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    1. Effect of Pterygium Removal Combined with Conjunctival Autograft on Corneal Parameters in Swept-Source Imaging

      Effect of Pterygium Removal Combined with Conjunctival Autograft on Corneal Parameters in Swept-Source Imaging

      Background: Both pterygium ingrowth and excision determine alterations in corneal topography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pterygium removal combined with conjunctival autografts in addition to the use of human fibrin tissue glue on changes in corneal parameters as measured by 3-D swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) imaging. Methods: Sixteen eyes (16 patients) with pterygium that qualified for surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. Eye examination, slit lamp, and 3-D AS-OCT (CASIA 2) assessment were performed before the surgery and 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months after pterygium excision. Topographic parameters ...

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    2. Interleaving Automatic Segmentation and Expert Opinion for Retinal Conditions

      Interleaving Automatic Segmentation and Expert Opinion for Retinal Conditions

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become the leading diagnostic tool in modern ophthalmology. We are interested here in developing a support tool for the segmentation of retina layers. The proposed method relies on graph theory and geodesic distance. As each retina layer is characterised by different features, the proposed method interleaves various gradients during detection, such as horizontal and vertical gradients or open-closed gradients. The method was tested on a dataset of 750 OCT B-Scan Spectralis provided by the Ophthalmology Department of the County Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca. The method has smaller signed error on layers B1, B7 and B8, with ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Identifies Visual Pathway Involvement Earlier than Visual Function Tests in Children with MRI-Verified Optic Pathway Gliomas

      Optical Coherence Tomography Identifies Visual Pathway Involvement Earlier than Visual Function Tests in Children with MRI-Verified Optic Pathway Gliomas

      This study investigates whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) could add useful information in the examination of children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) at high risk of devel- oping vision loss. For this purpose, the relationship between ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and visual function, evaluated with tests of visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF), as well as tumor site according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were examined in a geographically defined group of children with OPG. Methods: Children aged <18 years with OPG underwent ophthalmic examination including VA, VF (Zeiss HFA perimetry) and OCT imaging (Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT ...

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    4. Automated Clinical Decision Support for Coronary Plaques Characterization from Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging with Fused Neural Networks

      Automated Clinical Decision Support for Coronary Plaques Characterization from Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging with Fused Neural Networks

      Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are nurturing clinical decision support systems for the detection and accurate modeling of coronary arterial plaques. However, efficient plaque characterization in time-constrained settings is still an open problem. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel automated classification architecture viable for the real-time clinical detection and classification of coronary artery plaques, and secondly, to use the novel dataset of OCT images for data augmentation. Further, the purpose is to validate the efficacy of transfer learning for arterial plaques classification. In this perspective, a novel time-efficient classification architecture based on DNNs is proposed. A new ...

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    5. Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) in the Speedy Assessment of the Responses of the Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

      Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) in the Speedy Assessment of the Responses of the Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

      The extraction of mineral resources from mines plays a vital role in global socio-economic development. However, acid mine drainage (AMD) has been one of the major pollutants, and a vast area of the agricultural fields has been polluted. Therefore, techniques for monitoring the response of plants to AMD that arise during mineral extraction are necessary. In addition, such a technique becomes especially valuable to understand how the plants could play a role in the phytoremediation of AMD. We propose the use of biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) to investigate the response of Kaiware daikon seeds under the exposure to simulated ...

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    6. Diagnostic Accuracy and Detection Rate of Glaucoma Screening with Optic Disk Photos, Optical Coherence Tomography Images, and Telemedicine

      Diagnostic Accuracy and Detection Rate of Glaucoma Screening with Optic Disk Photos, Optical Coherence Tomography Images, and Telemedicine

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and retinography in the detection of glaucoma through a telemedicine program. Methods: A population-based sample of 4113 persons was randomly selected. The screening examination included a fundus photograph and OCT images. Images were evaluated on a deferred basis. All participants were then invited to a complete glaucoma examination, including gonioscopy, visual field, and dilated fundus examination. The detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: We screened 1006 persons. Of these, 201 (19.9%) were classified as glaucoma ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Report 2: Diabetic Kidney Disease

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Report 2: Diabetic Kidney Disease

      The purpose of this study is to investigate potential associations between optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) categories in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and controls. A complete ocular and systemic examination, including OCTA imaging tests and bloods, was performed. OCTA parameters included vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), foveal avascular zone area (FAZa), perimeter (FAZp) and circularity (FAZc) in the superficial vascular plexus, and DKD categories were defined according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and KDIGO prognosis risk classifications. A total of 425 individuals (1 eye/1 patient) were included ...

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    8. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of a Selected Eye's Anterior Segment Parameters in Patients with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of a Selected Eye's Anterior Segment Parameters in Patients with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

      Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is a systemic, age-related disorder characterized by the production and accumulation of pseudoexfoliation material. To date, detailed characteristics have not been published regarding the iridocorneal angle and cornea in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome determined through swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: A total of 150 eyes of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (ages 69-86 years) and 166 eyes in a control group (ages 54-79 years) were analyzed. Results: The central corneal thickness in the PEX group was 549.56 μm and was slightly (insignificantly) higher than that of the control group (540.56 µm). The anterior ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography-OCT for Characterization of Non-Atherosclerotic Coronary Lesions in Acute Coronary Syndromes

      Optical Coherence Tomography-OCT for Characterization of Non-Atherosclerotic Coronary Lesions in Acute Coronary Syndromes

      Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide, with coronary artery disease being the predominant underlying etiology. The most prevalent coronary lesions are represented by the atherosclerotic plaques, in more than 85% of cases, but there are several other non-atherosclerotic lesions such as spontaneous coronary artery dissection and/or hematoma and spontaneous recanalization of coronary thrombus, which are less common, approximately 5% of cases, but with similar clinical manifestations as well as complications. There are insufficient data regarding the pathological mechanism, true prevalence and optimal treatment of these kind of coronary lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intracoronary ...

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    10. Improvement of Retinal Microcirculation after Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation—An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Improvement of Retinal Microcirculation after Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation—An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) perfusion in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) before and after catheter ablation of AF with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Methods: 34 eyes of 34 patients with AF and 35 eyes of 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Flow density data were obtained using spectral-domain OCT-A (RTVue XR Avanti with AngioVue, Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA). The data of the superficial and deep vascular layers of the macula and the ONH (radial peripapillary capillary network, RPC) before and after PVI were extracted and analysed. Results: The flow density in the ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    11. Evaluation of Newly Introduced Bioactive Materials in Terms of Cavity Floor Adaptation: OCT Study

      Evaluation of Newly Introduced Bioactive Materials in Terms of Cavity Floor Adaptation: OCT Study

      Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adaptation of newly introduced bioactive restorative materials to the cavity floor using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and methods: Round class V cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of sixty non-carious human anterior teeth (0.5 mm depth × 4 mm diameter), which were divided into groups according to the restorative material (n = 15). In the VF group, Vertise flow composite (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) was used, in the BF group, Beautifil II composite (Shofu, Koyoto, Japan) was used, and in the AB group, ACTIVA BioACTIVE composite (Pulpdent ...

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    12. Multilevel Deep Feature Generation Framework for Automated Detection of Retinal Abnormalities Using OCT Images

      Multilevel Deep Feature Generation Framework for Automated Detection of Retinal Abnormalities Using OCT Images

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images coupled with many learning techniques have been developed to diagnose retinal disorders. This work aims to develop a novel framework for extracting deep features from 18 pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNN) and to attain high performance using OCT images. In this work, we have developed a new framework for automated detection of retinal disorders using transfer learning. This model consists of three phases: deep fused and multilevel feature extraction, using 18 pre-trained networks and tent maximal pooling, feature selection with ReliefF, and classification using the optimized classifier. The novelty of this proposed framework is the ...

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    13. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsar Perimetry, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pre-Perimetric and Perimetric Glaucoma

      The Diagnostic Value of Pulsar Perimetry, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pre-Perimetric and Perimetric Glaucoma

      The purpose of this article is to investigate the diagnostic value of Pulsar perimetry (PP), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in pre-perimetric glaucoma (PPG) and perimetric glaucoma (PG). This retrospective cross-sectional study included 202 eyes (145 eyes in the control group, 40 eyes in the PPG group, and 17 eyes in the PG group) from 105 subjects. The results were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Pearson correlation was used to investigate the relationships of each parameter ...

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    14. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Predicting Progression of Age-Related Macular Disease

      Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Predicting Progression of Age-Related Macular Disease

      In developed countries, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a retinal disease, is the main cause of vision loss in the elderly. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is currently the gold standard for assessing individuals for initial AMD diagnosis. In this paper, we look at how OCT imaging can be used to diagnose AMD. Our main aim is to examine and compare automated computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems for diagnosing and grading of AMD. We provide a brief summary, outlining the main aspects of performance assessment and providing a basis for current research in AMD diagnosis. As a result, the only viable alternative is ...

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    15. Artificial Intelligence and OCT Angiography in Full Thickness Macular Hole. New Developments for Personalized Medicine

      Artificial Intelligence and OCT Angiography in Full Thickness Macular Hole. New Developments for Personalized Medicine

      Purpose: To evaluate the 1-year visual acuity predictive performance of an artificial intelligence (AI) based model applied to optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) vascular layers scans from eyes with a full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). Methods: In this observational cross-sectional, single-center study, 35 eyes of 35 patients with FTMH were analyzed by OCT-A before and 1-year after surgery. Superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and deep vascular plexus (DVP) images were collected for the analysis. AI approach based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) was used to generate a continuous predictive variable based on both SVP and DPV. Different pre-trained CNN networks were used ...

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    16. Assessment of Retinal Capillary Dropout after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Assessment of Retinal Capillary Dropout after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to open heart surgery in the treatment of symptomatic aortic valve stenosis, which is often the treatment of choice in elderly and frail patients. It carries a risk of embolic complications in the whole cerebral vascular bed, which includes the retinal vasculature. The main objective was the evaluation of retinal emboli visible on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) following TAVI. This is a prospective, single center, observational study enrolling consecutive patients over two years. Patients were assessed pre- and post-TAVI. Twenty-eight patients were included in the final analysis, 82.1% were male ...

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    17. Early Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation

      Early Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation

      Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify images captured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: SS-OCT images from 48 control subjects and 48 recently diagnosed MS patients have been used. These images show the thicknesses (45 × 60 points) of the following structures: complete retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, two ganglion cell layers (GCL+, GCL++) and choroid. The Cohen distance is used to identify the structures and the regions within them with greatest ...

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    18. New Approaches and Technologies to Improve Accuracy of Acute Otitis Media Diagnosis

      New Approaches and Technologies to Improve Accuracy of Acute Otitis Media Diagnosis

      Several studies have shown that in recent years incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) has declined worldwide. However, related medical, social, and economic problems for patients, their families, and society remain very high. Better knowledge of potential risk factors for AOM development and more effective preventive interventions, particularly in AOM-prone children, can further reduce disease incidence. However, a more accurate AOM diagnosis seems essential to achieve this goal. Diagnostic uncertainty is common, and to avoid risks related to a disease caused mainly by bacteria, several children without AOM are treated with antibiotics and followed as true AOM cases. The main ...

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    19. The “Virtual Biopsy” of Cancerous Lesions in 3D: Non-Invasive Differentiation between Melanoma and Other Lesions Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography

      The “Virtual Biopsy” of Cancerous Lesions in 3D: Non-Invasive Differentiation between Melanoma and Other Lesions Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography

      Early detection of skin cancer is of critical importance to provide five year survival rates that approach 99%. By 2050, one out of five Americans by age 70 will develop some form of skin cancer. This will result in a projected rate of 50 million skin biopsies per year given the current rate of escalation. In addition, the ability to differentiate between pigmented lesions and melanomas has proven a diagnostic challenge. While dermoscopy and visual analysis are useful in identifying many skin lesions, additional non-invasive techniques are needed to assist in the analysis of difficult to diagnose skin tumors. To ...

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      Mentions: OptoVibronex
    20. Optical Coherence Tomography for Patients with Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Patients with Developmental Disabilities: A Preliminary Study

      Dental radiographs are essential for diagnosis and treatment planning, but are sometimes difficult to acquire for patients with developmental disabilities (PDD). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-ionizing imaging modality that has the potential application as an alternative to dental radiographs for PDD. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of intraoral OCT imaging for PDD. Ten participants were recruited in the Dental Education in the Care of Persons with Disabilities (DECOD) Clinic to explore the utility of dental OCT. The prototype system (Yoshida Dental) creates in-depth and three-dimensional images of teeth. The participants indicated their degree of pain during ...

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    21. Automatic Segmentation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer by Means of Mathematical Morphology and Deformable Models in 2D Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Automatic Segmentation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer by Means of Mathematical Morphology and Deformable Models in 2D Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease process that leads to progressive damage of the optic nerve to produce visual impairment and blindness. Spectral-domain OCT technology enables peripapillary circular scans of the retina and the measurement of the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) for the assessment of the disease status or progression in glaucoma patients. This paper describes a new approach to segment and measure the retinal nerve fiber layer in peripapillary OCT images. The proposed method consists of two stages. In the first one, morphological operators robustly detect the coarse location of the layer boundaries, despite the speckle ...

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    22. Longitudinal Assessment Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Friedreich’s Ataxia

      Longitudinal Assessment Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Friedreich’s Ataxia

      Ocular abnormalities occur frequently in Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), although visual symptoms are not always reported. We evaluated a cohort of patients with FRDA to characterise the clinical phenotype and optic nerve findings as detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 48 patients from 42 unrelated families were recruited. Mean age at onset was 13.8 years (range 4–40), mean disease duration 19.5 years (range 5–43), mean disease severity as quantified with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia 22/40 (range 4.5–38). All patients displayed variable ataxia and two-thirds had ...

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    23. Analysis of Parainflammation in Chronic Glaucoma Using Vitreous-OCT Imaging

      Analysis of Parainflammation in Chronic Glaucoma Using Vitreous-OCT Imaging

      Glaucoma causes blindness due to the progressive death of retinal ganglion cells. The immune response chronically and subclinically mediates a homeostatic role. In current clinical practice, it is impossible to analyse neuroinflammation non-invasively. However, analysis of vitreous images using optical coherence tomography detects the immune response as hyperreflective opacities. This study monitors vitreous parainflammation in two animal models of glaucoma, comparing both healthy controls and sexes over six months. Computational analysis characterizes in vivo the hyperreflective opacities, identified histologically as hyalocyte-like Iba-1+ (microglial marker) cells. Glaucomatous eyes showed greater intensity and number of vitreous opacities as well as dynamic fluctuations ...

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    24. Impact of Epiretinal Membrane on Optical Coherence Tomography Tools Used for Monitoring Glaucoma

      Impact of Epiretinal Membrane on Optical Coherence Tomography Tools Used for Monitoring Glaucoma

      Background: Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) measurements can be influenced by many factors including the presence of concomitant retinal diseases. The aim of this study it to assess the impact of epiretinal membrane (ERM) on RNFL and GCL assessment using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: GCL, peripapillary RNFL (pRNFL), and Bruch’s Membrane Opening Minimum Rim Width (BMO-MRW) thicknesses were analysed using an SD-OCT (Spectralis OCT) in eyes with idiopathic ERM and compared with a control group. Results: 161 eyes were included, 73 eyes in the control group and 88 eyes with idiopathic ERM. The ...

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