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    1. 3D imaging for faster diagnosis of esophageal disease

      3D imaging for faster diagnosis of esophageal disease

      A tethered capsule that is swallowed by the patient offers a quick and pain-free method of screening and diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases. Diagnosing gastrointestinal (GI) diseases usually involves endoscopy, combining an invasive probe and video imaging or other optical methods. While effective, this method often causes patient discomfort and typically requires anesthesia, making it costly and time-consuming. Here we describe a new option for screening using a swallowable optomechanically engineered pill that rapidly provides 3D microscopic images of the gastrointestinal tract. The process is pain-free, so there is no need for anesthesia, and enables quick diagnosis of esophageal diseases.

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    2. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

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    3. Rainer Leitgeb: Developing OCT as a clinical tool in dermatology and beyond

      Rainer Leitgeb: Developing OCT as a clinical tool in dermatology and beyond

      Rainer Leitgeb is Associate Professor at the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering at the Medical University of Vienna (Austria). The focus of his research lab (LeitgebLab) is functional optical tomography, label free vascular imaging, as well as advanced microscopy. Door-to-door collaborations allow easy translation of the developments in his lab to their clinical adaption, in particular in dermatology and ophthalmology.

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    4. Combining light and sound for retinal imaging

      Combining light and sound for retinal imaging

      Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy provides exceptional contrast when visualizing the retina, assisting in the early diagnosis of some eye diseases. The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of eye diseases have greatly benefited from innovation in modern ophthalmic imaging technologies. Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a 3D imaging method that allows non-invasive visualization of the back of the eye through angiography (where an x-ray-based technique is used to create an image). But unlike an angiogram, the image is made using no exogenous contrast agents. 1–3 PAOM instead uses the endogenous light-absorption contrast from hemoglobin and melanin to generate images of the retina's vascular ...

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    5. Measuring tissue elasticity for tumor detection

      Measuring tissue elasticity for tumor detection

      Optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system non-invasively assesses the mechanical properties of soft tissues and can be used to differentiate tumors during surgical treatment. Surgical resection is currently the most effective treatment for patients with soft-tissue tumors, which develop within connective tissues such as muscle and fat. To minimize the removal region and reduce the chance of recurrence, it is important to delineate the boundaries of the tumor prior to resection. As tumorigenesis involves a change in tissue stiffness, probing the mechanical properties (e.g. elasticity) of soft tissues could complement structural imaging (x-ray and magnetic resonance ...

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    6. Contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography

      Contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography

      Photothermal heating helps image contrast agents at scarce concentrations over a scattering tissue background. Molecular imaging is a powerful tool for studying disease progression and potential therapies in animals. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important biomedical imaging modality, filling the niche between ultrasound and microscopy. However, OCT suffers from an inherent lack of molecular contrast (the ability to distinguish a molecule of interest from others). This is because the scattering cross-section, the source of contrast in this technique, does not vary widely between molecular species. Researchers have worked around this problem by using OCT with either endogenous or exogenous ...

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    7. Optical elastography probes mechanical properties of tissue at high resolution

      Optical elastography probes mechanical properties of tissue at high resolution

      Probing the micro-mechanical properties of tissue using optical imaging might offer new surgical tools that enable improved differentiation of tissue pathologies, such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Elastography is an emerging branch of medical imaging that uses mechanical contrast to better characterize tissue pathology than can be achieved with structural imaging alone. It achieves this by imaging a tissue's response to mechanical loading. Although commercial products based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been available for several years, these new modalities offer superior tissue differentiation deep in the human body. However, elastography is limited by its low resolution ...

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    8. Assessing eardrum deformation by digital holography

      Assessing eardrum deformation by digital holography

      A novel system measures the structure, shape, and acoustically induced changes to the membrane of the human middle ear, to help diagnose and treat hearing disorders.  

      Understanding the human hearing process and associated disorders depends on quantifying the geometry and properties of the outer, middle, and inner ear. The eardrum, also known as the tympanic membrane (TM), transforms sound waves from the outer ear into vibrations of the middle ear. Because of the TM's important role, and its direct visibility through the ear canal, current ear exams assess a patient's hearing by considering the health of the eardrum ...

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    9. Conference on Optical Methods for Inspection, Characterization and Imaging of Biomaterials, Munich Germany May 13th, 2013

      Conference on Optical Methods for Inspection, Characterization and Imaging of Biomaterials, Munich Germany May 13th, 2013

      Submission for postdeadline papers still open (till end of January).  Biocompatible materials (or “Biomaterials”) are substances that are intended to interact with biological systems. For the safe and reliable function of implants, materials are as important as form. Surfaces may require appropriate coatings or functionalization. Therefore the last two decades have seen strong advancements in biomaterials and related science, with capital investments and research efforts into the development of new products in several fields of applications. Biomaterials science embraces several disciplines such as medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. When a new material is designed and created or ...

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    10. Watching while listening to the interaction of photons with bio-tissues

      Watching while listening to the interaction of photons with bio-tissues

      Using a single light source to carry out optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy simultaneously enables novel studies of optical scattering and absorption in biological tissues. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) are two microscopic, three-dimensional, noninvasive imaging modalities that are based on different contrast mechanisms. OCT mainly images the optical scattering properties of a sample whereas PAM images optical absorption. Due to these different contrast mechanisms, OCT and PAM provide complementary information about biological tissues. OCT images the microanatomy of a sample (e.g., the histology-like cross-sectional image). It can also image the blood flow velocity by ...

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    11. Intravascular optical technology to enable comprehensive in vivo coronary pathology

      Intravascular optical technology to enable comprehensive in vivo coronary pathology

      A single intracoronary optical device yields concurrent and combined microstructural and fluorescence information from luminal samples, such as arterial tissue. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States (777,000 cases in 2010). 1 In a large percentage of patients, the first occurrence of coronary artery disease is either sudden death or acute myocardial infarction. Approximately 20–30% of the patients with acute myocardial infarction die before they get to a hospital. It is known that certain unstable atherosclerotic plaques, called vulnerable plaques, give rise to acute coronary events. Plaque stability is dependent on various factors ...

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    12. Jin Kang: Developing smarter tools for microsurgery

      Jin Kang: Developing smarter tools for microsurgery

      Using optical coherence technology and motion compensation, a tool developed at Johns Hopkins can aid surgeons in delicate operations. Jin U. Kang is a professor and chair of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Johns Hopkins University (JHU, Baltimore, MD). He conducts research on biophotonics, fiber optics, and optoelectronic devices for applications in medicine and communications. One of the main focus areas of his research is to develop real-time, ultrafast optical coherence tomography, 3-D imaging and sensing systems for guided surgical intervention. Prior to joining the JHU faculty in 1998, he was a research scientist with the U.S ...

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    13. Highly functional wideband fiber lasers for metrology

      Highly functional wideband fiber lasers for metrology

      Spectrum compression of soliton pulses generates a narrow-linewidth pulse source that is rapidly wavelength-tunable across a broad range, making it suitable for novel applications. Advances in ultrashort-pulse laser technology have generated several new applications in the fields of laser processing, biomedical optics, opto-electronics, and related fields. 1, 2 However, conventional ultrashort-pulse lasers are limited by a requirement of quiet laboratory environments and water cooling. In addition, spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and nonlinear microscopy require both a wideband light source and a wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth source. 2, 3 Moreover, tuning range is generally limited by the laser's gain bandwidth. Although ...

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    14. Bench-to-bedside success: intravascular optical coherence tomography

      Bench-to-bedside success: intravascular optical coherence tomography

      After more than 20 years of academic research and industrial development, optical coherence tomography has found a new home in the interventional cardiology suite. If one were to ask a physician to describe an ideal medical imaging technology, the resulting wish list might include high resolution, high sensitivity, and rapid acquisition speeds, all delivered at low cost with minimal risk to the patient in a platform that is simple and easy to use. Neglect any one of these requirements, and the technology in question might at best be relegated to a niche research role. Since its invention in 1991 by ...

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    15. 1065nm and 1310nm MEMS tunable VCSEL light source technology for OCT imaging

      1065nm and 1310nm MEMS tunable VCSEL light source technology for OCT imaging

      A novel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a microelectromechanical tuning element enables high-speed, centimeter-range optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that can generate micron-resolution 2D and 3D images of tissue and other scattering materials.1 First demonstrated for imaging the human eye and coronary arteries in 1991,1 OCT has become a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring treatment of eye disease, with approximately 16 million ophthalmic OCT procedures performed in the US in 2010.2 OCT can also be used for intravascular imaging of plaque to assess heart disease, cancer biopsy imaging, developmental ...

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    16. BIGSS sessions highlight biophotonics hot topics

      BIGSS sessions highlight biophotonics hot topics

      The international Biophotonics and Imaging Graduate Summer School (BIGSS 2012) is underway at the National University of Ireland [NUI] Galway, focusing on two of the hottest topics in the field of biophotonics: optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging. BIGSS runs 7-13 June. SPIE Member Jijo Ulahannan, assistant professor at Government College Kasaragod in India, is among students school and filed a guest blog on the event for SPIE, at www.PhotonicsForaBetterWorld.org The event is organized by the NUI Galway Applied Optics group and chaired by SPIE Fellow Martin Leahy who also leads the National Biophotonics Platform Ireland. Major ...

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    17. Optical measurement of the structure of articular cartilage

      Optical measurement of the structure of articular cartilage

      A new optical technique can non-invasively determine the collagen structure in articular cartilage and could lead to improved understanding of arthritis. Medical conditions such as osteoarthritis are painful, debilitating, and hard to treat because they involve degradation of tissues that have a poor natural repair capacity, such as articular cartilage (which coats the sliding surfaces of articulating joints such as the knee). Cartilage is a material with remarkable mechanical properties that has evolved to tolerate the large shear and compressive stresses that are generated during everyday activities such as standing up and walking. Its mechanical properties arise from the interplay ...

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    18. Improving treatment efficacy with biological or biophysical feedback

      Improving treatment efficacy with biological or biophysical feedback

      Optical measurements of tissue changes during photodynamic and radiation-based cancer treatments help to develop and improve these therapies.  Novel optical technologies can provide detailed microscopic information about tissue structure and physiology in a non-invasive manner, minimizing patient discomfort. This otherwise unobtainable information can help physicians select the best treatments, thus greatly benefiting patients. When used for early disease detection, it results in more effective curative therapies. It also allows inspection of the progress of various therapies to ensure they are working, enabling improvements to be made. We have investigated this last aspect of the benefits of optical methods, showing how ...

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    19. Noninvasive functional imaging of the retina at cellular resolution

      Noninvasive functional imaging of the retina at cellular resolution
      Intrinsic optical signal imaging allows noninvasive identification of localized retinal neural dysfunction, promising early diagnosis of eye diseases. It is well established that many eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are associated with pathological changes in the retina in multiple cell classes. Different eye diseases affect different types of retinal cells, some of which occur in localized areas of the retina in the early stage of the disease. Accurate identification of retinal dysfunction at the local, cellular level is essential for early disease detection and reliable treatment evaluation. However, given the delicate structure ...
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    20. Label-free in utero imaging of mouse embryos

      Label-free in utero imaging of mouse embryos
      The mouse is a classic mammalian model used to study the anatomical and physiological development of different organ systems. Hundreds of mouse mutants associated with human diseases have been reported, helping to advance our understanding of the genetic basis of development and disease. Moreover, the proven value of genetic approaches to study gene function in the mouse, and the efficiency with which individual mutations can be mapped and cloned, has led to several large-scale, international, genome-wide screens for new and advanced models of human disease. Traditionally, primary analysis of embryonic mutant phenotypes has been based on static examination of histological ...
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    21. Absolute blood flow measured by optical methods

      Absolute blood flow measured by optical methods
      Absolute blood flow (volume of blood per unit time serving a tissue mass or organ) is a physiological parameter that becomes altered in many diseases. In the retina, blood-flow impairment may occur early in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In the brain, cerebral blood-flow loss occurs in conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. In the kidneys, renal blood flow is a primary factor in acute injury and other nephropathies. Whether a loss of blood flow directly causes cell death or merely reflects a reduction in tissue demand, in vivo blood flow measurements have the potential to ...
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    22. Motion compensation in fiber-optic confocal microscopy

      Motion compensation in fiber-optic confocal microscopy
      Confocal microscopy is a widely used high-resolution optical imaging technique that provides both high lateral and axial resolution. Importantly, it has been extremely valuable for biomedical applications, such as deep brain and 3D imaging of biological specimens.1 Endoscopic confocal microscopes that use flexible coherent fiber bundles—consisting of tens of thousands of fiber channels—have also been implemented for high-resolution imaging.2, 3 However, in vivo endoscopic confocal images suffer loss of focus because of movement in the target, caused by, for example, breathing and cardiac activities.4 To correct these intra- and inter-frame distortions, motion compensation is crucial ...
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    23. Online Monte Carlo for Biomedical Optics

      Online Monte Carlo for Biomedical Optics
      Generalizing a model of photon migration that uses random values to predict outcomes provides a tool well suited to a wide range of minimally invasive diagnostics. Optical and laser diagnostics are widely used in a number of applications, including cancer research, vascular and developmental biology, dermatology, pharmacy, materials sciences, food, and the cosmetic and health care industries. Optical techniques provide a broad variety of practical solutions for non-invasive diagnostics in a range of studies from single cells to the biopsy of specific biological tissues and whole organs.
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    24. Large BiOS program feeds SPIE Photonics West growth trend

      Large BiOS program feeds SPIE Photonics West growth trend

      The BiOS technical program at SPIE Photonics West in January -- once again the largest of the event's four symposia -- is helping to draw more exhibiting companies than ever to the BiOS Expo on opening weekend. Technical topics include enabling technologies for applications such as treatments for cancer, stroke, epilepsy, vision loss, and much more. Photonics West runs 21-26 January at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, California. On a continuing growth trend, the event is the world's largest international conference and exhibition on industrial and medical applications of optics, lasers, and photonics. Total attendance is expected to top ...

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    25-48 of 99 « 1 2 3 4 5 »
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