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    1. A Comparison Study of Marginal and Internal Fit Assessment Methods for Fixed Dental Prostheses

      A Comparison Study of Marginal and Internal Fit Assessment Methods for Fixed Dental Prostheses

      Numerous studies have previously evaluated the marginal and internal fit of fixed prostheses; however, few reports have performed an objective comparison of the various methods used for their assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare five marginal and internal fit assessment methods for fixed prostheses. A specially designed sample was used to measure the marginal and internal fit of the prosthesis according to the cross-sectional method (CSM), silicone replica technique (SRT), triple scan method (TSM), micro-computed tomography (MCT), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The five methods showed significant differences in the four regions that were assessed ( p < 0 ...

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    2. Differentiating Generic versus Branded Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Ultra-High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Differentiating Generic versus Branded Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Ultra-High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently been demonstrated as a powerful tool to image through pharmaceutical film coatings. Majority of the existing systems can, however, resolve film coatings for thickness greater than 10 µm. Here we report on an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) OCT system, with 1 µm axial and 1.6 µm lateral resolutions, which can resolve thin coatings at approximately 4 µm. We further demonstrate a novel application of the system for differentiating generic and branded suppliers of paracetamol tablets.

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      Mentions: Yalin Zheng
    3. Comparison of Intensity- and Polarization-based Contrast in Amyloid-beta Plaques as Observed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Comparison of Intensity- and Polarization-based Contrast in Amyloid-beta Plaques as Observed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      One key hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta protein in cortical regions of the brain. For a definitive diagnosis of AD, post-mortem histological analysis, including sectioning and staining of different brain regions, is required. Here, we present optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a tissue-preserving imaging modality for the visualization of amyloid-beta plaques and compare their contrast in intensity- and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT. Human brain samples of eleven patients diagnosed with AD were imaged. Three-dimensional PS-OCT datasets were acquired and plaques were manually segmented in 500 intensity and retardation cross-sections per patient using the freely ...

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    4. Non-Invasive Morphological Characterization of Rice Leaf Bulliform and Aerenchyma Cellular Regions Using Low Coherence Interferometry

      Non-Invasive Morphological Characterization of Rice Leaf Bulliform and Aerenchyma Cellular Regions Using Low Coherence Interferometry

      Non-invasive investigation of rice leaf specimens to characterize the morphological formation and particular structural information that is beneficial for agricultural perspective was demonstrated using a low coherence interferometric method called swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The acquired results non-invasively revealed morphological properties of rice leaf, such as bulliform cells; aerenchyma, parenchyma, and collenchyma layer; and vascular bundle. Beside aforementioned morphologic characteristics, several leaf characteristics associated with cytological mechanisms of leaf rolling (leaf inclination) were examined for the pre-identification of inevitable necrosis and atrophy of leaf tissues by evaluating acute angle information, such as angular characteristics of the external bi-directional ...

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    5. Metalens-Based Miniaturized Optical Systems

      Metalens-Based Miniaturized Optical Systems

      etasurfaces have been studied and widely applied to optical systems. A metasurface-based flat lens (metalens) holds promise in wave-front engineering for multiple applications. The metalens has become a breakthrough technology for miniaturized optical system development, due to its outstanding characteristics, such as ultrathinness and cost-effectiveness. Compared to conventional macro- or meso-scale optics manufacturing methods, the micro-machining process for metalenses is relatively straightforward and more suitable for mass production. Due to their remarkable abilities and superior optical performance, metalenses in refractive or diffractive mode could potentially replace traditional optics. In this review, we give a brief overview of the most recent ...

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    6. Incidental Finding of Strut Malapposition Is a Predictor of Late and Very Late Thrombosis in Coronary Bioresorbable Scaffolds

      Incidental Finding of Strut Malapposition Is a Predictor of Late and Very Late Thrombosis in Coronary Bioresorbable Scaffolds

      Malapposition is a common finding in stent and scaffold thrombosis (ScT). Evidence from studies with prospective follow-up, however, is scarce. We hypothesized that incidental observations of strut malapposition might be predictive of late ScT during subsequent follow-up. One hundred ninety-seven patients were enrolled in a multicentre registry with prospective follow-up. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), performed in an elective setting, was available in all at 353 (0–376) days after bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) implantation. Forty-four patients showed evidence of malapposition that was deemed not worthy of intervention. Malapposition was not associated with any clinical or procedural parameter except for a higher ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Fabry Disease

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Fabry Disease

      Background: Fabry disease (FD) is a X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by altered biodegradation of glycosphingolipids. It is a multisystem pathology, also involving ophthalmological systems that show modifications of the vessel wall due to glycosphingolipid deposits. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) allows for an objective analysis of retinal microvasculature alterations, evaluating retinal vessel density in macular region. Methods: A total of 54 FD patients (34 females, 20 males, mean age 44.1 ± 15.6 years) and 70 controls (36 females, 34 males, mean age 42.3 ± 15.6 years) were included in this study. We evaluated vessel density in ...

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    8. Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability:an In Vitro and In Vivo Study

      Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability:an In Vitro and In Vivo Study

      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation as an adaptive defense mechanism, determining the synthesis of antioxidant molecules, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 protects cells against oxidative injury, degrading free heme and inhibiting ROS production. HO-1 is highly expressed in macrophages during plaque growth. Macrophages are morpho-functionally heterogeneous, and the prevalence of a specific phenotype may influence the plaque fate. This heterogeneity has also been observed in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), a model of macrophages infiltrating tissue. The study aims to assess oxidative stress status and Nrf2/HO-1 axis in MDM morphotypes obtained from healthy ...

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    9. 3D Strain and Elasticity Measurement of Layered Biomaterials by Optical Coherence Elastography based on Digital Volume Correlation and Virtual Fields Method

      3D Strain and Elasticity Measurement of Layered Biomaterials by Optical Coherence Elastography based on Digital Volume Correlation and Virtual Fields Method

      The three-dimensional (3D) mechanical property characterization of biological tissues is essential for physiological and pathological studies. A digital volume correlation (DVC) and virtual fields method (VFM) based 3D optical coherence elastography (OCE) method is developed to quantitatively measure the 3D full-field displacements, strains and elastic parameters of layered biomaterials assuming the isotropy and homogeneity of each layer. The integrated noise-insensitive DVC method can obtain the 3D strain tensor with an accuracy of 10%. Automatic segmentation of the layered materials is realized based on the full field strain and strain gradient. With the strain tensor as input, and in combination with ...

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    10. Endometrial Vascularization Characterized by Optical Coherence Tomography and Immunohistochemistry in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer Treatment

      Endometrial Vascularization Characterized by Optical Coherence Tomography and Immunohistochemistry in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer Treatment

      Background and objective: Endometrial angiogenesis is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive physically optical imaging technique widely used in ophthalmology and cardiology. However, there is no study using OCT to evaluate endometrium. The aim of this study was to use OCT and traditionally histological methods to investigate endometrial vascularization in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment and to determine the association with the pregnancy outcome. Methods: A total of 47 women were included in this study. OCT was used to assess endometrial vascularization by determining the high signal areas precisely on the ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Investigations and Modeling of the Sintering of Ceramic Crowns

      Optical Coherence Tomography Investigations and Modeling of the Sintering of Ceramic Crowns

      Dental prostheses are sintered in ovens that sometimes suffer from a loss of calibration. This can lead to variations of the sintering temperature outside the range recommended by the manufacturer. Stress and even fractures in dental ceramics may occur, and this leads to the necessity to rebuild the dental construct. The aim of this work is to monitor the quality of sintering processes using an established biomedical imaging technique—optical coherence tomography (OCT). Conventional current procedures imply the fabrication of supplemental samples that add to the expenses and are only evaluated visually. To our knowledge, we were the first to ...

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    12. 4-D Computational Modeling of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics over Looping Developmental Stages in Chicken Embryos

      4-D Computational Modeling of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics over Looping Developmental Stages in Chicken Embryos

      Cardiogenesis is interdependent with blood flow within the embryonic system. Recently, a number of studies have begun to elucidate the effects of hemodynamic forces acting upon and within cells as the cardiovascular system begins to develop. Changes in flow are picked up by mechanosensors in endocardial cells exposed to wall shear stress (the tangential force exerted by blood flow) and by myocardial and mesenchymal cells exposed to cyclic strain (deformation). Mechanosensors stimulate a variety of mechanotransduction pathways which elicit functional cellular responses in order to coordinate the structural development of the heart and cardiovascular system. The looping stages of heart ...

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    13. Optimized Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Identification of Macular Diseases from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Optimized Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Identification of Macular Diseases from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Finetuning pre-trained deep neural networks (DNN) delicately designed for large-scale natural images may not be suitable for medical images due to the intrinsic difference between the datasets. We propose a strategy to modify DNNs, which improves their performance on retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Deep features of pre-trained DNN are high-level features of natural images. These features harm the training of transfer learning. Our strategy is to remove some deep convolutional layers of the state-of-the-art pre-trained networks: GoogLeNet, ResNet and DenseNet. We try to find the optimized deep neural networks on small-scale and large-scale OCT datasets, respectively, in our ...

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    14. A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments

      A Micro-Tomographic Insight into the Coating Systems of Historical Bowed String Instruments

      Musical instruments are tools for playing music, but for some of them—made by the most important historical violin makers—the myths hide the physical artwork. Ancient violin-making Masters developed peculiar construction methods and defined aesthetic canons that are still recognizable in their musical instruments. Recently, the focus of scientific investigations has been set on the characterization of materials and methods used by the ancient violin makers by means of several scientific approaches. In this work, the merits of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the investigation of complex coatings systems on historical bowed string musical ...

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    15. Identification of Human Pathological Mitral Chordae Tendineae Using Polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Identification of Human Pathological Mitral Chordae Tendineae Using Polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Defects of the mitral valve complex imply heart malfunction. The chordae tendineae (CTs) are tendinous strands connecting the mitral and tricuspid valve leaflets to the papillary muscles. These CTs are composed of organized, wavy collagen bundles, making them a strongly birefringent material. Disorder of the collagen structure due to different diseases (rheumatic, degenerative) implies the loss or reduction of tissue birefringence able to be characterized with Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT). PS-OCT is used to discriminate healthy from diseased chords, as the latter must be excised and replaced in clinical conventional interventions. PS-OCT allows to quantify birefringence reduction in ...

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    16. Non-Invasive Quantification of the Growth of Cancer Cell Colonies by a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography

      Non-Invasive Quantification of the Growth of Cancer Cell Colonies by a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography

      Investigation of tumor development is essential in cancer research. In the laboratory, living cell culture is a standard bio-technology for studying cellular response under tested conditions to predict in vivo cellular response. In particular, the colony formation assay has become a standard experiment for characterizing the tumor development in vitro. However, quantification of the growth of cell colonies under a microscope is difficult because they are suspended in a three-dimensional environment. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was develop in this study to monitor the growth of cell colonies. Cancer cell line of Huh 7 was used and the cells ...

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    17. In Vivo Rat Brain Imaging through Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy Using an Ultrathin Short Multimode Fiber Probe

      In Vivo Rat Brain Imaging through Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy Using an Ultrathin Short Multimode Fiber Probe

      We demonstrate full-field optical coherence microscopy (OCM) using an ultrathin forward-imaging short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe with a core diameter of 50 μm, outer diameter of 125 μm, and length of 7.4 mm, which is a typical graded-index multimode fiber used for optical communications. The axial and lateral resolutions were measured to be 2.14 μm and 2.3 μm, respectively. By inserting the SMMF 4 mm into the cortex of an in vivo rat brain, scanning was performed to a depth of 147 μm from the SMMF facet with a field of view of 47 μm. Three-dimensional (3D ...

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    18. In Vivo 3D Imaging of Retinal Neovascularization Using Multimodal Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      In Vivo 3D Imaging of Retinal Neovascularization Using Multimodal Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      The pathological process of neovascularization of the retina plays a critical role in causing vision loss in several diseases, including diabetes, retinal vein occlusion, and sickle cell disease. Retinal neovascularization can lead to vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, yet the pathological process of neovascularization is a complex phenomenon under active investigation. Understanding and monitoring retinal neovascularization is critically important in clinical ophthalmology. This study describes a novel multimodal ocular imaging system which combines photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to improve the visualization of retinal neovascularization (RNV), their depth, and the surrounding anatomy in living ...

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    19. Photoacoustic Ophthalmoscopy: Principle, Application, and Future Directions

      Photoacoustic Ophthalmoscopy: Principle, Application, and Future Directions

      Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a novel, hybrid, non-ionizing, and non-invasive imaging technology that has been used to assess the retina. PAOM can provide both anatomic and functional retinal characterizations with high resolution, high sensitivity, high contrast, and a high depth of penetration. Thus, ocular diseases can be precisely detected and visualized at earlier stages, resulting in an improved understanding of pathophysiology, improved management, and the improved monitoring of retinal treatment to prevent vision loss. To better visualize ocular components such as retinal vessels, choroidal vessels, choroidal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, and the retinal pigment epithelium, an advanced multimodal ocular imaging platform ...

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    20. Non-Contact Measurement of Small-Module Gears Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Non-Contact Measurement of Small-Module Gears Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Due to the small size and harsh transmission conditions of small-module gears, it is very difficult to measure gear characteristics with a modulus smaller than 1 mm. We proposed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) method for measuring small-module gears. Testing of a 30-tooth copper gear with a small modulus of 0.5 mm was carried out for the measurement of its modulus, tooth parameter, tooth number, pressure angle, modification coefficient, and tooth thickness by using OCT. In addition, the influencing factors on the measurement were discussed. The whole teeth profile of a 0.2 mm modulus gear was imaged by ...

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    21. Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Demonstration of Triband Multi-Focal Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      We demonstrate an extended depth of focus optical coherence tomography (OCT) system based on the use of chromatic aberration to create displaced focal planes in the sample. The system uses a wavelength-swept source tuning over three spectral bands and three separate interferometers, each of which interfaces to a single illumination/collection fiber. The resulting three imaged volumes are merged in post-processing to generate an image with a larger depth of focus than is obtained from each band individually. The improvements are demonstrated in structural imaging of a porous phantom and a lipid-cleared murine brain, and by angiographic imaging of human ...

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    22. OCT Angiography: A Technique for the Assessment of Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases in the Pediatric Population

      OCT Angiography: A Technique for the Assessment of Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases in the Pediatric Population

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel, rapidly evolving, non-invasive imaging technique that allows images of the retinal vasculature to be obtained in a few seconds. Blood vessels of different retinal vascular plexuses and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) can be examined without the administration of any contrast or dye. Due to these characteristics, OCT-A could be an excellent complementary test to study retinal vascularization in children. Until now, most of the studies with OCT-A have been conducted in adults and only a few have been carried out in children. In this review, we describe the principles and advantages ...

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    23. Monolithically Integrated, CMOS-Compatible SiN Photonics for Sensing Applications

      Monolithically Integrated, CMOS-Compatible SiN Photonics for Sensing Applications

      As a leading provider of sensing solutions ams AG is developing semiconductor sensors in a wide variety of fields. One of the key competences of ams AG lies in optical sensing. To widen the company’s portfolio in this field we have been developing processes for fully integrated CMOS compatible photonic components based on Si 3 N 4 in the last few years. This contribution will give an overview of the Si 3 N 4 process as a post-processing flow for standard CMOS, some basic photonic building blocks and their properties, and an example for their use in the field ...

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    24. Computer-Aided Analysis of Gland-Like Subsurface Hyposcattering Structures in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Computer-Aided Analysis of Gland-Like Subsurface Hyposcattering Structures in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      (1) Background: Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The clinical implication of subsurface glandular structures of Barrett’s esophagus is not well understood. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), also known as volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE), can assess subsurface glandular structures, which appear as subsurface hyposcattering structures (SHSs). The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided algorithm and apply it to investigate the characteristics of SHSs in BE using clinical VLE data; (2) Methods: SHSs were identified with an initial detection followed by machine learning. Comprehensive SHS ...

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