1. Articles from Frontiers

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    1. Choroidal layer segmentation in OCT images by a boundary enhancement network

      Choroidal layer segmentation in OCT images by a boundary enhancement network

      Morphological changes of the choroid have been proved to be associated with the occurrence and pathological mechanism of many ophthalmic diseases. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging of ocular biological tissues, that can reveal the structure of the retinal and choroidal layers in micron-scale resolution. However, unlike the retinal layer, the interface between the choroidal layer and the sclera is ambiguous in OCT, which makes it difficult for ophthalmologists to identify with certainty. In this paper, we propose a novel boundary-enhanced encoder-decoder architecture for choroid segmentation in retinal OCT images, in which a Boundary Enhancement Module ...

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    2. How to use three-dimensional optical coherence tomography effectively in coronary bifurcation stenting

      How to use three-dimensional optical coherence tomography effectively in coronary bifurcation stenting

      Imaging-guided coronary bifurcation intervention has improved clinical outcomes due to the appropriate size selection of the devices and optimization of the procedure (sufficient stent expansion, reduction of stent malapposition, appropriate stent landing zone, and detection of vessel dissection). In particular, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D OCT) facilitates clear visualization of stent configuration and guidewire position, which promotes optimal guidewire crossing to the side branch. Successive side branch dilation leads to wide ostial dilation with less strut malapposition. However, the link connection of the stent located on the bifurcated carina has been found to be an impediment to sufficient opening of ...

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    3. Global research trends in in-stent neoatherosclerosis: A CiteSpace-based visual analysis

      Global research trends in in-stent neoatherosclerosis: A CiteSpace-based visual analysis

      Background: Recent studies have shown that in-stent neoatherosclerosis (ISNA/NA) is an important cause of late stent failure. A comprehensive understanding of the current state of research in this field will facilitate the analysis of its development trends and hot frontiers. However, no bibliometric correlation has been reported yet. Here, we analyze the relevant literature since the emergence of the concept and provide valuable insights. Methods: Publications were collected from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and PubMed. Microsoft Excel, SPSS and CiteSpace were used to analyze and present the data. Results: A total of 498 articles were collected ...

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    4. Ultra-widefield color fundus photography combined with high-speed ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography for non-invasive detection of lesions in diabetic retinopathy

      Ultra-widefield color fundus photography combined with high-speed ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography for non-invasive detection of lesions in diabetic retinopathy

      Purpose: To compare the detection rate of diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions and the agreement of DR severity grading using the ultra-widefield color fundus photography (UWF CFP) combined with high-speed ultra-widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (UWF SS-OCTA) or fluorescein angiography (FFA). Methods: This prospective, observational study recruited diabetic patients who had already taken the FFA examination from November 2021 to June 2022. These patients had either no DR or any stage of DR. All participants were imaged with a 200° UWF CFP and UWF SS-OCTA using a 24 × 20 mm scan model. Images were independently evaluated for the presence or ...

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    5. Accuracy and feasibility with AI-assisted OCT in retinal disorder community screening

      Accuracy and feasibility with AI-assisted OCT in retinal disorder community screening

      Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the auto-detection of 15 retinal disorders with artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted optical coherence tomography (OCT) in community screening. Methods: A total of 954 eyes of 477 subjects from four local communities were enrolled in this study from September to December 2021. They received OCT scans covering an area of 12 mm × 9 mm at the posterior pole retina involving the macular and optic disc, as well as other ophthalmic examinations performed using their demographic information recorded. The OCT images were analyzed using integrated software with the previously established algorithm based on the ...

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    6. The observation of anterior segment in children with an R124L mutation corneal dystrophy by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy

      The observation of anterior segment in children with an R124L mutation corneal dystrophy by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy

      Purpose: To evaluate the anterior segment in children with an R124L mutation corneal dystrophy (CD) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods: We investigated a family with prevalent CD and an R124L mutation; 59 individuals (14 patients; 6 male and 8 female, aged 2-69 years, 6 children, 2:4 male: female ratio) from four generations were included. We observed corneal lesions through ophthalmologic examinations, AS-OCT, and IVCM. The mean follow-up was 4.60 ± 3.91 years. Results: The mean age for childhood CD onset was 0.90 ± 0.61 years. An Avelino DNA ...

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    7. An overview of artificial intelligence in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular diseases

      An overview of artificial intelligence in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular diseases

      Artificial intelligence (AI), also known as machine intelligence, is a branch of science that empowers machines using human intelligence. AI refers to the technology of rendering human intelligence through computer programs. From healthcare to the precise prevention, diagnosis, and management of diseases, AI is progressing rapidly in various interdisciplinary fields, including ophthalmology. Ophthalmology is at the forefront of AI in medicine because the diagnosis of ocular diseases heavy reliance on imaging. Recently, deep learning-based AI screening and prediction models have been applied to the most common visual impairment and blindness diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and diabetic ...

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    8. Evaluation of the apposition in unruptured aneurysms treated with flow diverters by optical coherence tomography: Preliminary clinical experience

      Evaluation of the apposition in unruptured aneurysms treated with flow diverters by optical coherence tomography: Preliminary clinical experience

      Background: The risk of perioperative stroke and the rate of occlusion of long-term aneurysms in the treatment of unruptured aneurysms with flow diverters (FDs) are affected by stent apposition. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be an optional technique in evaluating apposition. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of the OCT imaging technique in evaluating stent apposition in the clinical application of the FD for unruptured aneurysms. Methods: OCT and Vaso CT were used in patients with indications for surgery to treat unruptured aneurysms with the FDs, to evaluate the apposition of the FDs after fully released, and to analyze OCT images ...

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    9. Correlation analysis between foveal avascular zone and near peripheral retinal hypoperfusion in multiple sclerosis: a wide field optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Correlation analysis between foveal avascular zone and near peripheral retinal hypoperfusion in multiple sclerosis: a wide field optical coherence tomography angiography study

      The identification of non-invasive biomarkers to investigate and monitor retinal structural and vascular changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) represents an interesting source of debate. Until now optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) evaluated the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and areas of retinal non-perfusion only in the macular region in MS patients. It could be interesting to identify possible biomarkers, useful in assessing the ischemic areas also in the near peripheral retina, since FAZ enlargement and the areas of peripheral retinal non-perfusions share common pathogenic processes. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the correlation between the FAZ area and retinal vessel density ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography of the retina combined with color Doppler ultrasound of the tibial nerve in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

      Optical coherence tomography of the retina combined with color Doppler ultrasound of the tibial nerve in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

      Objective: To investigate the value of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the optic disc and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of lower limb nerves in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) separately and in combination. Methods: A total of 140 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, including 51 patients with DPN (DPN group) and 89 patients without DPN (NDPN group). Clinical data and biochemical parameters were collected. Electromyography/evoked potential instrument was performed for nerve conduction study. Optical coherence tomography was performed to measure the RNFL thickness of the optic disc. Color Doppler ultrasound was performed ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography angiography as a surrogate marker for end-organ resuscitation in sepsis: A review

      Optical coherence tomography angiography as a surrogate marker for end-organ resuscitation in sepsis: A review

      Sepsis is a severe illness which results in alterations in the end organ microvascular haemodynamics and is associated with a high risk of mortality. There is currently no real-time method of monitoring microcirculatory perfusion during sepsis. Retinal microcirculation is closely linked to cerebral perfusion and may reflect systemic vascular alterations. Retinal perfusion can be assessed using the non-invasive imaging technique of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This narrative review aims to discuss the utility of using retinal imaging and OCTA in systemic illness and sepsis. OCTA can be used as a functional, non-invasive and real-time biomarker along with other haemodynamic ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of choroidal structure changes in diabetic retinopathy patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Optical coherence tomography evaluation of choroidal structure changes in diabetic retinopathy patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major causes of blindness among working-aged adults worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal vascularity index (CVI) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) of patients with diabetic eyes with no retinopathy (NDR) and with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to October 2021. The weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled for continuous outcomes. Results: Twenty-three cross-sectional studies comprising 2,534 eyes including 1,070 NDR ...

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    13. Triglyceride-glucose index and non-culprit coronary plaque characteristics assessed by optical coherence tomography in patients following acute coronary syndrome: A cross-sectional study

      Triglyceride-glucose index and non-culprit coronary plaque characteristics assessed by optical coherence tomography in patients following acute coronary syndrome: A cross-sectional study

      Background: Triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a novel surrogate marker of insulin resistance, has been demonstrated to be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease. It remains indistinct regarding the association between TyG index and non-culprit coronary plaque characteristics in patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: The present study retrospectively recruited patients who were diagnosed with ACS and underwent non-culprit optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination. The study population was divided into 2 groups based on the median of TyG index, which was calculated as Ln [fasting triglyceride (TG) (mg/dL) × fasting blood glucose (FBG) (mg/dL)/2]. The non-culprit plaque characteristics were determined ...

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    14. Analysis of macular microvasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography for migraine: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Analysis of macular microvasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography for migraine: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the features of macular microvasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) among migraine patients. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies that evaluated the macular microvasculature of migraine patients. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), foveal superficial capillary plexus (SCP) vessel density (VD), parafoveal SCP VD, foveal deep capillary plexus (DCP) VD, and parafoveal DCP VD with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among migraine with aura (MA) group, migraine without aura (MO) group, and healthy controls (HC) group were analyzed using a random-effect ...

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    15. Predicting OCT images of short-term response to anti-VEGF treatment for retinal vein occlusion using generative adversarial network

      Predicting OCT images of short-term response to anti-VEGF treatment for retinal vein occlusion using generative adversarial network

      To generate and evaluate post-therapeutic optical coherence tomography (OCT) images based on pre-therapeutic images with generative adversarial network (GAN) to predict the short-term response of patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. Real-world imaging data were retrospectively collected from 1 May 2017, to 1 June 2021. A total of 515 pairs of pre-and post-therapeutic OCT images of patients with RVO were included in the training set, while 68 pre-and post-therapeutic OCT images were included in the validation set. A pix2pixHD method was adopted to predict post-therapeutic OCT images in RVO patients after anti-VEGF therapy ...

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    16. Deep learning to infer visual acuity from optical coherence tomography in diabetic macular edema

      Deep learning to infer visual acuity from optical coherence tomography in diabetic macular edema

      Purpose: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Physicians rely on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and baseline visual acuity (VA) to tailor therapeutic regimen. However, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from chart-based examinations may not wholly reflect DME status. Chart-based examinations are subjected findings dependent on the patient's recognition functions and are often confounded by concurrent corneal, lens, retinal, optic nerve, or extraocular disorders. The ability to infer VA from objective optical coherence tomography (OCT) images provides the predicted VA from objective macular structures directly and a better understanding of ...

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    17. Case report: Optical coherence tomography for monitoring biologic therapy in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis

      Case report: Optical coherence tomography for monitoring biologic therapy in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis

      Biologic therapies are increasingly used to treat chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In clinical practice, scores based on evaluation of objective and subjective symptoms are used to assess disease severity, leading to evaluation of treatment goals with clinical decisions on treatment initiation, switch to another treatment modality or to discontinue current treatment. However, this visual-based scoring is relatively subjective and inaccurate due to inter- and intraobserver reliability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a fast, high-resolution, in vivo imaging modality that enables the visualization of skin structure and vasculature. We evaluated the use of OCT for ...

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    18. Association between inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor and hyperreflective foci on optical coherence tomography in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Association between inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor and hyperreflective foci on optical coherence tomography in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

      Purpose: To investigate the associations between cytokine levels in the aqueous humor (AH) and hyperreflective foci (HF) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Methods: The prospective study included 63 eyes with nAMD, 44 with PCV, and 43 with cataracts (Controls). AH samples were obtained before anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy or cataract surgery. Cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and VEGF were measured by multiplex bead assay. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and the number of ...

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    19. Investigating the macular choriocapillaris in early primary open-angle glaucoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Investigating the macular choriocapillaris in early primary open-angle glaucoma using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Introduction: There has been a growing interest in the role of vascular factors in glaucoma. Studies have looked at the characteristics of macular choriocapillaris in patients with glaucoma but with conflicting results. Our study aims to use swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) to evaluate macular choriocapillaris metrics in normal participants and compare them with patients with early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (mean deviation better than -6dB). Methods: In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional study, 104 normal controls (157 eyes) and 100 patients with POAG (144 eyes) underwent 3 mm × 3mm imaging of the macula using the Plex Elite 9000 (Zeiss ...

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    20. Development of a deep learning algorithm for myopic maculopathy classification based on OCT images using transfer learning

      Development of a deep learning algorithm for myopic maculopathy classification based on OCT images using transfer learning

      Purpose: To apply deep learning (DL) techniques to develop an automatic intelligent classification system identifying the specific types of myopic maculopathy (MM) based on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using transfer learning (TL). Method: In this retrospective study, a total of 3,945 macular OCT images from 2,866 myopic patients were recruited from the ophthalmic outpatients of three hospitals. After culling out 545 images with poor quality, a dataset containing 3,400 macular OCT images was manually classified according to the ATN system, containing four types of MM with high OCT diagnostic values. Two DL classification algorithms were ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography assessment of axonal and neuronal damage of the retina in patients with familial and sporadic multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography assessment of axonal and neuronal damage of the retina in patients with familial and sporadic multiple sclerosis

      Objective: To assess axonal and neuronal damage of the retina in patients with familial (fMS) and sporadic multiple sclerosis (sMS). Methods: 87 relapsing-remitting MS patients (45 patients with sMS, 42 patients with fMS) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed with the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany). The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, total macular volume (TMV) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness were measured. Results: A significant reduction of the pRNFL thickness was detected in sMS and fMS ...

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    22. Detecting vulnerable carotid plaque and its component characteristics: Progress in related imaging techniques

      Detecting vulnerable carotid plaque and its component characteristics: Progress in related imaging techniques

      Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis are independent risk factors for acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Timely identification of vulnerable plaque can help prevent stroke and provide evidence for clinical treatment. Advanced invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and near-infrared spectroscopy can be employed to image and classify carotid atherosclerotic plaques to provide clinically relevant predictors used for patient risk stratification. This study compares existing clinical imaging methods, and the advantages and limitations of different imaging techniques for identifying vulnerable carotid plaque are reviewed to effectively prevent and treat cerebrovascular ...

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    23. Changes in macrophage-like cells characterized by en face optical coherence tomography after retinal stroke

      Changes in macrophage-like cells characterized by en face optical coherence tomography after retinal stroke

      Purpose: The retina could serve as a window of neuroinflammation, but the in vivo changes in macrophage-like cell (MLC), such as microglia, in acute ischemic retinal stroke remain unclear. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the in vivo changes in MLC characterized by en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) after acute ischemic retinal stroke. Methods: Twenty patients with unilateral acute nonarteritic reperfused central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) were participated in this study, and their contralateral eyes served as control group. A 3 μm en face OCT slab on the inner limiting membrane of the optic nerve head (ONH) region ...

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    24. Case report: Corneal endothelial degeneration and optic atrophy in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy quantified by specular micrography and optical coherence tomography

      Case report: Corneal endothelial degeneration and optic atrophy in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy quantified by specular micrography and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction: Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease with various neurological manifestations. Corneal endothelial degeneration and optic atrophy have been reported separately; however, there are no reports of corneal endothelial degeneration with optic atrophy. Cases: Herein, we present four related patients with DRPLA: two patients (69-year-old woman and 80-year-old man) who exhibited both corneal endothelial degeneration and optic atrophy and another two (49- and 51-year-old women, respectively) who exhibited only corneal endothelial degeneration. We quantified the reduction in corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and hexagonality using specular microscopy and thinning of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL ...

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