1. 1-24 of 602 1 2 3 4 ... 23 24 25 »
    1. Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity OCT laser

      Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity OCT laser

      We show, both experimentally and theoretically, that the loss of coherence of a long cavity optical coherence tomography (OCT) laser can be described as a transition from laminar to turbulent flows. We demonstrate that in this strongly dissipative system, the transition happens either via an absolute or a convective instability depending on the laser parameters. In the latter case, the transition occurs via formation of localised structures in the laminar regime, which trigger the formation of growing and drifting puffs of turbulence. Experimentally, we demonstrate that these turbulent bursts are seeded by appearance of Nozaki-Bekki holes, characterised by the zero ...

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    2. Depth-resolved birefringence imaging of collagen fiber organization in the human oral mucosa in vivo

      Depth-resolved birefringence imaging of collagen fiber organization in the human oral mucosa in vivo

      Stromal collagen organization has been identified as a potential prognostic indicator in a variety of cancers and other diseases accompanied by fibrosis. Changes in the connective tissue are increasingly considered for grading dysplasia and progress of oral squamous cell carcinoma, investigated mainly ex vivo by histopathology. In this study, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with local phase retardation imaging is used for the first time to visualize depth-resolved (i.e., local) birefringence of healthy human oral mucosa in vivo . Depth-resolved birefringence is shown to reveal the expected local collagen organization. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, 3D image stacks were acquired at labial ...

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    3. Measuring mechanical wave speed, dispersion, and viscoelastic modulus of the cornea using optical coherence elastography

      Measuring mechanical wave speed, dispersion, and viscoelastic modulus of the cornea using optical coherence elastography

      Acoustic wave velocity measurement based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising approach to assess the mechanical properties of biological tissues and soft materials. While studies to date have demonstrated proof of concept of different ways to excite and detect mechanical waves, the quantitative performance of this modality as mechanical measurement has been underdeveloped. Here, we investigate the frequency dependent measurement of the wave propagation in viscoelastic tissues, using a piezoelectric point-contact probe driven with various waveforms. We found that a frequency range of 2–10 kHz is a good window for corneal elastography, in which the lowest-order flexural ...

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    4. Localized compliance measurement of the airway wall using anatomic optical coherence elastography

      Localized compliance measurement of the airway wall using anatomic optical coherence elastography

      We describe an elastographic method to circumferentially-resolve airway wall compliance using endoscopic, anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) combined with an intraluminal pressure catheter. The method was first demonstrated on notched silicone phantoms of known elastic modulus under respiratory ventilation, where localized compliance measurements were validated against those predicted by finite element modeling. Then, ex vivo porcine tracheas were scanned, and the pattern of compliance was found to be consistent with histological identification of the locations of (stiff) cartilage and (soft) muscle. This quantitative method may aid in diagnosis and monitoring of collapsible airway wall tissues in obstructive respiratory disorders.

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    5. In vivo multifunctional optical coherence tomography at the periphery of the lungs

      In vivo multifunctional optical coherence tomography at the periphery of the lungs

      Remodeling of tissue, such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) and extracellular matrix, is considered a key feature of airways disease. No clinically accepted diagnostic method is currently available to assess airway remodeling or the effect of treatment modalities such as bronchial thermoplasty in asthma, other than invasive airway biopsies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates cross-sectional, near-histological images of airway segments and enables identification and quantification of airway wall layers based on light scattering properties only. In this study, we used a custom motorized OCT probe that combines standard and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) to visualize birefringent tissue in vivo in ...

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    6. Application of optical coherence tomography and optical path length method for monitoring corneal thickness and refractive index change during corneal cross-linking

      Application of optical coherence tomography and optical path length method for monitoring corneal thickness and refractive index change during corneal cross-linking

      Corneal cross-linking (CXL) using UVA irradiation with a riboflavin photosensitizer has emerged as a new treatment paradigm for corneal ectatic disorders. The thickness threshold for protection of intraocular structures has often been challenged with ongoing developments, and corneal thinning becomes an important safety concern, especially for patients with thin corneas. In this study with an ex vivo bovine eye model, we monitored corneal thinning and corneal refractive index changes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with an adaptation of the optical path length method. CXL experiments were performed based on the standard protocol that includes removal of the corneal epithelium ...

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    7. Fully automated geometric feature analysis in optical coherence tomography angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy

      Fully automated geometric feature analysis in optical coherence tomography angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy

      This study is to establish quantitative features of vascular geometry in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and validate them for the objective classification of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Six geometric features, including total vessel branching angle (VBA: θ), child branching angles (CBAs: α1 and α2), vessel branching coefficient (VBC), and children-to-parent vessel width ratios (VWR1 and VWR2), were automatically derived from each vessel branch in OCTA. Comparative analysis of heathy control, diabetes with no DR (NoDR), and non-proliferative DR (NPDR) was conducted. Our study reveals four quantitative OCTA features to produce robust DR detection and staging classification: (ANOVA, P<0.05), VBA ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    8. Progress in Multimodal En Face Imaging: feature introduction

      Progress in Multimodal En Face Imaging: feature introduction

      This feature issue contains papers that report on the most recent advances in the field of en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and of combinations of modalities facilitated by the en face view. Hardware configurations for delivery of en face OCT images are described as well as specific signal and image processing techniques tailored to deliver relevant clinical diagnoses. The value of the en face perspective for enabling multimodality is illustrated by several combination modalities.

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    9. Automatic assessment of tear film and tear meniscus parameters in healthy subjects using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

      Automatic assessment of tear film and tear meniscus parameters in healthy subjects using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

      Many different parameters exist for the investigation of tear film dynamics. We present a new tear meniscus segmentation algorithm which automatically extracts tear meniscus area (TMA), height (TMH), depth (TMD) and radius (TMR) from UHR-OCT measurements and apply it to a data set including repeated measurements from ten healthy subjects. Mean values and standard deviations are 0.0174 ± 0.007 mm 2 , 0.272 ± 0.069 mm, 0.191 ± 0.049 mm and 0.309 ± 0.123 mm for TMA, TMH, TMD and TMR, respectively. A significant correlation was found between all respective tear meniscus parameter pairs (all p < 0 ...

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    10. Terahertz continuous wave system using phase shift interferometry for measuring the thickness of sub-100-μm-thick samples without frequency sweep

      Terahertz continuous wave system using phase shift interferometry for measuring the thickness of sub-100-μm-thick samples without frequency sweep

      A terahertz continuous wave system is demonstrated for thickness measurement using Gouy phase shift interferometry without frequency sweep. One arm of the interferometer utilizes a collimated wave as a reference, and the other arm applies a focused beam for sample investigation. When the optical path difference (OPD) of the arms is zero, a destructive interference pattern is produced. Interference signal intensity changes induced by the OPD changes can be easily predicted by calculations. By minimizing the difference between the measured and the calculated signal against the OPD, the thicknesses of sub-100-μm-thick samples are determined at 625 GHz.

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    11. Boundary segmentation based on modified random walks for vascular Doppler optical coherence tomography images

      Boundary segmentation based on modified random walks for vascular Doppler optical coherence tomography images

      Vascular Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) images with weak boundaries are usually difficult for most algorithms to segment. We propose a modified random walk (MRW) algorithm with a novel regularization for the segmentation of DOCT vessel images. Based on MRW, we perform automatic boundary detection of the vascular wall from intensity images and boundary extraction of the blood flowing region from Doppler phase images. Dice, sensitivity, and specificity coefficients were adopted to verify the segmentation performance. The experimental study on DOCT images of the mouse femoral artery showed the effectiveness of our proposed method, yielding three-dimensional visualization and quantitative evaluation ...

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      Mentions: Yong Huang
    12. In vivo volumetric imaging by crosstalk-free full-field OCT

      In vivo volumetric imaging by crosstalk-free full-field OCT

      Cellular resolution imaging of biological structures has always been a challenge due to strong scattering that limits the achievable transverse resolution or imaging penetration depth. Recently, a major advancement toward high-resolution and volumetric imaging was achieved by implementing a parallel detection (i.e., full field) into Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. The drawback of using parallel detection is that scattered light can travel laterally and get mapped improperly at a camera creating optical crosstalk, which severely impairs the interpretation of subcellular images and limits its use in medical diagnostics. In this work, we demonstrate for what we believe is the first ...

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    13. Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection

      Maximum value projection produces better en face OCT angiograms than mean value projection

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images rely on en face data projections for both qualitative and quantitative interpretation. Both maximum value and mean value projections are commonly used, and many researchers consider them essentially interchangeable approaches. On the contrary, we find that maximum value projection achieves a consistently higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher image contrast across multiple vascular layers, in both healthy eyes and for each disease examined.

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    14. Retinal and choroidal vascular changes in coronary heart disease: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Retinal and choroidal vascular changes in coronary heart disease: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      To reveal the association between retinal microvasculature changes and coronary heart disease (CHD), we assessed the full retinal thicknesses of eight areas, the vessel density of four layers (consisting of nine areas) and the flow area in two layers with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in CHD patients and healthy controls. The mean vessel density of several layers was significantly lower in patients. The difference in choroid capillary flow (negative correlation) between the two groups was significant. Decreased vessel density and blood flow were associated with coronary artery and branch stenosis. The decreases in retinal vessel density, choroidal vessel density ...

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    15. Real-time assessment of catheter contact and orientation using an integrated optical coherence tomography cardiac ablation catheter

      Real-time assessment of catheter contact and orientation using an integrated optical coherence tomography cardiac ablation catheter

      The efficacy of catheter ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation is directly impacted by the quality of lesion formation. Two parameters that are critical for maximizing energy delivery are sustained catheter contact and orientation. Currently, these parameters must be inferred indirectly through tactile feedback or measurements of bioelectrical impedance and tip force. In this work, we propose a method for discerning contact and orientation based on direct endomyocardial imaging mediated by optical coherence tomography (OCT)-integrated ablation catheters. A two-stage classifier is developed to deduce contact parameters from M-mode images. Experimental validation within swine left-atrial specimens demonstrate accuracies of 99.96 ...

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    16. Sub-surface imaging of soiled cotton fabric using full-field optical coherence tomography

      Sub-surface imaging of soiled cotton fabric using full-field optical coherence tomography

      In the laundry industry, colorimetry is a common way to evaluate the stain removal efficiency of detergents and cleaning products. For ease of visualization, the soiling agent is treated with a dye before measurement. However, it effectively measures the dye removal rather than stain removal, and it cannot provide depth-resolved information of the sample. In this study, we show that full-field (FF) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique is capable of measuring the cleaning effect on cotton fabric by imaging the sub-surface features of fabric samples. We used a broadband light-emitting diode (LED) source to power the FF-OCT system that achieves ...

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      Mentions: Yalin Zheng
    17. High-speed collagen fiber modeling and orientation quantification for optical coherence tomography imaging

      High-speed collagen fiber modeling and orientation quantification for optical coherence tomography imaging

      Quantifying collagen fiber architecture has clinical and scientific relevance across a variety of tissue types and adds functionality to otherwise largely qualitative imaging modalities. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is uniquely suited for this task due to its ability to capture the collagen microstructure over larger fields of view than traditional microscopy. Existing image processing techniques for quantifying fiber architecture, while accurate and effective, are very slow for processing large datasets and tend to lack structural specificity. We describe here a computationally efficient method for quantifying and visualizing collagen fiber organization. The algorithm is demonstrated on swine atria, bovine anterior cruciate ...

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    18. Ultralow-voltage electrothermal MEMS based fiber-optic scanning probe for forward-viewing endoscopic OCT

      Ultralow-voltage electrothermal MEMS based fiber-optic scanning probe for forward-viewing endoscopic OCT

      We report an ultralow-voltage, electrothermal (ET) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based probe for forward-viewing endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The fully assembled probe has a diameter of 5.5 mm and a length of 55 mm, including the imaging optics and a 40 mm long fiber-optic cantilever attached on a micro-platform of the bimorph ET MEMS actuator. The ET MEMS actuator provides a sufficient mechanical actuation force as well as a large vertical displacement, achieving up to a 3 mm optical scanning range with only a 3

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    19. Light-scattering methods for tissue diagnosis

      Light-scattering methods for tissue diagnosis

      Light scattering has become a common biomedical research tool, enabling diagnostic sensitivity to myriad tissue alterations associated with disease. Light–tissue interactions are particularly attractive for diagnostics due to the variety of contrast mechanisms that can be used, including spectral, angle-resolved, and Fourier-domain detection. Photonic diagnostic tools offer further benefits in that they are non-ionizing, non-invasive, and give real-time feedback. In this review, we summarize recent innovations in light-scattering technologies, with a focus on clinical achievements over the previous ten years.

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    20. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy aided by optical coherence tomography

      In vivo corneal confocal microscopy aided by optical coherence tomography

      In vivo corneal confocal microscopy and its operability in scientific as well as in clinical applications is often impaired by the lack of information on imaging plane position and orientation inside the cornea during patient’s examination. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed a novel corneal imaging system based on a commercial scanning device and a modified Rostock Cornea Module. The presented preliminary system produces en face images by confocal laser scanning microscopy and sagittal cross-section images by optical coherence tomography simultaneously. This enables imaging guidance during examinations, improved features for diagnostics along with thickness measurements of the cornea ...

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    21. 2D MEMS-based high-speed beam-shifting technique for speckle noise reduction and flow rate measurement in optical coherence tomography

      2D MEMS-based high-speed beam-shifting technique for speckle noise reduction and flow rate measurement in optical coherence tomography

      In this manuscript, a two-dimensional (2D) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based, high-speed beam-shifting spectral domain optical coherence tomography (MHB-SDOCT) is proposed for speckle noise reduction and absolute flow rate measurement. By combining a zigzag scanning protocol, the frame rates of 45.2 Hz for speckle reduction and 25.6 Hz for flow rate measurement are achieved for in-vivo tissue imaging. Phantom experimental results have shown that by setting the incident beam angle to ϕ = 4.76° (between optical axis of objective lens and beam axis) and rotating the beam about the optical axis in 17 discrete angular positions, 91% of speckle ...

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    22. Simultaneous denoising and super-resolution of optical coherence tomography images based on generative adversarial network

      Simultaneous denoising and super-resolution of optical coherence tomography images based on generative adversarial network

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a very promising diagnostic method in clinical practice, especially for ophthalmic diseases. However, speckle noise and low sampling rates have intensively reduced the quality of OCT images, which prevents the development of OCT-assisted diagnosis. Therefore, we propose a generative adversarial network-based approach (named SDSR-OCT) to simultaneously denoise and super-resolve OCT images. Moreover, we trained three different super-resolution models with different upscale factors (2× , 4× and 8×) to adapt to the corresponding downsampling rates. We also quantitatively and qualitatively compared our proposed method with some well-known algorithms. The experimental results show that our approach can ...

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    23. Long-range common-path spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Long-range common-path spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Fiber-based common-path spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is compact and polarization insensitive, which is usually used in endoscopic biomedical imaging. In this study, we investigate a method to extend the working distance of a common-path SD-OCT system. Common-path OCT light, which consisting of sample and reference light signal, is directed into a free space optical interferometer. The OCT light is split spatially into two beam segments by a wavefront-splitting mirror, and the two parallel beams interfere noncollinearly in the interferometer. Distance between the end of the probing fiber, which serves as the reference plane of our OCT system, and ...

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    24. Multimodal endoscopy for colorectal cancer detection by optical coherence tomography and near-infrared fluorescence imaging

      Multimodal endoscopy for colorectal cancer detection by optical coherence tomography and near-infrared fluorescence imaging

      While colonoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis and classification of colorectal cancer (CRC), its sensitivity and specificity are operator-dependent and are especially poor for small and flat lesions. Contemporary imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence, have been investigated to visualize microvasculature and morphological changes for detecting early stage CRC in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In our study, we developed a multimodal endoscopic system with simultaneous co-registered OCT and NIR fluorescence imaging. By introducing a contrast agent into the vascular network, NIR fluorescence is able to highlight the cancer-suspected area based on significant change ...

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