1. 1-24 of 497 1 2 3 4 ... 19 20 21 »
    1. Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics optical coherence tomography images using transfer learning

      Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics optical coherence tomography images using transfer learning

      Automated measurements of the human cone mosaic requires the identification of individual cone photoreceptors. The current gold standard, manual labeling, is a tedious process and can not be done in a clinically useful timeframe. As such, we present an automated algorithm for identifying cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) images. Our approach fine-tunes a pre-trained convolutional neural network originally trained on AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) images, to work on previously unseen data from a different imaging modality. On average, the automated method correctly identified 94% of manually labeled cones when compared to manual raters, from twenty ...

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    2. Visible light sensorless adaptive optics for retinal structure and fluorescence imaging

      Visible light sensorless adaptive optics for retinal structure and fluorescence imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful imaging instrument and technology in biomedicine. OCT imaging is predominantly performed using wavelengths in the near infrared; however, visible light (VIS) has been recently employed in OCT systems with encouraging results for high-resolution retinal imaging. Using a broadband supercontinuum VIS source, we present a sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) multimodal imaging system driven by VIS-OCT for volumetric retinal structural imaging, followed by the acquisition of fluorescence emission. The coherence-gated, depth-resolved VIS-OCT images used for image-guided SAO aberration correction enable high-resolution structural and fluorescence imaging.

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    3. Phase-stability optimization of swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Phase-stability optimization of swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Phase-resolved imaging of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is subject to phase measurement instabilities involved with the sweep variation of a frequency-swept source. In general, optically generated timing references are utilized to track the variations imposed on OCT signals. But they might not be accurately synchronized due to relative time delays. In this research, we investigated the impact of the signal delays on the timing instabilities and the consequent deviations of the measured phases. We considered two types of timing signals utilized in a popular digitizer operation mode: a sweep trigger from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) that initiates a ...

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    4. Speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on edge-sensitive cGAN

      Speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on edge-sensitive cGAN

      Speckle noise in optical coherence tomography (OCT) impairs both the visual quality and the performance of automatic analysis. Edge preservation is an important issue for speckle reduction. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end framework for simultaneous speckle reduction and contrast enhancement for retinal OCT images based on the conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN). The edge loss function is added to the final objective so that the model is sensitive to the edge-related details. We also propose a novel method for obtaining clean images for training from outputs of commercial OCT scanners. The results show that the overall denoising performance ...

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    5. Full-depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology insensitive to phase disturbance

      Full-depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography technology insensitive to phase disturbance

      To achieve full-depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the case of strong environmental disturbance, the iterative phase-shifting (IPS) method and modified dispersion-coded (MDC) method are proposed in this work. In IPS, the precise amount of phase shift is retrieved by iteration, and the direction of the phase shift is determined by dispersion compensation. Conjugate mirror items and noise can be simultaneously eliminated by two captured interferograms, whereas only one of them can be removed in the traditional phase-shift method with two interferograms. In MDC, they are removed through dispersion compensation and signal extraction with a single interferogram. Full-depth images ...

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    6. Ciliary muscle thickness profiles derived from optical coherence tomography images

      Ciliary muscle thickness profiles derived from optical coherence tomography images

      The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the ciliary muscle’s (CM) morphological changes during accommodation by evaluating CM thickness (CMT) profiles. The CM of 15 near-emmetropic subjects (age 20-39) was imaged via optical coherence tomography (OCT) during far (0 D) and near vision (3 D). A custom-made Java-based program was used for semi-automatic CM segmentation and thickness measurements. CMT profiles were generated to determine regions of the largest shape changes. The results revealed on average a thinning within the first 0.25 mm and a thickening from 0.36 to 1.48 mm posterior ...

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    7. Full-field optical coherence tomography in a balanced detection mode

      Full-field optical coherence tomography in a balanced detection mode

      We discuss balanced time-domain full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) realized in a Mach–Zehnder configuration. The balanced detection scheme and spatial phase shifting allow single-shot acquisition and reconstruction in FF-OCT. Combined with a 2D quadrature signal-based demodulation technique applying the Riesz transform, previously illustrated for a dual-shot temporal phase shifting in FF-OCT, we demonstrate the concept for single-shot spatial phase shifting. The monitoring of dynamic processes by time-domain FF-OCT is enabled by this approach. The advantage of single-shot acquisition consists of having no failure due to phase changes over time. However, it demands an accurate registration of both spatially shifted ...

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    8. Assessing surface characteristics of eroded dentine with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary in vitro validation study

      Assessing surface characteristics of eroded dentine with optical coherence tomography: a preliminary in vitro validation study

      We conducted the first pilot study to investigate the use of the attenuation coefficient from an optical coherence tomography (OCT) backscattered signal as a measure of surface roughness changes in eroded dentine at an early stage of the erosion process. Ten human premolar root samples were subjected to citric acid treatment before scanning by OCT. The extracted relative attenuation coefficient (

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    9. Aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography for suppression of multiple scattering and speckle

      Aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography for suppression of multiple scattering and speckle

      Multiple scattering is a major barrier that limits the optical imaging depth in scattering media. In order to alleviate this effect, we demonstrate aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography (AD-OCT), which exploits the phase correlation between the deterministic signals from single-scattered photons to suppress the random background caused by multiple scattering and speckle. AD-OCT illuminates the sample volume with diverse aberrated point spread functions, and computationally removes these intentionally applied aberrations. After accumulating 12 astigmatism-diverse OCT volumes, we show a 10 dB enhancement in signal-to-background ratio via a coherent average of reconstructed signals from a USAF target located 7.2 scattering mean ...

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    10. Intraretinal fluid identification via enhanced maps using optical coherence tomography images

      Intraretinal fluid identification via enhanced maps using optical coherence tomography images

      Nowadays, among the main causes of blindness in developed countries are age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the diabetic macular edema (DME). Both diseases present, as a common symptom, the appearance of cystoid fluid regions inside the retinal layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) image modality was one of the main medical imaging techniques for the early diagnosis and monitoring of AMD and DME via this intraretinal fluid detection and characterization. We present a novel methodology to identify these fluid accumulations by means of generating binary maps (offering a direct representation of these areas) and heat maps (containing the region confidence). To ...

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    11. Processing-based approach for resolving the sample optic axis in endoscopic polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Processing-based approach for resolving the sample optic axis in endoscopic polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) that utilizes a rotationally-scanning catheter has a variety of potential biomedical applications in luminal organ systems due to its ability to provide intrinsic contrast for birefringent tissue. Incorporating the optic axis (OA) of the tissue greatly enhances this potential by also permitting information about the orientation of the tissue to be extracted; however, measurement distortion that occurs has up to this point made it impossible to obtain accurate sample OA measurements. In this paper we present a straightforward calibration technique that allows the sample OA to be recovered. This technique requires no hardware modifications ...

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    12. Video-rate centimeter-range optical coherence tomography based on dual optical frequency combs by electro-optic modulators

      Video-rate centimeter-range optical coherence tomography based on dual optical frequency combs by electro-optic modulators

      Imaging speed and range are two important parameters for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A conventional video-rate centimeter-range OCT requires an optical source with hundreds of kHz repetition rate and needs the support of broadband detectors and electronics (>1 GHz). In this paper, a type of video-rate centimeter-range OCT system is proposed and demonstrated based on dual optical frequency combs by leveraging electro-optic modulators. The repetition rate difference between dual combs, i.e. the A-scan rate of dual-comb OCT, can be adjusted within 0~6 MHz. By down-converting the interference signal from optical domain to radio-frequency domain through dual comb beating ...

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    13. Simple approach for aberration-corrected OCT imaging of the human retina

      Simple approach for aberration-corrected OCT imaging of the human retina

      Aberration-corrected imaging of human photoreceptor cells, whether hardware or software based, presently requires a complex and expensive setup. Here we use a simple and inexpensive off-axis full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach to acquire volumetric data of an in vivo human retina. Full volumetric data are recorded in 1.3 s. After computationally correcting for aberrations, single photoreceptor cells were visualized. In addition, the numerical correction of ametropia is demonstrated. Our implementation of full-field optical coherence tomography combines a low technical complexity with the possibility for computational image correction.

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    14. High-speed fiber scanning endoscope for volumetric multi-megahertz optical coherence tomography

      High-speed fiber scanning endoscope for volumetric multi-megahertz optical coherence tomography

      We present a forward-viewing fiber scanning endoscope (FSE) for high-speed volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT). The reduction in size of the probe was achieved by substituting the focusing optics by an all-fiber-based imaging system which consists of a combination of scanning single-mode fibers, a glass spacer, made from a step-index multi-mode fiber, and a gradient-index fiber. A lateral resolution of 11 μm was achieved at a working distance of 1.2 mm. The newly designed piezo-based FSE has an outer diameter of 1.6 mm and a rigid length of 13.5 mm. By moving the whole imaging optic in ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography in Optics Express [Invited]

      Optical coherence tomography in Optics Express [Invited]

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most successful technologies in the history of biomedical optics. Optics Express played an important role in communicating groundbreaking technological achievements in the field of OCT, and, conversely, OCT papers are among the most frequently cited papers published in Optics Express . On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the journal, this review analyzes the reasons for the success of OCT papers in Optics Express and discusses possible motivations for researchers to submit some of their best OCT papers to the journal.

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    16. Modified wavelength scanning interferometry for simultaneous tomography and topography of the cornea with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      Modified wavelength scanning interferometry for simultaneous tomography and topography of the cornea with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      Visual acuity is dependent on corneal shape and size. A minor variation in surface geometry can cause a deformation of corneal geometry, which affects its optical performance. In this work we demonstrate an algorithm for the simultaneous measurement of corneal tomography and topography with a traditional point-scanning Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system. A modified wavelength scanning interferometry (mWSI) algorithm enabled topographical evaluation of the surface with nanometer-scale resolution, which is superior to the micrometer-scale resolution of traditional OCT structural imaging. We validated the technique with an optically flat mirror, standard roughness gauges, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ...

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    17. Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography

      Automated segmentation of retinal layer boundaries and capillary plexuses in wide-field optical coherence tomographic angiography

      Advances in the retinal layer segmentation of structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) images have allowed the separation of capillary plexuses in OCT angiography (OCTA). With the increased scanning speeds of OCT devices and wider field images (≥10 mm on fast-axis), greater retinal curvature and anatomic variations have introduced new challenges. In this study, we developed a novel automated method to segment seven retinal layer boundaries and two retinal plexuses in wide-field OCTA images. The algorithm was initialized by a series of points forming a guidance point array that estimates the location of retinal layer boundaries. A guided bidirectional graph search ...

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    18. Clinical prototype of pigment and flow imaging optical coherence tomography for posterior eye investigation

      Clinical prototype of pigment and flow imaging optical coherence tomography for posterior eye investigation

      Measurements of the randomness of polarization (RP) obtained using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) are applied in several applications, and RP is attractive for posterior eye imaging. The addition of RP without retardation requires a minimal extension to standard OCT; therefore, we developed a prototype OCT system with a simplified scheme for RP measurement. A compact polarization-diversity receiver module is the only required hardware extension to a standard OCT system. All components were packed into the retinal scanning head. The degree-of-polarization uniformity and complex-decorrelation based OCT angiography were calculated using noise-corrected algorithms that accounted for the depth-dependent noise power. The ...

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    19. In vivo detection of UV-induced acute skin effects using optical coherence tomography

      In vivo detection of UV-induced acute skin effects using optical coherence tomography

      Ultraviolet (UV) rays have been identified as a carcinogen with long-term irradiation and are an important risk factor for skin cancer. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography/optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT/OCTA) to study acute UV-induced effects on skin in vivo . To understand the relationship between the acute effects and irradiated UV power density, three groups were irradiated with different power densities in our experiments. Furthermore, the same skin area was repeatedly scanned with OCT during UV irradiation to investigate the progress of the induced acute effects and after irradiation for observation of skin recovery. Subsequently ...

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    20. Feasibility of using optical coherence tomography to detect radiation-induced fibrosis and residual cancer extent after neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy: an ex vivo study

      Feasibility of using optical coherence tomography to detect radiation-induced fibrosis and residual cancer extent after neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy: an ex vivo study

      Treatment of resectable esophageal cancer includes neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy (nCRT) followed by esophagectomy in operable patients. High-risk surgery may have been avoided in patients with a pathological complete response (pCR). We investigated the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect residual cancer and radiation-induced fibrosis in 10 esophageal cancer patients that underwent nCRT followed by esophagectomy. We compared our OCT findings with histopathology. Overall, OCT was able to differentiate between healthy tissue, fibrotic tissue, and residual cancer with a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 67%, respectively. Hence, OCT has the potential to add to the assessment of a ...

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    21. Spectroscopic characterization of Si/Mo thin-film stack at extreme ultraviolet range

      Spectroscopic characterization of Si/Mo thin-film stack at extreme ultraviolet range

      A noninvasive method for characterizing Si/Mo thin-film stack thickness and its complex transfer function using common-path optical coherence tomography is proposed, analyzed, and experimentally demonstrated. A laser-produced plasma (LPP)-based extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source was excited by a four-stage nanosecond Yb:fiber laser amplifier with a pulse energy of 1.01 mJ. The tabletop LPP EUV source was compact and stable for generating the EUV interference fringes. The measured complex transfer function of the Si/Mo stack was verified near the pristine 13.5-nm wavelength range.

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    22. Group refractive index and group velocity dispersion measurement by complex master slave interferometry

      Group refractive index and group velocity dispersion measurement by complex master slave interferometry

      This paper demonstrates that the complex master slave interferometry ( CMSI ) method used in spectral domain interferometry ( SDI ) can efficiently be used for accurate refractive index and group velocity dispersion measurements of optically transparent samples. For the first time, we demonstrate the relevance of the phase information delivered by CMSI for dispersion evaluations with no need to linearize data. The technique proposed here has been used to accurately measure the group refractive index and the group velocity dispersion of a strong dispersive sample (SF6 glass), and a weak dispersive one (distilled water). The robustness of the technique is demonstrated through the ...

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    23. Ultra low noise Fourier domain mode locked laser for high quality megahertz optical coherence tomography

      Ultra low noise Fourier domain mode locked laser for high quality megahertz optical coherence tomography

      We investigate the origin of high frequency noise in Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers and present an extremely well dispersion compensated setup which virtually eliminates intensity noise and dramatically improves coherence properties. We show optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at 3.2 MHz A-scan rate and demonstrate the positive impact of the described improvements on the image quality. Especially in highly scattering samples, at specular reflections and for strong signals at large depth, the noise in optical coherence tomography images is significantly reduced. We also describe a simple model that suggests a passive physical stabilizing mechanism that leads to ...

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    24. Comparative study on the detection of early dental caries using thermo-photonic lock-in imaging and optical coherence tomography

      Comparative study on the detection of early dental caries using thermo-photonic lock-in imaging and optical coherence tomography

      Early detection of dental caries is known to be the key to the effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive approaches in dentistry. However, existing clinical detection techniques, such as radiographs, are not sufficiently sensitive to detect and monitor the progression of caries at early stages. As such, in recent years, several optics-based imaging modalities have been proposed for the early detection of caries. The majority of these techniques rely on the enhancement of light scattering in early carious lesions, while a few of them are based on the enhancement of light absorption at early caries sites. In this paper, we report ...

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    1-24 of 497 1 2 3 4 ... 19 20 21 »
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