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    1. Hyperreflective Material in Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Eyes with Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization May Affect the Visual Outcome

      Hyperreflective Material in Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Eyes with Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization May Affect the Visual Outcome

      Abstract The visual outcome of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy varies among individuals. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 24 eyes (24 patients) with treatment-naïve myopic CNV who underwent anti-VEGF monotherapy following a pro-re-nata regimen at the Division of Medical Retina Clinic, Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University Hospital between May 2014 and December 2017. The mean age was 70.6 ± 2.1 years, and 16 (66.7%) patients were female. Overall, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved ( p = 0.034), and the mean height of the hyperreflective material (HRM), involving the CNV ...

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    2. Choroidal Rift: A New OCT Finding in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Choroidal Rift: A New OCT Finding in Eyes with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a complex and not entirely understood retinal disease. The aim of our research was to describe a novel optical coherence tomography (OCT) finding named “choroidal rift”, which may be identified in the choroid of eyes with CSC. We collected data from 357 patients (488 eyes) with CSC who had structural OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) scans obtained. Choroidal rifts were identified as polygonal (and not round-shaped) hyporeflective lesions without hyperreflective margins. Choroidal rifts had to be characterized by a size superior to that of the largest choroidal vessel. Finally, hyporeflective lesions were graded as choroidal ...

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    3. Dual-Agent Photodynamic Therapy with Optical Clearing Eradicates Pigmented Melanoma in Preclinical Tumor Models

      Dual-Agent Photodynamic Therapy with Optical Clearing Eradicates Pigmented Melanoma in Preclinical Tumor Models

      Treatment using light-activated photosensitizers (photodynamic therapy, PDT) has shown limited efficacy in pigmented melanoma, mainly due to the poor penetration of light in this tissue. Here, an optical clearing agent (OCA) was applied topically to a cutaneous melanoma model in mice shortly before PDT to increase the effective treatment depth by reducing the light scattering. This was used together with cellular and vascular-PDT, or a combination of both. The effect on tumor growth was measured by longitudinal ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging in vivo and by immunohistology after sacrifice. In a separate dorsal window chamber tumor model, angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    4. Laser Lens Size Measurement Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Laser Lens Size Measurement Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      A high-speed, high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is presented for focusing lens imaging and a k-domain uniform algorithm is adopted to find the wave number phase equalization. The radius of curvature of the laser focusing lens was obtained using a curve-fitting algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the measuring accuracy of the proposed SS-OCT system is higher than the laser confocal microscope.

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    5. Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Diagnosing Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Diagnosing Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study aimed to develop and validate a deep learning system for diagnosing glaucoma using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A training set of 1822 eyes (332 control, 1490 glaucoma) with 7288 OCT images, an internal validation set of 425 eyes (104 control, 321 glaucoma) with 1700 images, and an external validation set of 355 eyes (108 control, 247 glaucoma) with 1420 images were included. Deviation and thickness maps of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) analyses were used to develop the deep learning system for glaucoma diagnosis based on the visual geometry group deep ...

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    6. Improved Diagnostic Imaging of Brain Tumors by Multimodal Microscopy and Deep Learning

      Improved Diagnostic Imaging of Brain Tumors by Multimodal Microscopy and Deep Learning

      Fluorescence-guided surgery is a state-of-the-art approach for intraoperative imaging during neurosurgical removal of tumor tissue. While the visualization of high-grade gliomas is reliable, lower grade glioma often lack visible fluorescence signals. Here, we present a hybrid prototype combining visible light optical coherence microscopy (OCM) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging for assessment of brain tumor samples acquired by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery. OCM provides high-resolution information of the inherent tissue scattering and absorption properties of tissue. We here explore quantitative attenuation coefficients derived from volumetric OCM intensity data and quantitative high-resolution 5-ALA fluorescence as potential biomarkers for tissue malignancy including otherwise ...

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    7. A Method for the Assessment of Textile Pilling Tendency Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Method for the Assessment of Textile Pilling Tendency Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Pilling is caused by friction pulling and fuzzing the fibers of a material. Pilling is normally evaluated by visually counting the pills on a flat fabric surface. Here, we propose an objective method of pilling assessment, based on the textural characteristics of the fabric shown in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The pilling layer is first identified above the fabric surface. The percentage of protruding fiber pixels and Haralick’s textural features are then used as pilling descriptors. Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to select strongly correlated features and then reduce the feature space dimensionality. The first principal component ...

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    8. Thickness of Intraretinal Layers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Depending on a Concomitant Diabetic Neuropathy: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Using Deviation Maps for OCT Data Analysis

      Thickness of Intraretinal Layers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Depending on a Concomitant Diabetic Neuropathy: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Using Deviation Maps for OCT Data Analysis

      ptical coherence tomography (OCT) supports the detection of thickness changes in intraretinal layers at an early stage of diabetes mellitus. However, the analysis of OCT data in cross-sectional studies is complex and time-consuming. We introduce an enhanced deviation map-based analysis (MA) and demonstrate its effectiveness in detecting early changes in intraretinal layer thickness in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to common early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) grid-based analysis (GA). To this end, we obtained OCT scans of unilateral eyes from 33 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy and 40 healthy controls. The patients were categorized according to ...

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    9. Attenuated Visual Function in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      Attenuated Visual Function in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      Background: We sought to investigate visual function, primarily, and structural changes in retinal ganglion cells, secondarily, in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: A total of 50 normal participants and 49 patients with major depressive disorder were included in this cross-sectional study. The participants underwent 24–2 standard automated perimetry and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results: The pattern standard deviation (PSD) in the visual field test was higher in the major depressive disorder patients than in the normal control subjects ( P = 0.017). The patients with major depressive disorder showed reduced minimum ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness relative ...

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    10. Long-Term Visual/Anatomic Outcome in Patients with Fovea-Involving Fibrovascular Pigment Epithelium Detachment Presenting Choroidal Neovascularization on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Long-Term Visual/Anatomic Outcome in Patients with Fovea-Involving Fibrovascular Pigment Epithelium Detachment Presenting Choroidal Neovascularization on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background: To evaluate long-term visual/anatomic outcome after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy in patients with fovea-involving fibrovascular pigment epithelium detachment (PED) presenting with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Patients with fibrovascular PED or subretinal CNV confirmed by OCTA who were treated by a relaxed treat-and-extend regimen for 2 years were retrospectively reviewed. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield retinal thickness (CST) before and after anti-VEGF injection were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in photoreceptor layer (PRL) thickness and outer retinal bands in the fovea after injection were evaluated. Results: A total of 31 ...

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    11. Effects of Prolonged Type 2 Diabetes on the Inner Retinal Layer and Macular Microvasculature: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Effects of Prolonged Type 2 Diabetes on the Inner Retinal Layer and Macular Microvasculature: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To identify the effects of prolonged type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on macular microcirculation and the inner retinal layer in diabetic eyes without clinical diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: 97, 92, and 57 eyes in the control, patients with T2DM < 10 years (DM group one), and patients with T2DM ≥ 10 years (DM group two) were enrolled. The ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and superficial vessel density (VD) were compared. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with VD in T2DM patients. Results: GC-IPL thicknesses in the control, DM group one, and DM group two were 84.58 ± 0 ...

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    12. Deterioration of Retinal Blood Flow Parameters in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Measured by Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Flowmeter

      Deterioration of Retinal Blood Flow Parameters in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Measured by Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Flowmeter

      Background: Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flowmeter can be used to measure retinal blood flow (RBF) parameters, including vessel diameter, blood velocity, and the absolute value of RBF within 2.0 s. We investigated the RBF parameters in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using a DOCT flowmeter. Methods: Seventeen patients with unilateral BRVO were enrolled. All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations. The RBF parameters were assessed from three veins, i.e., (1) an occluded vein, (2) a non-occluded vein in the BRVO eyes, and (3) an equivalent (superior or inferior) vein in the fellow eye (non-affected vein), using ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy

      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that disrupts the retinal microvasculature and is a leading cause of vision loss globally. Recently, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been developed to image the retinal microvasculature, by generating 3-dimensional images based on the motion contrast of circulating blood cells. OCTA offers numerous benefits over traditional fluorescein angiography in visualizing the retinal vasculature in that it is non-invasive and safer; while its depth-resolved ability makes it possible to visualize the finer capillaries of the retinal capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris. High-quality OCTA images have also enabled the visualization of features ...

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    14. Cyst Detection and Motion Artifact Elimination in Enface Optical Coherence Tomography Angiograms

      Cyst Detection and Motion Artifact Elimination in Enface Optical Coherence Tomography Angiograms

      The correct detection of cysts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography images is of crucial importance for allowing reliable quantitative evaluation in patients with macular edema. However, this is a challenging task, since the commercially available software only allows manual cysts delineation. Moreover, even small eye movements can cause motion artifacts that are not always compensated by the commercial software. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on the use of filters and morphological operators, to eliminate the motion artifacts and delineate the cysts contours/borders. The method has been validated on a dataset including 194 images from 30 ...

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    15. Spatial Linear Mixed Effects Modelling for OCT Images: SLME Model

      Spatial Linear Mixed Effects Modelling for OCT Images: SLME Model

      Much recent research focuses on how to make disease detection more accurate as well as “slimmer”, i.e., allowing analysis with smaller datasets. Explanatory models are a hot research topic because they explain how the data are generated. We propose a spatial explanatory modelling approach that combines Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) retinal imaging data with clinical information. Our model consists of a spatial linear mixed effects inference framework, which innovatively models the spatial topography of key information via mixed effects and spatial error structures, thus effectively modelling the shape of the thickness map. We show that our spatial linear mixed ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Disorders

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neurodegenerative Disorders

      Retinal microcirculation shares similar features with cerebral small blood vessels. Thus, the retina may be considered an accessible ‘window’ to detect the microvascular damage occurring in the setting of neurodegenerative disorders. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a non-invasive imaging modality providing depth resolved images of blood flow in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the application of OCT-A in glaucoma and central nervous system conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Future directions aiming at evaluating whether OCT-A can be an additional biomarker for the ...

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    17. What Is the Impact of Intraoperative Microscope-Integrated OCT in Ophthalmic Surgery? Relevant Applications and Outcomes. A Systematic Review

      What Is the Impact of Intraoperative Microscope-Integrated OCT in Ophthalmic Surgery? Relevant Applications and Outcomes. A Systematic Review

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently been introduced in the operating theatre. The aim of this review is to present the actual role of microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MI-OCT) in ophthalmology. Method: A total of 314 studies were identified, following a literature search adhering to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. After full-text evaluation, 81 studies discussing MI-OCT applications in ophthalmology were included. Results: At present, three microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography systems are commercially available. MI-OCT can help anterior and posterior segment surgeons in the decision-making process, providing direct visualization of anatomic planes before ...

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    18. Retinal Vascular Changes in Radiation Maculopathy after Intravitreal Ranibizumab by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Vascular Changes in Radiation Maculopathy after Intravitreal Ranibizumab by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      In this prospective study, we investigated the structural and vascular retinal changes at baseline and after Ranibizumab injections at the last follow up to one year in patients affected by Radiation Maculopathy (RM) after plaque brachytheraphy in choroidal melanoma, using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCTA). A total of 40 eyes with RM of 40 patients (18 females, 22 males, mean age 51.9 ± 11 years) that underwent ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy were included. All patients received one monthly intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab (Pro Re Nata regimen). We analyzed the Foveal Avascular Zone (FAZ) area, the retinal ...

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    19. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Performance Improvement Based on Field Curvature Aberration-Corrected Spectrometer

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Performance Improvement Based on Field Curvature Aberration-Corrected Spectrometer

      We designed and fabricated a telecentric f-theta imaging lens (TFL) to improve the imaging performance of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). By tailoring the field curvature aberration of the TFL, the flattened focal surface was well matched to the detector plane. Simulation results showed that the spot in the focal plane fitted well within a single pixel and the modulation transfer function at high spatial frequencies showed higher values compared with those of an achromatic doublet imaging lens, which are commonly used in SD-OCT spectrometers. The spectrometer using the TFL had an axial resolution of 7.8 m, which ...

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    20. Clinical-Evolutionary Staging System of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Clinical-Evolutionary Staging System of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is considered one of the main causes of blindness. Detection of POAG at early stages and classification into evolutionary stages is crucial to blindness prevention. Methods: 1001 patients were enrolled, of whom 766 were healthy subjects and 235 were ocular hypertensive or glaucomatous patients in different stages of the disease. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to determine Bruch’s membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and the thicknesses of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) rings with diameters of 3.0, 4.1 and 4.7 mm centred on the optic nerve. The ...

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    21. Cone Dystrophies: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Cone Dystrophies: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Background: This study investigates the relationship between retinal vascularization and macular function in patients with cone dystrophies (CDs). Methods: Twenty CD patients (40 eyes) and 20 healthy controls (20 eyes) were enrolled in this prospective case-control study. Patients underwent full ophthalmological examination, microperimetry, full-field, pattern and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG, PERG, mfERG) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Main outcome measures were as follows: foveal and parafoveal inner and outer retinal thickness; microperimetry sensitivity in the central 4° and 8°, ERG b wave amplitudes and peak times, PERG P50 and N95 amplitudes and latencies, and mfERG N1 to P1 amplitudes; and ...

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    22. Glaucomatous Maculopathy: Thickness Differences on Inner and Outer Macular Layers between Ocular Hypertension and Early Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using 8 × 8 Posterior Pole Algorithm of SD-OCT

      Glaucomatous Maculopathy: Thickness Differences on Inner and Outer Macular Layers between Ocular Hypertension and Early Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using 8 × 8 Posterior Pole Algorithm of SD-OCT

      The purpose of this study was to compare the thickness of all inner and outer macular layers between ocular hypertension (OHT) and early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) 8 × 8 posterior pole algorithm (8 × 8 PPA). Fifty-seven eyes of 57 OHT individuals and fifty-seven eyes of 57 early POAG patients were included. The thickness of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform and nuclear layer, photoreceptor layer (PRL) and retinal pigment epithelium were obtained in 64 cells for each macular layer ...

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    23. The MOLES System for Planning Management of Melanocytic Choroidal Tumors: Is It Safe?

      The MOLES System for Planning Management of Melanocytic Choroidal Tumors: Is It Safe?

      Purpose: To evaluate the MOLES system for identifying malignancy in melanocytic choroidal tumors in patients treated for choroidal melanoma. Methods: Records of 615 patients treated for choroidal melanoma between January 2017 and December 2019 were reviewed. Patients were excluded if iris and/or ciliary body involvement (106 patients), inadequate fundus photography (26 patients), no images available for review (21 patients) and/or treatment was not primary (11 patients). Demographic data and AJCC TNM Stage were collected. Color fundus and autofluorescence photographs (FAF), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and B-scan ultrasounds were prospectively reviewed. MOLES scores were assigned according to five criteria ...

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    24. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases with CNS Involvement

      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases with CNS Involvement

      The purpose of this study was to examine whether application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements can provide a useful biomarker for distinguishing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTD) from multiple sclerosis (MS). An observational study included non-optic neuritis eyes of 121 individuals: 59 patients with MS, 30 patients with CNS involvement in CTD, and 32 healthy controls. OCT examination was performed in all subjects to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, and volume of the macula. There was a significant group ...

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