1. Articles from Neurology

    neurology.org

  2. 1-21 of 21
    1. Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      A 32-year-old man with a pituitary tumor had bitemporal hemianopia (figure 1). Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) was reduced, which corresponded to visual field defects. OCT angiography showed a dropout of capillaries and correlated well with RNFL loss in the OCT (figure 2). Compressive optic neuropathy may be associated with loss of the retinal ganglion cell layer and impaired peripapillary retinal perfusion. OCT angiography may be helpful to detect various optic neuropathies and in analyzing the vascular status of the optic nerve head and RNFL.1

      Read Full Article
    2. Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Objective: Whereas Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with inner retina thinning visualized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we sought to determine if the retina has a distinguishing biomarker for frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined retinal structure in 38 consecutively enrolled patients with FTD and 44 controls using a standard SD-OCT protocol. Retinal layers were segmented with the Iowa Reference Algorithm. Subgroups of highly predictive molecular pathology (tauopathy, TAR DNA–binding protein 43, unknown) were determined by clinical criteria, genetic markers, and a CSF biomarker (total tau: β-amyloid) to exclude presumed AD. We excluded eyes ...

      Read Full Article
    3. Optical coherence tomography in an optic tract lesion, Retinal nerve fiber layer changes

      Optical coherence tomography in an optic tract lesion, Retinal nerve fiber layer changes

      A 49-year-old woman, status post temporal lobe resection, reported a hemianopia. Examination revealed a right afferent pupillary defect, horizontal bow-tie atrophy OD (temporal and nasal), and temporal atrophy OS. Optical coherence tomography showed a bow-tie pattern OD and predominant superior and inferior nerve fiber layer loss OS (figure 1; figure e-1 at Neurology.org ). The pattern OD is due to the combination of papillomacular bundle and nasal RNFL loss. The pattern OS is due to nerve fiber layer loss temporal to the fovea and, coupled with papillomacular bundle loss, produces temporal pallor. 1 MRI confirmed left optic tract atrophy (figure ...

      Read Full Article
    4. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

      The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

      Objective: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. Methods: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. Results: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection ...

      Read Full Article
    5. Retinal pathology in Susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Retinal pathology in Susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Objective: The aim of this non-interventional study was to characterize retinal layer pathology in Susac syndrome (SuS), a disease with presumably autoimmune-mediated microvessel occlusions in the retina, brain, and inner ear, in comparison to the most important differential diagnosis multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Seventeen patients with SuS and 17 age- and sex-matched patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC) were prospectively investigated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) including intraretinal layer segmentation in a multicenter study. Patients with SuS additionally received retinal fluorescein angiography (FA) and automated perimetry. Results: Patchy thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion ...

      Read Full Article
    6. Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Objective: To investigate whether patients with moyamoya angiopathy without obvious retinal pathologies such as retinal infarctions or the congenital morning glory anomaly may have subtle subclinical retinal changes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to analyze the retinal morphology of 25 patients with idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the retinal vasculature with blue laser autofluorescence, lipofuscin deposits with MultiColor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and the optic nerve head (ONH) volume with a custom postprocessing algorithm. In addition to the total retinal thickness, semiautomated segmentation was used for ...

      Read Full Article
      Mentions: Friedemann Paul
    7. Examining multiple sclerosis through the eyes of a child

      Examining multiple sclerosis through the eyes of a child

      etinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive input from photoreceptive cells, have unmyelinated axons that constitute the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and gain myelin as they pass through the lamina cribrosa to form the optic nerve. RGC axons project to several structures within the CNS, including the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. The ganglion cell layer (GCL) constitutes a readily quantifiable layer of neuronal cell bodies. Whereas research methods of cortical neuronal quantification in multiple sclerosis (MS) continue to evolve, the advent of high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, derived from software that segments discrete retinal layers, has enabled quantification ...

      Read Full Article
    8. Optic nerve head component analysis enters the clinic: Will multifocal ERG be the next OCT?

      Optic nerve head component analysis enters the clinic: Will multifocal ERG be the next OCT?

      Over the last decade, assessment of the optic nerve has blossomed not only as a means of evaluating the integrity of the anterior visual pathways but also as an indirect reflection of cortical and subcortical integrity in demyelinating and degenerative neurologic disease. 1,2 The bulk of research has involved optical coherence tomography (OCT), which utilizes low coherent light, much like an ultrasound, to measure the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which contains the axons forming the optic nerve, and, more recently, the thickness of the macular ganglion cell layer, which contains the cell bodies of those ...

      Read Full Article
    9. Neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with MS

      Neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with MS

      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate correlations between longitudinal changes in neuro-ophthalmologic measures and quality of life (QOL) and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and visual field examination. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled in this study and underwent Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life questionnaire (54 items) (MSQOL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) evaluation, as well as complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements using Cirrus and Spectralis OCT and VEP. All patients were re-evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months. Logistical ...

      Read Full Article
    10. Active MS is associated with accelerated retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning

      Active MS is associated with accelerated retinal ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning

      Objective: To determine the effect of clinical and radiologic disease activity on the rate of thinning of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform (GCIP) layer and the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients with MS and 59 healthy controls underwent spectral-domain OCT scans every 6 months for a mean follow-up period of 21.1 months. Baseline and annual contrast-enhanced brain MRIs were performed. Patients who developed optic neuritis during follow-up were excluded from analysis. Results: Patients with the following features of disease activity during follow-up had faster ...

      Read Full Article
    11. Retinal atrophy correlates with fMRI response in patients with recovered optic neuritis

      Retinal atrophy correlates with fMRI response in patients with recovered optic neuritis
      Objective: We wanted to investigate if retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) might be a good marker of acute and chronic changes in the afferent visual pathway following acute optic neuritis (ON). Methods: We studied the relationship of optic nerve lesion length, optic nerve mean area, and RNFLT, quantified by OCT, with fMRI response to a visual paradigm in 40 patients with acute ON and 19 healthy controls in a prospective cohort study over a 6-month period. Results: The main finding was a significant correlation of optic nerve lesion length and mean area with ...
      Read Full Article
    12. Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination

      Associations between retinal nerve fiber layer abnormalities and optic nerve examination
      Objective: Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) abnormalities detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) are useful markers for axonal loss and visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), but their role in routine clinical management is not well-studied. Methods: Clinical and OCT examinations were performed on 240 patients attending a neurology clinic. Using OCT 5th percentile to define abnormal RNFL thickness, we compared eyes classified by neurologists as having optic atrophy to RNFL thickness, and afferent pupillary defect (APD) to RNFL thickness ratios of eye pairs. Results: Mean RNFL thickness was less in eyes classified by neurologists as having optic atrophy (79 ...
      Read Full Article
    13. Evaluating loss of visual function in multiple sclerosis as measured by low-contrast letter acuity

      Evaluating loss of visual function in multiple sclerosis as measured by low-contrast letter acuity
      Background: Disturbances in visual function are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and are often accompanied by substantial impairments in daily functioning and quality of life. Lesions associated with these impairments frequently involve the afferent visual pathway. Expert Clinical Opinion: Because these impairments are often not readily apparent on commonly used high-contrast acuity tests, low-contrast charts (e.g., low-contrast Sloan letter charts) have gained validity in the assessment of visual dysfunction in patients with MS. Decrements in low-contrast letter acuity are associated with MS and correlate with increasing disability, MRI abnormalities, and reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness ...
      Read Full Article
    14. Optical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies

      Objective: To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background: OCT can quantify damage to retinal ganglion cell axons and can identify abnormalities in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis (ON) eyes. OCT may also be useful in the evaluation of patients with NMO. Methods: OCT and visual function testing were performed in 26 NMO spectrum patients with a history of ON, 17 patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) without ON, 378 patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 77 healthy controls at ...
      Read Full Article
    15. Optical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis

      Objectives: Determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect clinical and subclinical remote optic neuritis (ON), its relationship to clinical characteristics of ON and visual function, and whether the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness functions as a surrogate marker of global disease severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 65 subjects with at least 1 clinical ON episode at least 6 months prior. Measures included clinical characteristics, visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), OCT, and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Results: Ninety-six clinically affected optic nerves were studied. The sensitivity of OCT RNFL after ON was 60%, decreasing further with ...
      Read Full Article
    16. Teaching NeuroImages: Superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia confirmed by optical coherence tomography

      Teaching NeuroImages: Superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia confirmed by optical coherence tomography
      A 36-year-old woman without complaints was referred for abnormal visual fields (figure 1A). She had 20/20 vision in both eyes and a right afferent pupillary defect. Fundus examination suggested superior segmental optic nerve hypoplasia (SSONH), a congenital optic nerve disorder (figure 1B). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve, which measures nerve fiber layer thickness using interferometric techniques,1 showed decreased thick-ness of the superior segment of both nerves (figure 2). In this case, OCT provided a noninvasive and reliable method for confirmation of SSONH suspected by inferior arcuate visual field defects and optic nerve appearance.2
      Read Full Article
    17. Optical coherence tomography differs in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis

      Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with destructive inflammatory lesions, resulting in necrosis and axonal injury. Disability from multiple sclerosis (MS) is due to a combination of demyelination and varying axonal involvement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), by measuring retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as a surrogate of axonal injury, has potential to discriminate between these two conditions. Methods: Included were 22 subjects with NMO or NMO spectrum disorders and 47 with MS. Seventeen subjects with NMO and all with MS had a remote history of optic neuritis (ON) in at least one eye, at least 6 months before OCT. Linear ...
      Read Full Article
    18. Optical coherence tomography and disease subtype in multiple sclerosis

      Objective: To examine retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular volumes (MV), and visual acuity in multiple sclerosis (MS) eyes, with and without history of acute optic neuritis (ON). Methods: RNFL thickness was measured in 326 MS and 94 control eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT). MV and vision testing were done in a subset of the cohort. MS subtype was classified as relapsing-remitting (RRMS, n = 135), primary progressive (PPMS, n = 12), and secondary progressive (SPMS, n = 16). Results: MS ON eyes had decreased RNFL thickness (84.2 µm) compared to controls (102.7 µm) (p p p p p ...
      Read Full Article
    1-21 of 21
  1. Categories

    1. Applications:

      Art, Cardiology, Dentistry, Dermatology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Gynecology, Microscopy, NDE/NDT, Neurology, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Other Non-Medical, Otolaryngology, Pulmonology, Urology
    2. Business News:

      Acquisition, Clinical Trials, Funding, Other Business News, Partnership, Patents
    3. Technology:

      Broadband Sources, Probes, Tunable Sources
    4. Miscellaneous:

      Jobs & Studentships, Student Theses, Textbooks