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    1. OCT Imaging in Infants

      OCT Imaging in Infants

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely applied in diagnosis and management of retina diseases particularly macular diseases in adult retina practices. However, it has been under-utilized in pediatric retinal diseases especially in neonates and infants. Utilization of OCT in primary macular diseases in this age group is also uncommon and is less reported. Challenges involved in image acquisition and limitations with available devices technique can explain the limited research and accurate data availability in the literature in this field. Purpose of this review article is to summarize the use of OCT and its importance in various infantile retinal pathologies such ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      In addition to ocular neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), accompanying microvascular changes in the retina are thought to occur. In this study we sought to compare retinal neurodegenerative changes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microvascular changes using OCT angiography (OCTA) of MS patients and healthy controls. This cross-sectional study included 164 eyes of 83 MS patients and 114 eyes of 57 healthy control subjects. There were significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density (VD) between the MS group and the control group, but no significant differences in ...

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    3. A nonlocal deep image prior model to restore optical coherence tomographic images from gamma distributed speckle noise

      A nonlocal deep image prior model to restore optical coherence tomographic images from gamma distributed speckle noise

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is often employed to observe the retinal layers in the human eyes. The retinal scans are susceptible to artefacts such as head movements or eye blinks. Along with this, the quality of the images is degraded by speckle noise caused due to the constructive and destructive interference of the waves used for capturing data. Recently, image restoration techniques have geared up in terms of quality with the exertion of deep learning. Despeckling using deep learning, in general, necessitates a large set of training images. On the contrary, deep image prior is a novel model that performs ...

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    4. Agreement between the Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and the Image-Guided System for Biometry Assessment in Cataract Surgery

      Agreement between the Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and the Image-Guided System for Biometry Assessment in Cataract Surgery

      Purpose: To assess the agreement on biometric data obtained using the Verion image-guided surgery system and the swept-source-OCT biometer IOL Master 700. Materials and methods: All patients underwent biometry using the SS-OCT and the Image-Guide System. The comparison between instruments was assessed using the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Level of Agreement (LoA) employing the Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The image-based system produced significantly higher keratometry values, evidencing a low LoA between the SS-OCT and the image-based system, ranging from -1.30 D to 0.65 D (1.95 D), -1.04 D to 0.72 D (1.76 D), and -1 ...

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    5. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography retinal biomarkers in choroidal neovascularization of multifocal choroiditis, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and idiopathic choroidal neovascularization

      Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography retinal biomarkers in choroidal neovascularization of multifocal choroiditis, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and idiopathic choroidal neovascularization

      Objective: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare retinal biomarkers of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to multifocal choroiditis (MFC), myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV), and idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV) and to provide a basis for its clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: In this retrospective case study, patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January 2018 and January 2021 who were initially diagnosed with CNV secondary to MFC, mCNV, and ICNV were categorized into groups, by disease, for analysis. Spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) was used to describe and measure the morphological characteristics of CNV lesions in each group ...

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    6. Retinal Flow Density Changes in Early-stage Parkinson’s Disease Investigated by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Flow Density Changes in Early-stage Parkinson’s Disease Investigated by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background : Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly population. The eye has been referred to as a window to the brain due to its inseparable relationship with the central nervous system. The development of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) technologies has offered us a better imaging modality to study the impact of PD on the retina. Method: Seventy-five eyes of 42 early-stage PD patients and 150 eyes of 75 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. We performed SS-OCT and SS-OCTA to assess retinal nerve fiber ...

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    7. Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Moyamoya Vasculopathy: A Pilot Study

      Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Moyamoya Vasculopathy: A Pilot Study

      Moyamoya (MM) disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disease that can lead to progressive stenosis of the terminal portions of the internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches. We sought to investigate and quantify retinal vascular changes in patients with MM vasculopathy (MMV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) compared to healthy controls. Our findings reveal retinal microvascular changes in patients with MMV and highlights the potential of OCTA imaging for the detection of subclinical retinal pathology.

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    8. En Face Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography Choroidal Vasculography (CVG) a tool to discriminate choroidal abnormalities in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      En Face Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography Choroidal Vasculography (CVG) a tool to discriminate choroidal abnormalities in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Background: Swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCT-A) choroidal vasculography (CVG) is an imaging method which allows the evaluation of deep choroid details, being a promising too in choroidal pathologies as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Research design and methods: Cross-sectional study performed at FOSCAL International Clinic in Colombia. CVG features in patients with PCV were evaluated using SS-OCT CVG. Results: Twenty-two eyes of 21 patients were included. The mean age was 72.7 ± 6.5 years old (range: 48.6-95.4 years old). Twelve (57.1%) patients were male. The mean number of polyps detected by SS-OCT-A CVG before treatment ...

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    9. Real-time needle guidance for venipuncture based on optical coherence tomography

      Real-time needle guidance for venipuncture based on optical coherence tomography

      An algorithm for real–time venipuncture needle guidance is described, using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe that emits light pulses at fixed angular intervals along a cone, giving accurate distance measurements to points on the blood vessel. Using this data, a method is developed to visually display the blood vessel for needle guidance. A least–squares fit to a general quadric surface, specified by a symmetric matrix, is performed. For a cylindrical blood vessel, this provides an estimate for its orientation, from which its location and radius can be determined. The algorithm is compatible, in efficiency and robustness, with ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    10. Retinal Microvascular Alterations in Patients with Quiescent Posterior and Panuveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Microvascular Alterations in Patients with Quiescent Posterior and Panuveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: To quantify retinochoroidal vascular parameters using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCTA) in quiescent posterior and panuveitis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects with quiescent posterior and panuveitis underwent fundus imaging using SS-OCTA (DRI Triton®, Topcon, Japan). The metrics calculated were fractal dimension (FD), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, retinal vascularity index (capillary density index-CDI), and choroidal vascularity index (CVI). Results: We included 38 eyes of 20 patients, 9 males aged 34.7 ± 10.5 years, 30 eyes of 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, 10 females aged 33.6 ± 8.5 years. Comparing patients with controls, we found a ...

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    11. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Anterior Chamber Angle Measurement with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Primary Angle Closure Suspect

      Repeatability and Reproducibility of Anterior Chamber Angle Measurement with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Primary Angle Closure Suspect

      Purpose : To evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of anterior chamber (AC) angle measurements obtained by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: Forty-eight consecutive patients diagnosed with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) were included. Three masked observers at different training levels (one glaucoma specialist, one ophthalmology resident, and one pre-medical college student) measured 192 SS-OCT images of the PACS patients. One observer (the glaucoma specialist) repeated measurements 1 week later. SS-OCT parameters included: Anterior segment volume, including corneal, AC, and iris volume; anterior segment dimensions, including AC depth and width (ACD, ACW), and lens vault (LV); and angle parameters, including ...

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    12. Expanded Spectrum of Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis

      Expanded Spectrum of Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis

      Purpose : To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis at different stages of activity. Methods : Observational case series. Results : A total of 32 eyes of 31 patients were included; 43 sets of OCT were reviewed. A total of 14 lesions were classified as active, 13 as partially active, and 16 as inactive. All active lesions demonstrated increased retinal thickness and reflectivity with blurring of details of retinal layers. Choroidal granuloma was detected in eight (61.5%) and serous retinal detachment in nine (64%). In partially active lesions, sustained thickening and/or attachment of posterior hyaloid face with ...

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    13. Choroidal thickness measurements in different ethnicities using swept source optical coherence tomography: repeatability and assessment

      Choroidal thickness measurements in different ethnicities using swept source optical coherence tomography: repeatability and assessment

      Clinical relevance : Swept-source optical coherence tomography may not provide reliable measurements of choroidal thickness for pigmented subjects. Background : The repeatability of choroidal thickness measurements in young healthy adults was investigated using swept source optical coherence tomography. Methods : Choroidal thickness was measured using swept source optical coherence tomography in 98 healthy subjects (49 South Asian and 49 Caucasian) aged between 19 and 28 years old. Repeated radial scan images centred on the fovea were obtained from the right eye with 5 min between measurements. Choroidal thickness values were obtained from the built-in automated segmentation algorithm for the 9 subfields defined by ...

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    14. Influence of one or two horizontal muscle surgeries on OCT findings

      Influence of one or two horizontal muscle surgeries on OCT findings

      We investigate the effects of differences between one or two horizontal rectus muscle surgeries (recession ± resection) on the central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Measurements of the CMT, SFCT, and RNFL in patients who underwent horizontal rectus muscle surgery were obtained using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were grouped as those who had undergone rectus muscle recession surgery (Group 1) and those who had undergone rectus muscle recession + resection surgery (Group 2). The CMT, SFCT, and RNFL in patients were measured preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and ...

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    15. Analysis of Retinal Layers in Fibromyalgia Patients with Premium Protocol in Optical Tomography Coherence and Quality of Life

      Analysis of Retinal Layers in Fibromyalgia Patients with Premium Protocol in Optical Tomography Coherence and Quality of Life

      Purpose: To evaluate the inner retinal layers in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to control subjects using posterior pole protocol (PPole) analysis in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to correlate structural retinal changes with subjective quality of life. Methods: Seventy-four eyes of healthy subjects and 55 eyes of those with FM were analyzed. All subjects underwent retinal evaluation using the PPole protocol for Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering) to obtain measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in the macular area. The EuroQol (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) were performed to analyze health-related ...

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    16. Anterior scleral thickness dimensions by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Anterior scleral thickness dimensions by swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Clinical relevance : Given the association of scleral characteristics with many ophthalmological diseases, there is an important need to measure the anterior scleral thickness (AST). Background : This study examined the AST by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in a large healthy population, assessing also the reproducibility of AST measurements and the correlation with different parameters. Methods : Cross-sectional study in 605 eyes of 605 subjects. AST measurements were made in the temporal and nasal quadrants at 1 (AST1) and 3 mm (AST3) from the scleral spur using SS-OCT. These dimensions were then assessed for associations in a multivariate model with the factors ...

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    17. Automated identification of SD-optical coherence tomography derived macular diseases by combining 3D-block-matching and deep learning techniques

      Automated identification of SD-optical coherence tomography derived macular diseases by combining 3D-block-matching and deep learning techniques

      This paper reveals an automatic approach for macular diagnostic by the use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in the evaluation process. At preliminary behaviour levels, the evaluation of macular zone in OCT scan is characterised by an error prone task, related to the experience and the attention of ophthalmologists. Thus, different techniques of OCT-image analysis help the option of obtaining a consistent and independent diagnosis to identify macular degeneration behaviour. In this work, we report an automated approach based on a combined filtering and classification strategy. The presented method is validated on a real integrated diabetic oedema macular (DME) and ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings of Iris Ischemia and Reperfusion in Cytomegalovirus Panuveitis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings of Iris Ischemia and Reperfusion in Cytomegalovirus Panuveitis

      Purpose : To report a case of iris ischemia in an eye affected by Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related Chronic Retinal Necrosis (CRN) with partial reperfusion after antiviral therapy demonstrated by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Retrospective case report. Multimodal imaging was performed at each follow-up visits. Results : At baseline, the clinical findings and PCR on aqueous confirmed the diagnosis of CMV-induced CRN, while OCTA and Fluorescein Angiography showed multi-sectoral retinal and iris non-perfusion. After three weekly intravitreal injections of Foscarnet and retinal photocoagulation, the clinical and angiographic picture improved, with partial reperfusion of both retinal and iris vasculature. Conclusion : Retinal and ...

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    19. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Typical cystoid degeneration

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Typical cystoid degeneration

      Purpose: To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of typical cystoid degeneration. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 11 eyes with typical cystoid degeneration (TCD). All patients had a complete ocular examination, ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor fundus photography and SD-OCT with a 55° wide-field lens. We analyzed the cross-sectional structural information of SD-OCT imaging with TCD. Results: On SD-OCT, the TCD regions exhibited rolling hills patterns with irregularly elevated retinal surface, and multiple intraretinal hyporeflective cavities separated by irregular septums were seen in the neurosensory retina. Destructive changes were seen in the ellipsoid zone and the pigment epithelium ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography angiography and structural analyses of the pale optic discs: is it possible to differentiate the cause?

      Optical coherence tomography angiography and structural analyses of the pale optic discs: is it possible to differentiate the cause?

      Introduction: To compare the optic nerve head (ONH) structure and microvasculature in patients with optic atrophy due to non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), compressive optic neuropathy (CON), methanol-induced optic neuropathy (MION), and traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) using optical coherence tomography angiography. Methods: In this comparative, cross-sectional study, 32 eyes with NAION, 18 eyes with CON, 32 eyes with MION, 23 eyes with TON, and 55 normal eyes were enrolled. Radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, disc area, cup volume, and cup/disc area ratio were obtained using the RTVue XR Avanti system ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    21. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Reflectivity at Leakage Site on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Retinal Pigment Epithelium Reflectivity at Leakage Site on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose: To study the reflectivity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at the leakage site in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients (24 males and 5 females, mean age 46.1 ± 11.0 years) were included. The mean relative RPE reflectivity and the difference between the maximum and minimum relative RPE reflectivity at the leakage site and control site were measured on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. In eyes with pinpoint leakage, cross-sectional OCT scans and corresponding reflectivity profile plots were reviewed by a masked grader for the presence of visible RPE defects and focal depression of ...

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    22. Visual acuity in glaucomatous eyes correlates better with visual field parameters than with OCT parameters

      Visual acuity in glaucomatous eyes correlates better with visual field parameters than with OCT parameters

      Purpose of the study: The visual acuity is very important for glaucoma patients in their lives. The purpose of this study was to examine about the correlation of visual acuity and visual field (VF) parameters or optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters in patients with glaucoma. Materials and methods: We evaluated 210 eyes of 210 patients (110 men and 100 women; mean age, 69.6 ± 9.6 years) with open-angle glaucoma and 68 eyes of healthy controls. In glaucomatous eyes including healthy eyes, correlation between visual acuity and each of the VF parameters or each of the OCT parameters was estimated ...

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    23. Can Imaging of Temporal Raphe Orientation with fundusphotos or SD-OCT be helpful for the Assessment of Ocular Torsion in Patients with Cranial Nerve Four Paresis?

      Can Imaging of Temporal Raphe Orientation with fundusphotos or SD-OCT be helpful for the Assessment of Ocular Torsion in Patients with Cranial Nerve Four Paresis?

      Strabismic deviations can be horizontal, vertical, cyclorotational, or a combination of all three. Previous literature has established the difference between subjective and traditional objective torsional angles; however, often there is a failure to consider the physiological position of a normal fovea-optic nerve head (ONH) relationship. Using the temporal raphe (TR) orientation has been suggested as a solution for this discrepancy. The current study, approved by IWK Health Center research ethics board was created to assess the viability of using the TR in assessment of ocular torsion as well as investigate the effect of the physiological position of the fundus. Subjective ...

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    24. Comparison of two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scan modes for measuring retinal vessel diameter

      Comparison of two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scan modes for measuring retinal vessel diameter

      Purpose : To assess the agreement between Line 3-5 raster scan mode and circular scan mode for measuring retinal vessel diameter, and to analyze the influence of scanning distance on retinal vessel diameter and agreement. Methods : 79 healthy participants (79 eyes) were scanned with two modes. The scanning distance was defined as the distance from the center of the optic disc to the intersection of the blood vessel and the scan line on the raster image. The large superior temporal vessel was measured, with the distance between vascular wall hyperreflectivities measured to obtain vessel diameters. The degree of agreement between the ...

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