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    1. Use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Aesthetic Skin Assessment—A Short Review

      Use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Aesthetic Skin Assessment—A Short Review

      Assessments of non‐surgical office‐based aesthetic treatments' efficacy including lasers are mostly based on subjective evaluation of clinical photography. Accumulating evidence suggest that non‐invasive skin imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be effectively used to assess not only the skin surface but also the underlying epidermis and dermis, providing objective and clinically relevant data. In this review, we highlight the potential of OCT imaging for the aesthetic medicine field along with OCT measurement parameters and their clinical relevance to healthy and pathological skin conditions.

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    2. Intravascular lithotripsy to treat an underexpanded coronary stent: 4‐Month angiographic and OCT follow‐up

      Intravascular lithotripsy to treat an underexpanded coronary stent: 4‐Month angiographic and OCT follow‐up

      We report the case of a 79‐year‐old man with stable angina who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention to a severe and calcified left circumflex lesion. Despite extensive preparation of the lesion with high‐pressure balloon predilatation and rotablation, the implanted stent was grossly underexpanded and failed to respond to high‐pressure balloon postdilatation. The patient was readmitted 6 weeks later for intravascular lithotripsy that resulted in excellent stent expansion. Coronary angiography with optical coherence tomography 4 months later revealed sustained acute lumen gain with no evidence of stent recoil or in‐stent restenosis.

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    3. Correlation between new OCT parameters and metamorphopsia in advanced stages of epiretinal membranes

      Correlation between new OCT parameters and metamorphopsia in advanced stages of epiretinal membranes

      Purpose To correlate metamorphopsia provided by M‐CHARTS and ectopic inner foveal layers (EIFL) or ‘central bouquet’ abnormality (CBA) in patients with advanced stages of epiretinal membrane (ERM) following the novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)‐based grading scheme. Methods In 60 eyes of 57 patients affected by ERM (stages 3 and 4), the degree of metamorphopsia using the M‐CHARTS was evaluated (M‐SCORE) and correlated with EIFL, CBA and central foveal thickness (CFT) as measured on OCT scans. Results A total of 37 and 23 eyes were diagnosed having ERM stages 3 and 4, respectively. Mean vertical and horizontal ...

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    4. Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold outcomes following implantation with routine intravascular imaging guidance

      Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold outcomes following implantation with routine intravascular imaging guidance

      Objectives We sought to describe the outcomes of BVS use from a single‐center experience in which scaffold implantation was guided by intravascular imaging (ultrasound and/or optical coherence tomography) to identify and treat mechanical factors potentially related to BVS failure. Background The Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has been associated with an unexpectedly high incidence of thrombosis. Methods Between 11/2014 and 10/2016, 100 patients were treated with BVS. Intravascular imaging assessment before and after BVS implantation was performed in all cases. Results Mean age was 58.1 years; 88% were male, 31% had diabetes, and 28% presented ...

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    5. Assessment of residual thrombus burden in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin infusion: The MATRIX (minimizing adverse hemorrhagic events by transradial access site and angioX) OCT

      Assessment of residual thrombus burden in patients with ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin infusion: The MATRIX (minimizing adverse hemorrhagic events by transradial access site and angioX) OCT

      Background Residual stent strut thrombosis after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), negatively affects myocardial perfusion, may increase stent thrombosis risk, and it is associated with neointima hyperplasia at follow‐up. Objectives To study the effectiveness of any bivalirudin infusion versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) infusion in reducing residual stent strut thrombosis in patients with ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods Multi‐vessel STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI and requiring staged intervention were selected among those randomly allocated to two different bivalirudin infusion regimens in the MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and angioX) Treatment‐Duration study. Those receiving ...

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    6. The actinic dysplasia syndrome – diagnostic approaches defining a new concept in field carcinogenesis with multiple cSCC

      The actinic dysplasia syndrome – diagnostic approaches defining a new concept in field carcinogenesis with multiple cSCC

      Usually, SCC lesions are surrounded by a number of clinically visible and non‐visible (subclinical) areas of actinically damaged skin containing cells with dysplasia, and thus may be designated actinic dysplasia syndrome. The epithelial damage is caused mainly by UV radiation, inducing mutations in keratinocytes that may confer growth advantages resulting in preneoplastic fields. The development of visible dysplastic lesions (actinic keratosis – AK) and subsequent progression to invasive SCC requires further mutations in cancer‐associated genes, like tumour suppressor genes and cell cycle regulators. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) represent a considerable advantage for the investigation ...

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    7. A rare entity: Sympathetic ophthalmia presumably after blunt trauma to the phthisical eye and optical coherence tomography angiography metrics to monitor response to treatment

      A rare entity: Sympathetic ophthalmia presumably after blunt trauma to the phthisical eye and optical coherence tomography angiography metrics to monitor response to treatment

      A blunt trauma to a phthisical eye may elicit sympathetic ophthalmia. Non invasive imaging such as use of optical coherence tomography and angiography metrics of the retinal and choroidal vasculature can help monitor response to the treatment.

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    8. Comparison of line‐field confocal optical coherence tomography images with histological sections: Validation of a new method for in vivo and non‐invasive quantification of superficial dermis thickness

      Comparison of line‐field confocal optical coherence tomography images with histological sections: Validation of a new method for in vivo and non‐invasive quantification of superficial dermis thickness

      Background Line‐field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC‐OCT) is an imaging technique providing “optical biopsies” of the skin in real time and non‐invasively. At a center optical wavelength of 1.3 µm, this innovative technology can be applied to dermo‐cosmetic product development due to both high image resolution (~2 µm) and sufficient penetration (~0.5 mm). Nevertheless, the precise dermal area analyzed with LC‐OCT has never been identified. In this study, the objective was to compare LC‐OCT images with histological sections of the same area, in order to validate a new method for in vivo ...

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      Mentions: Arnaud Dubois
    9. Retinal microvasculature in pituitary adenoma patients: is optical coherence tomography angiography useful?

      Retinal microvasculature in pituitary adenoma patients: is optical coherence tomography angiography useful?

      Purpose To examine retinal vascular changes in the peripapillary and macular areas in patients with pituitary adenoma (PA) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Cross‐sectional, retrospective study of 17 consecutive PA patients and 16 healthy subjects. All patients underwent a neuro‐ophthalmological examination to assess the presence of optic neuropathy (ON). Static automated perimetry (SAP), macular and optic disc structural OCT [retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses] and OCTA were performed. Pituitary adenoma (PA) patients with ON were compared to those without ON and to healthy subjects. Results Optic neuropathy (ON) was found ...

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    10. Stent underexpansion due to heavy coronary calcification resistant to rotational atherectomy: A case for coronary lithoplasty?

      Stent underexpansion due to heavy coronary calcification resistant to rotational atherectomy: A case for coronary lithoplasty?

      Stent underexpansion is frequently observed in calcified coronary lesions and increases the risk of future adverse cardiac events. Current plaquemodification techniques might not be suitable when calcium deposition is circumferential and deep inside the vessel wall. We report a case during which coronary lithoplasty was used as an adjuvant therapy to improve severe stent underexpansion after failed atherectomy and high‐pressure non‐compliant balloon dilatations.

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    11. Vascular changes after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Vascular changes after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To analyse the postoperative foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, superficial vessel density (SVD) and deep vessel density (DVD) and their correlation with functional (best‐corrected visual acuity, BCVA) and anatomical outcomes (foveal macular thickness, FMT) after surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair. Method Patients with RRD eyes, successfully treated with a single pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with gas tamponade and a minimum 12 months follow‐up, were re‐examined. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, SVD, DVD and FMT were evaluated by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and compared to fellow eye. Results Fifty‐six patients with macula ...

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    12. In vivo detection of tumor boundary using ultrahigh‐resolution optical coherence angiography and fluorescence imaging

      In vivo detection of tumor boundary using ultrahigh‐resolution optical coherence angiography and fluorescence imaging

      Accurate detection of early tumor margin is of great preclinical and clinical implications for predicting the survival rate of subjects and assessing the response of tumor microenvironment to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Here, we report a multimodality optical imaging study on in vivo detection of tumor boundary by analyzing neoangiogenesis of tumor microenvironment (microangiography), microcirculatory blood flow (optical Doppler tomography) and tumor proliferation (GFP fluorescence). Microangiography demonstrates superior sensitivity (77.7±6.4%) and specificity (98.2±1.7%) over other imaging technologies (e.g. OCT) for tumor margin detection. Additionally, we report longitudinal in vivo imaging of tumor progression ...

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    13. Capillary Refill—The Key to Assessing Dermal Capillary Capacity and Pathology in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Capillary Refill—The Key to Assessing Dermal Capillary Capacity and Pathology in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background/Objectives: Standard optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been limited to imaging blood vessels actively undergoing perfusion, providing a temporary picture of surface microvasculature. Capillary perfusion in the skin is dynamic and changes in response to the surrounding tissue's respiratory, nutritional, and thermoregulatory needs. Hence, OCTA often represents a given perfusion state without depicting the actual extent of the vascular network. Here we present a method for obtaining a more accurate anatomic representation of the surface capillary network in human skin using OCTA, along with proposing a new parameter, the Relative Capillary Capacity (RCC), a quantifiable proxy for ...

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    14. Quantitative flow ratio virtual stenting and post stenting correlations to post stenting fractional flow reserve measurements from the DOCTORS (Does Optical Coherence Tomography Optimize Results of Stenting) study population

      Quantitative flow ratio virtual stenting and post stenting correlations to post stenting fractional flow reserve measurements from the DOCTORS (Does Optical Coherence Tomography Optimize Results of Stenting) study population

      Objective We sought to evaluate the correlations of pre‐PCI QFR analysis with virtual PCI called residual QFR and post‐PCI QFR compared to post‐PCI FFR. Background Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on angiography without use of a pressure wire. The ability to evaluate post‐PCI FFR using pre‐PCI QFR analysis with a virtual PCI and the correlation between post‐PCI QFR compared to post‐PCI FFR remains unknown. Methods From the DOCTORS (Does Optical Coherence Tomography Optimize Results of Stenting) study population, we blindly analyzed residual QFR and post ...

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    15. Full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography and neural tissue classification for deep brain imagingv

      Full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography and neural tissue classification for deep brain imagingv

      Optical coherence tomography can differentiate brain regions with intrinsic contrast and at a micron scale resolution. Such a device can be particularly useful as a realtime neurosurgical guidance tool. We present, to our knowledge, the first full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography system operating near a wavelength of 1310 nm. The proof‐of‐concept system was integrated with an endoscopic probe tip, that is compatible with deep brain stimulation keyhole neurosurgery. Neuroimaging experiments were performed on ex vivo brain tissues and in vivo in rat brains. Using classification algorithms involving texture features and optical attenuation, images were successfully classified ...

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    16. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks to Distinguish Normal and Abnormal Oral Mucosa

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks to Distinguish Normal and Abnormal Oral Mucosa

      Incomplete surgical resection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common cause of local HNSCC recurrence. Currently, surgeons rely on pre‐operative imaging, direct visualization, palpation, and frozen section to determine the extent of tissue resection. It has been demonstrated that optical coherence tomography (OCT), a minimally invasive, non‐ionizing near infrared mesoscopic imaging modality can resolve subsurface differences between normal and abnormal head and neck mucosa. Previous work has utilized 2‐D OCT imaging which is limited to the evaluation of a small regions of interest generated frame by frame. OCT technology is capable of ...

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    17. Intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and fractional flow reserve use in acute myocardial infarction

      Intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and fractional flow reserve use in acute myocardial infarction

      Background There are limited data on the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objectives To assess the temporal trends of IVUS, OCT, and FFR use in AMI. Methods A retrospective cohort study from the National Inpatient Sample (2004–2014) was designed to include AMI admissions that received coronary angiography. Administrative codes were used to identify percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), IVUS, OCT, and FFR. Outcomes included temporal trends, inhospital mortality and resource utilization stratified by IVUS, OCT, or FFR use. Results In 4,419,973 AMI admissions, IVUS ...

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    18. Prospective evaluation of drug eluting self‐apposing stent for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease: 1‐year results of the TRUNC study

      Prospective evaluation of drug eluting self‐apposing stent for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease: 1‐year results of the TRUNC study

      Objectives To assess long‐term safety and efficacy of the Xposition S self‐apposing stent in the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Background Percutaneous intervention with stents has emerged as a valid alternative to surgical revascularization to treat ULMCA disease. Conventional balloon‐expandable stents face technical challenges, particularly in large left main diameter requiring extensive optimization and side branch access in distal bifurcation. Xposition S allows for optimal apposition, bridging diameter differences, and allows expansion to vessel diameters up to 6.0 mm. Methods Between June 2016 and July 2017, 205 patients were enrolled in this ...

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    19. Clinical validation of the RTVue optical coherence tomography angiography image quality indicators

      Clinical validation of the RTVue optical coherence tomography angiography image quality indicators

      Importance All automated image quality indicators for en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images require gold standard validation for determining optimal thresholds. Background A manual grading system (gold standard) for OCTA images was validated and compared to two automated image quality indicators: signal strength index (SSI) and scan quality index (SQI) generated by different software versions of the Optovue OCTA device. Design Retrospective cross‐sectional study. Participants 52 eyes of 52 healthy individual and 77 eyes of 51 patients with retinal vascular diseases. Methods 129 OCTA images of the superficial vascular plexus were graded manually by 3 independent examiners ...

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    20. Simultaneous detection of cerebral blood perfusion and cerebral edema using swept‐source optical coherence tomography

      Simultaneous detection of cerebral blood perfusion and cerebral edema using swept‐source optical coherence tomography

      The progression of ischemic cerebral edema (CE) is closely related to the level of cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) and affects each other. Simultaneous detection of CBP and CE is helpful in understanding the mechanisms of ischemic cerebral edema development. In this article, a wide field of view (FOV) SS‐OCT system was used to detect CE status and CBP levels simultaneously in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Images reflecting these two physiological states can be reconstructed with only one C‐scan. We quantify these two physiological states into 4 parameters, which contain two vascular parameters (vascular displacement distance and ...

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