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    1. The Evolution of the Plateau, an Optical Coherence Tomography Signature Seen in Geographic Atrophy

      The Evolution of the Plateau, an Optical Coherence Tomography Signature Seen in Geographic Atrophy

      We read with interest the article by Tan et al. 1 entitled “The Evolution of the Plateau, an Optical Coherence Tomography Signature Seen in Geographic Atrophy.” We congratulate the authors for the excellent description of the origins and long-term evolution of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) feature named “plateau” in nascent geographic atrophy and for proposing its histologic correlate. Querques et al. 2 first reported this tomographic signature in geographic atrophy with the name of “wedge-shaped subretinal hyporeflectivity.” However, the authors renamed this finding for the following reasons. First, they raise concerns for having two “hyporeflective wedge'' descriptors in the ...

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    2. Effect of Gravity Acceleration on Choroidal and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Effect of Gravity Acceleration on Choroidal and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gravity acceleration on choroidal and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : Thirteen healthy volunteers who planned to participate in human centrifuge training as part of the flight surgeon selection process enrolled this study. During centrifuge training, gravity was gradually increased up to six times that of sea level. All subjects underwent complete ophthalmologic examination and three-dimensional wide-scanning SS-OCT imaging (DRI OCT-1 Atlantis; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). Imaging was performed before (baseline), immediately after, and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after centrifuge training ...

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    3. Association Between Hyperreflective Dots on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Edema and Response to Treatment

      Association Between Hyperreflective Dots on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Macular Edema and Response to Treatment

      Purpose : To investigate the association between hyperreflective dots (HRDs) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) or dexamethasone injection in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) or macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods : A retrospective review was conducted involving patients with DME or macular edema due to RVO. Patients with treatment-naïve macular edema were initially treated with three consecutive IVB injections and classified based on the treatment response to bevacizumab. After three consecutive IVB injections, bevacizumab nonresponders were treated using dexamethasone implants and reclassified based on the treatment response. The best-corrected ...

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    4. Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Corneal neovascularization, in particular lymphangiogenesis, is a limiting factor in corneal transplant survival. Novel treatment approaches focus on (selective) inhibition and regression of lymphatic vessels. Imaging clinically invisible corneal lymphatic vessels is a prerequisite for these strategies. Using a murine model, this study investigates whether corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT). Methods : Corneal neovascularization was induced by intrastromal placement of 11.0 nylon sutures in one eye of BALB/c mice. After 2 weeks, cross-sectional images and volumes of the corneas with a 0.5 mm lateral and axial field of view were ...

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    5. Diabetic Neuroglial Changes in the Superficial and Deep Nonperfused Areas on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Diabetic Neuroglial Changes in the Superficial and Deep Nonperfused Areas on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To evaluate the relationship between lamellar capillary nonperfusion on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and neuroglial changes on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 69 patients with DR. OCTA and OCT images within a 3 × 3-mm square centered on the fovea were acquired simultaneously. The nonperfused areas (NPAs) in the superficial capillary layer (sNPA) (from the nerve fiber layer [NFL] to the inner plexiform layer [IPL]), the deep layer (dNPA) (corresponding mainly to the inner nuclear layer [INL]), or both layers (bNPA) were measured individually along ...

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    6. Quantitative Analysis of Three Distinct Retinal Capillary Plexuses in Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantitative Analysis of Three Distinct Retinal Capillary Plexuses in Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To identify and quantify the three distinct retinal capillary plexuses and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in healthy subjects according to age using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with novel projection artifact removal (PAR) software and improved segmentation. Methods : All eyes in this cross-sectional study underwent OCTA imaging using RTVue XR Avanti with novel PAR AngioVue software. OCTA scans were analyzed and the three main parafoveal retinal capillary plexuses were segmented and vessel density and FAZ area were calculated. Results : A total of 152 normal eyes from 95 subjects (39 males, 56 females, mean age 42 ± 25 years) were ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Macular and Peripapillary Vessel Perfusion Density in Healthy Subjects, Glaucoma Suspects, and Glaucoma Patients

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Macular and Peripapillary Vessel Perfusion Density in Healthy Subjects, Glaucoma Suspects, and Glaucoma Patients

      Purpose : To evaluate macular and peripapillary vessel perfusion density (VD) in glaucoma suspects (GS) and glaucoma patients; to correlate ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses with macular and peripapillary VD; and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the structural and vascular parameters. Methods : A consecutive series of GS, glaucoma patients, and healthy subjects was prospectively recruited from July 1, 2016, to January 31, 2017. All subjects underwent standard automated perimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and 6 × 6-mm optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) centered on the fovea and optic nerve. Results : Forty controls ...

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    8. Foveal and Peripapillary Vascular Decrement in Migraine With Aura Demonstrated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Foveal and Peripapillary Vascular Decrement in Migraine With Aura Demonstrated by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : Migraine, particularly with aura, has been associated with ocular and systemic ischemic complications, but there are limited data on the ocular vasculature in migraine. We used optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to assess perfusion of the macula and optic nerve in migraine patients, with (MA) and without (MO) aura, compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods : We recruited 15 MA (mean age 42 years), 12 MO (mean age 46 years), and 22 HC (mean age 39 years) participants from neurology and neuro-ophthalmology clinics. Participants underwent optical coherence tomography and 3 × 3 mm OCTA of the macula and optic nerve. Foveal ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    9. Retinal Changes in Different Grades of Retinal Artery Occlusion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Retinal Changes in Different Grades of Retinal Artery Occlusion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose : To investigate layer-by-layer changes in retinal thickness and reflectivity regarding the severity grade of acute retinal artery occlusion (RAO) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods : This study is a retrospective, observational case-control series that took place in an institutional setting and included 148 eyes from 74 patients diagnosed with acute RAO (central or branch). SD-OCT examinations were taken at baseline. Based on OCT findings, RAO was categorized into three grades (incomplete, subtotal, total). The thickness and reflectivity of selected retinal layers were measured from SD-OCT images. The data were compared across the three grades and against the contralateral ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Evaluation of Geographic Atrophy Area Extension

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Evaluation of Geographic Atrophy Area Extension

      Purpose : To investigate the application of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in evaluation of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods : Patients with GA were prospectively enrolled and studied with blue fundus autofluorescence (FAF), en face structural OCT, and OCT-A. OCT-A images were acquired using a slab of whole choroid, whereas en face structural OCT images were obtained at the ellipsoid zone (EZ), at the choroidal (CH) level, and at the scleral (SC) level. Three readers independently measured the GA extension areas and evaluated the foveal sparing in each examination. Intraobserver/interobserver agreements and agreement between each ...

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    11. A Comparison of En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Autofluorescence in Stargardt Disease

      A Comparison of En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Autofluorescence in Stargardt Disease

      Purpose : To compare morphologic changes on en face images derived from wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) to hypo- and hyperautofluorescent (hypoAF, hyperAF) areas on short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF), and near-infrared (NIR)-AF in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods : Wide-field ssOCT cube scans were obtained from 16 patients (16 eyes). Averaged B-scans and SW-AF images were obtained using Spectralis HRA+OCT. NIR-AF images were obtained from 6 eyes. The inner/outer segment (IS/OS), OS/RPE, and RPE/Bruch's membrane boundaries were segmented, and en face slab images generated. A subRPE slab image was used to measure the abnormal RPE ...

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    12. Plateau Iris Distribution Across Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Defined Subgroups of Subjects With Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma

      Plateau Iris Distribution Across Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Defined Subgroups of Subjects With Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma

      Purpose : We previously identified three distinct subgroups of patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging. Group 1 was characterized by a large iris area with deepest anterior chambers, group 2 by a large lens vault (LV) and shallow anterior chamber depth (ACD), and group 3 displayed intermediate values across iris area, LV, and ACD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution of plateau iris in these subgroups using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) features. Methods : UBM images of the 210 subjects who were previously enrolled for the ASOCT subgrouping ...

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    13. Correlation Between Macular Integrity Assessment and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Ellipsoid Zone in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Correlation Between Macular Integrity Assessment and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Ellipsoid Zone in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2

      Purpose : To correlate ellipsoid zone (EZ) defects on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with retinal sensitivity loss on macular integrity assessment (MAIA) microperimetry in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Methods : Macular SD-OCT volumes and microperimetry maps were obtained during the international, multicenter, randomized phase 2 trial of ciliary neurotrophic factor for type 2 MacTel on two visits within 5 days of one another. Software was developed to register SD-OCT to MAIA scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images and to overlay EZ defect areas on the microperimetry maps generated from microperimetry sensitivity values at specific points and from interpolated sensitivity values. A total ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Spatial Bias of Macular Capillary Dropout in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Spatial Bias of Macular Capillary Dropout in Diabetic Retinopathy

      Purpose : Our purpose is to evaluate the spatial bias of macular capillary dropout accompanying diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : This study included 47 patients with diabetes and 29 healthy individuals who underwent OCTA. Retinal capillary flow density (FD) of 2.6 × 2.6 or 5.2 × 5.2 mm foveal area as well as the four divided areas (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal) without a foveal avascular zone (FAZ) at the superficial capillary plexus and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were measured respectively using ImageJ and NI Vision. Spatial biases of FD (orientation bias ratio and hierarchical ...

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    15. Validation of optical coherence tomography retinal segmentation algorithm in neuro-degenerative disease

      Validation of optical coherence tomography retinal segmentation algorithm in neuro-degenerative disease

      Purpose : This study compared the automated retinal segmentation software of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with manually corrected segmentation in order to guide and validate its use in a prospective clinical study of neuro-degenerative diseases (NDD). Methods : The sample comprised 30 NDD patients, including individuals with vascular cognitive impairment (n=13), frontotemporal dementia (n=6), Parkinson's disease (n=6) and Alzheimer's disease (n=5). Retinal SD-OCT scans were acquired for both eyes and then segmented using the Heidelberg Spectralis (Heidelberg, Germany) software (version 6.3.4.0). All SD-OCT scans had a quality score of 20 or ...

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    16. Mapping Retinal and Choroidal Thickness in Unilateral Nongranulomatous Acute Anterior Uveitis Using Three-Dimensional 1060-nm Optical Coherence Tomography

      Mapping Retinal and Choroidal Thickness in Unilateral Nongranulomatous Acute Anterior Uveitis Using Three-Dimensional 1060-nm Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To analyze retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (ChT) changes in patients with unilateral nongranulomatous acute anterior uveitis (AAU) using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods : Retinal and choroidal thickness maps were statistically analyzed for 24 patients with newly diagnosed unilateral AAU before therapy. A total of 17 patients were followed until resolution of inflammatory activity (twice in the first week, then weekly). Resolution occurred in all subjects within 6 weeks after the initial diagnosis. After resolution, thickness maps were again generated. All patients were imaged by high-speed spectral-domain (SD) 3D 1060-nm OCT over a 10 × 10-mm ...

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    17. Photoreceptor Layer Thickness Changes During Dark Adaptation Observed With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Photoreceptor Layer Thickness Changes During Dark Adaptation Observed With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To examine outer retinal band changes after flash stimulus and subsequent dark adaptation with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods : Five dark-adapted left eyes of five normal subjects were imaged with 3-μm axial-resolution UHR-OCT during 30 minutes of dark adaptation following 96%, 54%, 23%, and 0% full-field and 54% half-field rhodopsin bleach. We identified the ellipsoid zone inner segment/outer segment (EZ[IS/OS]), cone interdigitation zone (CIZ), rod interdigitation zone (RIZ), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) axial positions and generated two-dimensional thickness maps of the EZ(IS/OS) to the four bands. The ...

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    18. Cell Motility as Contrast Agent in Retinal Explant Imaging With Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Cell Motility as Contrast Agent in Retinal Explant Imaging With Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To use cell motility as a contrast agent in retinal explants. Methods : Macaque and mouse retinal explants were imaged with high resolution full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) and dynamic FFOCT, coupled with fluorescence imaging. Results : Static and dynamic FFOCT create complementary contrast from different structures within a cell. When imaging in vitro samples, static FFOCT detects steep refractive index gradients to reveal stationary structures including fibers, vessels, collagen, and cell contours, while dynamic FFOCT emphasizes metabolic activity of moving structures that are mainly intracellular, thus creating or enhancing contrast in cells that were previously hidden in noise. Dynamic ...

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    19. The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Properties of Outer Retinal Band Three Investigated With Adaptive-Optics Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Optical coherence tomography's (OCT) third outer retinal band has been attributed to the zone of interdigitation between RPE cells and cone outer segments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structure of this band with adaptive optics (AO)-OCT. Methods : Using AO-OCT, images were obtained from two subjects. Axial structure was characterized by measuring band 3 thickness and separation between bands 2 and 3 in segmented cones. Lateral structure was characterized by correlation of band 3 with band 2 and comparison of their power spectra. Band thickness and separation were also measured in a clinical OCT ...

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis Based Prediction of Humphrey 24-2 Visual Field Thresholds in Patients With Glaucoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis Based Prediction of Humphrey 24-2 Visual Field Thresholds in Patients With Glaucoma

      Purpose : A pilot study showed that prediction of individual Humphrey 24-2 visual field (HVF 24-2) sensitivity thresholds from optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis is possible. We evaluate performance of an improved approach as well as 3 other predictive algorithms on a new, fully independent set of glaucoma subjects. Methods : Subjects underwent HVF 24-2 and 9-field OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) testing. Nerve fiber (NFL), and ganglion cell and inner plexiform (GCL+IPL) layers were cosegmented and partitioned into 52 sectors matching HVF 24-2 test locations. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to test correlation R , root mean square error (RMSE ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Superficial Microvasculature in the Macular and Peripapillary Areas in Glaucomatous and Healthy Eyes

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Superficial Microvasculature in the Macular and Peripapillary Areas in Glaucomatous and Healthy Eyes

      Purpose : To quantitatively evaluate the superficial microvasculature in the macular and peripapillary areas in glaucomatous and healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods : We enrolled 26 eyes of medically managed primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 27 eyes of healthy subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Measurements of OCT-A vessel density were acquired both in the macular and peripapillary areas. We compared vessel density values, the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL), the ganglion cell complex (GCC), and standard automated perimetry (SAP) parameters across study groups. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were used to evaluate ...

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    22. Posterior Staphylomas in Pathologic Myopia Imaged by Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography

      Posterior Staphylomas in Pathologic Myopia Imaged by Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To examine posterior staphylomas by widefield optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI). Methods : Highly myopic patients (myopic refractive error >8.0 diopters or axial length >26.5 mm) who had previously undergone orbital 3D-MRI were examined by WF-OCT. Results : The study included 100 eyes of 57 patients with a mean age of 67.9 ± 10.7 years (range, 44–85 years) and mean axial length of 30.0 ± 2.3 mm (range, 25.1–36.5 mm). All staphylomas detected on the 3D-MRI, except for two very large staphylomas, were visualized on the WF-OCT images ...

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    23. Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Purpose : To compare the capability of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods : In this prospective study, patients with CNV detected with fluorescein angiography (FA) underwent ICGA and OCTA, spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT), and infrared or fundus color photographs. CNV lesions were outlined on ICGA and OCTA images, and the composition and size of the CNV was documented. Results : One hundred eighty-two eyes were included. With ICGA, well-defined lesions were observed in 37.9%, partly defined in 44.5%, and undefined in 17% of eyes. On OCTA, well-defined, partly defined, and ...

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    24. Reduced Retinal Vessel Density in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Reduced Retinal Vessel Density in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose : To examine the retinal vasculature in patients with obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and to determine the correlation between retinal vascularity and the severity of OSAS. Design : Prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods : Sixty-nine consecutive subjects who underwent polysomnography were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of OSAS, which was defined using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as normal-to-mild (AHI <15), moderate (≥15 to <30), or severe (≥30). The vessel densities, and macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses were compared among the three groups. The correlations between clinical variables (age, heart rate, body mass index ...

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