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    1. Impact of optical coherence tomography on diagnostic decision-making by UK community optometrists: a clinical vignette study

      Impact of optical coherence tomography on diagnostic decision-making by UK community optometrists: a clinical vignette study

      Purpose: In recent years, there has been widespread investment in imaging technologies by community optometrists in the UK, most notably optical coherence tomography (OCT). The aim of the current study was to determine the value of OCT in the diagnosis of posterior segment diseases in a representative sample of community optometrists using a clinical vignette methodology. Methods: A group of community optometrists (n = 50) initially completed a standardised training package on OCT interpretation followed by a computerbased assessment featuring 52 clinical vignettes, containing images of healthy (n = 8) or glaucomatous (n = 18) discs or healthy (n = 8) or diseased (n ...

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    2. Quantitative evaluation of primary retinitis pigmentosa patients using colour Doppler flow imaging and optical coherence tomography angiography

      Quantitative evaluation of primary retinitis pigmentosa patients using colour Doppler flow imaging and optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To find the potential relation between changes in retinal large vessels and terminal vessels using colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare the respective advantages of CDFI and OCTA in evaluating vascular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. Methods A prospective series of case study was conducted to enrol RP patients and age‐matched controls, who were, respectively, imaged by CDFI and OCTA. Repeatability and reproducibility of both CDFI and OCTA were performed among healthy volunteers. The central retinal artery (CRA) was detected by CDFI analysis to provide parameters of peak systolic ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography in paediatric clinical practice

      Optical coherence tomography in paediatric clinical practice

      Optical coherence tomography is a non‐invasive ocular imaging technique that is frequently used in the diagnosis and monitoring of optic nerve or retinal disease. Advances in optical coherence tomography speed and image processing capability allow increased use of the modality in clinical practice, especially in younger children. This review outlines the challenges involved in imaging children, highlights the technological progress, the importance of acquiring normative data and, finally, focuses on the clinical applicability of optical coherence tomography in our paediatric population with various ocular conditions.

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography in Evaluation of Glomus Tumors: A Report of Three Cases

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Evaluation of Glomus Tumors: A Report of Three Cases

      Glomus tumors are painful, benign perivascular neoplasms of the glomus body affecting the nail apparatus. Although diagnosis can be made clinically using Love's and Hildreth's tests, imaging is required to distinguish glomus tumors from other subungual vascular lesions. Clinical diagnosis is complicated when the nail has no visible abnormalities. 1 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for imaging but requires a dedicated small part coil, which is unavailable at some facilities and is costly. 2

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    5. Association between debulking area of rotational atherectomy and platform revolution speed—Frequency domain optical coherence tomography analysis

      Association between debulking area of rotational atherectomy and platform revolution speed—Frequency domain optical coherence tomography analysis

      Objectives In this study, we sought to investigate the association between revolution speed of rotational atherectomy (RA) and debulking area assessed by frequency domain‐optical coherence tomography (FD‐OCT). Background The number of patients with severe calcified coronary artery disease requiring treatment with calcium ablation, such as RA, is increasing. However, there is little evidence available regarding the association between debulking area and revolution speed during RA. Methods We retrospectively investigated 30 consecutive severely calcified coronary lesions in 29 patients who underwent RA under FD‐OCT guidance. The association between preset revolution speed of RA and burr size‐corrected debulking ...

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    6. Effect of cutting balloon after rotational atherectomy in severely calcified coronary artery lesions as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Effect of cutting balloon after rotational atherectomy in severely calcified coronary artery lesions as assessed by optical coherence tomography

      Objectives Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we evaluated the effect of a cutting balloon (CB) compared with a conventional balloon after rotational atherectomy (RA) and before stenting in severely calcified coronary lesions. Background A CB is designed to create discrete incisions to facilitate fracture of severely calcified plaque. Methods OCT was performed preintervention (if possible), post‐RA, and poststent implantation. RA modification of calcium was defined as a polished, concave, round‐shaped surface. Calcium fracture was defined as a break in the calcium plate. The effects of calcium modification and stent expansion between CB ( n  = 18) versus conventional balloon ( n ...

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    7. Iridocorneal angle assessment of companion rabbits using gonioscopy, spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (Optovue iVue®), high‐resolution ultrasound, and Pentacam® HR imaging

      Iridocorneal angle assessment of companion rabbits using gonioscopy, spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (Optovue iVue®), high‐resolution ultrasound, and Pentacam® HR imaging

      Objective Iridocorneal angle (ICA) narrowing is a known risk factor for primary glaucoma in multiple species, but has not been described in companion rabbits. This study aimed to develop an ICA grading scheme for companion rabbits to enable early glaucoma predisposition diagnosis. Animals studied Twenty healthy rabbits of varying breeds and ages. Procedures Rabbits received complete ophthalmic examinations, including gonioscopy, and imaging of the ICA using spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT), Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam ® HR), and high‐resolution ultrasound (HRUS). Angle opening distance (AOD) and angle recess area (ARA) of the ICA were measured and assessed for agreement ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    8. OCT‐assessment of scaffold resorption: Analysis of strut intensity by a new resorption index for poly‐l‐lactic acid bioresorbable vascular scaffolds

      OCT‐assessment of scaffold resorption: Analysis of strut intensity by a new resorption index for poly‐l‐lactic acid bioresorbable vascular scaffolds

      Background The aim of this study was to analyze individual differences in resorption of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BRS) through optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis and to identify factors potentially influencing the resorption process. Methods Between April 2016 and July 2017 clinically driven invasive coronary angiography and OCT examinations were performed in 36 patients who had previously been treated with a total of 48 BRS (ABSORB BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA). For each scaffold, a new BRS‐RESORB‐INDEX (BRI) was calculated. Results The mean time interval since implantation was 789 ± 321 days. In OCT, BRS struts remained detectable in ...

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    9. Characteristics of abnormal post‐stent optical coherence tomography findings in hemodialysis patients

      Characteristics of abnormal post‐stent optical coherence tomography findings in hemodialysis patients

      Aim Clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in hemodialysis (HD) patients are significantly worse than those in non‐HD patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging modality and provides a detailed assessment of post‐interventional abnormal findings that influence worse clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the abnormal post‐stent OCT findings in HD patients. Therefore, in this study, we compared the abnormal post‐stent OCT findings between HD and non‐HD patients. Methods One hundred thirty‐nine consecutive OCT guided PCI (21 lesions in HD patients and 118 lesions in non‐HD patients) were ...

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    10. The effect of melanin on in vivo optical coherence tomography of the skin in a multiethnic cohort

      The effect of melanin on in vivo optical coherence tomography of the skin in a multiethnic cohort

      Background Noninvasive real‐time assessment of living tissue is quickly becoming invaluable for bolstering histologic and dermatoscopic measures of cutaneous conditions. While many skin researchers have explored the utility of noninvasive imaging in inflammatory and malignant skin conditions, there is yet to be a definitive and direct assessment of the effects of melanin on the quality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and its accuracy in multiethnic patient populations. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of melanin on the quality of in vivo OCT imaging. Methods Volunteers of all Fitzpatrick skin types were imaged once in five skin ...

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    11. Evaluation of retinal nonperfusion in branch retinal vein occlusion using wide‐field optical coherence tomography angiography

      Evaluation of retinal nonperfusion in branch retinal vein occlusion using wide‐field optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To characterize wide‐field optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of retinal nonperfusion in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods Automated scanning of five 12 × 12‐mm areas of swept‐source OCTA and wide‐field fluorescein angiography (FA) images was performed in a consecutive case series of 27 eyes in 27 patients with BRVO in this institutional cross‐sectional study. The correlation between the areas of retinal nonperfusion detected by both examinations was assessed. Panoramic images obtained in five 12 × 12‐mm OCTA scans in eyes with retinal nonperfusion were binarized or skeletonized, and the associations between ...

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    12. Evaluation of positive patch test reactions using optical coherence tomography: A pilot study

      Evaluation of positive patch test reactions using optical coherence tomography: A pilot study

      Introduction Patch testing is the gold standard for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), yet current interpretation methods are limited by their subjectivity and possible variability between observers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging enables noninvasive in vivo skin visualization and holds promise as an objective method of patch test interpretation. Objective To evaluate the micromorphological changes of patch test reactions and identify objective, quantitative OCT markers that correlate with clinically graded patch test reactions. Results A total of 25 patch test reactions (7 grade‐0, 4 grade‐1+, 14 grade‐2+) from 7 patients underwent OCT evaluation. Increased epidermal thickness and ...

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    13. Assessing the Acute Effects of Prenatal Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposure on Murine Fetal Brain Vasculature Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessing the Acute Effects of Prenatal Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposure on Murine Fetal Brain Vasculature Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Marijuana is one of the most commonly abused substances during pregnancy. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are a group of heterogeneous compounds that are 40‐ to 600‐fold more potent than ∆ 9 ‐tetrahydrocannabinol , the major psychoactive component of marijuana. With SCBs being legally available for purchase and the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies, the possibility of prenatal exposure to SCBs is high. However, the effects of prenatal SCB exposure on embryonic brain development are not well understood. In this study, we use complex correlation mapping optical coherence angiography to evaluate changes in murine fetal brain vasculature in utero , minutes after maternal exposure to ...

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    14. Semi‐automated quantification of geographic atrophy with blue‐light autofluorescence and spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography: a comparison between the region finder and the advanced retinal pigment epithelium tool in the clinical setting

      Semi‐automated quantification of geographic atrophy with blue‐light autofluorescence and spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography: a comparison between the region finder and the advanced retinal pigment epithelium tool in the clinical setting

      Purpose To compare inter‐ and intraobserver reliability and intermodality agreement on quantification of geographic atrophy, using two routinely available quantification tools, based on blue‐light fundus autofluorescence (BAF) and spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT). Methods Quantifications of atrophic lesions within the central 5 mm of 30 eyes from 30 patients (mean age: 76.1 years) were independently performed by two clinicians on BAF images using the region finder (RF; Heidelberg Engineering) and on SD‐OCT using the advanced retinal pigment epithelium tool (ARPET; Carl Zeiss Meditec) at baseline and follow‐up (mean interval: 336 days). Inter‐ and intraobserver ...

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    15. Radiofrequency ablation lesion assessment using optical coherence tomography – a proof‐of‐concept study

      Radiofrequency ablation lesion assessment using optical coherence tomography – a proof‐of‐concept study

      Background Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation. However, ablation lesions are usually only assessed functionally. The immediate effect of RFA on the tissue is not directly visualized. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses light to capture high‐resolution images with histology‐like quality. Therefore, it might be used for high‐precision imaging of ablation lesions. Methods and Results Radiofrequency ablation lesions ( n = 25) were produced on the freshly excised left and right ventricular porcine endocardium. A Thermocool® ST SF NAV ablation catheter (Biosense Webster Inc.) and an EP‐Shuttle® ablation generator ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of BCC

      Optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of BCC

      Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer in the world. Its incidence in Europe has increased at an alarming rate of 5.5% per year over the past four decades. In the U.K., the incidence of BCC has risen at a rate six times higher than in the rest of Europe. The diagnosis of BCC typically requires a biopsy of the skin and careful analysis under a microscope. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging tool that uses light to visualize the layers underneath the skin surface in real‐time without the need to ...

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    17. Longitudinal changes in outer nuclear layer thickness in soft drusen and reticular pseudodrusen

      Longitudinal changes in outer nuclear layer thickness in soft drusen and reticular pseudodrusen

      Background Drusen are seen in the early and intermediate stages of age‐related macular degeneration. A retrospective, two‐year observational study at a tertiary centre was designed to assess outer nuclear layer thickness in different types of drusen. Methods Patients over 50 years of age with predominant soft drusen or reticular pseudodrusen were included in the study. Fundus photography, infrared, fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline, years one and two. Outer nuclear layer thickness was measured in the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, and the rate of thinning was determined using generalised ...

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    18. Repeatability of wide‐field choroidal thickness measurements using enhanced‐depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Repeatability of wide‐field choroidal thickness measurements using enhanced‐depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Background To examine the repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements across a 55° field, in a sample of healthy young adults using wide‐field enhanced‐depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Methods High‐resolution wide‐field volumetric enhanced‐depth imaging scans were obtained from the right eye of 27 adults (mean age 27 ± 5 years) during two sessions, separated by 19 ± 15 days, using the follow‐up feature of the Spectralis instrument, while controlling for confounding factors known to influence choroidal thickness. Semi‐automatic segmentation of the choroidal boundaries was corrected by a single masked observer. This process was repeated on images ...

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    19. Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for inter‐eye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell+inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Background Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multi‐center international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected ...

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    20. Potential of contrast agents to enhance in vivo confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography in dermatology: A review

      Potential of contrast agents to enhance in vivo confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography in dermatology: A review

      Distinction between normal skin and pathology can be a diagnostic challenge. This systematic review summarizes how various contrast agents, either topically delivered, or injected into the skin affect distinction between skin disease and normal skin when imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy (CM). A systematic review of in vivo OCT and CM studies using exogenous contrast agents on healthy human skin or skin disease was performed. In total, 9 CM studies and 1 OCT study were eligible. Four contrast agents aluminum chloride (AlCl) n=2, indocyanin green (ICG) n=3, sodium fluorescein n=3 and acetic acid ...

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    21. Transfollicular delivery of gold microparticles in healthy skin and acne vulgaris, assessed by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Transfollicular delivery of gold microparticles in healthy skin and acne vulgaris, assessed by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Topical application of gold microparticles (GMPs) for selective photothermolysis is a recently FDA‐cleared therapy for acne vulgaris. Current evidence indicates the potential of optical imaging to non‐invasively visualize GMPs and describe photothermal tissue effects. Objectives To qualitatively and quantitatively describe GMP delivery in vivo and visualize laser‐mediated thermal effects of GMPs in facial skin of acne patients and healthy participants, using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Patients with facial acne ( n  = 14), and healthy participants ( n  = 7) were included. RCM and OCT images were acquired at baseline, after GMP application, and ...

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    22. Quantitative analysis of retinal and choroid capillary ischaemia using optical coherence tomography angiography in type 2 diabetes

      Quantitative analysis of retinal and choroid capillary ischaemia using optical coherence tomography angiography in type 2 diabetes

      Purpose To perform a quantitative analysis of retinal and choroid capillary ischaemia in diabetic patients by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods A total of 97 type 2 diabetic patients and 48 controls were included in this cross‐sectional study. Diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were categorized as no DR (NDR) group; DR was classified into mild non‐proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Quantitative parameters included foveal and parafoveal vascular density (VD) in superficial, deep and choroid capillary plexus (SCP, DCP and CCP), and foveal flow area in CCP. Stepwise ...

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