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    1. Telecentric broadband objective lenses for optical coherence tomography

      Telecentric broadband objective lenses for optical coherence tomography

      Freeform optical components enable significant advances for optical systems. A major challenge for freeform optics is the current lack of metrology methods with measurement uncertainty on the order of tens of nanometers or less. Towards addressing this challenge, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable technique. In the context of low uncertainty metrology, the design requirements pertaining to the sample arm of an OCT metrology system are explicitly addressed in this paper. Two telecentric, broadband, diffraction limited, custom objective lens designs are presented with their design strategies. One objective lens was fabricated and experimentally tested for wavefront performance and telecentricity ...

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    2. Precision analysis and optimization in phase decorrelation OCT velocimetry

      Precision analysis and optimization in phase decorrelation OCT velocimetry

      Quantitative flow velocimetry in Optical Coherence Tomography is used to determine both the axial and lateral flow component at the level of individual voxels. The lateral flow is determined by analyzing the statistical properties of reflected electro-magnetic fields for repeated measurements at (nearly) the same location. The precision or statistical fluctuation of the quantitative velocity estimation depends on the number of repeated measurements and the method to determine quantitative flow velocity. In this paper, both a method to determine quantitative flow velocity and a model for the prediction of the statistical fluctuations of velocity estimations are developed to analyze and ...

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    3. Computationally effective 2D and 3D fast phase unwrapping algorithms and their applications to Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Computationally effective 2D and 3D fast phase unwrapping algorithms and their applications to Doppler optical coherence tomography

      We propose a simplification for a robust and easy to implement fast phase unwrapping (FPU) algorithm that is used to solve the phase wrapping problem encountered in various fields of optical imaging and metrology. We show that the number of necessary computations using the algorithm can be reduced compared to its original version. FPU can be easily extended from two to three spatial dimensions. We demonstrate the applicability of the two- and three-dimensional FPU algorithm for Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) in numerical simulations, and in the imaging of a flow phantom and blood flow in the human retina in ...

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    4. Image-guided vibrometry system integrated with spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography

      Image-guided vibrometry system integrated with spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography

      Vibrometry using optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide valuable information for investigating either the mechanical properties or the physiological function of biological tissues, especially the hearing organs. Real-time imaging of the measured tissues provides structure imaging and spatial guidance for and is thus highly demanded by such vibrometry. However, the traditional time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) systems, although capable of subnanometric vibrometry at large ranges of frequencies, are unable to offer an imaging speed that is high enough to acquire depth-resolved images for guidance. The spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) systems, although allowing image-guided vibrometry, are challenged in measuring vibration at high frequencies, particularly ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser marking with tethered capsule endomicroscopy in unsedated patients

      Optical coherence tomography-guided laser marking with tethered capsule endomicroscopy in unsedated patients

      Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) is an emerging screening technology that comprehensively obtains microstructural OCT images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in unsedated patients. To advance clinical adoption of this imaging technique, it will be important to validate TCE images with co-localized histology, the current diagnostic gold standard. One method for co-localizing OCT images with histology is image-targeted laser marking, which has previously been implemented using a driveshaft-based, balloon OCT catheter, deployed during endoscopy. In this paper, we present a TCE device that scans and targets the imaging beam using a low-cost stepper motor that is integrated inside the capsule. In ...

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    6. In vivo monitoring and high-resolution characterizing of the prednisolone-induced osteoporotic process on adult zebrafish by optical coherence tomography

      In vivo monitoring and high-resolution characterizing of the prednisolone-induced osteoporotic process on adult zebrafish by optical coherence tomography

      Because of its similar genetic makeup with humans, zebrafish are an available and well-established osteoporosis model in vivo for anti-osteoporosis drug development as well as the drug safety-evaluation process. However, few optical imaging methods could effectively visualize the bone of adult zebrafish due to their limited penetration depth. In this paper, in vivo high-resolution and long-term characterization of a prednisolone-induced osteoporotic zebrafish model was achieved with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The capability of three-dimensional SD-OCT imaging was also demonstrated in this study. With SD-OCT images, we could non-destructively monitor the deforming process of adult zebrafish skull from several directions ...

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    7. Compensating spatially dependent dispersion in visible light OCT

      Compensating spatially dependent dispersion in visible light OCT

      Visible light optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged in retinal imaging, with claims of micrometer-scale axial resolution and multi-color (sub-band) imaging. Here, we show that the large dispersion of optical glass and aqueous media, together with broad optical bandwidths often used in visible light OCT, compromises both of these claims. To rectify this, we introduce the notion of spatially dependent (i.e., depth and transverse position-dependent) dispersion. We use a novel sub-band, sub-image correlation algorithm to estimate spatially dependent dispersion in our 109 nm bandwidth visible light OCT mouse retinal imaging system centered at 587 nm. After carefully compensating ...

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    8. Synthetic subaperture-based angle-independent Doppler flow measurements using single-beam line field optical coherence tomography in vivo

      Synthetic subaperture-based angle-independent Doppler flow measurements using single-beam line field optical coherence tomography in vivo

      We demonstrate a synthetic subaperture-based angle-independent Doppler flow calculation, using a line field spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. The high speed of the system features a high phase stability over the volume, which is necessary to apply synthetic subapertures in the aperture plane. Thus, the flow component for each subaperture can be reconstructed in postprocessing. Capillary phantom and in vivo retinal imaging experiments were performed to validate and demonstrate angle-independent Doppler flow calculation

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    9. Theory and design of Schwarzschild scan objective for Optical Coherence Tomography

      Theory and design of Schwarzschild scan objective for Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is one form of multi-channel imaging that combines high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with mechanical tissue stimulation. This combination of structural and functional imaging can require additional space to integrate imaging capabilities with additional functional elements (e.g., optical, mechanical, or acoustic modulators) either at or near the imaging axis. We address this challenge by designing a novel scan lens based on a modified Schwarzchild objective lens, comprised of a pair of concentric mirrors with potential space to incorporate additional functional elements and minimal compromise to the available scan field. This scan objective design allows ...

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    10. Toward a multimodal fusion of layered cultural object images: complementarity of optical coherence tomography and terahertz time-domain imaging in the heritage field

      Toward a multimodal fusion of layered cultural object images: complementarity of optical coherence tomography and terahertz time-domain imaging in the heritage field

      Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are two techniques capable of providing 3D datasets from which depth profiles and cross-sectional images of an object can be derived. They are novel photonics technologies of particular relevance to the field of heritage science, for which the comprehension of the stratigraphic structure of a cultural heritage object may help in the understanding of its artistic technology and state of preservation. The differences in imaging depth, field of view, and axial/lateral resolutions of the two imaging techniques provide different but complementary information of the same scene. Through the use ...

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    11. Detection of laser-induced bulk damage in optical crystals by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Detection of laser-induced bulk damage in optical crystals by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      An approach to characterize laser-induced bulk damage in optical crystal materials was demonstrated. With a homemade swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system, we obtained three-dimensional images of the bulk damage produced by laser pulses with wavelength of 351 nm, pulse width of 5 ns, beam diameter of 5.5 mm and fluences from 4.56 J/cm 2 to 9.95 J/cm 2 in Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) crystal. Algorithms based on three-dimensional OCT images were specially designed to count and locate bulk damage pinpoints in KDP crystal, obtaining their equivalent diameter distribution and pinpoint density caused by different ...

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    12. Cellular resolution corneal imaging with extended imaging range

      Cellular resolution corneal imaging with extended imaging range

      Current optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, which is used for imaging the eye’s anterior segment, has been established as a clinical gold standard for the diagnosis of corneal diseases. However, the cellular resolution level information that is critical for many clinical applications is still not available. The major technical challenges toward cellular resolution OCT imaging are the limited ranging depth and depth of focus (DOF). In this work, we present a novel ultrahigh resolution OCT system that achieves an isotropic spatial resolution of <2 µm in tissue. The proposed system could approximately double the ranging depth and extend the ...

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    13. Probing dynamic processes in the eye at multiple spatial and temporal scales with multimodal full field OCT

      Probing dynamic processes in the eye at multiple spatial and temporal scales with multimodal full field OCT

      We describe recent technological progress in multimodal en face full-field optical coherence tomography that has allowed detection of slow and fast dynamic processes in the eye. We show that by combining static, dynamic and fluorescence contrasts we can achieve label-free high-resolution imaging of the retina and anterior eye with temporal resolution from milliseconds to several hours, allowing us to probe biological activity at subcellular scales inside 3D bulk tissue. Our setups combine high lateral resolution over a large field of view with acquisition at several hundreds of frames per second which make it a promising tool for clinical applications and ...

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    14. Down-conversion en-face optical coherence tomography

      Down-conversion en-face optical coherence tomography

      We present an optical coherence tomography (OCT) method that can deliver an en-face OCT image from a sample in real-time, irrespective of the tuning speed of the swept source. The method, based on the master slave interferometry technique, implements a coherence gate principle by requiring that the optical path difference (OPD) between the arms of an imaging interferometer is the same with the OPD in an interrogating interferometer. In this way, a real-time en-face OCT image can originate from a depth in the sample placed in the imaging interferometer, selected by actuating on the OPD in the interrogating interferometer, while ...

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    15. Compressed sensing-enabled phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomograph

      Compressed sensing-enabled phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomograph

      Here we present a novel phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SS-OCT) system. The simultaneously recorded calibration signal, which is commonly used in SS-OCT to stabilize the phase, is randomly sub-sampled during the acquisition, and it is later reconstructed based on the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory. We first mathematically investigated the method, and verified it through computer simulations. We then conducted a vibrational frequency test and a flow velocity measurement in phantoms to demonstrate the system’s capability of handling phase-sensitive tasks. The proposed scheme shows excellent phase stability with greatly discounted data bandwidth compared with conventional procedures. We further showcased ...

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    16. High-performance optical coherence velocimeter: theory and applications

      High-performance optical coherence velocimeter: theory and applications

      We proposed a high-performance optical coherence velocimeter (OCV) based on broadband optical interference which achieves spatial resolution from interference cancellation or enhancement of different components of the broadband light. There is a challengeable issue for OCV that the interference fringes become blurred when the velocity of detected object is relatively large, hindering the pace of OCV application in high-velocity field. To resolve this, the relationship between blurry coefficient and OCV system parameters (e.g., exposure time, central wavelength, bandwidth of source) was derived. It was found that blurry coefficient changed with oscillatory decay form and reached the minimum at each ...

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    17. Interstitial magnetic thermotherapy dosimetry based on shear wave magnetomotive optical coherence elastography

      Interstitial magnetic thermotherapy dosimetry based on shear wave magnetomotive optical coherence elastography

      While magnetic thermoseeds are often utilized in interstitial magnetic thermotherapy (iMT) to enable localized tumor ablation, we propose to extend their use as the perturbative source in magnetomotive optical coherence elastography (MM-OCE) so that the heat-induced elasticity alterations can be ‘theranostically’ probed. MM-OCE measurements were found to agree with indentation results. Tissue stiffening was visualized on iMT-treated porcine liver and canine soft tissue sarcoma specimens, where histology confirmed thermal damages. Additionally, the elasticity was found to increase exponentially and linearly with the conventional thermal dosage metrics and the deposited thermal energy, respectively. Collectively, a physiologically-meaningful, MM-OCE-based iMT dosimetry is feasible.

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    18. Region-segmentation strategy for Bruch’s membrane opening detection in spectral domain optical coherence tomography images

      Region-segmentation strategy for Bruch’s membrane opening detection in spectral domain optical coherence tomography images

      Bruch’s membrane opening (BMO) is an important biomarker in the progression of glaucoma. Bruch’s membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), cup-to-disc ratio in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and lamina cribrosa depth based on BMO are important measurable parameters for glaucoma diagnosis. The accuracy of measuring these parameters is significantly affected by BMO detection. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically detecting BMO in SD-OCT volumes accurately to reduce the impact of the border tissue and vessel shadows. The method includes three stages: a coarse detection stage composed by retinal pigment epithelium layer segmentation, optic ...

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    19. Simultaneous dual-band line-field confocal optical coherence tomography: application to skin imaging

      Simultaneous dual-band line-field confocal optical coherence tomography: application to skin imaging

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) operating in two distinct spectral bands centered at 770 nm and 1250 nm is reported, using a single supercontinuum light source and two different line-scan cameras. B-scans are acquired simultaneously in the two bands at 4 frames per second. Greyscale representation and color fusion of the images are performed to either produce a single image with both high resolution (1.3 µm × 1.2 µm, lateral × axial, measured at the surface) in the superficial part of the image and deep penetration, or to highlight the spectroscopic properties of the sample. In vivo images of ...

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      Mentions: Arnaud Dubois
    20. Noise of supercontinuum sources in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Noise of supercontinuum sources in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      In this paper, we investigate the effect of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of supercontinuum sources on the noise in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The commonly quoted theoretical expression for the OCT noise is derived for a thermal light source, which is not suitable if a supercontinuum light source is used. We therefore propose a new, measurement-based OCT noise model that predicts the noise without any assumptions on the type of light source. We show that the predicted noise values are in excellent agreement with the measured values. The spectral correlation evaluated for the photodetected signal when using a supercontinuum ...

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    21. Single-shot wavelength-independent phase-shifting method for full-field optical coherence tomography

      Single-shot wavelength-independent phase-shifting method for full-field optical coherence tomography

      One limitation of a piezoelectric translator-based phase-shifting method in full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is that there exist interference residuals because a light source with broadband is used. In this work, an achromatic phase-shifting method was proposed in which a linear polarizer and a quarter-wave plate were employed to generate the circularly polarized light in the reference arm of a basic Linnik interferometer. The light field reflected from the reference arm is supposed with the unpolarized light backscattered from the sample when the path difference is within the coherence length of the light source. A first phase difference of

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    22. Coherently broadened, high-repetition-rate laser for stimulated Raman scattering–spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      Coherently broadened, high-repetition-rate laser for stimulated Raman scattering–spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      We present a novel light source specifically tailored for stimulated Raman scattering–spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SRS-SOCT), which is, to the best of our knowledge, a novel molecular imaging method that combines the molecular sensitivity of SRS with the spatial and spectral multiplexing capabilities of SOCT. The novel laser consists of an 8 W, 450 fs Yb:KGW oscillator, with a repetition rate of 40 MHz, which delivers the Stokes beam for SRS-SOCT and also pumps and amplifies an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output of the amplified OPO is then frequency doubled and coherently broadened using a custom-made tapered ...

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    23. Aperture phase modulation with adaptive optics

      Aperture phase modulation with adaptive optics

      Speckle is an inevitable consequence of the use of coherent light in imaging and acts as noise that corrupts image formation in most applications. Optical coherence tomographic imaging, as a technique employing coherence time gating, suffers from speckle. We present here a novel method of suppressing speckle noise intrinsically compatible with adaptive optics (AO) for confocal coherent imaging: modulation of the phase in the system pupil aperture with a segmented deformable mirror (DM) to introduce minor perturbations in the point spread function. This approach creates uncorrelated speckle patterns in a series of images, enabling averaging to suppress speckle noise while ...

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    24. Miniature all-fiber axicon probe with extended Bessel focus for optical coherence tomography

      Miniature all-fiber axicon probe with extended Bessel focus for optical coherence tomography

      The trade-off between lateral resolution and depth of focus (DOF) severely limits the capability of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-resolution deep-tissue imaging. To address this issue, we developed a novel miniature all-fiber axicon OCT probe by inserting a segment of gradient-index (GRIN) fiber between a piece of single-mode fiber (SMF) and an axicon polished from a no-core fiber. The GRIN lens served as a beam expander extending the probe DOF by 5.2 times while maintaining a high lateral resolution of 2 μm. The DOF extension was experimentally verified by measuring the axial profile of the probe output ...

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      Mentions: Wei Wang
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