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    1. Microperimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Changes in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus without Retinopathy

      Microperimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Changes in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus without Retinopathy

      Background: We aimed to measure and correlate inner retinal layer (IRL) thickness and macular sensitivity by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and by microperimetry, respectively, in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (DM1) without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Fifty-one DM1 patients and 81 age-matched healthy subjects underwent measurement of the axial length (AL), retinal thickness in the macular ETDRS areas by swept source (SS)-OCT and macular sensitivity by microperimeter. Results: The total retinal and IRL thicknesses were thicker in the DM1 group (p < 0.05) in practically all ETDRS areas, and they had a generalized decrease in sensitivity (p < 0.05 ...

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    2. Analysis of the Choroid and Its Relationship with the Outer Retina in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Using Binarization Techniques Based on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis of the Choroid and Its Relationship with the Outer Retina in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Using Binarization Techniques Based on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      (1) Background : We aimed to reveal the relationship between the choroid and the outer retina with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with mild or no diabetic retinopathy (DR) in order to find early biomarkers for progressing retinopathy. (2) Methods : We performed a prospective study including 61 eyes of patients with type 1 or type 2 DM and 36 eyes of healthy controls. All subjects were imaged with Spectralis OCT. The choroid was assesseed using enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT). Binarization of subfoveal choroidal images was done with public domain software, ImageJ (version 1.53a; National ...

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    3. Evaluation of Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Assessment of Atherosclerosis of the Left Main Coronary Artery: Comparison with Optical Frequency Domain Imaging (a Pilot Study)

      Evaluation of Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Assessment of Atherosclerosis of the Left Main Coronary Artery: Comparison with Optical Frequency Domain Imaging (a Pilot Study)

      Background: Risk stratification using non-invasive imaging of the coronary vessels is emerging as an optimal standard of care for patients with dyslipidemias. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), where calcium deposition appears to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. Methods: In coronary patients, we evaluated wall thickness and internal diameter of the LMCA examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and compared these with findings obtained by optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), this latter also used to evaluate calcium deposition. Results: A significant positive correlation between TTE and OFDI for the anterior wall thickness (r ...

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    4. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Retinal Shape: Peripheral Refraction vs. Optical Coherence Tomography

      Comparison of Methods for Estimating Retinal Shape: Peripheral Refraction vs. Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal shape presents a clinical parameter of interest for myopia, and has commonly been inferred indirectly from peripheral refraction (PRX) profiles. Distortion-corrected optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans offer a new and direct possibility for retinal shape estimation. The current study compared retinal curvatures derived from OCT scans vs. PRX measurements in three refractive profiles (0 ∘ and 90 ∘ meridians, plus spherical equivalent) for 25 participants via Bland–Altman analysis. The radial differences between both procedures were correlated to axial length using Pearson correlation. In general, PRX- and OCT-based retinal radii showed low correlation (all intraclass correlation coefficients < 0.21). PRX found ...

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    5. The Bioengineered Combo Dual-Therapy CD34 Antibody-Covered Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent in Patients with Chronic Total Occlusion Evaluated by Clinical Outcome and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Analysis

      The Bioengineered Combo Dual-Therapy CD34 Antibody-Covered Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent in Patients with Chronic Total Occlusion Evaluated by Clinical Outcome and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Analysis

      We sought to determine the effects of the use of a Bioengineered Combo Dual-Therapy CD34 Antibody-Covered Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent (Combo ® DTS) in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) by evaluating clinical outcomes and by performing an optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis. We retrospectively analyzed data from 39 patients who had successfully undergone OCT-guided revascularization of a CTO being treated with a Combo ® DTS. Clinical assessment, angiography (with quantitative coronary angiography analysis) and OCT examination were performed at baseline and at follow-up. The median follow-up period was 189 days, ranging from 157 to 615 days. At follow-up, revascularization was required due ...

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    6. Optical Technologies for the Improvement of Skin Cancer Diagnosis: A Review

      Optical Technologies for the Improvement of Skin Cancer Diagnosis: A Review

      The worldwide incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the last decades, becoming one in three cancers nowadays. Currently, a person has a 4% chance of developing melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which causes the greatest number of deaths. In the context of increasing incidence and mortality, skin cancer bears a heavy health and economic burden. Nevertheless, the 5-year survival rate for people with skin cancer significantly improves if the disease is detected and treated early. Accordingly, large research efforts have been devoted to achieve early detection and better understanding of the disease, with the aim ...

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    7. Correlation between Visual Acuity and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Unilateral Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane

      Correlation between Visual Acuity and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters in Unilateral Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane

      Background: The tangential traction by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) may alter the hemodynamics of the macula. We investigated the correlation between visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in unilateral iERM. Methods: We included 61 eyes of 61 consecutive patients with unilateral iERM between January 2018 and December 2018. The flow area of the retinal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and choroidal capillary plexus (CCP) were measured using OCTA. The normal fellow eyes were used for comparison. The iERM patients were divided into those with a presence of foveal concavity and those with a ...

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    8. The Retinal Vessel Density as a New Vascular Biomarker in Multisystem Involvement in Fabry Disease: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      The Retinal Vessel Density as a New Vascular Biomarker in Multisystem Involvement in Fabry Disease: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      In this study, we evaluated the possible relationship between the changes in retinal vessel density (VD) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and the vascular alterations involving renal, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in patients affected by Fabry disease (FD). In 50 FD patients, the retinal superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) in macular region were evaluated by OCTA examination. The patients also underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan, renal and echocardiographic examinations with quantification of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPs) and left atrial volume index (LAVi). The VD of SCP and DCP was inversely related ...

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    9. OCT Angiography Findings in Macula-ON and Macula-OFF Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Prospective Study

      OCT Angiography Findings in Macula-ON and Macula-OFF Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Prospective Study

      Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate pre-operative and post-operative retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients who underwent rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 eyes were included in this prospective consecutive observational study: 15 affected by macula-ON and 18 by macula-OFF RRD. Superficial (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area variations were evaluated by OCTA and correlated with visual acuity (VA) during a six-month follow-up. Results: In the macula-ON group, the preoperative vascular density (VD) of the whole SCP (wSCP) on affected eyes ...

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    10. Wavefront Shaping Concepts for Application in Optical Coherence Tomography-A Review

      Wavefront Shaping Concepts for Application in Optical Coherence Tomography-A Review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables three-dimensional imaging with resolution on the micrometer scale. The technique relies on the time-of-flight gated detection of light scattered from a sample and has received enormous interest in applications as versatile as non-destructive testing, metrology and non-invasive medical diagnostics. However, in strongly scattering media such as biological tissue, the penetration depth and imaging resolution are limited. Combining OCT imaging with wavefront shaping approaches significantly leverages the capabilities of the technique by controlling the scattered light field through manipulation of the field incident on the sample. This article reviews the main concepts developed so far in ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Intermediate and Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Intermediate and Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive diagnostic instrument that has become indispensable for the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OCTA allows quickly visualizing retinal and choroidal microvasculature, and in the last years, its use has increased in clinical practice as well as for research into the pathophysiology of AMD. This review provides a discussion of new technology and application of OCTA in intermediate and late AMD.

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    12. Short-Term Effects of Different Types of Anti-Glaucoma Eyedrop on the Sclero-Conjunctival Vasculature Assessed Using Anterior Segment OCTA in Normal Human Eyes: A Pilot Study

      Short-Term Effects of Different Types of Anti-Glaucoma Eyedrop on the Sclero-Conjunctival Vasculature Assessed Using Anterior Segment OCTA in Normal Human Eyes: A Pilot Study

      Background: To investigate the short-term effects of different types of anti-glaucoma eyedrop on sclero-conjunctival vasculatures and their associations with intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Methods: This was a prospective study including 20 healthy subjects. A single instillation of ripasudil or bimatoprost was introduced into the right eyes of the participants. The superficial (conjunctival) and deep (intrascleral) vasculatures of the corneal limbus using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and IOP were examined in both eyes at baseline and 15 min and 2 h after instillation. Results: In the ripasudil group, the vessel density (VD) (median) at baseline (deep, 13.1%; superficial ...

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    13. Factors Associated with Changes in Retinal Layers Following Acute Optic Neuritis: A Longitudinal Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Factors Associated with Changes in Retinal Layers Following Acute Optic Neuritis: A Longitudinal Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      This study aimed to analyze longitudinal changes in retinal microstructures following acute optic neuritis and to identify the factors that affect those changes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Forty-eight eyes of 37 patients with a first episode of optic neuritis and 48 eyes of 48 healthy controls were enrolled. Patients underwent serial OCT and visual function testing for more than six months. Individual layers from macular OCT were segmented with an automated algorithm. The total retinal layer (TRL), nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) of optic neuritis eyes showed significant thinning with ...

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    14. Relationship between N95 Amplitude of Pattern Electroretinogram and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Relationship between N95 Amplitude of Pattern Electroretinogram and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Purpose: The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is useful to detect retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage in patients with glaucoma. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measures retinal vessel density (VD), which is known to be reduced in glaucoma. There may be correlations between parameters of the PERG and OCTA in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: In total, 95 eyes of 95 OAG patients and 102 eyes of 102 normal controls were included in this study. N35, P50, and N95 latency along with P50 and N95 amplitude were obtained using the PERG. Retinal VD was measured around the peripapillary and macular area according to ...

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    15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cross-Polarization OCT and OCT-Elastography for Differentiation of Breast Cancer Subtypes: Comparative Study

      Diagnostic Accuracy of Cross-Polarization OCT and OCT-Elastography for Differentiation of Breast Cancer Subtypes: Comparative Study

      The possibility to assess molecular-biological and morphological features of particular breast cancer types can improve the precision of resection margin detection and enable accurate determining of the tumor aggressiveness, which is important for treatment selection. To enable reliable differentiation of breast-cancer subtypes and evaluation of resection margin, without performing conventional histological procedures, here we apply cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and compare it with a novel variant of compressional optical coherence elastography (C-OCE) in terms of the diagnostic accuracy (Ac) with histological verification. The study used 70 excised breast cancer specimens with different morphological structure and molecular status (Luminal A ...

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    16. Evaluating Retinal and Choroidal Perfusion Changes After Ocular Massage of Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Evaluating Retinal and Choroidal Perfusion Changes After Ocular Massage of Healthy Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background and objectives: Ocular massage (OM) is used as a treatment option for acute retinal artery occlusion, under the assumption that it induces vessel dilatation and enhances perfusion. Since evidence of ocular perfusion alteration due to OM is lacking, we investigate the impact of OM on the hemodynamics of the posterior pole in healthy eyes in a noninvasive fashion by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on healthy volunteers, each of whom underwent measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), radial peripapillary capillary perfusion (RPCP), superficial ...

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    17. The Association between Tear Film Thickness as Measured with OCT and Symptoms and Signs of Dry Eye Disease: A Pooled Analysis of 6 Clinical Trials

      The Association between Tear Film Thickness as Measured with OCT and Symptoms and Signs of Dry Eye Disease: A Pooled Analysis of 6 Clinical Trials

      Purpose: To determine the association between tear film thickness (TFT) as measured with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) and signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A total of 450 eyes from 225 patients with DED from six different randomized clinical trials were included in this pooled analysis. In all subjects, TFT was measured with a custom-built UHR-OCT system. Symptoms of DED were quantified using a standardized Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSD)I questionnaire and clinical signs including tear film break up time (TFBUT) and Schirmer I test were assessed. Associations of the average TFT with OSDI ...

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    18. Bessel Beam: Significance and Applications—A Progressive Review

      Bessel Beam: Significance and Applications—A Progressive Review

      Diffraction is a phenomenon related to the wave nature of light and arises when a propagating wave comes across an obstacle. Consequently, the wave can be transformed in amplitude or phase and diffraction occurs. Those parts of the wavefront avoiding an obstacle form a diffraction pattern after interfering with each other. In this review paper, we have discussed the topic of non-diffractive beams, explicitly Bessel beams. Such beams provide some resistance to diffraction and hence are hypothetically a phenomenal alternate to Gaussian beams in several circumstances. Several outstanding applications are coined to Bessel beams and have been employed in commercial ...

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    19. Advances in Optical Detection of Human-Associated Pathogenic Bacteria

      Advances in Optical Detection of Human-Associated Pathogenic Bacteria

      Bacterial infection is a global burden that results in numerous hospital visits and deaths annually. The rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria has dramatically increased this burden. Therefore, there is a clinical need to detect and identify bacteria rapidly and accurately in their native state or a culture-free environment. Current diagnostic techniques lack speed and effectiveness in detecting bacteria that are culture-negative, as well as options for in vivo detection. The optical detection of bacteria offers the potential to overcome these obstacles by providing various platforms that can detect bacteria rapidly, with minimum sample preparation, and, in some cases, culture-free directly ...

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    20. Early Retinal Changes by OCT Angiography and Multifocal Electroretinography in Diabetes

      Early Retinal Changes by OCT Angiography and Multifocal Electroretinography in Diabetes

      Background: To evaluate the earliest retinal morphological and functional changes in diabetic eyes without or with early signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Twenty-two eyes with no DR (noDR group), 22 eyes with mild DR (DR group), and 18 healthy nondiabetic eyes (controls) were enrolled. All eyes were studied by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography (OCTA), and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Results: A significantly higher number of OCT hyperreflective intraretinal foci (HRF) was found in both noDR and DR groups versus controls, but not between DR groups. The OCTA parameters of the superficial vascular plexus (SVP ...

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    21. Reversed Neurovascular Coupling on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Is the Earliest Detectable Abnormality before Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy

      Reversed Neurovascular Coupling on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Is the Earliest Detectable Abnormality before Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy

      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has traditionally been viewed as either a microvasculopathy or a neuropathy, though neurovascular coupling deficits have also been reported and could potentially be the earliest derangement in DR. To better understand neurovascular coupling in the diabetic retina, we investigated retinal hemodynamics by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without DR (DM no DR) and mild non-proliferative DR (mild NPDR) compared to healthy eyes. Using an experimental design to monitor the capillary responses during transition from dark adaptation to light, we examined 19 healthy, 14 DM no DR and 11 mild NPDR ...

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    22. Dental Diagnosis and Treatment Assessments: Between X-rays Radiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Dental Diagnosis and Treatment Assessments: Between X-rays Radiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      A correct diagnosis in dental medicine is typically provided only after clinical and radiological evaluations. They are also required for treatment assessments. The aim of this study is to establish the boundaries from which a modern, although established, imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is more suitable than the common X-ray radiography to assess dental issues and treatments. The most common methods for daily-basis clinical imaging are utilized in this study for extracted teeth (but also for other dental samples and materials), i.e., panoramic, intraoral radiography, and three-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The advantages of using OCT ...

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    23. Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo

      Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo

      The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 3D imaging of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of occlusal tooth wear ex vivo. Sixty-three extracted human molars with or without visible tooth wear were collected to take digital intraoral radiography and 3D OCT images. The degree of tooth wear was evaluated by 12 examiners and scored using 4-rank scale: 1—slight enamel wear; 2—distinct enamel wear; 3—tooth wear with slight dentin exposure; 4—tooth wear with distinct involvement of dentin. The degree of tooth wear was validated by the histological view of confocal laser ...

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    24. Integrated Multifunctional Laryngoscope for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Integrated Multifunctional Laryngoscope for Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

      Laryngeal lesions can cause great inconvenience to patients. Early diagnosis and corresponding treatments are critical to the survival of patients. However, the diagnosis and precise removal of tumors remain a challenge under the use of a white light laryngoscope. In this work, an integrated, multifunctional laryngoscope was designed and tested for the imaging evaluation and precision laser surgery for laryngeal tissue. This integrated diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic system included two imaging modes (i.e., optical coherence tomography and white light endoscopy) and a laser ablation treatment mode. The endoscope had a common-path design to ensure that the same position could ...

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