1. Articles from Frontiers

    frontiersin.org

  2. 1-13 of 13
    1. Age-related Changes in Human Schlemm’s Canal: An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography-based Study

      Age-related Changes in Human Schlemm’s Canal: An In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography-based Study

      Purpose: To investigate age-related changes in human Schlemm’s canal (SC) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: A total of 125 normal eyes were imaged using SD-OCT nasally and temporally. The age-related variations of SC sagittal diameter and cross-sectional area (CSA) from four age groups [A (16–20 years), B (21–40 years), C (41–60 years), and D (61–80 years)] were analyzed with Spearman correlation. Results: The positive detection rates of SC showed a significantly downward trend with age. The mean CSA was 13,296 ± 1,897 μm2 nasally and 14,552 ± 2,589 μm2 temporally. The ...

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    2. Ultrasound and Infrared-Based Imaging Modalities for Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Diseases

      Ultrasound and Infrared-Based Imaging Modalities for Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Diseases

      Non-invasive bedside imaging tools are becoming more prevalent for assessing cutaneous lesions. Ultrasound used at specific frequencies allows us to assess margins of lesions to minimize the extent of the biopsy that is performed and improve cosmetic outcomes. Vascularity, seen on Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and stiffness, assessed on tissue elastography, can help differentiate between benign and malignant lesions for clinicians to be more judicious in deciding whether to biopsy. Moreover, research has shown the efficacy in using ultrasound in monitoring flares of hidradenitis suppurativa, a disease affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body, for which the current gold ...

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    3. Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in OCT studies

      Patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage in neurodegenerative disorders: parvocellular vs magnocellular degeneration in OCT studies

      Many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as part of the neurodegenerative process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies demonstrated variable degree of optic atrophy in these diseases. However, the pattern of degenerative changes affecting the optic nerve can be different. In particular, neurodegeneration is more evident for magnocellular RGCs in AD and multiple system atrophy with a pattern resembling glaucoma. Conversely, in PD and Huntington’s disease the parvocellular RGCs are more vulnerable. This latter pattern closely resembles that of mitochondrial optic neuropathies, possibly ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Over the last decade, a surge of evidence has documented various pathological processes in the retina of patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies have shown that the retina, a CNS tissue formed as a developmental outgrowth of the brain, is profoundly affected by AD. Harboring the earliest detectable disease-specific signs, amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaques, the retina of AD patients undergoes substantial ganglion cell degeneration, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and loss of axonal projections in the optic nerve, among other abnormalities. More recent investigations ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Chronic Migraine: Literature Review and Update

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Chronic Migraine: Literature Review and Update

      Migraine is a chronic disease characterized by unilateral, pulsating, and often moderate-to-severe recurrent episodes of headache with nausea and vomiting. It affects approximately 15% of the general population, yet the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a safe and reproducible diagnostic technique that utilizes infrared wavelengths and has a sensitivity of 8–10 μm. It can be used to measure thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in some neurological disorders. Although ophthalmologists are often the first specialists to examine patients with migraine, few studies have addressed the involvement of the optic nerve ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Chronic Migraine: Literature Review and Update

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Chronic Migraine: Literature Review and Update

      Migraine is a chronic disease characterized by unilateral, pulsating, and often moderate-to-severe recurrent episodes of headache with nausea and vomiting. It affects approximately 15% of the general population, yet the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a safe and reproducible diagnostic technique that utilizes infrared wavelengths and has a sensitivity of 8-10 micrometers. It can be used to measure thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in some neurological disorders. Although ophthalmologists are often the first specialists to examine patients with migraine, few studies have addressed the involvement of the optic nerve and ...

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    7. The temporal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is the most important optical coherence tomography estimate in multiple sclerosis

      The temporal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is the most important optical coherence tomography estimate in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Reduced peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIP) thicknesses as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been observed in MS patients. The purpose was to determine the most associative OCT measure to level of cognitive and physical disability in MS. Methods: Data was collected from 546 MS patients and 175 healthy controls (HCs). We compared the average peripapillary RNFL (pRNFL), temporal pRNFL (tRNFL), overall inner ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCIP) and the overall ganglion cell complex (GCC) including macular RNFL and GCIP thicknesses measurements in differentiating MS subtypes from ...

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    8. Prediction of scar size in rats six months after burns based on early post injury polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging

      Prediction of scar size in rats six months after burns based on early post injury polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging

      Hypertrophic scars remain a major clinical problem in the rehabilitation of burn survivors and lead to physical, aesthetic, functional, psychological, and social stresses. Prediction of healing outcome and scar formation is critical for deciding on the best treatment plan. Both subjective and objective scales have been devised to assess scar severity. Whereas scales of the first type preclude cross-comparison between observers, those of the second type are based on imaging modalities that either lack the ability to image individual layers of the scar or only provide very limited fields of view. To overcome these deficiencies, this work aimed at developing ...

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    9. Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To investigate radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Eleven patients (22 eyes) with previous diagnosis of RP and 16 age-matched healthy subjects (16 eyes) were enrolled. The diagnosis of RP was made based on both clinical features and electrophysiological examination. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and visual field (VF). The primary outcomes were the RPC vessel density in the peripapillary and disc areas; the secondary outcomes were the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and the mean defect (MD) at VF. Results: A ...

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    10. Imaging of Mucosal Inflammation: Current Technological Developments, Clinical Implications and Future Perspectives

      Imaging of Mucosal Inflammation: Current Technological Developments, Clinical Implications and Future Perspectives

      In recent years, various technological developments markedly improved imaging of mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Whereas technological developments such as high-definition-, chromo- and autofluorescence-endoscopy led to a more precise and detailed assessment of mucosal inflammation during wide-field endoscopy, probe-based and stationary confocal laser microscopy enabled in vivo real-time microscopic imaging of mucosal surfaces within the gastrointestinal tract. Through the use of fluorochromes with specificity against a defined molecular target combined with endoscopic techniques that allow ultrastructural resolution, molecular imaging enables in vivo visualization of single molecules or receptors during endoscopy. Molecular imaging has therefore greatly expanded the ...

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    11. High-resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis, Part II – the total macular volume. The first follow-up study over 2 years

      High-resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis, Part II – the total macular volume. The first follow-up study over 2 years

      Background: Recent studies investigating the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have resulted in wide-ranging and often contradictory outcomes. This is mainly due to the complex etiology and heterogeneity of MS, physiological variations in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and/or total macular volume (TMV), and limitations in methodology. It remains to be discovered whether any retinal changes in MS develop continuously or in a stepwise fashion, and whether these changes occur in all or a subset of patients. High-resolution spectral domain-OCT devices (SD-OCT) would be required to detect subtle retinal changes and longitudinal ...

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    12. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects in Alzheimer‘s disease using SD-OCT

      Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects in Alzheimer‘s disease using SD-OCT

      Introduction: To examine the clinical value of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis OCT) to detect retinal nerve fibre layer defects in patients with clinically defined Alzheimer‘s disease (AD). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 22 patients with AD (mean age: 75.9 ± 6.1 years) and 22 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and a series of high-resolution OCT examinations of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness using the Spectralis 3.5-mm circle scan protocol with ART-Modus and eye tracking were obtained, and compared to age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Results: Patients with AD ...

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    13. The attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and cognitive deterioration

      The attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and cognitive deterioration

      Thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) has been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient. However, whether changes in RNFL thickness can predict the cognitive deterioration remains unknown. We therefore set out a prospective clinical investigation to determine the potential association between the attenuation of RNFL thickness and the deterioration of cognitive function over a period of 25 months. We assessed cognitive function using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and measured RNFL thickness employing optical coherence tomography in 78 participants (mean age 72.31 ± 3.98 years, 52% men). The participants were categorized as stable participants ...

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    1-13 of 13
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