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    1. Retroreflective-type Janus microspheres as a novel contrast agent for enhanced optical coherence tomography

      Retroreflective-type Janus microspheres as a novel contrast agent for enhanced optical coherence tomography

      Working principle and SEM image of Janus microsphere (top). Enhanced OCT imaging (bottom) of Janus microspheres in zebrafish stomach (blue dash line) and sinusoids (green arrows) of nude liver. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-developed technology that utilizes near-infrared light to reconstruct three-dimensional images of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. Improvements of the imaging contrast of the OCT technique are able to further widen its extensive biomedical applications. In this study, Janus microspheres were developed and used as a positive contrast agent for enhanced OCT imaging. Phantom and ex vivo liver tissue experiments as well as in vivo animal ...

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    2. Complex bifurcation lesions: Randomized comparison of a fully bioresorbable modified t stenting strategy versus bifurcation reconstruction with a dedicated self-expanding stent in combination with bioresorbable scaffolds, an OCT study: Rationale and desig

      Complex bifurcation lesions: Randomized comparison of a fully bioresorbable modified t stenting strategy versus bifurcation reconstruction with a dedicated self-expanding stent in combination with bioresorbable scaffolds, an OCT study: Rationale and desig

      Objective There is an ongoing controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of different percutaneous stenting techniques for coronary bifurcation lesions needing >1 stent. The promise of safe vessel restoration with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) may not be transferable to complex double BRS bifurcation techniques, and permanent metallic scaffolding of the bifurcation core may be needed. We identified modified-T stenting as the most promising fully bioresorbable 2-stent strategy in a preclinical setting. The objective of this study is to assess acute performance and compare long-term vessel healing with this strategy, versus an approach combining BRS with a dedicated metallic drug-eluting bifurcation stent ...

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    3. In vivo biometric evaluation of Schlemm's canal with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in pseuduexfoliation glaucoma

      In vivo biometric evaluation of Schlemm's canal with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in pseuduexfoliation glaucoma

      Purpose To perform in vivo imaging of the Schlemm's canal (SC) with anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography [AS-spectral-domain (SD)-OCT] and also to measure its biometric parameters including the SC length and SC area in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma. Methods Forty-one consecutive patients with PEX glaucoma and 41 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were enrolled. All subjects underwent imaging with SD-OCT. The SC length and SC area were examined in the temporal sections and measured with customized software. Results The percentages of the temporal sections in which SC was observable were similar between the two groups. Mean ...

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    4. Choroidal vascularity index – a novel optical coherence tomography parameter for disease monitoring in diabetes mellitus?

      Choroidal vascularity index – a novel optical coherence tomography parameter for disease monitoring in diabetes mellitus?

      Purpose To propose the use of choroidal vascularity index (CVI) as a novel tool to assess vascular status of the choroid using image binarization of enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore. Age and gender matched EDI-OCT scans of 38 eyes of 19 patients with DM were compared with eyes of healthy controls ( n = 19). The choroidal images were binarized into luminal areas (LA) and stromal areas (SA). Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) was defined as the proportion of ...

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    5. CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is required for normal myofibrillogenesis, morphogenesis, and contractile function in the embryonic heart

      CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is required for normal myofibrillogenesis, morphogenesis, and contractile function in the embryonic heart

      Background : CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is a multifunctional RNA binding protein found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. In the heart, CELF1 is found exclusively in the myocardium. However, the roles of CELF1 during cardiac development have not been completely elucidated. Results : Myofibrillar organization is disrupted and proliferation is reduced following knockdown of CELF1 in cultured chicken primary embryonic cardiomyocytes. In vivo knockdown of Celf1 in developing Xenopus laevis embryos resulted in myofibrillar disorganization and a trend towards reduced proliferation in heart muscle, indicating conserved roles for CELF1 orthologs in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Loss of Celf1 also ...

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    6. Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), consisting overwhelmingly of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most prevalent malignancy in Western populations with large populations of Caucasians. BCC forms the majority of NMSC and its incidence continues to rise in many countries; Australia has the highest incidence rate worldwide at >1000/100,000 person-years.(1-3) Although BCC is usually not life-threatening, it represents a major public health burden. In Australia, the number of treatment episodes for NMSC is more than five times that of all other cancers combined, making them the most expensive cancers to treat.(4)

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    7. Glaucoma diagnostic capacity of optic nerve head haemoglobin measures compared with spectral domain OCT and HRT III confocal tomography

      Glaucoma diagnostic capacity of optic nerve head haemoglobin measures compared with spectral domain OCT and HRT III confocal tomography

      Purpose The computer program laguna onhe determines optic nerve head haemoglobin (ONH Hb) on retinal photographs based on detecting colour differences. This study compares the diagnostic capacity of Laguna ONhE with that of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal tomography (HRT III). Methods In a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study, glaucomatous ( n = 66) and healthy ( n = 52) eyes were examined by Spectralis OCT, HRT III and Laguna ONhE. The following Laguna ONhE variables were determined: ONH Hb across the vertical disc diameter (8&20 Hb), estimated cup–disc ratio (C/D) and the glaucoma discriminant function (GDF), which combines ...

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    8. The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay

      The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay

      Purpose Over the past 25 years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy have revolutionised our ability to non-invasively observe the living retina. The purpose of this review is to highlight the techniques and human clinical applications of recent advances in OCT and adaptive optics scanning laser/light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) ophthalmic imaging. Recent findings Optical coherence tomography retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) imaging technology allows high resolution in the axial direction resulting in cross-sectional visualisation of retinal and ONH lamination. Complementary AO ophthalmoscopy gives high resolution in the transverse direction resulting in en face visualisation of retinal ...

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    9. The short-term effects of aflibercept on the size of choroidal neovascularization lesion in treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration as determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      The short-term effects of aflibercept on the size of choroidal neovascularization lesion in treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration as determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Background and Objectives To evaluate the changes in the size of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Materials and Methods In this prospective case-series, 33 eyes of 30 patients with treatment-resistant neovascular AMD were included. Treatment-resistant neovascular AMD was defined as choriodal neovascularization secondary to AMD determined by subretinal fluid and/or intraretinal fluid/cysts after more than 6 months of monthly ranibizumab therapy. Enrolled eyes were received intravitreal aflibercept injections at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Maximum area of ...

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    10. In vivo optical imaging of amblyopia: Digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography

      In vivo optical imaging of amblyopia: Digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography

      Background and Objectives Amblyopia is a visual impairment that is attributed to either abnormal binocular interactions or visual deprivation. The retina and choroids have been shown to be involved in the development of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retinal and choroidal microstructural abnormalities of amblyopia using digital subtraction autofluorescence and split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) approaches. Methods This prospective study included 44 eyes of 22 patients with unilateral amblyopia. All patients who received indirect ophthalmoscopy, combined depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), SSADA-OCT, and macular blue light (BL-) and near-infrared (NIR-) autofluorescences underwent pupil ...

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    11. Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Validation of a diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma by means of high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Actinic keratoses (AKs) commonly arise on sun-damaged skin. Visible lesions are often associated with subclinical lesions on surrounding skin, giving rise to field cancerization. To avoid multiple biopsies to diagnose subclinical/early invasive lesions, there is an increasing interest in non-invasive diagnostic tools, such as high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). We previously developed a HD-OCT based diagnostic algorithm for the discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of HD-OCT for non-invasive discrimination of AK from SCC and normal skin using this algorithm. Methods Three-dimensional (3D ...

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    12. Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods

      Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate thermal and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging methods for the assessment of the activity of root caries lesions. In addition, changes in the lesion structure were monitored with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Artificial bovine and natural root caries lesions were imaged with PS-OCT, and their dehydration rate was measured with thermal and NIR cameras. The lesion activity of the natural root caries samples was also assessed by two clinicians by conventional means according to ICDAS II guidelines. The thickness of the highly mineralized transparent surface layer measured using PS-OCT increased and ...

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    13. Plaque morphology predictors of side branch occlusion after provisional stenting in coronary bifurcation lesion: Results of optical coherence tomography bifurcation study (ORBID)

      Plaque morphology predictors of side branch occlusion after provisional stenting in coronary bifurcation lesion: Results of optical coherence tomography bifurcation study (ORBID)

      Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of side branch (SB) ostial stenosis developed after provisional stenting of the main vessel (MV) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Provisional stenting remains the main approach to treatment of bifurcation lesions; however, it may result in the narrowing of SB ostium. There is little information about underlying plaque morphology of the MV lesion and its potential impact on the SB after provisional stenting. Methods Patients with stable coronary disease with angiographic MV lesion not involving SB were included in a prospective single center study. The primary outcome was ...

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    14. Non-invasive assessment of corneal and conjunctival deterioration in soft contact lens users using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Non-invasive assessment of corneal and conjunctival deterioration in soft contact lens users using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Background The aim was to evaluate the corneal and bulbar conjunctival thicknesses of soft contact lens (SCL) wearers using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods The epithelial and overall thicknesses of both the central cornea and the infero-temporal bulbar conjunctiva of SCL wearers (30 subjects) were obtained by Cirrus HD-OCT and compared with those of refraction-matched controls (30 subjects) and patients with emmetropia (30 subjects). Results The mean corneal epithelial thicknesses in SCL wearing, spectacle-wearing and emmetropic groups were 48.97 ± 5.45, 52.18 ± 4.84 and 53.18 ± 5.05 µm, respectively. The corneal epithelium of members ...

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    15. Non-invasive optical assessment of viscosity of middle ear effusions in otitis media

      Non-invasive optical assessment of viscosity of middle ear effusions in otitis media

      In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) image of a human tympanic membrane and Middle Ear Effusion (MEE) (top), with a CCD image of the tympanic membrane surface (inset). Below is the corresponding time-lapse M-mode OCT data acquired along the white dotted line over time, which can be analyzed to determine the Stokes–Einstein diffusion coefficient of the effusion. Eustachian tube dysfunction can cause fluid to collect within the middle ear cavity and form a middle ear effusion (MEE). MEEs can persist for weeks or months and cause hearing loss as well as speech and learning delays in young children. The ...

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    16. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography as a Potential Biomarker in Huntington's Disease

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography as a Potential Biomarker in Huntington's Disease

      Background Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography has been used in several neurological conditions, and peripapillary and macular measurements have been proposed as potential biomarkers in these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate retinal and choroidal changes in Huntington's disease and to evaluate any potential correlation with the stage of the disease. Methods A cross-sectional observational study compared patients with Huntington's disease and controls. Patients were evaluated using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used, and peripapillary choroidal and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular retinal ...

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    17. Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness for discriminating primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma using optical coherence tomography

      Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness for discriminating primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma using optical coherence tomography

      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the discrimination capabilities of macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness parameters as measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods A total of 90 subjects were enrolled: 30 healthy subjects, 30 subjects with POAG and 30 subjects with NTG, consecutively. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, macular thickness and volume measurements were obtained with circular and radial SD-OCT scans. All parameters were compared between groups using an analysis of variance test. Areas under receiver-operating characteristic (AROC) curves with sensitivities ...

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    18. Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Four-dimensional live imaging of hemodynamics in mammalian embryonic heart with Doppler optical coherence tomography

      Four-dimensional live hemodynamic imaging of the mouse embryonic heart at embryonic day 9.0 using Doppler optical coherence tomography, showing directional blood flows in the sinus venosus, primitive atrium, atrioventricular region and vitelline vein. Hemodynamic analysis of the mouse embryonic heart is essential for understanding the functional aspects of early cardiogenesis and advancing the research in congenital heart defects. However, high-resolution imaging of cardiac hemodynamics in mammalian models remains challenging, primarily due to the dynamic nature and deep location of the embryonic heart. Here we report four-dimensional micro-scale imaging of blood flow in the early mouse embryonic heart, enabling time-resolved ...

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    19. Comparison of caries diagnostic modalities: A clinical study in 40 subjects

      Comparison of caries diagnostic modalities: A clinical study in 40 subjects

      Background and Objectives Few studies have been published that evaluate the usefulness of different caries- diagnostic modalities in general dental practice. The goal of this study was to compare the results of screening for coronal dental caries in a general dental practice using clinical observations, radiographs, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent™) (LF), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Diagnostic agreement between OCT and LF versus standard clinical techniques for detecting caries was determined in 40 subjects. Study Designs/Materials and Methods Forty patients with >1 coronal carious lesion as determined by prescreening using clinical examination and radiographs were enrolled in this study. Subjects ...

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