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    1. Are choriocapillaris flow void features robust to diurnal variations? A swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) study

      Are choriocapillaris flow void features robust to diurnal variations? A swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) study

      We evaluated the impact of diurnal variation on choroidal and retinal microvasculature and structural measurements using a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography machine (SS-OCTA; PLEX Elite 9,000, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, USA). Fourteen participants who were without ocular diseases underwent SS-OCTA imaging using 3 × 3-mm 2 macular scan pattern on two separate days at five time points. Choriocapillaris flow voids were generated to determine its density (percentage), size (μm) and numbers. Perfusion densities of the large superficial vessels, as well as capillaries on superficial and deep vascular plexuses were generated from retinal angiograms. Subfoveal choroidal and retinal thicknesses ...

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    2. Concerns about the interpretation of OCT and fundus findings in COVID-19 patients in recent Lancet publication

      Concerns about the interpretation of OCT and fundus findings in COVID-19 patients in recent Lancet publication

      We read with great interest the correspondence in Lancet by Marinho et al. [ 1 ] describing purported retinal manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). While there is great interest to understand potential ocular complications of COVID-19 during this pandemic, we have some concerns regarding the interpretation of the fundus and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Marinho et al. examined 12 COVID-19 patients (all confirmed by PCR or antibody testing) with typical systemic disease but no visual symptoms. The reported cohort was relatively young (25–69 years; no mean or median provided) without severe systemic disease, although 2 were hospitalized. Eleven of the ...

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    3. Fourier analysis of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in optical coherence tomography for differentiating myopia and glaucoma

      Fourier analysis of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in optical coherence tomography for differentiating myopia and glaucoma

      Differentiating glaucoma from myopic eye is a challenge to ophthalmologists. We try to develop a new discrete Fourier transform (DFT) model for analyzing optical coherence tomography data for the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL), and investigate DFT as a new diagnostic tool for glaucomatous myopic eyes. The thicknesses of 12 equidistant cpRNFL points were transformed into 6 signals in the frequency domain, ranging from 1 to 6 Hz. In all 232 eyes, generalized linear model showed that 1 Hz, 2 Hz, and 4 Hz were associated with glaucoma, high myopia, and the interaction between glaucoma and high myopia. The ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography angiography in children with spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in children with spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity

      Purpose To assess optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in children born preterm who developed spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity (sr-ROP, group 1), or had no ROP (PreT, group 2), compared with term-born age-matched controls (group 3). Methods Cross-sectional comparative case series. Children aged 6–8 years had a complete ocular examination and OCT and OCTA imaging (Optovue RTVue AVANTI instrument). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ perimetry, and vascular density in three slabs were measured automatically, and foveal depth was measured manually by two graders. Results Groups 1, 2, and 3 (26, 32, and 34 eyes respectively) did not ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    5. Streptococcus mutans adhesion force sensing in multi-species oral biofilms

      Streptococcus mutans adhesion force sensing in multi-species oral biofilms

      Bacteria utilize chemical and mechanical mechanisms to sense their environment, to survive hostile conditions. In mechanical sensing, intra-bilayer pressure profiles change due to deformation induced by the adhesion forces bacteria experience on a surface. Emergent properties in mono-species Streptococcus mutans biofilms, such as extracellular matrix production, depend on the adhesion forces that streptococci sense. Here we determined whether and how salivary-conditioning film (SCF) adsorption and the multi-species nature of oral biofilm influence adhesion force sensing and associated gene expression by S. mutans . Hereto, Streptococcus oralis , Actinomyces naeslundii , and S. mutans were grown together on different surfaces in the absence and ...

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    6. Assessment of retinal neurodegeneration with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Assessment of retinal neurodegeneration with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Objectives To comprehensively assess diabetic retinopathy neurodegeneration (DRN) as quantified by retinal neuronal and axonal layers measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Articles on the topic of examining macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (m-GCIPL), macular retinal nerve fibre layer (m-RNFL), macular ganglion cell complex (m-GCC), and peripapillary RNFL (p-RNFL) measured with SD-OCT in DM subjects without DR (NDR) or with non-proliferative DR (NPDR) were searched in PubMed and Embase up to November 31, 2019. Standardized mean difference (SMD) as effect size were pooled using random-effects model. Results Thirty-six studies searched from online ...

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    7. A Neural Network Approach to Quantify Blood Flow from Retinal OCT Intensity Time-Series Measurements

      A Neural Network Approach to Quantify Blood Flow from Retinal OCT Intensity Time-Series Measurements

      Many diseases of the eye are associated with alterations in the retinal vasculature that are possibly preceded by undetected changes in blood flow. In this work, a robust blood flow quantification framework is presented based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography imaging and deep learning. The analysis used a forward signal model to simulate OCT blood flow data for training of a neural network (NN). The NN was combined with pre- and post-processing steps to create an analysis framework for measuring flow rates from individual blood vessels. The framework’s accuracy was validated using both blood flow phantoms and human ...

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    8. Relationship between photoreceptor layer changes before half-dose photodynamic therapy and functional and anatomic outcomes in central serous chorioretinopathy

      Relationship between photoreceptor layer changes before half-dose photodynamic therapy and functional and anatomic outcomes in central serous chorioretinopathy

      Objectives To investigate the relationship between photoreceptor layer (PRL) changes before half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) and functional and anatomic outcomes in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods Baseline PRL changes were classified based on optical coherence tomography: (1) smooth PRL outer border without a foveal PRL defect; (2) smooth PRL outer border with a foveal PRL defect; (3) granulated PRL outer border and (4) scattered dots of PRL. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), difference in the foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness between the CSC and normal contralateral eyes and ellipsoid zone (EZ) integrity 12 months after half-dose PDT were compared ...

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    9. Quantitative analyses of diameter and running pattern of choroidal vessels in central serous chorioretinopathy by en face images

      Quantitative analyses of diameter and running pattern of choroidal vessels in central serous chorioretinopathy by en face images

      This study was to investigate the choroidal vessels in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) quantitatively. We studied 41 CSC eyes and their fellow eyes, and 41 normal eyes of 41 age-adjusted individuals. En-face optical coherence tomography image of the top 25% slab of Haller’s layer was analyze. The mean vessel area, vessel length, and vessel diameter were calculated. The running pattern of the vessels was quantified and used to determine the degree of symmetry, the “symmetry index”. The vessel area of CSC eyes was not significantly different from that of fellow eyes but significantly larger than that of ...

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      Mentions: Taiji Sakamoto
    10. Systemic hypertension associated retinal microvascular changes can be detected with optical coherence tomography angiography

      Systemic hypertension associated retinal microvascular changes can be detected with optical coherence tomography angiography

      A major complication of hypertension is microvascular damage and capillary rarefaction is a known complication of hypertensive end-organ damage which confers a higher risk of systemic disease such as stroke and cardiovascular events. Our aim was to study the effect of hypertension on the retinal microvasculature using non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). We performed a case-control study of 94 eyes of 94 participants with systemic hypertension and 46 normal control eyes from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study using a standardized protocol to collect data on past medical history of hypertension, including the number and type of hypertensive medications and ...

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    11. Automated Retinal Layer Segmentation Using Graph-based Algorithm Incorporating Deep-learning-derived Information

      Automated Retinal Layer Segmentation Using Graph-based Algorithm Incorporating Deep-learning-derived Information

      Regular drusen, an accumulation of material below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), have long been established as a hallmark early feature of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Advances in imaging have expanded the phenotype of AMD to include another extracellular deposit, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) (also termed subretinal drusenoid deposits, SDD), which are located above the RPE. We developed an approach to automatically segment retinal layers associated with regular drusen and RPD in spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. More specifically, a shortest-path algorithm enhanced with probability maps generated through a fully convolutional neural network was used to segment ...

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    12. 9.4 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm using a wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode-locking

      9.4 MHz A-line rate optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm using a wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode-locking

      In optical coherence tomography (OCT), high-speed systems based at 1300 nm are among the most broadly used. Here, we present 9.4 MHz A-line rate OCT system at 1300 nm. A wavelength-swept laser based on stretched-pulse active mode locking (SPML) provides a continuous and linear-in-wavenumber sweep from 1240 nm to 1340 nm, and the OCT system using this light source provides a sensitivity of 98 dB and a single-sided 6-dB roll-off depth of 2.5 mm. We present new capabilities of the 9.4 MHz SPML-OCT system in three microscopy applications. First, we demonstrate high quality OCTA imaging at a ...

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    13. Flexible endoscopic micro-optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional imaging of the arterial microstructure

      Flexible endoscopic micro-optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional imaging of the arterial microstructure

      Micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) is a novel imaging approach enabling visualization of the microstructures of biological tissues at a cellular or sub-cellular level. However, it has been challenging to develop a miniaturized flexible endoscopic µOCT probe allowing helical luminal scanning. In this study, we built a flexible endoscopic µOCT probe with an outer diameter of 1.2 mm, which acquires three-dimensional images of the arterial microstructures via helical scanning with an axial and lateral resolutions of 1.83 µm and 3.38 µm in air, respectively. Furthermore, the depth of focus of the µOCT imaging probe was extended two-fold using ...

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    14. Multimodality Imaging-Based Characterization of Regional Material Properties in a Murine Model of Aortic Dissection

      Multimodality Imaging-Based Characterization of Regional Material Properties in a Murine Model of Aortic Dissection

      hronic infusion of angiotensin-II in atheroprone ( ApoE −/− ) mice provides a reproducible model of dissection in the suprarenal abdominal aorta, often with a false lumen and intramural thrombus that thickens the wall. Such lesions exhibit complex morphologies, with different regions characterized by localized changes in wall composition, microstructure, and properties. We sought to quantify the multiaxial mechanical properties of murine dissecting aneurysm samples by combining in vitro extension-distension data with full-field multimodality measurements of wall strain and thickness to inform an inverse material characterization using the virtual fields method. A key advance is the use of a digital volume correlation approach ...

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    15. The agreement between optical coherence tomography angiography and non-mydriatic retinal camera in estimating the optic nerve head parameters and relations with the peripapillary vessel density in primary open-angle glaucoma

      The agreement between optical coherence tomography angiography and non-mydriatic retinal camera in estimating the optic nerve head parameters and relations with the peripapillary vessel density in primary open-angle glaucoma

      Background/objectives To investigate the agreement between optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and non-mydriatic retinal camera (NMRC) in estimating the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and evaluate the associations between peripapillary vessel density (VD) with ONH parameters assessed by both devices. Methods The OCT-A and NMRC images of 262 participants (138 eyes were diagnosed with POAG, 63 were glaucoma suspect, and 61 were healthy subjects) were screened retrospectively. The vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), cup-to-disc area ratio (CDAR), rim area (RA), disc area (DA), and cup volume (CV) were recorded using both devices. Peripapillary VD data were also recorded using OCT-A ...

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    16. Point-wise correlations between 10-2 Humphrey visual field and OCT data in open angle glaucoma

      Point-wise correlations between 10-2 Humphrey visual field and OCT data in open angle glaucoma

      Purpose Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a powerful instrument for helping clinicians detect and monitor glaucoma. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed mapping of the relationships between visual field (VF) sensitivities and measures of retinal structure provided by a commercial Spectral Domain (SD)-OCT system (RTvue-100 Optovue). Methods Sixty-three eyes of open angle glaucoma patients (17 males, 16 females, and mean age 71 ± 7.5 years) were included in this retrospective, observational clinical study. Thickness values for superior and inferior retina, as well as average values, were recorded for the full retina, the outer retina, the ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    17. Epiretinal Membrane Detection at the Ophthalmologist Level using Deep Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Epiretinal Membrane Detection at the Ophthalmologist Level using Deep Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: Previous deep learning studies on optical coherence tomography (OCT) mainly focused on diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. We proposed a deep learning model that can identify epiretinal membrane (ERM) in OCT with ophthalmologist-level performance. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: A total of 3,618 central fovea cross section OCT images from 1,475 eyes of 964 patients. Methods: We retrospectively collected 7,652 OCT images from 1,197 patients. From these images, 2,171 were normal and 1,447 were ERM OCT. A total of 3,141 OCT images was used as training dataset and 477 images as testing ...

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    18. Agreement in Measures of Macular Perfusion between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Machines

      Agreement in Measures of Macular Perfusion between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Machines

      We evaluated the agreements in foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and vessel density (VD) parameters (within the superficial capillary plexus region), between two widely used optical coherence tomography angiography machines. Participants who attended the Singapore Malay Eye Study III between 29th March and 6th August 2018, were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent fovea-centered 6×6-mm macular cube scan, using both AngioVue and Cirrus HDOCT machines. Scans were analyzed automatically using built-in review software of each machine. 177 eyes (95 participants) without retinal diseases were included for final analysis. Mean FAZ area was 0.38 ± 0.11 mm 2 and ...

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    19. Predicting conversion to wet age-related macular degeneration using deep learning

      Predicting conversion to wet age-related macular degeneration using deep learning

      Progression to exudative ‘wet’ age-related macular degeneration (exAMD) is a major cause of visual deterioration. In patients diagnosed with exAMD in one eye, we introduce an artificial intelligence (AI) system to predict progression to exAMD in the second eye. By combining models based on three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography images and corresponding automatic tissue maps, our system predicts conversion to exAMD within a clinically actionable 6-month time window, achieving a per-volumetric-scan sensitivity of 80% at 55% specificity, and 34% sensitivity at 90% specificity. This level of performance corresponds to true positives in 78% and 41% of individual eyes, and false ...

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    20. Predictive factors for exudation of quiescent choroidal neovessels detected by OCT angiography in the fellow eyes of eyes treated for a neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Predictive factors for exudation of quiescent choroidal neovessels detected by OCT angiography in the fellow eyes of eyes treated for a neovascular age-related macular degeneration

      Background To identify predictive factors for exudation for quiescent choroidal neovessels (qCNV) in the fellow eyes of eyes treated for a neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Prospective observational study. One hundred and forty-four contralateral eyes of 144 patients treated for wet AMD were analysed. At a baseline visit, multimodal imaging including dye angiographies and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) was performed in order to detect qCNV. Patients were followed up for 12 months with a monthly assessment. The manifestation of any type of exudation (either intra- or subretinal fluid or hyperreflective subretinal material) was monitored. Results The prevalence of ...

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    21. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for estimating relative melanin content of autologous induced stem-cell derived retinal pigment epithelium

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for estimating relative melanin content of autologous induced stem-cell derived retinal pigment epithelium

      Transplantation of autologous human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hiPSC-RPE) sheets is a promising therapy for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As melanin content is a representative feature of healthy RPE, we used polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to estimate the relative melanin content of RPE in diseased and non-diseased area, and in human iPSC-RPE sheets in vitro and in vivo by evaluating the randomness of polarization (entropy). Two aged Japanese women, one with neovascular AMD that underwent transplantation of an autologous hiPSC-RPE cell sheet and another with binocular dry AMD, were selected for this study. Entropy value was ...

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    22. Replication and Refinement of an Algorithm for Automated Drusen Segmentation on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Replication and Refinement of an Algorithm for Automated Drusen Segmentation on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Here, we investigate the extent to which re-implementing a previously published algorithm for OCT-based drusen quantification permits replicating the reported accuracy on an independent dataset. We refined that algorithm so that its accuracy is increased. Following a systematic literature search, an algorithm was selected based on its reported excellent results. Several steps were added to improve its accuracy. The replicated and refined algorithms were evaluated on an independent dataset with the same metrics as in the original publication. Accuracy of the refined algorithm (overlap ratio 36–52%) was significantly greater than the replicated one (overlap ratio 25–39%). In particular ...

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    23. Erectile dysfunction and retinal microvascular network: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Erectile dysfunction and retinal microvascular network: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      The aims of this study were to examine the microvascular network of the retina using the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) device in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and to determine whether the OCT-A values could assist in the differential diagnosis of ED. The study design was prospective, observational, and cross-sectional. The vessel densities (VD) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and retinal peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP) were assessed using OCT-A in patients with ED and healthy subjects. All the participants were evaluated and scanned for systemic and hormonal disorders and those with ED also underwent ...

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