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    1. Monitoring the topical delivery of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

      Monitoring the topical delivery of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging modality for skin cancer diagnosis. However, this capability has been hindered by the low contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. To overcome this limitation, gold nanoparticles have been used to enhance the contrast in OCT images and are topically administered to reduce the risk of systematic side effects associated with intravenous injection. To ensure efficient penetration and distribution of the nanoparticles, an enhanced delivery strategy is required. In this porcine study, we assessed two delivery methods: (a) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and (b) via sonophoresis. Materials and Methods The gold nanoparticles ...

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    2. Characteristics of retinal layer thickness in acute anterior uveitis: an optical coherence tomography study

      Characteristics of retinal layer thickness in acute anterior uveitis: an optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose To determine the changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), macular and ganglion cell‐inner plexiform layer (GC‐IPL) thicknesses in patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU). Methods Patients diagnosed with unilateral non‐infectious AAU and normal control were enrolled retrospectively. Optical coherence tomography scans were performed during the initial active phase and inactive phase of AAU. Patients were followed for at least 3 months after resolution of inflammatory activity. Results Thirty‐seven AAU patients and 40 controls were included. The average RNFL and central macular thickness (CMT) showed significant differences between patients and control groups during active ...

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    3. Long‐term repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in healthy eyes

      Long‐term repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in healthy eyes

      Purpose To determine the long‐term repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in normal eyes. Methods We prospectively enrolled 104 normal eyes. Participants were divided into three groups based on differences in the signal strength (SS) of OCTA scans obtained at two visits at least 6 months apart: group 1, SS difference = 2; group 2, 1; group 3, 0. We measured a foveal centred scan area of 3 × 3 mm pattern. All measurements were performed twice at 5‐min intervals at the initial visit. The second measurements were performed at least 6 months later. Results In short‐term ...

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    4. Nodular skin lesions: correlation of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features

      Nodular skin lesions: correlation of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features

      Nodular lesions have a common clinical appearance but very different prognostic implications. The differential diagnosis between malignant and benign nodular lesions is a challenge in everyday clinical practice. The malignant melanoma (MM) nodular variant expresses a vertical phase of growth and often has relatively high Breslow indexes 1,2 , so a timely correct diagnosis is crucial for correct lesion management. Conversely, non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rarely impacts on patient mortality and is most frequently observed in the form of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a locally aggressive, low‐grade neoplasia, prevalent among sun‐damaged elders 3,4 .

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    5. In vivo monitoring the dynamic process of acute retinal hemorrhage and repair in zebrafish with spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography

      In vivo monitoring the dynamic process of acute retinal hemorrhage and repair in zebrafish with spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography

      Retina, the only light sensor in the human eye, is hidden and extremely fragile. Optimized animal models and efficient imaging techniques are very important for the study of retinopathy. In this work, the rapid retinal injury process and the long‐terms retinal repair process were in vivo continuously evaluated with a novel imaging technology spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT) in a unique animal model zebrafish. Acute retinal injury was constructed on adult zebrafish by needle injection surgery. SD‐OCT imaging was carried out immediately after the mechanical injury. The retinal hemorrhage, which lasted only 5 seconds, could be ...

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    6. Assessment of simulated osteoporosis in alveolar bone using optical coherence tomography - Del‐Valle - - Journal of Biophotonics

      Assessment of simulated osteoporosis in alveolar bone using optical coherence tomography - Del‐Valle - - Journal of Biophotonics

      Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that compromises bone resistance and its diagnosis is usually performed using dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Thus, the search for efficient diagnostic methods that do not involve the emission of ionizing radiation is necessary. This study proposed to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to evaluate osteoporosis in alveolar bone. Osteoporosis lesions is simulated in vitro in porcine bones, and imaging is performed by OCT and micro‐computed tomography (micro‐CT). A developed algorithm is proposed to calculate the optical attenuation coefficient ( μ t ), mean optical attenuation coefficient ( μ t ), integrated reflectivity ( Δ R ) and bone density ( BD ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image active and inactive retinoblastomas as well as retinomas

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image active and inactive retinoblastomas as well as retinomas

      Purpose To illustrate Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images of active and inactive retinoblastoma (Rb) tumours. Methods Current observational study included patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma and retinoma who were presented at Amsterdam UMC and Jules‐Gonin Eye Hospital, between November 2010 and October 2017. Patients aged between 0 and 4 years were imaged under general anaesthesia with handheld OCT in supine position. Patients older than 4 years were imaged with the conventional OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg Spectralis, Germany). All patients included were divided into two groups: active and inactive tumours (retinoma and regression patterns). Patients’ medical records and OCT images were ...

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    8. Basal cell carcinoma treated with combined ablative fractional laser and ingenol mebutate – An exploratory study monitored by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

      Basal cell carcinoma treated with combined ablative fractional laser and ingenol mebutate – An exploratory study monitored by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

      Background Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have previously been treated off‐label with ingenol mebutate (IM). Ablative fractional laser (AFL) may improve efficacy of IM by increasing drug uptake in the tumor. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) detect BCC non‐invasively. Our aim was to investigate BCC response and tolerability after combined AFL and IM treatment of low‐risk BCCs. Methods Twenty patients with histologically verified superficial (n=7) and nodular (n=13) BCCs were treated with combined fractional CO 2 ‐laser (10,600 nm) and IM 0.015% or 0.05%, the concentration depending on anatomical ...

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    9. Spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography of retinal vessels in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

      Spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography of retinal vessels in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

      Purpose To image retinal blood vessels in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Retrospective case series examining fundus photographs and OCT scans of 16 eyes in eight patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. Analyses included intravascular OCT reflectivity profiles and vessel diameters, and their relation to total immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels. Results In six out of eight patients, cross‐sectional OCT scans of larger retinal vessels (diameter > 100 μm) showed normal intravascular reflectivity and retrovascular shadowing. In two patients with the highest total IgM > 60 g/l, altered intravascular reflectivity, distinct anterior and posterior ...

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    10. Hot topics in interventional cardiology: Proceedings from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) 2019 Think Tank

      Hot topics in interventional cardiology: Proceedings from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) 2019 Think Tank

      The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) Think Tank is a collaborative venture held annually, bringing together interventional cardiologists, administrative partners, and select members of the cardiovascular industry community. During the SCAI 2019 Scientific Sessions, relevant topics in interventional cardiology were identified with the goals of defining the state of the field, current challenges, and future directions. Topics were determined by nomination, and solidified through a voting process ultimately vetted by SCAI leadership and the industry relations committee. The 2019 Think Tank was organized into four parallel sessions reflective of the field of interventional cardiology: (a) coronary intervention, (b ...

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    11. Comparison between optical coherence tomographic and histopathologic appearances of artifacts caused by common surgical conditions and instrumentation

      Comparison between optical coherence tomographic and histopathologic appearances of artifacts caused by common surgical conditions and instrumentation

      Objective To document the appearance of artifacts created by commonly encountered surgical conditions and instrumentation on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare these findings with histopathology. Study design Ex vivo study. Animals Five canine cadavers. Methods Skin, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, and fascia samples were obtained from fresh canine cadavers. Blood pooling, hemostatic crushing, scalpel blade cut, monopolar electrosurgery, bipolar vessel sealing device, and ultrasonic energy surgical artifacts were induced on each tissue type. Each specimen was imaged with OCT and subsequently histologically processed. Results Most surgical instrumentation used for tumor excision created a high‐scattering region with local ...

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    12. Characterization of the human myocardium by optical coherence tomography

      Characterization of the human myocardium by optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography can provide high‐resolution imaging of the human heart valuable for treating cardiovascular disease. However, comprehensive optical coherence tomography imaging data in the human heart is lacking. This study provides imaging data from a large sample size of human hearts, and qualitative and quantitative imaging features corresponding to a variety of cardiac tissue types are described, providing guidance to future cardiac applications of optical coherence tomography.

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    13. Comparison between functional and intravascular imaging approaches guiding percutaneous coronary intervention: A network meta‐analysis of randomized and propensity matching studies

      Comparison between functional and intravascular imaging approaches guiding percutaneous coronary intervention: A network meta‐analysis of randomized and propensity matching studies

      Background The optimal approach to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to compare functional driven (fractional flow reserve) versus intravascular imaging (intravascular ultrasound, IVUS, and/or optical coherence tomography, OCT) versus standard (coronary angiography only, CA)‐guided PCI. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and propensity score weight‐matched studies (PSWMs) comparing FFR versus IVUS versus OCT versus CA‐guided PCI were included. Major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite end point of death or myocardial infarction [MI] or revascularization) was the primary endpoint, whereas definite stent thrombosis (ST) and single ...

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    14. In vivo monitoring of thrombosis in mice by optical coherence tomography

      In vivo monitoring of thrombosis in mice by optical coherence tomography

      The objective of this study is to establish a novel method for continuously monitoring thrombus progression with various outcome measures and to assess the efficacy of antithrombotic drugs in murine thrombosis model in mice. In the study, thrombus was induced in the femoral vein of mice by FeCl 3 and monitored over time by spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Three dimensional images of thrombi with or without heparin as an antithrombotic agent were obtained from OCT angiography. In addition, several parameters of thrombi were analysed and compared between control and anticoagulant groups. By using OCT, we were able to ...

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    15. First Use of Optical Coherence Tomography on In Vivo Inflammatory Acne‐Like Lesions: A Murine Model

      First Use of Optical Coherence Tomography on In Vivo Inflammatory Acne‐Like Lesions: A Murine Model

      Background and Objectives Successful outcomes of clinical studies for acne vulgaris depend greatly on achieving statistically significant reduction in acne lesion count and improvement in Investigator's Global Assessment score of the investigational drug product against its vehicle control. To date, there has not been a validated preclinical acne model to evaluate investigational drug products in order to improve the probability of clinical success. An inflammatory acne‐like lesion mouse model developed in‐house has previously been used for clinical guidance in our drug development program. In this study, we aim to implement and assess the adequacy of swept‐source ...

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    16. Second generation, sirolimus‐eluting, bioresorbable Tyrocore scaffold implantation in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction: Baseline OCT and 30‐day clinical outcomes – A Fantom Stemi pilot study

      Second generation, sirolimus‐eluting, bioresorbable Tyrocore scaffold implantation in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction: Baseline OCT and 30‐day clinical outcomes – A Fantom Stemi pilot study

      Background There is paucity of data on acute performance of Fantom (REVA Medical, CA), a second generation sirolimus‐eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS), in ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of the Fantom BRS in the acute setting of STEMI characterized by thrombogenic milieu. Methodology Ten STEMI patients treated with a sirolimus‐eluting Fantom BRS were enrolled into prospective, observational study. The scaffold sizing, positioning, and optimization were optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided. The primary end‐point was the device‐oriented composite endpoint (DOCE ...

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    17. Evaluation of posterior vitreous detachment using ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of posterior vitreous detachment using ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To compare the diagnostic ability of ultrasonography (US) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in evaluating posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) status. Methods In total, 124 eyes in 63 patients were prospectively enrolled. Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) status was evaluated by two examiners independently using US and OCT (transverse scan with/without peripapillary scan). By combining all examination results from both examiners, a final agreement on the PVD status was made. Inter‐observer agreement and inter‐examination agreement on PVD detection were evaluated. Results The inter‐observer agreement on PVD grading based on US was substantial (kappa = 0.628). The inter ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography of the retina, nerve fiber layer, and optic nerve head in dogs with glaucoma

      Optical coherence tomography of the retina, nerve fiber layer, and optic nerve head in dogs with glaucoma

      Objective To evaluate the retina and optic nerve head (ONH) in canine eyes predisposed to glaucoma using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Animals Twenty‐five eyes (24 dogs). Methods Measures of peripapillary retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and ONH parameters were obtained in vivo by OCT of the unaffected eye in dogs diagnosed with unilateral primary glaucoma (predisposed; n = 12) and compared with measures of healthy control eyes (normal; n = 13). Repeatability and intrarater reliability were explored using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results Compared to normal eyes, predisposed eyes had a thinner retina in ...

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    19. The Impact of First‐Aid Dressing Design on Healing of Porcine Partial Thickness Wounds

      The Impact of First‐Aid Dressing Design on Healing of Porcine Partial Thickness Wounds

      Literature describes that a well‐maintained moist wound healing environment leads to faster healing by preventing scabbing and drying of the wound. A moist wound speeds healing by allowing for unimpeded movement of newly dividing epidermal cells in the wound. Contrary to what is described in literature and practiced by clinicians, first‐aid dressings used at home by consumers advertise breathability and absorptivity as benefits. This manuscript examines the effects of dressing breathability and highly absorptive pads on healing and wound appearance in a porcine dermatome wound model, designed to mimic an abrasion injury. Partial thickness wounds were covered with ...

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    20. Could optical coherence tomography add to the history of the pituitary incidentaloma?

      Could optical coherence tomography add to the history of the pituitary incidentaloma?

      Editor, While first described in the medical history as an incidental finding on autopsies or now abandoned diagnostic techniques like roentgenographic cephalometry, the pituitary incidentaloma as a clinical entity unfolded with the introduction of contemporary medical imaging like computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Nanda et al. 1967 ; Parent et al. 1982 ; Molitch & Russell 1990 ). Many pituitary tumours remain small and clinically silent. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of a pituitary incidentaloma necessitates evaluation for endocrine dysfunction or mass effect requiring treatment; the risk of serendipitous findings without any medical benefit to the patient remains an important dilemma of modern ...

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    21. Evaluation of choroidal changes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of choroidal changes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

      Background We aimed to evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI‐OCT). Methods In this cross‐sectional, observational comparative study, 56 eyes of 56 patients with AIS and 56 eyes of 56 age‐ and sex‐matched healthy subjects were included. All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic examination and CT measurements at the fovea and at 750 μm intervals from the fovea to 1,500 μm in the nasal and temporal site obtained by spectral domain EDI‐OCT. Results The mean subfoveal CT was lower in the AIS patients ...

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    22. Comparative “virtual biopsies” of normal skin and skin lesions using vibrational optical coherence tomography

      Comparative “virtual biopsies” of normal skin and skin lesions using vibrational optical coherence tomography

      Background Increased tissue stiffness (also termed modulus) has been shown to be a characteristic of potential tumor metastasis. Measured values of the stiffness of tumors and cancer cells are reported in the literature to increase compared to neighboring normal tissues. Yet the relationship between the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix has yet to be correlated with the histopathology of cancerous lesions. Materials and Methods We have developed a technique to do virtual biopsies of skin lesions by combining images made using optical coherence tomography with stiffness measurements made simultaneously using vibrational analysis. The technique is termed vibrational ...

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      Mentions: OptoVibronex
    23. Scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment undergoing scleral buckling: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy study

      Scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment undergoing scleral buckling: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy study

      Purpose To investigate the scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) undergoing scleral buckling (SB), using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS‐OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods Twenty RRD eyes were consecutively enrolled. AS‐OCT was performed at RRD diagnosis (RRD‐D) and day 1, week 1, month 1 and month 6 after SB to evaluate the sclera, in the affected and unaffected quadrants (AQ, UQ). IVCM was performed at RRD‐D, and at month 1 and month 6, to evaluate the conjunctiva in AQ and UQ. The main outcomes were as follows ...

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