1. 1-8 of 8
    1. Macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in Tanzanian endemic optic neuropathy

      Macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in Tanzanian endemic optic neuropathy

      Bilateral optic neuropathy in Dar es Salaam is now considered endemic and is estimated to affect 0.3–2.4% of young adults. The condition is characterized by a subacute bilateral loss of central vision of unknown aetiology. Findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography have not previously been reported for these patients. All patients diagnosed with endemic optic neuropathy over a 2-year period at the Muhimbili National Hospital underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography macular imaging. Scans were graded qualitatively for severity of retinal nerve fibre layer loss as well as the presence of microcystic macular changes, which have ...

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    2. The time course of retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration following occipital lobe damage in humans

      The time course of retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration following occipital lobe damage in humans

      Following damage to the human post-geniculate visual pathway retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration of the optic nerve fibres occurs. It has been known for some time from investigations carried out in primates that a decline in the number of retinal ganglion cells follows occipital lobectomy. However, this is not detectable in all species studied and whether this occurs in humans was controversial until recent studies that have shown that following lesions of the occipital lobe, the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography is reduced and corresponding shrinkage of the optic tract can be demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis

      Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis

      Post-mortem ganglion cell dropout has been observed in multiple sclerosis; however, longitudinal in vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers following acute optic neuritis remains largely unexplored. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, measured by optical coherence tomography, has been proposed as an outcome measure in studies of neuroprotective agents in multiple sclerosis, yet potential swelling during the acute stages of optic neuritis may confound baseline measurements. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether patients with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica develop retinal neuronal layer pathology following acute optic neuritis, and to systematically characterize such changes in vivo over ...

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    4. Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography

      Primary retinal pathology in multiple sclerosis as detected by optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography studies in multiple sclerosis have primarily focused on evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer. The aetiology of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to optic nerve demyelination. The objective of this study was to use optical coherence tomography to determine if a subset of patients with multiple sclerosis exhibit primary retinal neuronopathy, in the absence of retrograde degeneration of the retinal nerve fibre layer and to ascertain if such patients may have any distinguishing clinical characteristics. We identified 50 patients with multiple sclerosis with predominantly macular thinning (normal retinal nerve fibre-layer thickness ...

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    5. A serial study of retinal changes following optic neuritis with sample size estimates for acute neuroprotection trials

      A serial study of retinal changes following optic neuritis with sample size estimates for acute neuroprotection trials
      Following an episode of optic neuritis, thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer, which indicates axonal loss, is observed using optical coherence tomography. The longitudinal course of the retinal changes has not been well characterized. We performed a serial optical coherence tomography study in patients presenting with optic neuritis in order to define the temporal evolution of retinal nerve fibre layer changes and to estimate sample sizes for proof-of-concept trials of neuroprotection using retinal nerve fibre layer loss as the outcome measure. Twenty-three patients (7 male, 16 female, mean age 31 years) with acute clinically isolated unilateral optic neuritis were ...
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    6. Retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss identified by optical coherence tomography

      There is experimental evidence of trans-synaptic retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells following retrogeniculate visual pathway lesions in primate studies. Retinal nerve fibre loss in congenital homonymous hemianopia in humans is well recognized from clinical observation but the findings in acquired lesions have been controversial. Forty-eight persons were recruited and divided into three groups. Two groups were patients with retrogeniculate lesions. In the first group, the occipital damage had occurred during childhood or in adult life whilst the lesions in the second group were congenital. Inclusion criteria for the retrogeniculate lesions included: age >18 years at time of testing; homonymous ...
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    7. Visual system involvement in patients with Friedreich's ataxia

      Optic neuropathy is common in mitochondrial disorders, but poorly characterized in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a recessive condition caused by lack of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. We investigated 26 molecularly confirmed FRDA patients by studying both anterior and posterior sections of the visual pathway using a new, integrated approach. This included visual field testing and optical coherence tomography (OCT), pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEPs) and diffusion-weighted imaging. The latter was used to study optic radiation by calculating water apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). All patients suffered optic nerve involvement with their disorder. Different patterns of visual field defects were observed and ...
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    8. An investigation of the retinal nerve fibre layer in progressive multiple sclerosis using optical coherence tomography

      Axonal loss is thought to be the predominant cause of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is composed largely of unmyelinated axons of retinal ganglion cells, and is accessible to study with optical coherence tomography (OCT), giving a measure of axonal loss. OCT measures of the RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and macular volume were studied in 23 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (primary progressive MS) (13 male; 10 female; mean age 52 years; median EDSS 6.0; mean disease duration 11 years), and 27 patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (secondary progressive MS) (8 ...
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    1-8 of 8
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