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    1. Correlation of Measurements From Doppler Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Correlation of Measurements From Doppler Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

      Objectives: To relate the changes in ocular structure and hemodynamic response in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: Patients with POAG (n = 46) and control subjects (n = 53) were recruited. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Blood flow was characterized in ophthalmic artery (OA) and central retinal artery (CRA) using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU), and resistivity index (RI) was calculated. Measurements from CDU and OCT were statistically correlated and the degree of the association was examined. Receiver operating characteristics was produced based on RI and optimal threshold was determined. Results: In POAG ...

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    2. Gingivitis resolution followed by optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging: a case study

      Gingivitis resolution followed by optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging: a case study

      Gingivitis is highly prevalent in adults, and if left untreated, can progress to periodontitis. In this paper, we present an interesting case study where the resolution of gingivitis was followed over a period of 10 days using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and light-induced autofluorescence (LIAF). We demonstrate that OCT and its functional angiography can distinctively capture the changes during the resolution of gingivitis; whilst LIAF can detect red-fluorescent signals associated with mature plaque present at the inflamed site. The acute inflammatory region showed evidence of angiogenesis based on the quantification of vessel density and number; while no angiogenesis was detected ...

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    3. Dermoscopy, confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography features of main inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases: A systematic review

      Dermoscopy, confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography features of main inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases: A systematic review

      Background/objectives: Non-invasive skin imaging features of main skin inflammatory and autoimmune diseases have been reported, although a comprehensive review of their correlation with histopathologic features is currently lacking. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the correlation of dermoscopic, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) criteria of main inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases with their corresponding histopathologic criteria correlation. Methods: Studies on human subjects affected by main inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, defining the correlation of dermoscopic, RCM or OCT with histopathologic criteria, were included in the review. Five groups of diseases were identified and ...

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    4. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for surgical margin assessment of feline injection-site sarcoma

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for surgical margin assessment of feline injection-site sarcoma

      The invasive, locally aggressive nature of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS) pose a unique challenge for surgeons to obtain complete margins with surgical excision. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging technology that uses light waves to generate real-time views of tissue architecture, provides an emerging solution to this dilemma by allowing fast, high-resolution scanning of surgical margins. The purpose of this study was to use OCT to assess surgical margins of FISS and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for detecting residual cancer using six evaluators of varying experience. Five FISS were imaged with OCT to create a training set ...

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    5. Line-field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography of pyogenic granulomas in children: report of two cases

      Line-field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography of pyogenic granulomas in children: report of two cases

      Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common benign vascular tumors in children. 1 Most of the time diagnosis is straightforward but sometimes a biopsy may be necessary to confirm diagnosis. In these cases, a non-invasive imaging method could be helpful. We present the first Line-field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) images of PG in two children. LC-OCT is a non-invasive method for skin assessment, allowing evaluation of skin lesion up to a depth of about ~500 µm (upper dermis).

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    6. Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography for the in-vivo real-time diagnosis of different stages of keratinocyte skin cancer: a preliminary study

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography for the in-vivo real-time diagnosis of different stages of keratinocyte skin cancer: a preliminary study

      Background: The treatment of keratinocyte cancers (KC) strictly depends on their differentiation and invasiveness. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques can support the diagnosis in real-time, avoiding unnecessary biopsies. This study aimed to preliminarily define main imaging criteria and histological correlations of actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using the novel device line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT). Methods: Dermoscopy and LC-OCT images of 73 histopathologically confirmed lesions (46 AKs, 11 BD and 16 SCCs) were included in the study. Exemplary lesions (10 AKs, 5 BD and 5 SCCs) were additionally investigated with optical coherence tomography and ...

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    7. Real-world outcomes of anti-VEGF therapy in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration diagnosed on OCT angiography: the REVEAL study

      Real-world outcomes of anti-VEGF therapy in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration diagnosed on OCT angiography: the REVEAL study

      Purpose: To compare the 12 months visual and anatomical outcomes of treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients diagnosed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) compared with fluorescein angiography (FA)/indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), after anti-VEGF treatment in a real-world setting. Methods: Monocentric, observational, parallel-group study of nAMD patients diagnosed with either FA/ICGA or non-invasive OCT-A methods. Patients were treated with a fixed dosing regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab or aflibercept and followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes were the 12 months functional (BCVA) and anatomical (CST reduction) gains between the two groups. The stratification of BCVA and ...

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    8. Prediction of anti-VEGF efficacy in diabetic macular oedema using intraocular cytokines and macular optical coherence tomography

      Prediction of anti-VEGF efficacy in diabetic macular oedema using intraocular cytokines and macular optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: In eyes with diabetic macular oedema (DME), aqueous humour (AH) cytokine levels before and after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment were compared and correlated with optical coherence tomography structural parameters. Methods: This prospective study included 56 control patients with cataracts and 83 patients with DME manifesting as diffuse retinal thickening (DRT), cystoid macular oedema and serous retinal detachment (SRD). AH samples were obtained before intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF or cataract surgery. VEGF, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) levels were measured by multiplex bead assay. AH cytokine levels, central ...

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    9. Decreased iris thickness on swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

      Decreased iris thickness on swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

      Purpose: To investigate the iris thickness (IT) of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and older adults using anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 154 participants were enrolled, including 40 patients with POAG and 114 healthy individuals. Nasal-angle SS-OCT images were analyzed using calipers to measure the thickness of the iris, including the anterior border layer, stromal, and pigmented epithelial layer, at 1 and 2 mm from the pupil edge. The relationship between IT and glaucoma severity was analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the ability of each IT ...

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    10. Comparative study of deep neural networks with unsupervised Noise2Noise strategy for noise reduction of optical coherence tomography images

      Comparative study of deep neural networks with unsupervised Noise2Noise strategy for noise reduction of optical coherence tomography images

      As a powerful diagnostic tool, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used in various clinical setting. However, OCT images are susceptible to inherent speckle noise that may contaminate subtle structure information, due to low-coherence interferometric imaging procedure. Many supervised learning-based models have achieved impressive performance in reducing speckle noise of OCT images trained with a large number of noisy-clean paired OCT images, which are not commonly feasible in clinical practice. In this paper, we conducted a comparative study to investigate the denoising performance of OCT images over different deep neural networks through an unsupervised Noise2Noise (N2N) strategy, which only ...

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    11. Improving cerebral microvascular image quality of optical coherence tomography angiography with deep learning-based segmentation

      Improving cerebral microvascular image quality of optical coherence tomography angiography with deep learning-based segmentation

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can map the microvascular networks of the cerebral cortices with micrometer resolution and millimeter penetration. However, the high scattering of the skull and the strong noise in the deep imaging region will distort the vasculature projections and decrease the OCTA image quality. Here, we proposed a deep learning-based segmentation method based on a U-Net convolutional neural network to extract the cortical region from the OCT image. The vascular networks were then visualized by three OCTA algorithms. The image quality of the vasculature projections was assessed by two metrics, including the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and ...

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    12. Association between the posterior ocular contour pattern and progression of myopia in children: A prospective study based on OCT imaging

      Association between the posterior ocular contour pattern and progression of myopia in children: A prospective study based on OCT imaging

      Purpose: This study aims to reveal the relationship between the posterior ocular contour and the subsequent progression of myopia in children. Methods: Children aged 8-12 years with myopia received baseline measurements and were instructed to wear their glasses every day and return for a follow-up visit after one year. Axial length and other ocular parameters were measured using a noncontact biometer. The contour of the posterior eye was calculated and analysed based on images from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were created to analyse the relationship between the contour of the posterior eye ...

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    13. Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography in molluscum contagiosum: a case series

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography in molluscum contagiosum: a case series

      Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin infection caused by a poxvirus, generally observed in children and young, sexually active, adults. MC diagnosis is usually clinical and based on the observation of asymptomatic, small, flesh-colored papules with a characteristic central umbilication. Dermoscopy enhances the diagnostic accuracy of MC showing within the lesion, the presence of yellowish-white, roundish, single or multiple areas (also called "pores" or "orifices", corresponding to the clinical umbilication) surrounded by fine, linear, and blurred vessels (1). In some cases, the diagnosis may require the histopathological confirmation.

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    14. Efficacy Assessment of a TCA/H2O2 Compositum for Skin Aging Treatment by Confocal Laser Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Efficacy Assessment of a TCA/H2O2 Compositum for Skin Aging Treatment by Confocal Laser Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Skin ageing is a complex phenomenon linked to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as ultraviolet exposure, smoking, or pollution, 1-4 which involves all skin layers. 5,6,7 Ageing is characterised by a reduction of collagen synthesis, 4,8,9 a decreased hydration, 5,6 epidermal thickness variations 7 , and an accelerated breakdown and disorganization of collagen fibers 4,8,9 as well as loss of skin elasticity.

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    15. Vascular biomarkers from optical coherence tomography angiography and glaucoma: where do we stand in 2021?

      Vascular biomarkers from optical coherence tomography angiography and glaucoma: where do we stand in 2021?

      Biomarkers of ocular blood flow originating from a wide variety of imaging modalities have been associated with glaucoma onset and progression for many decades. Advancements in imaging platforms including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) have provided the ability to quantify vascular changes in glaucoma patients, alongside traditional measures such as retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and optic nerve head structure. Current literature on vascular biomarkers, as measured by OCTA, indicates significant relationships between glaucoma and blood flow and capillary density in the retina and ONH. The data currently available, however, are highly diverse and lack robust longitudinal data on OCTA ...

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    16. Comparison of 6‐month vascular healing response after bioresorbable polymer versus durable polymer drug‐eluting stent implantation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A randomized serial optical coherence tomography study

      Comparison of 6‐month vascular healing response after bioresorbable polymer versus durable polymer drug‐eluting stent implantation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A randomized serial optical coherence tomography study

      Objectives This study was conducted to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare vascular healing between bioresorbable polymer (BP) and durable polymer (DP) everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Background Whether BP-EES induce better vascular healing compared to contemporary DP-EES remains controversial, especially for ACS. Methods In this prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial, we used OCT to compare 6-month vascular healing in patients with ACS randomized to BP versus DP-EES: percent strut coverage (primary endpoint, non-inferiority margin of 2.0%) and neointimal thickness and percent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) volume. As an exploratory analysis, morphological factors related to ...

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    17. Preclinical mouse model of optical coherence tomography for subcortical brain imaging without dissection

      Preclinical mouse model of optical coherence tomography for subcortical brain imaging without dissection

      Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify internal brain lesions, specifically intracerebral hemorrhage, without dissection. Methods Mice with artificially injected brain hematomas were used to test the OCT system, and the recorded images were compared with microscopic images of the same mouse brains after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results The intracranial structures surrounding the hematomas were clearly visualized by the OCT system without dissection. These images reflect the ability of OCT to determine the extent of a lesion in several planes. Conclusions OCT is a useful technology, and ...

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    18. Identification of oral precancerous and cancerous tissue by swept source optical coherence tomography

      Identification of oral precancerous and cancerous tissue by swept source optical coherence tomography

      Background and objectives: Distinguishing cancer from precancerous lesions is critical and challenging in oral medicine. As a noninvasive method, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the advantages of real-time, in vivo, and large-depth imaging. Texture information hidden in OCT images can provide an important auxiliary effect for improving diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this study is to explore a reliable and accurate OCT-based method for the screening and diagnosis of human oral diseases, especially oral cancer. Materials and methods: Fresh ex vivo oral tissues including normal mucosa, leukoplakia with epithelial hyperplasia (LEH), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were imaged intraoperatively ...

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    19. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography angiography in the detection of neovasculature in age-related macular degeneration

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography angiography in the detection of neovasculature in age-related macular degeneration

      This work is a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the identification of choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison with fluorescein angiography (FA). A systematic search of the literature was carried out on Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science , Cochrane Library and Center for Reviews and Dissemination . Studies comparing OCTA with FA for the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularization due to AMD that included data on the diagnostic validity of the test or the data necessary for its calculation were selected. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess ...

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    20. Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography of actinic keratosis: a case series

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography of actinic keratosis: a case series

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that was recently developed, combining high penetration depth (up to 500-µm, approaching that of conventional OCT) with high isotropic resolution [lateral: 1.3 µm; axial: 1.1 µm - similar to that of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)]. 1 .

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    21. Assessment of the outer retina and choroid in white matter lesions participants using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of the outer retina and choroid in white matter lesions participants using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To assess the three-dimensional outer retina thickness and choroid in eyes with white matter lesions (WMLs) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: Participants without dementia and stroke with cerebral WMLs were enrolled in our study. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) were used to image and evaluate the outer retinal layer, choroidal structure, and perfusion of the choriocapillaris, microvessels of the choroid, respectively. Measurement of the outer retinal thickness, choroidal thickness and perfusion of the choriocapillaris was done by the SS-OCT tool. Results: Thirty-one eyes from 16 WMLs and 40 eyes from 20 healthy controls were ...

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