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    1. Effects of Age on Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density Determined Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Healthy Eyes

      Effects of Age on Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density Determined Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Healthy Eyes

      Purpose : To evaluate the effect of age on global and sectoral vascular parameters of the peripapillary area and macula in healthy eyes by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods : This retrospective cross-sectional study included 239 eyes of 172 healthy subjects. Subjects were scanned using the high-definition disc angio scan (4.5 × 4.5 mm), retina angio scan (6 × 6 mm), and optic nerve head/ganglion cell complex (GCC) modes of OCT-A. Global and sectoral circumpapillary vessel density (VD), parafoveal VD, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and GCC thickness parameters were modeled in terms of age by using linear mixed-effect ...

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    2. Comparison of Retinal Microvasculature in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Comparison of Retinal Microvasculature in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : Comparison of retinal microvasculature within the macula and the optic nerve head in the eyes of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and in a healthy control (HC) group, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 27 patients with AD, 27 with POAG, and 27 healthy controls were enrolled. The Mini-Mental State Examination test was used to assess cognitive function. Ophthalmic examination included OCTA, which was used for the imaging of vascular flow within the layer of radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs), and also in the superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and deep ...

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    3. Interspecies Variation of Outer Retina and Choriocapillaris Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Interspecies Variation of Outer Retina and Choriocapillaris Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this study is to assess with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) the interspecies variation of outer retinal morphology and identification of choriocapillaris in four research animal species. Methods : Spectralis HRA+OCT images acquired from locations dorsal, central, and ventral to the optic disc in healthy, anesthetized animals were evaluated by two independent readers. First, the number of OCT B-scans on which a choriocapillaris layer could clearly be identified was determined and quantified, and B-scans were correlated with histology. Second, B-scans demonstrating the highest number of discernable individual outer retinal bands (ORBs) were defined as ideal presentation ...

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    4. Volumetric Analysis of Vascularized Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachment Progression in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Volumetric Analysis of Vascularized Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachment Progression in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To analyze the evolution of type 1 neovascularization associated with vascularized serous pigment epithelial detachment (vsPED) using three-dimensional, volumetric, en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : This was a retrospective case series from four tertiary medical centers. OCTA images were analyzed at baseline and at the 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visit when available. Visual acuity, number of injections, PED maximal height and PED area and volume, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow area and progression were determined at each visit. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of CNV progression (including CNV/PED flow area) and final PED morphology ...

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    5. Evaluation of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer Change in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease With Multicontrast Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Layer Change in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease With Multicontrast Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Clinical evaluation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) change is important for the therapeutic management of chronic Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. We evaluated long-term change in the RPE layer in VKH disease, using near-infrared (NIR; 817 nm) images and autofluorescence images at 488 nm (short-wavelength [SW]-AF) and 785 nm (NIR-AF), and compared those images with images from multicontrast optical coherence tomography (MC-OCT). MC-OCT is capable of simultaneous measurement of OCT angiography, polarization-sensitive OCT, and standard OCT. Methods : We evaluated 24 eyes of 12 patients with chronic VKH disease. RPE changes were assessed using NIR, NIR-AF, SW-AF, and MC-OCT imaging performed ...

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    6. Retinal Vascular Changes During Pregnancy Detected With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiograph

      Retinal Vascular Changes During Pregnancy Detected With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiograph

      Purpose : To evaluate retinal vascular status during pregnancy by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Women in their third trimester of pregnancy and nonpregnant age-matched women were recruited for this prospective, case-control study. Subjects were imaged with OCTA. Main outcome measures were foveal avascular zone parameters, perfusion density (PD) percentage in the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP), PD percentage in the deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP), SCP vessel length density (VLD), DCP-VLD, and choriocapillaris (CC) flow voids (i.e., flow deficits in the CC). Results : Nineteen eyes of 10 pregnant subjects and 44 eyes of 27 nonpregnant control women ...

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    7. Regional Differences of Choroidal Structure Determined by Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Regional Differences of Choroidal Structure Determined by Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To compare the submacular to the perimacular choroidal structure in images obtained by wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods : Thirty eyes of 30 healthy volunteers (15 men) were studied. Twelve wide-field radial circumferential scans were recorded with enhanced depth imaging OCT from the macular and perimacular zones. The sizes of the luminal and stromal areas of the choroid were determined. The two zones were subdivided into the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sectors. The total choroidal area, the luminal and stromal areas, and the luminal ratio of each sector were compared. Results : All of the choroidal structural parameters analyzed ...

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    8. Impaired Retinal Vascular Reactivity in Diabetic Retinopathy as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Impaired Retinal Vascular Reactivity in Diabetic Retinopathy as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To assess retinal vascular reactivity in healthy controls and subjects with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods : A total of 22 healthy control eyes and 16 eyes with DR were enrolled. Images were acquired using a commercially available swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) system. Three conditions were tested for each patient (hyperoxia, hypercapnia, and room-air) by employing a non-rebreathing apparatus that delivered appropriate gas mixtures (100% O 2 , 5% CO 2 , room air). Vessel skeleton density (VSD) and vessel diameter index (VDI) were compared between the conditions using mixed-model ANOVA adjusting for age and hypertension. Significant gas or interaction effects ...

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    9. Impact of Posterior Sclera on Glaucoma Progression in Treated Myopic Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Reconstructed Optical Coherence Tomographic Images

      Impact of Posterior Sclera on Glaucoma Progression in Treated Myopic Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Reconstructed Optical Coherence Tomographic Images

      Purpose : To investigate factors associated with visual field (VF) progression in treated myopic normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) using a novel posterior sclera reconstruction method involving swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods : Fifty-six myopic patients on ocular hypotensive therapy with the diagnose NTG had five or more VF tests during a period of 72.63 ± 20.46 months in clinical follow-up. Glaucomatous VF progression was decided by the standards of Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial criteria. Coronally reconstructed OCT images were used to obtain the position of the deepest point of the eye (DPE), and parameterized the distance (Disc-DPE distance), depth (Disc–DPE ...

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    10. Air-Puff-Induced Dynamics of Ocular Components Measured with Optical Biometry

      Air-Puff-Induced Dynamics of Ocular Components Measured with Optical Biometry

      Purpose : To analyze the dynamics of all optical components of the eye and the behavior of the eyeball under air-puff conditions in vivo. To determine the impact of the intraocular pressure (IOP) on the air-puff-induced deformation of the eye. Methods : Twenty eyes of 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. The dynamics of the ocular components, such as the cornea, the crystalline lens, and the retina, was measured by a prototype swept source optical coherence tomography biometer integrated with the air-puff system. The system allows to acquire a series of axial scans at the same location as a function ...

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    11. Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density in Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Peripapillary and Macular Vessel Density in Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose : To evaluate peripapillary and macular vessel density in eyes with dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) and its correlation with visual function. Methods : Patients diagnosed as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) with or without DON and healthy participants were recruited. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography angiography centered on the fovea and the optic nerve head. Microvascular measurements were summarized as vessel density in the whole image and in each subfield. Visual function, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual field (VF), and visual evoked potential (VEP), were assessed for all TAO patients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Mice: Quantitative Analysis After Experimental Models of Retinal Damage

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Mice: Quantitative Analysis After Experimental Models of Retinal Damage

      Purpose : We implemented optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in mice to: (1) develop quantitative parameters from OCT-A images, (2) measure the reproducibility of the parameters, and (3) determine the impact of experimental models of inner and outer retinal damage on OCT-A findings. Methods : OCT-A images were acquired with a customized system (Spectralis Multiline OCT2). To assess reproducibility, imaging was performed five times over 1 month. Inner retinal damage was induced with optic nerve transection, crush, or intravitreal N -methyl-d-aspartic acid injection in transgenic mice with fluorescently labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Light-induced retinal damage was induced in albino mice. Mice ...

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    13. Characteristics of Diabetic Capillary Nonperfusion in Macular and Extramacular White Spots on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Characteristics of Diabetic Capillary Nonperfusion in Macular and Extramacular White Spots on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To compare the characteristics of macular and extramacular white spots on wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 107 eyes of 64 patients with DR, of whom nominal 12 × 12 mm SS-OCTA images centered on the optic disc and ultrawide field photographs were acquired. White spots on fundus photographs corresponded to hyperreflective lesions in the superficial en-face OCT images, and the characteristics of these white spots were investigated. We compared such OCT findings with the vertical and horizontal extents of nonperfused areas (NPAs) on OCTA ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Quantitative Assessment of Exercise-Induced Variations in Retinal Vascular Plexa of Healthy Subjects

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Quantitative Assessment of Exercise-Induced Variations in Retinal Vascular Plexa of Healthy Subjects

      Purpose : To assess the variations induced by exercise in retinal vascular density (VD), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and fractal dimension (FD) at the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexa in healthy subjects by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods : Consecutive healthy subjects were prospectively included into two groups, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years for group 1 and from 30 to 40 years for group 2. Data from 3 × 3-mm OCT-A acquisition centered on the macula at SCP and DCP (VD, FAZ area, and FD), heart rate, and systolic-diastolic blood pressure were collected before ...

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    15. Discordance of Disc-Fovea Raphe Angles Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography and MP-3 Microperimetry in Eyes With a Glaucomatous Hemifield Defect

      Discordance of Disc-Fovea Raphe Angles Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography and MP-3 Microperimetry in Eyes With a Glaucomatous Hemifield Defect

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance of a temporal raphe architecture estimated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and MP-3 microperimetry. Methods : We enrolled 25 eyes with either an upper or lower glaucomatous hemifield defect, as detected on the Humphrey visual field 30-2 test. A structural temporal raphe was extrapolated from visible end points of retinal nerve fiber bundles present in a perimetrically normal hemiretina on an en face Spectralis OCT image. A functional temporal raphe was drawn as a line from the fovea to the border of at least a 10-dB difference in sensitivity, at ...

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    16. Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters to Determine Severity in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters to Determine Severity in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to assess projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography (PR-OCTA) vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in determining severity within diabetic retinopathy (DR) and their accuracy in identifying high-risk DR patients. Methods : This was a retrospective study with 72 eyes of 52 DR patients, assessing the VD and FAZ area of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep vascular plexus (DVP), for both 3 × 3-mm and 6 × 6-mm scans between the DR groups (mild to moderate, severe and proliferative DR [PDR]). For accuracy, the severe and PDR groups were merged, representing the high-risk ...

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    17. Concentric Choriocapillaris Flow Deficits in Retinitis Pigmentosa Detected Using Wide-Angle Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Concentric Choriocapillaris Flow Deficits in Retinitis Pigmentosa Detected Using Wide-Angle Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : We investigate whether choriocapillaris deficits can be visualized in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using wide-angle swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and whether angiography or structure en face images depict a wider area of residual choriocapillaris. Methods : This cross-sectional study included 43 eyes of 43 consecutive patients with RP with a visual acuity ≥0.1, and 12 healthy eyes of 12 volunteers. Using an OCTA device (PLEX Eite 9000), we obtained angiography and structure en face images in the choriocapillaris. The residual choriocapillaris area in a 12 × 12 mm macular cube was measured manually. Results : In patients with ...

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    18. Factors Influencing Optical Coherence Tomography Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness: A Multicenter Study

      Factors Influencing Optical Coherence Tomography Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness: A Multicenter Study

      Purpose : To quantify peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) and the factors that influence it in healthy participants who represent the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population. Methods : A total of 362 healthy participants underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) enhanced depth imaging of the optic nerve head with a 24 radial B-scan pattern aligned to the fovea to Bruch's membrane opening axis. Bruch's membrane, anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO), and the anterior scleral surface were manually segmented. PCT was measured at 100, 300, 500, 700, 900, and 1100 μm from the ASCO globally and within 12 clock-hour ...

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    19. Hemodynamic Response of the Three Macular Capillary Plexuses in Dark Adaptation and Flicker Stimulation Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Hemodynamic Response of the Three Macular Capillary Plexuses in Dark Adaptation and Flicker Stimulation Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To assess retinal microvascular reactivity during dark adaptation and the transition to ambient light and after flicker stimulation using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Fifteen eyes of 15 healthy participants were dark adapted for 45 minutes followed by OCTA imaging in the dark-adapted state. After 5 minutes of normal lighting, subjects underwent OCTA imaging. Participants were then subjected to a flashing light-emitting diode (LED) light and repeat OCTA. Parafoveal vessel density and adjusted flow index (AFI) were calculated for superficial (SCP), middle (MCP), and deep capillary plexuses (DCP), and then compared between conditions after adjusting for age, refractive ...

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    20. Deep Learning for Prediction of AMD Progression: A Pilot Study

      Deep Learning for Prediction of AMD Progression: A Pilot Study

      Purpose : To develop and assess a method for predicting the likelihood of converting from early/intermediate to advanced wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and methods of deep learning. Methods : Seventy-one eyes of 71 patients with confirmed early/intermediate AMD with contralateral wet AMD were imaged with OCT three times over 2 years (baseline, year 1, year 2). These eyes were divided into two groups: eyes that had not converted to wet AMD ( n = 40) at year 2 and those that had ( n = 31). Two deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) were evaluated using 5-fold cross ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Papilledema Compared With Pseudopapilledema

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Papilledema Compared With Pseudopapilledema

      Purpose : The purpose of this study is to evaluate differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings between patients with papilledema and pseudopapilledema. Methods : In this prospective, comparative study, 41 eyes of 21 subjects with papilledema, 27 eyes of 15 subjects with pseudopapilledema, and 44 eyes of 44 healthy normal subjects were included and were imaged using OCT-A. In addition to peripapillary total vasculature maps obtained with commercial vessel density mapping, major vessel removal using customized image analysis software was also used to measure whole image capillary density and peripapillary capillary density (PCD). Peripapiilary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ...

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    22. Noninvasive Assessment of Corneal Crosslinking With Phase-Decorrelation Optical Coherence Tomography

      Noninvasive Assessment of Corneal Crosslinking With Phase-Decorrelation Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : There is strong evidence that abnormalities in corneal biomechanical play a causal role in corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus. Additionally, corneal crosslinking (CXL) treatment, which halts progression of keratoconus, directly appeals to corneal biomechanics. However, existing methods of corneal biomechanical assessment have various drawbacks: dependence on IOP, long acquisition times, or limited resolution. Here, we present a method that may avoid these limitations by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect the endogenous random motion within the cornea, which can be associated with stromal crosslinking. Methods : Phase-decorrelation OCT (PhD-OCT), based in the theory of dynamic light scattering, is a ...

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    23. Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To prospectively monitor microaneurysms (MAs) in three dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Methods : Patients with diabetes mellitus and parafoveal MAs were included in this longitudinal study. At baseline, MAs were identified in standard fluorescein angiography (FA) and subsequently imaged with an AOOCT prototype, incorporated into an AO fundus camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes) device. Imaging was repeated every 3 months in each patient to explore the potential structural change of MAs over time including size, shape, intraretinal position, (intra-) luminal reflectivity, and other qualitative morphologic characteristics. Results : We imaged 18 MAs in seven eyes (two left eyes ...

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    24. Diabetic Nonperfused Areas in Macular and Extramacular Regions on Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Diabetic Nonperfused Areas in Macular and Extramacular Regions on Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To investigate the nonperfused areas (NPAs) in each subfield segmented by large arterioles on wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) images in diabetic retinopathy. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 67 patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), for whom 12 × 12-mm SS-OCTA images centered on the optic disc were acquired. Both eyes were included in 34 patients. NPAs in the whole retinal layers were measured in each subfield segmented by large arterioles encompassing both the superficial and deep layers. We compared the percentage of NPAs between individual subfields, considering the ...

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