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    1. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the pediatric retina

      Optical coherence tomography is an increasingly important part of the retinal specialist’s and general ophthalmologist’s toolkit for diagnosing and managing retinal disease. This review summarizes the unique considerations and available imaging systems with which pediatric ophthalmologists should be familiar when attempting optical coherence tomography in children.

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    2. Aphakic contact lens use for improved handheld optical coherence tomography imaging in pediatric aphakic patients

      Aphakic contact lens use for improved handheld optical coherence tomography imaging in pediatric aphakic patients

      Handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) makes it possible to acquire intraoperative and clinical imaging in infants and children for whom standard OCT is not possible. In patients with a retinal pathology who are left aphakic after surgery, however, image clarity is affected by insufficient refractive correction with handheld OCT. We describe a technique for supplementing the refractive power of the handheld OCT device with an aphakic contact lens to improve image clarity.

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    3. Subclinical retinal microvascular alterations assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with systemic hypertension

      Subclinical retinal microvascular alterations assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography in children with systemic hypertension

      Purpose To compare the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) macular and peripapillary vessel density between children with high blood pressure and healthy subjects. Methods A total of 40 eyes of 20 children with hypertension and 40 eyes of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Capillary vessel density (CVD) in superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) retinal capillary plexus, peripapillary region, and FAZ were analyzed by optical coherence tomography angiography. Results The mean ages were 15.2 ± 1.5 years (range, 10-18) in patients with hypertension and 14.4 ± 2.8 years (range, 10-18) in healthy controls ( P = 0.742). The ...

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    4. Myopia and anterior segment optical coherence tomography findings in laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity eyes

      Myopia and anterior segment optical coherence tomography findings in laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity eyes

      Purpose To evaluate structural features and visual outcomes in eyes with a prior history of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods Laser-treated eyes for type 1 ROP, preterm monitored eyes, and full-term control eyes were included. LogMAR conversion of Snellen best-corrected visual acuity and spherical equivalent based on cycloplegic refraction were measured in children 5-15 years of age. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to study structural features, including anterior chamber angle (ACA) in a subset of eyes. Results A total of 50 eyes of 50 patients were included (19 full-term eyes, 19 laser-treated type 1 ...

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    5. Nystagmus and optical coherence tomography findings in CNGB3-associated achromatopsia

      Nystagmus and optical coherence tomography findings in CNGB3-associated achromatopsia

      Purpose To describe the nystagmus characteristics of subjects with molecularly confirmed CNGB3 -associated achromatopsia and report the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in these individuals. Methods Adults and children with CNGB3 -achromatopsia underwent visual acuity testing, ocular motility assessments, video nystagmography, and SD-OCT imaging. Qualitative assessment of foveal structure was performed by grading SD-OCT images into one of five categories. Results A total of 18 subjects (11 adults) were included. The majority demonstrated a phoria, with manifest strabismus present in only 3 subjects. The predominant nystagmus waveform within the cohort was pure pendular. Nine individuals demonstrated a mixture ...

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    6. Differences of megalopapilla and normal sized disk with age—an optical coherence tomography analysis

      Differences of megalopapilla and normal sized disk with age—an optical coherence tomography analysis

      Purpose To compare the optic disks of children and adults with megalopapilla using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subjects and Methods: We conducted a case–control study of subjects with megalopapilla and normal sized disks seen between February 2013 and July 2015 at the Hospital da Luz, Lisbon. All subjects and controls were imaged with spectral domain OCT, and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters were evaluated. The main outcome measures were rim area, cup:disk ratio, and cup volume. Results A total of 168 eyes of 168 subjects were included: 78 with megalopapilla (39 children / 39 adults) and 90 (45/45 ...

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    7. Longitudinal reproducibility of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children with physiologic cupping and stable glaucoma

      Longitudinal reproducibility of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children with physiologic cupping and stable glaucoma

      Purpose To determine whether Spectralis (Heidelberg, Germany) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) measurements are reproducible over time in children with physiologic cupping and stable glaucoma. Methods Subjects were identified from a subset of participants in an earlier retrospective study conducted by our group and included children (<18 years of age) with physiologic cupping and stable primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) having had at least 2 SD-OCTs over a period of more than 1 between April 2010 and September 2015. Thicknesses of average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and six individual sectors and volumes of three segmented retinal layers and ...

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    8. Quantitative analysis of retinal microcirculation in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Quantitative analysis of retinal microcirculation in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To evaluate optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) findings on retinal microcirculation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia compared with fellow eyes and nonamblyopic control eyes. Methods A total of 40 pediatric patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 57 control subjects were recruited, and 137 eyes (40 amblyopic, 40 fellow, and 57 control eyes) were evaluated. Data on best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR), axial length (mm), refractive error, and OCTA findings (foveal avascular zone parameters, macular vascular density in superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus, central macular thickness) were recorded in amblyopic, fellow, and control eyes. Results Compared with fellow and control eyes ...

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    9. Microvascular changes in amblyopic eyes detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Microvascular changes in amblyopic eyes detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose To investigate retinal microvascular findings detected by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in amblyopic eyes compared with normal eyes. Methods A total of 23 amblyopic (strabismic, ametropic, anisometropic, and meridional amblyopia) and 22 normal eyes were included in this prospective observational, comparative study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination and OCT-A imaging. Vessel density (VD) percentage in the superficial and deep retinal vessel plexus, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, flow area in the outer retina and choriocapillaris, and retinal thickness in μm in a 6.00 × 6.00 mm scan size were measured and compared between groups. Results There ...

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    10. Microvascular changes in amblyopic eyes detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      Microvascular changes in amblyopic eyes detected by optical coherence tomography angiography

      T Purpose To investigate retinal microvascular findings detected by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in amblyopic eyes compared with normal eyes. Methods A total of 23 amblyopic (strabismic, ametropic, anisometropic, and meridional amblyopia) and 22 normal eyes were included in this prospective observational, comparative study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination and OCT-A imaging. Vessel density (VD) percentage in the superficial and deep retinal vessel plexus, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, flow area in the outer retina and choriocapillaris, and retinal thickness in μm in a 6.00 × 6.00 mm scan size were measured and compared between groups. Results ...

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    11. Differences in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography between primary congenital glaucoma patients and healthy children

      Differences in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography between primary congenital glaucoma patients and healthy children

      Purpose To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population of children diagnosed with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Methods Cross-sectional study where 59 eyes from 59 children diagnosed with PCG and 87 eyes from 87 healthy children were evaluated by SD-OCT to measure the RNFL. The global average peripapillary RNFL thickness and sectional RNFL thickness were evaluated in both groups. Differences in global average and sectional thickness were analysed. Results Mean age in PCG group was 9.61±3.23 years old and in control groups was 8.47±2 ...

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    12. Evaluation of retinal structure in unilateral amblyopia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Evaluation of retinal structure in unilateral amblyopia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose To investigate potential differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular thickness and foveal thickness between amblyopic eyes and normal fellow eyes on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods A cross-sectional study of patients ≥10 years of age with unilateral amblyopia resulting from an anisometropic, strabismic or deprivative cause. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination was completed and the retinal structures of both eyes were measured using SD-OCT. We compared the measurements obtained between the amblyopic eye and the fellow normal eye in each subject. Results Twenty-six unilateral amblyopia patients with a mean age of 29.92 ± 14.19 ...

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    13. OCT angiography findings in children with amblyopia

      OCT angiography findings in children with amblyopia

      Purpose To compare the microstructure and vascularity of amblyopic eyes in children with their contralateral eye and with eyes from control children using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional evaluation of macular and optic disk vascular density and flow area using OCT-A (Avanti RTVue XR, Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Parameters were calculated using automated software. Results A total of 52 children were included: 26 subjects with amblyopia and 26 nonamblyopic controls. The amblyopic eye of subjects showed a statistically significant decrease in macular vascular density ( P = 0.0171) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), in ...

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    14. Bruch’s membrane opening on optical coherence tomography in pediatric papilledema and pseudopapilledema

      Bruch’s membrane opening on optical coherence tomography in pediatric papilledema and pseudopapilledema

      Purpose To determine whether the diameter of Bruch’s membrane opening (BMO) can distinguish mild papilledema from pseudopapilledema using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The medical records of pediatric patients with pseudopapilledma due to optic nerve head (ONH) drusen, patients with papilledema, and normal control subjects were reviewed retrospectively. All eyes underwent OCT imaging of the BMO and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Transverse horizontal diameter of the BMO and papillary height were measured. Mean BMO, papillary height, and RNFL were compared and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and determine ...

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    15. Comparison of quantitative measurement of foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density in eyes of children with amblyopia and healthy controls: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Comparison of quantitative measurement of foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density in eyes of children with amblyopia and healthy controls: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To quantify vessel density of superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) of children’s amblyopic eyes and to compare the measurements with those of companion eyes and age-matched controls. Methods Fifteen patients with strabismic amblyopia, and 15 age-matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study. SCP, DCP, and FAZ were measured via optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). Results Mean subject age was 8.2 ± 2.3 years in the amblyopia group and 8.6 ± 2.2 years in the control group. The mean SCP at 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 ...

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    16. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography to assess the insertion of extraocular rectus muscles

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography to assess the insertion of extraocular rectus muscles

      Purpose To determine the distance of the horizontal rectus muscle insertion to the limbus using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate whether results are correlated with sex, age, or axial length. Methods The right eyes of healthy, white subjects were imaged with SD-OCT. Subjects’ sex and age were recorded, and axial length was measured using an optical biometer. The distance from the horizontal rectus insertion to the limbus was measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reproducibility of the measurements with a subset of images. A multivariate model was adjusted to analyze whether ...

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    1-24 of 42 1 2 »
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