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    1. A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Background High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of actinic keratosis (AK) may aid in its diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. A diagnostic algorithm permitting discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin has been proposed. However, diagnostic accuracy strongly depends on the experience of physicians. In two recent studies, it was demonstrated that HD-OCT permits to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in intrinsic ageing skin, in melanocytic lesions and in basal cell carcinoma. This approach seems to permit a semiautomated classification of lesions easier to handle by non-experts. Objectives The aim of this paper ...

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    2. Kif14 overexpression accelerates murine retinoblastoma development

      Kif14 overexpression accelerates murine retinoblastoma development

      The mitotic kinesin KIF14 has an essential role in the recruitment of proteins required for the final stages of cytokinesis. Genomic gain and/or overexpression of KIF14 has been documented in retinoblastoma and a number of other cancers, such as breast, lung and ovarian carcinomas, strongly suggesting its role as an oncogene. Despite evidence of oncogenic properties in vitro and in xenografts, Kif14's role in tumor progression has not previously been studied in a transgenic cancer model. Using a novel Kif14 overexpressing, simian virus 40 large T-antigen retinoblastoma (TAg-RB) double transgenic mouse model, we aimed to determine Kif14 's ...

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    3. Use of new imaging in detecting and monitoring ocular manifestations of the mucopolysaccharidoses

      Use of new imaging in detecting and monitoring ocular manifestations of the mucopolysaccharidoses

      The aim of this review is to summate the eye involvement in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) using current ocular imaging techniques, their advantages and disadvantages and how they may aid diagnosis, management and monitoring. We critically reviewed the current literature surrounding MPS and recent imaging technology as well as histology. Primary searches of PubMed and Web of Science were performed. We reviewed all papers on the topic published and summarized the findings of each medical device as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using these for the MPS patient. We discussed the potential of each of these devices to ...

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    4. Dynamic single gold nanoparticle visualization by clinical intracoronary optical coherence tomography

      Dynamic single gold nanoparticle visualization by clinical intracoronary optical coherence tomography

      The potential use of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) as contrast agents for clinical intracoronary frequency domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is here explored. The OCT contrast enhancement caused by GNPs of different sizes and morphologies has been systematically investigated and correlated with their optical properties. Among the different GNPs commercially available with plasmon resonances close to the operating wavelength of intracoronary OCT (1.3 µm), Gold Nanoshells (GNSs) have provided the best OCT contrast due to their largest scattering cross section at this wavelength. Clinical intracoronary OCT catheters are here demonstrated to be capable of three dimensional visualization and real-time tracking ...

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      Mentions: Fernando Alfonso
    5. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most OCT studies on the subject of BCC have had a qualitative focus, i.e. on morphological analysis of the OCT images. The aim of this study was to explore the use of quantitative OCT measurements, density, and attenuation coefficient in BCC lesions as a way to improve the OCT evaluation of BCC. Methods The study was based ...

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    6. Commentary on the Diagnostic Utility of Non-invasive Imaging Devices for Field Cancerization

      Commentary on the Diagnostic Utility of Non-invasive Imaging Devices for Field Cancerization

      In this issue of Experimental Dermatology , Marneffe and collegues present a practical algorithmic guide to differentiating actinic keratosis (AK) from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), outlining steps and markers to guide both novice and more experienced skin cancer experts (1).

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    7. Investigation of optical attenuation imaging using optical coherence tomography for monitoring of scars undergoing fractional laser treatment

      Investigation of optical attenuation imaging using optical coherence tomography for monitoring of scars undergoing fractional laser treatment

      En face 2D OCT attenuation coefficient map of a treated immature scar derived from the pre-treatment (top) and the post-treatment (bottom) scans. (Vasculature (black) is masked out.) The scale bars are 0.5 mm. We demonstrate the use of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient, measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), in longitudinal assessment of hypertrophic burn scars undergoing fractional laser treatment. The measurement method incorporates blood vessel detection by speckle decorrelation and masking, and a robust regression estimator to produce 2D en face parametric images of the attenuation coefficient of the dermis. Through reliable co-location of the field of view across ...

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    8. Ultrastructural features of dentinoenamel junction revealed by focused gallium ion beam milling

      Ultrastructural features of dentinoenamel junction revealed by focused gallium ion beam milling

      To take full advantage of focused ion beam (FIB) in preparation of ultrathin sections of biological tissues, we have used a cryo-milling process. In this study, extracted human teeth were scanned by optical coherence tomography to inspect the samples for intactness and to determine the area of interest. Then, the selected area of interest was cross-sectioned for examination under a confocal laser scanning microscope to determine the target location of the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) that was later milled by cryo-FIB at preset parameters, followed by transmission electron microscope examination of the final sliced specimens for ultrastructural characterization. The proposed technique ...

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      Mentions: Turki Bakhsh
    9. Retroreflective-type Janus microspheres as a novel contrast agent for enhanced optical coherence tomography

      Retroreflective-type Janus microspheres as a novel contrast agent for enhanced optical coherence tomography

      Working principle and SEM image of Janus microsphere (top). Enhanced OCT imaging (bottom) of Janus microspheres in zebrafish stomach (blue dash line) and sinusoids (green arrows) of nude liver. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-developed technology that utilizes near-infrared light to reconstruct three-dimensional images of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. Improvements of the imaging contrast of the OCT technique are able to further widen its extensive biomedical applications. In this study, Janus microspheres were developed and used as a positive contrast agent for enhanced OCT imaging. Phantom and ex vivo liver tissue experiments as well as in vivo animal ...

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    10. Complex bifurcation lesions: Randomized comparison of a fully bioresorbable modified t stenting strategy versus bifurcation reconstruction with a dedicated self-expanding stent in combination with bioresorbable scaffolds, an OCT study: Rationale and desig

      Complex bifurcation lesions: Randomized comparison of a fully bioresorbable modified t stenting strategy versus bifurcation reconstruction with a dedicated self-expanding stent in combination with bioresorbable scaffolds, an OCT study: Rationale and desig

      Objective There is an ongoing controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of different percutaneous stenting techniques for coronary bifurcation lesions needing >1 stent. The promise of safe vessel restoration with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) may not be transferable to complex double BRS bifurcation techniques, and permanent metallic scaffolding of the bifurcation core may be needed. We identified modified-T stenting as the most promising fully bioresorbable 2-stent strategy in a preclinical setting. The objective of this study is to assess acute performance and compare long-term vessel healing with this strategy, versus an approach combining BRS with a dedicated metallic drug-eluting bifurcation stent ...

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    11. In vivo biometric evaluation of Schlemm's canal with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in pseuduexfoliation glaucoma

      In vivo biometric evaluation of Schlemm's canal with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in pseuduexfoliation glaucoma

      Purpose To perform in vivo imaging of the Schlemm's canal (SC) with anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography [AS-spectral-domain (SD)-OCT] and also to measure its biometric parameters including the SC length and SC area in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma. Methods Forty-one consecutive patients with PEX glaucoma and 41 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were enrolled. All subjects underwent imaging with SD-OCT. The SC length and SC area were examined in the temporal sections and measured with customized software. Results The percentages of the temporal sections in which SC was observable were similar between the two groups. Mean ...

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    12. Choroidal vascularity index – a novel optical coherence tomography parameter for disease monitoring in diabetes mellitus?

      Choroidal vascularity index – a novel optical coherence tomography parameter for disease monitoring in diabetes mellitus?

      Purpose To propose the use of choroidal vascularity index (CVI) as a novel tool to assess vascular status of the choroid using image binarization of enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore. Age and gender matched EDI-OCT scans of 38 eyes of 19 patients with DM were compared with eyes of healthy controls ( n = 19). The choroidal images were binarized into luminal areas (LA) and stromal areas (SA). Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) was defined as the proportion of ...

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    13. CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is required for normal myofibrillogenesis, morphogenesis, and contractile function in the embryonic heart

      CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is required for normal myofibrillogenesis, morphogenesis, and contractile function in the embryonic heart

      Background : CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is a multifunctional RNA binding protein found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. In the heart, CELF1 is found exclusively in the myocardium. However, the roles of CELF1 during cardiac development have not been completely elucidated. Results : Myofibrillar organization is disrupted and proliferation is reduced following knockdown of CELF1 in cultured chicken primary embryonic cardiomyocytes. In vivo knockdown of Celf1 in developing Xenopus laevis embryos resulted in myofibrillar disorganization and a trend towards reduced proliferation in heart muscle, indicating conserved roles for CELF1 orthologs in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Loss of Celf1 also ...

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    14. Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), consisting overwhelmingly of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most prevalent malignancy in Western populations with large populations of Caucasians. BCC forms the majority of NMSC and its incidence continues to rise in many countries; Australia has the highest incidence rate worldwide at >1000/100,000 person-years.(1-3) Although BCC is usually not life-threatening, it represents a major public health burden. In Australia, the number of treatment episodes for NMSC is more than five times that of all other cancers combined, making them the most expensive cancers to treat.(4)

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    15. Glaucoma diagnostic capacity of optic nerve head haemoglobin measures compared with spectral domain OCT and HRT III confocal tomography

      Glaucoma diagnostic capacity of optic nerve head haemoglobin measures compared with spectral domain OCT and HRT III confocal tomography

      Purpose The computer program laguna onhe determines optic nerve head haemoglobin (ONH Hb) on retinal photographs based on detecting colour differences. This study compares the diagnostic capacity of Laguna ONhE with that of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal tomography (HRT III). Methods In a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study, glaucomatous ( n = 66) and healthy ( n = 52) eyes were examined by Spectralis OCT, HRT III and Laguna ONhE. The following Laguna ONhE variables were determined: ONH Hb across the vertical disc diameter (8&20 Hb), estimated cup–disc ratio (C/D) and the glaucoma discriminant function (GDF), which combines ...

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    16. The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay

      The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay

      Purpose Over the past 25 years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy have revolutionised our ability to non-invasively observe the living retina. The purpose of this review is to highlight the techniques and human clinical applications of recent advances in OCT and adaptive optics scanning laser/light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) ophthalmic imaging. Recent findings Optical coherence tomography retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) imaging technology allows high resolution in the axial direction resulting in cross-sectional visualisation of retinal and ONH lamination. Complementary AO ophthalmoscopy gives high resolution in the transverse direction resulting in en face visualisation of retinal ...

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    17. The short-term effects of aflibercept on the size of choroidal neovascularization lesion in treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration as determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      The short-term effects of aflibercept on the size of choroidal neovascularization lesion in treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration as determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Background and Objectives To evaluate the changes in the size of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Materials and Methods In this prospective case-series, 33 eyes of 30 patients with treatment-resistant neovascular AMD were included. Treatment-resistant neovascular AMD was defined as choriodal neovascularization secondary to AMD determined by subretinal fluid and/or intraretinal fluid/cysts after more than 6 months of monthly ranibizumab therapy. Enrolled eyes were received intravitreal aflibercept injections at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Maximum area of ...

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    18. In vivo optical imaging of amblyopia: Digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography

      In vivo optical imaging of amblyopia: Digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography

      Background and Objectives Amblyopia is a visual impairment that is attributed to either abnormal binocular interactions or visual deprivation. The retina and choroids have been shown to be involved in the development of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retinal and choroidal microstructural abnormalities of amblyopia using digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) approaches. Methods This prospective study included 44 eyes of 22 patients with unilateral amblyopia. All patients who received indirect ophthalmoscopy, combined depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), SSADA-OCT, and macular blue light (BL-) and near-infrared (NIR-) autofluorescences underwent pupil ...

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    19. Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Actinic keratoses (AKs) commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. Visible lesions are often associated with subclinical lesions on surrounding skin, giving rise to field cancerization. To avoid multiple biopsies to diagnose subclinical/early invasive lesions, there is an increasing interest in non-invasive diagnostic tools, such as high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). We previously developed a HD-OCT based diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of HD-OCT for non-invasive discrimination of AK from SCC and normal skin using this algorithm. Methods Three-dimensional (3D ...

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