1. Articles from Frontiers

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    1. Reduced Retinal Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Stroke Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Reduced Retinal Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Stroke Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Currently there is a shortage of biomarkers for stroke, one of the leading causes of death and disability in aging populations. Retinal vessels offer a unique and accessible “window” to study the microvasculature in vivo . However, the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and stroke is not entirely clear. To investigate the retinal microvascular characteristics in stroke, we recruited patients with stroke and age-matched control subjects from a tertiary hospital in China. The macular vessel density (VD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measured optic ...

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    2. Persistent Cigarette Smoking Attenuates Plaque Stabilization in Response to Lipid-Lowering Therapy: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Persistent Cigarette Smoking Attenuates Plaque Stabilization in Response to Lipid-Lowering Therapy: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on morphological changes in non-culprit plaques in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background: Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, the reasons for the high risk of re-infarction and worsened health among patients who continue to smoke after PCI remain unclear. Methods: A total of 129 non-culprit plaques were identified from 97 ACS patients who underwent OCT imaging at the time of PCI and at 1-year follow-up. Patients were divided into the ...

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    3. Micro Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Imaging

      Micro Optical Coherence Tomography for Coronary Imaging

      Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) that produces images with 10 μm resolution has emerged as a significant technology for evaluating coronary architectural morphology. Yet, many features that are relevant to coronary plaque pathogenesis can only be seen at the cellular level. This issue has motivated the development of a next-generation form of OCT imaging that offers higher resolution. One such technology that we review here is termed micro-OCT (μOCT) that enables the assessment of the cellular and subcellular morphology of human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. This chapter reviews recent advances and ongoing works regarding μOCT in the field of cardiology. This ...

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    4. Using Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect and Treat Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancers

      Using Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography to Detect and Treat Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancers

      We developed a novel technology capable of detecting early-stage pancreatic cancers using high-resolution three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography (Endo-OCT), and treating them using high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) under the Endo-OCT image guidance. This technology integrates our custom-built ultra-high resolution endoscopic three-dimensional OCT diagnostic imaging device with a commercial high dose rate brachytherapy system (HDR), resulting in a compact, portable, easy-to-operate, and low-cost Endo-OCT image-guided high dose rate brachytherapy (OCT-IGHDR) system. The system has the dual functions of diagnosis and treatment that can precisely detect and measure the location and size of the early-stage pancreatic cancer or premalignant lesions and ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Evaluation of Retinal Vasculature in Fabry Disease: Our Experience and Review of Current Knowledge

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Evaluation of Retinal Vasculature in Fabry Disease: Our Experience and Review of Current Knowledge

      Purpose: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive and objective tool for the evaluation of the retinal microvascular changes in Fabry disease (FD). We investigated changes in retinal vasculature in FD patients, and the possible correlation with systemic parameters, by using OCTA, and reviewed the current status of literature. Methods: Thirteen FD patients (eight females, five males, mean age 49.85 ± 14.7 years) were compared with 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. OCTA 3 × 3 mm macular scans were performed in all subjects. We evaluated the vessel density and vessel perfusion in distinct macular areas (whole, inner, and ...

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    6. Longtime Vision Function Prediction in Childhood Cataract Patients Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      Longtime Vision Function Prediction in Childhood Cataract Patients Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

      The results of visual prediction reflect the tendency and speed of visual development during a future period, based on which ophthalmologists and guardians can know the potential visual prognosis in advance, decide on an intervention plan, and contribute to visual development. In our study, we developed an intelligent system based on the features of optical coherence tomography images for long-term prediction of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 3 and 5 years in advance. Two hundred eyes of 132 patients were included. Six machine learning algorithms were applied. In the BCVA predictions, small errors within two lines of the visual chart ...

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    7. Indentation Stiffness Measurement by an Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Air-Jet Indentation System Can Reflect Type I Collagen Abundance and Organisation in Diabetic Wounds

      Indentation Stiffness Measurement by an Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Air-Jet Indentation System Can Reflect Type I Collagen Abundance and Organisation in Diabetic Wounds

      There is a lack of quantitative and non-invasive clinical biomechanical assessment tools for diabetic foot ulcers. Our previous study reported that the indentation stiffness measured by an optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system in a non-contact and non-invasive manner may reflect the tensile properties of diabetic wounds. As the tensile properties are known to be contributed by type I collagen, this study was aimed to establish the correlations between the indentation stiffness, and type I collagen abundance and organisation, in order to further justify and characterise the in vivo indentation stiffness measurement in diabetic wounds. In a male streptozotocin-induced diabetic ...

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    8. Association of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Levels and Calcification in Culprit Lesion Segments in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Association of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Levels and Calcification in Culprit Lesion Segments in Patients With ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The presence of calcified plaques is one of the pathological phenotypes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and can be frequently found in culprit lesion segments. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is reported to be involved in vascular calcification and plaque instability. This study investigated the relationship between plasma TMAO levels and calcified lesions in culprit lesion segments in STEMI patients. A prospective series of 179 patients with STEMI were enrolled, and calcified lesions from 127 patients were analyzed by OCT. The plasma TMAO levels were measured by using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Patients were divided into two groups ...

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    9. Radiation-Induced Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Retinal Alterations in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

      Radiation-Induced Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Retinal Alterations in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

      Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the early neurovascular alterations of the retina in radiation encephalopathy (RE) patients with normal-ranged visual acuity after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Fifty-five RE patients and 54 healthy age-matched subjects were enrolled in this retrospective cross-sectional case-control study. The best corrected visual acuity (LogMAR) of the included eye should not be more than 0. The vessel density and thickness of different locations in the retina were acquired automatically using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The data were then compared between the RE patients and the controls. The location included the whole ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Patients With Coats Disease

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Patients With Coats Disease

      The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the vascular features in eyes with Coats disease, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), at baseline and after 3 monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients affected by Coats' disease were recruited in this study. All patients underwent the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) evaluation, fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), multicolor imaging, structural Spectral Domain (SD)-OCT and OCTA at baseline and 1 month after the third monthly ranibizumab injection (loading phase). Fifteen patients completed the study, of whom nine were males and six ...

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    11. Decreased Retinal Vascular Density in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) Study

      Decreased Retinal Vascular Density in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) Study

      Background: To explore the retinal vascular density changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: We recruit 62 AD patients, 47 MCI patients, and 49 cognitively healthy controls (HC) in this study. All participants in the study received a comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological evaluation, including global cognitive screening, as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and completed the following eye examinations: visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), examination with slit-lamp, fundus photography (Version 1.5.0.0, NIDEK CO, LTD) and Optical coherence tomography imaging (software ReVue version ...

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    12. Neuroprotective Properties of Dimethyl Fumarate Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography in Non-inflammatory Animal Models

      Neuroprotective Properties of Dimethyl Fumarate Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography in Non-inflammatory Animal Models

      While great advances have been made in the immunomodulatory treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), there is still an unmet need for drugs with neuroprotective potential. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been suggested to exert both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in MS. To investigate if DMF has neuroprotective effects independent of immunomodulation we evaluated its effects in the non-inflammatory animal models of light-induced photoreceptor loss and optic nerve crush. This might also reveal applications for DMF besides MS, such as age related macular degeneration. Retinal neurodegeneration was longitudinally assessed by in vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and glutathione (GSH ...

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    13. Morphologic Features of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization in Pathologic Myopia on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Morphologic Features of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization in Pathologic Myopia on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the morphologic features and identify the risk factors of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: Eighty-eight eyes of 69 consecutive patients with myopic CNV were included in this study. About 109 eyes of 78 pathologic myopia patients without myopic CNV were randomly selected as the control group. Morphologic features and parameters including scleral thickness (ST), choroidal thickness (CT), posterior staphyloma height and the presence of scleral perforating vessels were obtained and measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for myopic CNV. Results: Patients with myopic CNV had ...

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    14. Trimethylamine N-Oxide Was Not Associated With 30-Day Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients With a First Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction After Primary Revascularization: A Sub-analysis From an Optical Coherence Tomography R

      Trimethylamine N-Oxide Was Not Associated With 30-Day Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients With a First Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction After Primary Revascularization: A Sub-analysis From an Optical Coherence Tomography R

      Objective: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with poor outcome. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut metabolite, is linked to cardiovascular diseases but its relationship with LVSD after STEMI remains unclear. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between TMAO and LVSD at 30 days after a first anterior STEMI. Methods: This was a sub-study from the OCTAMI (Optical Coherence Tomography Examination in Acute Myocardial Infarction) registry. Eligible patients were included in current study if they: (1) presented with a first anterior STEMI; (2) had available baseline TMAO concentration; (3) completed a ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

      Vascular changes are increasingly recognized as important factors in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory disease, especially in multiple sclerosis (MS). The relatively novel technology of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images the retinal and choroidal vasculature non-invasively and in a depth-resolved manner. OCTA provides an alternative quantitative measure of retinal damage, by measuring vascular density instead of structural atrophy. Preliminary results suggest OCTA is sensitive to retinal damage in early disease stages, while also having less of a "floor-effect" compared with commonly used OCT metrics, meaning it can pick up further damage in a severely atrophied retina in later stages of ...

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    16. Intravascular Molecular Imaging: Near-Infrared Fluorescence as a New Frontier

      Intravascular Molecular Imaging: Near-Infrared Fluorescence as a New Frontier

      Despite exciting advances in structural intravascular imaging [intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT)] that have enabled partial assessment of atheroma burden and high-risk features associated with acute coronary syndromes, structural-based imaging modalities alone do not comprehensively phenotype the complex pathobiology of atherosclerosis. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) is an emerging molecular intravascular imaging modality that allows for in vivo visualization of pathobiological and cellular processes at atheroma plaque level, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal endothelial permeability. Established intravascular NIRF imaging targets include macrophages, cathepsin protease activity, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and abnormal endothelial permeability. Structural and molecular intravascular imaging provide ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Purpose: The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina to detect inner retinal degeneration is being investigated as a potential biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and an overwhelming body of evidence indicates that discovery of disease-modifying treatments for AD should be aimed at the pre-dementia clinical stage of AD, i.e., MCI. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on retinal OCT in MCI. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the English literature in three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Latindex) for studies that measured retinal thickness using OCT in ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Distinct Retinal Structural and Microvascular Abnormalities in Cerebrovascular Disease

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Reveals Distinct Retinal Structural and Microvascular Abnormalities in Cerebrovascular Disease

      Cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) is one of the leading global causes of death and severe disability. To date, retinal microangiopathy has become a reflection of cerebral microangiopathy, mirroring the vascular pathological modifications in vivo . To evaluate the retinal structure and microvasculature in patients with CeVD, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center and Department of Neurology of Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). CeVD patients ( n = 121; 238 eyes) and healthy controls ( n = 44; 57 eyes) were included in the analysis. The CeVD group showed significant thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber ...

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    19. AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG Related Optic Neuritis-Prevalence, Optical Coherence Tomography Findings, and Visual Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG Related Optic Neuritis-Prevalence, Optical Coherence Tomography Findings, and Visual Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Background: Optic neuritis (ON) is a cardinal manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated disease. However, the prevalence of AQP4-IgG seropositivity and MOG-IgG seropositivity in isolated ON is unclear, and studies comparing visual outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived structural retinal measures between MS-ON, AQP4-ON, and MOG-ON eyes are limited by small sample sizes. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seropositivity among patients presenting with isolated ON; (2) to compare visual outcomes and OCT measures between AQP4-ON, MOG-ON, and MS-ON eyes. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis ...

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    20. Retinal Thickness and Microvascular Pattern in Early Parkinson's Disease

      Retinal Thickness and Microvascular Pattern in Early Parkinson's Disease

      A thinning of intraretinal layers has been previously described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Few studies evaluated the possible correlation between retinal thickness and retinal microvascularization. Thus, here we assessed the thickness of retinal layers and microvascular pattern in early PD patients and HCs, using, respectively, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and SD-OCT-angiography (SD-OCT-A), and more interestingly, we evaluated a possible correlation between retinal thickness and microvascular pattern. Patients fulfilling criteria for clinically established/clinically probable PD and HCs were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were any ocular, retinal, and systemic disease impairing the visual system ...

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    21. Superficial Calcification With Rotund Shape Is Associated With Carotid Plaque Rupture: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Superficial Calcification With Rotund Shape Is Associated With Carotid Plaque Rupture: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Background: Plaque rupture is an important etiology for symptomatic carotid stenosis. The role of calcification in the plaque vulnerability has been controversial. We aimed to detect the geometric features of calcifications in carotid plaque and to examine its association with plaque rupture. Methods: Optical coherence tomography assessment of carotid plaque was performed in 88 patients. Calcification shape was evaluated through quantitative measurements of the long and short axis, area size, circumference, calcification arc, and longitudinal length. Calcification location was analyzed through the distance to the lumen. Furthermore, we developed idealized fluid-structure interaction models to investigate the association of calcification shape ...

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    22. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Ischemic Stroke, and Dementia: A Systematic Review

      The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Ischemic Stroke, and Dementia: A Systematic Review

      Objective: To investigate the application of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), ischemic stroke and dementia. Methods: We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE (from inception) and EMBASE (from 1980) to end 2019 for human studies that measured retinal parameters in cerebral SVD, ischemic stroke, and dementia using OCTA. Results: Fourteen articles ( n = 989) provided relevant data. Ten studies included patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment ( n = 679), two investigated pre-symptomatic AD participants ( n = 154), and two investigated monogenic SVD patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy ( n ...

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    23. Intravascular Polarimetry: Clinical Translation and Future Applications of Catheter-Based Polarization Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

      Intravascular Polarimetry: Clinical Translation and Future Applications of Catheter-Based Polarization Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) visualize the coronary artery wall and plaque morphology in great detail. The advent of these high-resolution intracoronary imaging modalities has propelled our understanding of coronary atherosclerosis and provided enhanced guidance for percutaneous coronary intervention. Yet, the lack of contrast between distinct tissue types and plaque compositions impedes further elucidation of the complex mechanisms that contribute to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and hinders the prospective identification of plaques susceptible to rupture. Intravascular polarimetry with polarization-sensitive OFDI measures polarization properties of the coronary arterial wall using conventional intravascular imaging catheters. The quantitative ...

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    24. Advances in IVUS/OCT and Future Clinical Perspective of Novel Hybrid Catheter System in Coronary Imaging

      Advances in IVUS/OCT and Future Clinical Perspective of Novel Hybrid Catheter System in Coronary Imaging

      Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed and improved as both diagnostic and guidance tools for interventional procedures over the past three decades. IVUS has a resolution of 100 μm with a high tissue penetration and capability of assessing the entire structure of a coronary artery including the external elastic membrane, whereas OCT has a higher resolution of 10–20 μm to assess endoluminal structures with a limited tissue penetration compared to IVUS. Recently, two companies, CONAVI and TERUMO, integrated IVUS and OCT into a single catheter system. With their inherent strength and limitations, the combined ...

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    1-24 of 52 1 2 3 »
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