eyes of 20 patients with an idiopathic macular hole. The displacements of easily identifiable retinal vessel bifurcations were measured relative to the fovea and the optic disc. Results The distance between the optic disc and vessel bifurcations was significantly ...

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    17. Comparisons Between Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Periarterial Capillary-Free Zone

      Comparisons Between Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Periarterial Capillary-Free Zone

      Purpose To use the capillary-free zone along retinal arteries, a physiologic area of superficial avascularization, as an anatomic paradigm to investigate the reliability of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) for visualizing the deep retinal circulation. Design Validity analysis and laboratory investigation. Methods Five normal human donor eyes (mean age 69.8 years) were perfusion-labelled with endothelial antibodies and the capillary networks of the perifovea were visualized using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Regions of the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery were imaged using OCTA in 16 normal subjects (age range 24-51 years). 3x3mm scans were acquired using the RTVue XR ...

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    18. Assessment of lamellar macular hole and macular pseudohole with a combination of en face and radial B-scan optical coherence tomography imaging

      Assessment of lamellar macular hole and macular pseudohole with a combination of en face and radial B-scan optical coherence tomography imaging

      Purpose To investigate lamellar macular hole (LMH) and macular pseudohole (MPH) using a combination of en face and radial B-scan OCT. Design Retrospective observational case series. Methods Setting: Institutional study Patient Population En face and radial B-scan OCT images of 63 eyes of 60 patients diagnosed with LMH or MPH based on an international classification were reviewed. Observation Procedures Cases were classified using en face images based on the presence/absence of epiretinal membrane (ERM), retinal folds, parafoveal epicenter of contractile ERM (PEC-ERM), and retinal cleavage. We compared the en face imaging-based classification system with the international classification system using ...

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    19. Implantable Collamer Lens-sizing Method based on Swept Source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Implantable Collamer Lens-sizing Method based on Swept Source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To develop and evaluate the accuracy of a size -determination formula using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters. Design Interventional case series Methods This study included 46 eyes of 23 patients with implantable collamer lens (ICL). Preoperatively, the anterior segment parameters were measured using high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy and AS-OCT. Three-months postoperatively, the vaults were measured and the optimal ICL size was calculated using a previously published method. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using the optimal ICL size as a dependent variable; the NK-formula was obtained. Thereafter, 35 eyes of 18 patients were implanted with ICL after calculating ...

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    20. Retinal Vascular Impairment in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Assessed by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Vascular Impairment in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Assessed by Means of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To evaluate vascular abnormalities at superficial (SCP), deep (DCP) capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris (CC) in patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Design Cross-sectional case series. Methods Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients with BVMD (sixteen males) and 33 controls were consecutively enrolled. Patients were subdivided in classic stages and underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering), and 4.5x4.5-mm Swept Source OCT-A (Triton DRI OCT; Topcon Corporation). Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and capillary dilations were qualitatively assessed by two masked ophthalmologists ...

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    21. Long-term Progression of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Long-term Progression of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose To analyze the long-term growth patterns of type 1 neovascularization (NV) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Design : Retrospective cohort study. Methods Patients were enrolled from two eye centers and underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging with follow-up greater than 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was manually segmented on OCTA images and compared between time points. CNV growth was sub-divided into three categories based on OCTA area measurement: CNV doubling, modest growth of less than 50%, and shrinkage. These growth rates were correlated with OCTA morphologic features. Results : Forty-one eyes ...

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    22. Spending Money to Save Money on Patient Care—The Development of Ocular Coherence Tomography

      Spending Money to Save Money on Patient Care—The Development of Ocular Coherence Tomography

      The rising costs of medical care affect individuals' insurance coverage, shape the medical plans offered by companies, and challenge national policymakers. Several factors drive inflation, including the development and application of potent pharmaceuticals, interventional technologies, and advanced imaging. Ophthalmology patients have benefited tremendously from the novel application of new laser technologies, improved phacoemulsification machines, advanced intraocular lenses, and minimally invasive glaucoma surgery.

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    23. Estimating Public and Patient Savings From Basic Research—A Study of Optical Coherence Tomography in Managing Antiangiogenic Therapy

      Estimating Public and Patient Savings From Basic Research—A Study of Optical Coherence Tomography in Managing Antiangiogenic Therapy

      Purpose To compare patient and Medicare savings from the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in guiding therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) to the research investments made in developing OCT by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Design Observational cohort study. Methods Main outcome measures were spending by Medicare as tracked by Current Procedural Terminology codes on intravitreal injections (67028), retinal OCT imaging (92134), and anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment–specific J-codes (J0178, J2778, J9035, J3490, and J3590). These claims were identified from the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data ...

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    24. Impacts of Implantable Collamer Lens V4c Placement on Angle Measurements Made by Optical Coherence Tomography: Two-Year Follow-up

      Impacts of Implantable Collamer Lens V4c Placement on Angle Measurements Made by Optical Coherence Tomography: Two-Year Follow-up

      We appreciate the comments made by Galvis and associates regarding our recently published article in which we report anterior chamber angle narrowing in response to implantable collamer lens (ICL) placement. The mean angle narrowing observed was approximately 39%–41% for the whole population. In response to the first question, in patients with a vault larger than 750 μm, angle reduction was 55.2%–56.7%, compared with 34.7%–38.3% produced in patients with a vault ≤ 750 μm. It is well known that vault is an important determinant of anterior chamber angle, and, as we describe in our article ...

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