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    1. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human brain connectome

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human brain connectome

      The human brain is composed of approximately 100 billion neurons that ‘communicate’ through an intricate network of axons and dendrites. 1 The difficulty of tracing these 3D neuronal pathways, however, has been a critical barrier for standard histology (the study of microscopic anatomy) over the past 100 years. Indeed, there is still no technology that can be used to acquire microscopic images in undistorted 3D space for mapping human brain connectivity. Currently available techniques for 3D brain mapping include histological staining and polarized light imaging. 2, 3 In these approaches, 2D image slices are obtained, but these must be physically ...

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    2. SPIE 2017 awards honor biomedical, photonics achievements and dedication to education including Early Career Achievement Award in OCT To Utkarsh Sharma

      SPIE 2017 awards honor biomedical, photonics achievements and dedication to education including Early Career Achievement Award in OCT To Utkarsh Sharma

      The Awards Committee of SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics , has announced 2017 recipients of prestigious annual awards. Technical accomplishments are recognized by these awards, along with meritorious service to the Society and dedication to education. Early Career Achievement Award – Industry: Utkarsh Sharma , Optovue, Inc., is recognized for his demonstrated leadership and innovation in developing novel ideas to successful clinical translation and commercialization; in particular, the development of first FDA-cleared optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and other advanced OCT technologies.

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    3. Reducing stroke damage may be next application for OCT technology now widely used in eye and vision healthcare

      Reducing stroke damage may be next application for OCT technology now widely used in eye and vision healthcare

      An optical technology already widely used in ophthalmology and other medical fields holds potential to reveal how blood flows in the brain during stroke, providing information that could someday guide new treatments and reduce stroke-induced damage to the brain. A new article published in the journal Neurophotonics describes work at the University of Washington (UW) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to render high-resolution images and information about blood-flow dynamics over a broad region of the brain before, during, and after stroke-like states. Neurophotonics is published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics. "OCT is a well-established medical imaging ...

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    4. Multiple-reference optical coherence tomography for smartphone applications

      Multiple-reference optical coherence tomography for smartphone applications

      As a multifunctional clinical diagnostic and monitoring technique, optical coherence tomography (OCT) 1 has become a well-established tool in many areas, including ophthalmology, dermatology, gastrointestinal endoscopy, intravascular imaging, and oncology. OCT is a low-coherence, interferometric-based imaging modality that can be implemented using either time-domain (TD) or frequency-domain (FD) methods in which the interference signals generated by combining reference signals with light scattered by the target are detected. Early OCT systems are based on TD technology, and they use a bulky scanning reference arm optical delay to sequentially generate the axial scans (A-scans). TD systems require an inherently long acquisition time ...

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    5. Liquid crystal devices tailored for specific imaging applications

      Liquid crystal devices tailored for specific imaging applications

      Harnessing the strong electro-optic properties of liquid crystals permits high-resolution, extended In the late 1980s, spatial light modulators (SLMs) began to be used in a variety of imaging systems and optical signal processing applications, such as CCD and CMOS cameras, detector arrays, and spectrometers. As these reduce in size and cost, the whole field of optical imaging and sensing is being revolutionized. Liquid crystal (LC) devices are entering this field as key elements for controlling the wavefront, wavelength, polarization, phase, intensity, and coherence of light. Liquid crystal devices can control these parameters in a compact and fast manner, thus allowing ...

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    6. SPIE launches 'Neurophotonics' journal with special section on BRAIN Initiative

      SPIE launches 'Neurophotonics' journal with special section on BRAIN Initiative

      The advanced optical methods and applications for imaging and manipulation of the brain that are driving a revolution in the neurosciences were the inspiration behind Neurophotonic s , a new peer-reviewed journal published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics . The first issue coincides with the launch of the BRAIN Initiative in the United States, and a special section features articles that lay out a vision for and provide examples of the impact that optics and photonics will have on advancing our understanding of how the brain works. The journal began publication in May and all articles will be ...

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    7. Light sheet imaging the Airy way

      Light sheet imaging the Airy way

      Recent decades have seen an expansion in the breadth of light-based imaging techniques that address problems in biomedicine. Despite perceived limitations in terms of penetration depth and resolution, optical imaging has made significant strides to encroach upon the traditional territory of other modalities, such as electron microscopy and x-ray. At the nanoscale, optical methods exploit light fields in tandem with the properties of fluorescent proteins to answer biological questions in neuroscience and virology that were previously restricted to electron microscopy. At the larger scale, the same methods are making headway to generate biopsies solely with light. A prime example is ...

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    8. Photonics innovations win R&D 100 Awards

      Photonics innovations win R&D 100 Awards

      Super-resolution microscopes from Carl Zeiss and Leica Microsystems, a novel radiation detector from Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and an origami microscope are among more than a dozen optics and photonics innovations to win one of this year's R&D 100 Awards. Intended to recognize the 100 "most technologically significant products" introduced over the past year, the list also includes an all-fiber isolator from AdValue Photonics, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) diagnostic endoscope developed by NinePoint Medical, and a lunar laser communication system co-developed by NASA and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory.

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    9. A generic process platform for photonic integrated circuits

      A generic process platform for photonic integrated circuits

      A generic integration platform, analogous to that used in microelectronics, may reduce the cost of photonic integrated circuits and make this technology accessible to new sectors. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are used primarily in fiber-optic communications and telecommunications as signal encoders and decoders for systems operating at 100–400Gb/s. Furthermore, they have applications in fiber-based sensors as readout circuits, and in metrology and medicine (specifically, optical coherence tomography). PIC technology exploits light to achieve signal processing using predominantly indium phosphide (InP)-based materials (see Figure 1 ), which offer the required functionalities of emission, modulation, and detection. 1

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    10. Observing cochlear function

      Observing cochlear function

      Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography measures the morphology and functional vibratory response in the mouse cochlea and helps decipher the complex mechanical processes responsible for hearing.  Hearing loss is the most common sensory health issue due to the multiple effects of noise, aging, disease, and heredity. According to the World Health Organization, more than 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. 1 Current therapies for hearing loss treat some of the symptoms by providing volume amplification, but there are no curative therapies. The development of effective therapies significantly depends upon a detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms of the ...

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    11. Eric Swanson Hot Topics presentation: Clinical Translation in OCT: Role of Research, Funding, and Entrepreneurism

      Eric Swanson Hot Topics presentation: Clinical Translation in OCT: Role of Research, Funding, and Entrepreneurism

      Eric Swanson discusses the migration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) into clinical practice in, "Clinical Translation in OCT: Role of Research, Funding, and Entrepreneurism." The translation from research to successful clinical impact is challenging and often the process passes through several stages including product development, initial sales and product iteration, market growth, and, finally, the next generation products. Each step can take several years, requiring persistence and perseverance on the parts of technologists and investors alike. The first release of a reliable, manufacturable, and supportable commercial product into the hands of clinicians is a critical milestone. It allows for fine ...

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    12. Compact green-diode-based lasers for biophotonic bioimaging

      Compact green-diode-based lasers for biophotonic bioimaging

      Lasers based on semiconductor materials, so-called diode lasers, are highly efficient, compact light sources. 1 In high volume they can also be produced at very low cost. In contrast to lasers based on specific atomic transitions, such as solid-state or gas lasers, diode laser materials engineering enables generation of light in a large portion of the optical spectrum. 2 The great versatility of diode lasers allows their direct use in many biophotonics applications, including photocoagulation, 3 diffuse optical imaging, 4 and optical coherence tomography (OCT). 5, 6 Nonlinear frequency conversion of diode lasers is an attractive method of overcoming the ...

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    13. Refining imaging strategies to enhance understanding of congenital anomalies

      Refining imaging strategies to enhance understanding of congenital anomalies

      Optical coherence tomography in live animal models offers dynamic imaging capabilities for analyzing how aberrant morphologies and other birth defects occur during embryogenesis. Studying the mechanisms that regulate normal and abnormal development in murine (mouse) embryos can yield deeper insights into how and why anomalies sometimes appear. A great deal of knowledge can be gained from imaging studies of murine cells, tissues, and organs during early development that could ultimately lead to improved strategies for the prevention and treatment of birth defects in humans. In the past, such imaging has involved tissue staining to enable researchers to visualize cellular development ...

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    14. State of the Industry report on Optical Coherence Tomography

      State of the Industry report on Optical Coherence Tomography

      The first commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) imagers were introduced to ophthalmology by Advanced Ophthalmic Devices (now owned by Zeiss Meditec) in 1992. Since then, the market for OCT systems has grown at an impressive compounded annual rate of about 45%. This segment of the biophotonics marketplace has flourished because OCT enables sub-surface imaging of translucent or opaque materials, such as human tissue, in real time at micron resolution and without the use of ionizing radiation. As a result, last year’s global sales of all OCT systems exceeded $400 million and the market now supports more than 36 OCT ...

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    15. Full-field OCT: a non-invasive tool for diagnosis and tissue selection

      Full-field OCT: a non-invasive tool for diagnosis and tissue selection

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) enables in-depth, high-resolution tissue imaging at the cellular level. Pathologists using the technology achieve high sensitivity scores, offering possible future improvements in healthcare quality and decreases in costs, especially for cancer care.

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), on which the technique is based, undertakes interferometric selection of singly backscattered photons using superposition of waves to decipher their characteristics). It is a powerful technique for imaging biological tissues, particularly for eye examination.1 FFOCT, in contrast with most OCT approaches (time domain- or Fourier domain OCT, for example), directly takes 2D ‘ en face' images using megapixel cameras ...

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    16. Eric Swanson: The Growth of the OCT Market (SPIE.TV)

      Eric Swanson: The Growth of the OCT Market (SPIE.TV)

      Eric Swanson is a director, advisor, and participant in a variety of industrial, academic, entrepreneurial, government, and non-profit activities. Swanson serves as a director for Acacia Communications, Curata Incorporated, and NinePoint Medical. He also serves as a research affiliate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), consultant at Draper Laboratory, catalyst at the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation, does a variety of volunteer activities, and is editor of the non-profit news outlet, OCT News . Swanson is a co-founder or founding board member of five companies (including Advanced Ophthalmic Devices and Lightlab Imaging). He is a Fellow of the OSA ...

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    17. 3D imaging for faster diagnosis of esophageal disease

      3D imaging for faster diagnosis of esophageal disease

      A tethered capsule that is swallowed by the patient offers a quick and pain-free method of screening and diagnosing gastrointestinal diseases. Diagnosing gastrointestinal (GI) diseases usually involves endoscopy, combining an invasive probe and video imaging or other optical methods. While effective, this method often causes patient discomfort and typically requires anesthesia, making it costly and time-consuming. Here we describe a new option for screening using a swallowable optomechanically engineered pill that rapidly provides 3D microscopic images of the gastrointestinal tract. The process is pain-free, so there is no need for anesthesia, and enables quick diagnosis of esophageal diseases.

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    18. Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa Suter: Next-generation OCT for complex imaging of the lung

      Melissa J. Suter is a researcher in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit of the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Her lab is particularly interested in the development, use, and clinical translation of optical imaging systems and techniques, notably optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), to address challenges in pulmonary medicine. Lab members are currently investigating the use of OFDI for studying lung cancer, asthma, and smoke inhalation injury in ex vivo, preclinical, and clinical studies.

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    19. Rainer Leitgeb: Developing OCT as a clinical tool in dermatology and beyond

      Rainer Leitgeb: Developing OCT as a clinical tool in dermatology and beyond

      Rainer Leitgeb is Associate Professor at the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering at the Medical University of Vienna (Austria). The focus of his research lab (LeitgebLab) is functional optical tomography, label free vascular imaging, as well as advanced microscopy. Door-to-door collaborations allow easy translation of the developments in his lab to their clinical adaption, in particular in dermatology and ophthalmology.

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    20. Combining light and sound for retinal imaging

      Combining light and sound for retinal imaging

      Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy provides exceptional contrast when visualizing the retina, assisting in the early diagnosis of some eye diseases. The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of eye diseases have greatly benefited from innovation in modern ophthalmic imaging technologies. Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a 3D imaging method that allows non-invasive visualization of the back of the eye through angiography (where an x-ray-based technique is used to create an image). But unlike an angiogram, the image is made using no exogenous contrast agents. 1–3 PAOM instead uses the endogenous light-absorption contrast from hemoglobin and melanin to generate images of the retina's vascular ...

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    21. Measuring tissue elasticity for tumor detection

      Measuring tissue elasticity for tumor detection

      Optical coherence tomography combined with a focused air-puff system non-invasively assesses the mechanical properties of soft tissues and can be used to differentiate tumors during surgical treatment. Surgical resection is currently the most effective treatment for patients with soft-tissue tumors, which develop within connective tissues such as muscle and fat. To minimize the removal region and reduce the chance of recurrence, it is important to delineate the boundaries of the tumor prior to resection. As tumorigenesis involves a change in tissue stiffness, probing the mechanical properties (e.g. elasticity) of soft tissues could complement structural imaging (x-ray and magnetic resonance ...

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    22. Contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography

      Contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography

      Photothermal heating helps image contrast agents at scarce concentrations over a scattering tissue background. Molecular imaging is a powerful tool for studying disease progression and potential therapies in animals. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important biomedical imaging modality, filling the niche between ultrasound and microscopy. However, OCT suffers from an inherent lack of molecular contrast (the ability to distinguish a molecule of interest from others). This is because the scattering cross-section, the source of contrast in this technique, does not vary widely between molecular species. Researchers have worked around this problem by using OCT with either endogenous or exogenous ...

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    23. Optical elastography probes mechanical properties of tissue at high resolution

      Optical elastography probes mechanical properties of tissue at high resolution

      Probing the micro-mechanical properties of tissue using optical imaging might offer new surgical tools that enable improved differentiation of tissue pathologies, such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Elastography is an emerging branch of medical imaging that uses mechanical contrast to better characterize tissue pathology than can be achieved with structural imaging alone. It achieves this by imaging a tissue's response to mechanical loading. Although commercial products based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been available for several years, these new modalities offer superior tissue differentiation deep in the human body. However, elastography is limited by its low resolution ...

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    24. Assessing eardrum deformation by digital holography

      Assessing eardrum deformation by digital holography

      A novel system measures the structure, shape, and acoustically induced changes to the membrane of the human middle ear, to help diagnose and treat hearing disorders.  

      Understanding the human hearing process and associated disorders depends on quantifying the geometry and properties of the outer, middle, and inner ear. The eardrum, also known as the tympanic membrane (TM), transforms sound waves from the outer ear into vibrations of the middle ear. Because of the TM's important role, and its direct visibility through the ear canal, current ear exams assess a patient's hearing by considering the health of the eardrum ...

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    1-24 of 91 1 2 3 4 »
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