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    1. Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Detected by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Detected by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To evaluate the ability of new Swept source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to detect changes in retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Design : Observational case–control cross sectional study, developed from January to May 2016. Methods : In total, 50 eyes from 50 patients diagnosed with PD and 54 eyes of 54 healthy controls underwent retinal and choroidal assessment using SS DRI Triton OCT (Topcon), using the 3D Wide protocol. Total macular thickness and peripapillary data (retinal, ganglion cell layer [GCL+, GCL++] and retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness) were analyzed. Macular and ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in diabetic retinopathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in diabetic retinopathy

      Introduction : Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness in working age population. Fluorescein angiography is still the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosis of macular ischemia. However, it is a costly, time-consuming procedure and it requires intravenous injection of contrast agent, exposing patients to potential side effects. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, non-invasive imaging technique that provides dyeless visualization of blood flow in different retinal layers. Areas covered : An extensive review of the literature was performed to detail technical principles of OCTA and to ...

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    3. Enhanced Vitreous Imaging in Uveitis

      Enhanced Vitreous Imaging in Uveitis

      Purpose : To study the structural visibility of the posterior vitreous cavity and vitreoretinal interface using Spectral Domain–Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with uveitis using conventional, Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI), Combined Depth Imaging (CDI), and Enhanced Vitreous Imaging (EVI) techniques. Methods : It was an observational cross-sectional study of 59 eyes of 33 patients between age group 12–72 years (Median 43) diagnosed as uveitis with posterior segment manifestations underwent OCT using conventional, EDI, CDI, and EVI techniques. The visibility of posterior vitreous was graded in all the techniques. Results : A statistically significant difference was seen in posterior vitreous visibility on ...

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      Mentions: Rohit Shetty
    4. En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography of Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography of Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose : To report a unique case series of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy (ASPPC) correlating en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) with standard imaging modalities. Methods : In this retrospective case series, multimodal imaging was performed in three ASPPC patients at the time of disease presentation. Results : Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with the diagnosis of ASPPC. In all the study patients, multiple hyperreflective dot-like lesions distributed in the macular area and observed with en-face OCT at the level of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) corresponded to the nodular RPE elevations on cross-sectional OCT and to the hyperautofluorescent spots on fundus autofluorescence ...

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    5. Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purposes : To (i) evaluate variations in choroidal thickness (CT) and choroidal volume (CV) in diabetic macular edema (DME), as demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (FA) and enhanced depth-imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) (EDI-OCT) and (ii) correlate these variations with visual acuity. Methods : This study was a retrospective observational case series of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DME. The study groups comprised 77 DR patients ( n = 87), all of whom underwent color fundus photography, FA, and OCT on the same day. The control group comprised 25 age-matched healthy individuals ( n = 50 eyes). CT was measured by manual segmentation (EDI-OCT built-in ...

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    6. Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Parameters

      Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Parameters

      Purpose : To investigate the glaucoma diagnostic abilities of vessel density parameters as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in different stages of glaucoma. Materials and Methods : A total of 113 healthy eyes and 140 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled. Diagnostic abilities of the OCT vessel density parameters in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary, and macular regions were evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operation characteristic curves (AUCs). AUCs of the peripapillary vessel density parameters and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were compared. Results : OCT angiography vessel densities in the ONH, peripapillary, and macular regions in ...

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    7. Early detection of macular and peripapillary changes with spectralis optical coherence tomography in patients with prediabetes

      Early detection of macular and peripapillary changes with spectralis optical coherence tomography in patients with prediabetes

      Purpose: To compare the retina ganglion cell complex (GCC) layer and peripapillary nerve fibre layer thickness (pRNFL) in patients with prediabetes and healthy subjects analysed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This cross-sectional and comparative study included prediabetic patients and healthy subjects. All participants underwent SD-OCT measurement of pRNFL thickness, and GCC thickness. Results: A total of 30 eyes of the 30 patients with prediabetes and 30 eyes of 30 controls were included. The overall calculated pRNFL thicknesses were similar between the prediabetic and control subjects. The GCC thickness was significantly lower in all quadrants of the inner ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography to guide percutaneous treatment of coronary bifurcation disease

      Optical coherence tomography to guide percutaneous treatment of coronary bifurcation disease

      Introduction : Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death worldwide. Enormous progress in the technology and applicability of percutaneous techniques to treat obstructive coronary heart disease has been made, and the number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is increasing. Coronary bifurcations are involved in a substantial number of PCIs and despite recent advances, bifurcation PCI remains a challenge in terms of immediate success and long-term outcome. Angiography has a limited capacity for showing important features of the 3 dimensional coronary vessel anatomy, position of stent struts and exact wire positions and is therefore suboptimal for guiding bifurcation PCI. Intracoronary ...

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    9. Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To assess structural changes in retina and choroid after systemic corticosteroid therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : SS-OCT was conducted before treatment and during first-month follow-up in 16 eyes treated with systemic corticosteroids for active VKH. Retina was divided into five zones depending on pretreatment choroidal thickness (CT) of <100, >100 to <200, >200 to <300, >300 to <400 and >400μm, and changes in retinal thickness and CT after treatment in these zones were compared with baseline. Results : Mean CT significantly improved from 83.1±8.75 to 156.4 ...

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    10. A major review of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert Review of Ophthalmology: Vol 0, No 0

      A major review of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert Review of Ophthalmology: Vol 0, No 0

      Introduction : Recent innovations in ophthalmic imaging have led to new alternatives to conventional ocular angiography. We describe different methods of label-free angiography and their clinical utility in ophthalmic practice. Areas covered : The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA). A review of the literature was performed, including the physical principles and algorithms and OCTA features of different ocular diseases. The literature reviewed was found by searching Pubmed and Google Scholar for optical coherence tomography, OCT angiography, and label-free angiography. All results in the English language were read in full-text. Expert commentary ...

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    11. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Identification of Iris Vasculature and Staging of Iris Neovascularization

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Identification of Iris Vasculature and Staging of Iris Neovascularization

      Purpose/Aim of the study : To assess the ability of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) to visualize the normal iris vasculature as well as neovascularization of the iris (NVI). Materials and Methods : Study participants with healthy eyes, patients at risk of NVI development and patients with active or regressed NVI were consecutively included in this cross-sectional observational study. Imaging was performed using a commercially available OCTA system (RTVue- XR Avanti, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Abnormal iris vessels were graded on OCTA according to a modified clinical staging system and compared to slitlamp and gonioscopic findings. Results : Fifty eyes of ...

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    12. Evaluation of Choroidal and Retinal Thickness Changes in Parkinson’s Disease Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Choroidal and Retinal Thickness Changes in Parkinson’s Disease Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Material and methods : Participants in our study were 31 PD patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls. All participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundoscopy, and SD-OCT. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and choroidal thickness in all quadrants were recorded. Results : There was a statistically significant reduction in average, superior, and temporal RNFL thickness, average ganglion cell complex, and choroidal thickness in the subfoveal area and in all ...

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    13. Vitreous Hyper-Reflective Dots in Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Tear in Patients with Acute Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Vitreous Hyper-Reflective Dots in Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Tear in Patients with Acute Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Purpose : To report the presence of hyper-reflective dots in the vitreous cavity using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with acute symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and investigate their association with the presence of retinal tear. Methods : The medical records of 77 patients with acute symptomatic PVD, who were examined between March 2013 and February 2015, were reviewed. The severity of vitreous hyper-reflective dots (VHDs) was graded using SD-OCT images, and the presence of retinal tear was assessed. Results : Forty-one (53.2%) eyes had mild VHDs, 13 (16.9%) eyes had moderate VHDs, and 14 (18.2%) eyes had ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Glaucoma causes a decrease in peripapillary perfused capillary density on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. However, other chronic optic neuropathies have not been explored with OCT angiography to see if these changes were specific to glaucoma. The authors evaluated OCT angiography in 10 patients who suffered various kinds of chronic optic neuropathies, including optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy, and found that all optic neuropathies showed a decrease in peripapillary vessel density on OCT angiography, regardless of the aetiology of the optic neuropathy. The peripapillary vessel loss on OCT angiography correlated well with the areas of retinal nerve fibre layer ...

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    15. Cystoid macular changes on optical coherence tomography in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD)-associated macular dystrophy

      Cystoid macular changes on optical coherence tomography in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD)-associated macular dystrophy

      The clinical presentation and optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) are presented to highlight the presence of macular cystoid spaces in some patients with this disease. Typically, patients with MIDD demonstrate progression of a pigmentary maculopathy into areas of geographic macular atrophy. At the time of initial visit, the 30-year-old patient had large macular cystoid changes in addition to retinal pigmentary changes in both eyes. The cystoid changes responded to treatment with systemic immunosuppression and a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI), recurred when treated with topical CAI monotherapy, and finally resolved after ...

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    16. Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To study the corneal changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in vivo , using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods : A case–control study was done on 43 RA patients and 40 controls. The disease activity score (DAS28-ESR) was calculated and all participants had lower tear meniscus, corneal thickness, and epithelial thickness evaluation using AS-OCT. Results : The lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) and the lower tear meniscus area (LTMA) were significantly lower in the RA patients than in controls ( p < 0.001). RA patients also had a significantly thinner central corneal thickness ( p = 0.02) and their ...

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    17. Foveal Layer Morphology Detected on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and its Correlation with Visual Acuity in Asian Indian Premature Infants in their First Year of Life

      Foveal Layer Morphology Detected on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and its Correlation with Visual Acuity in Asian Indian Premature Infants in their First Year of Life

      Purpose : To report foveal microanatomy imaged on handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and correlate it with visual acuity in Asian Indian premature infants. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 32 Asian Indian premature infants, 10 with Type 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), were imaged between 3 and 12 months of corrected postmenstrual age (PMA) on the handheld SDOCT (Envisu 2300, Bioptigen, DNC, USA). The foveal findings on these images were correlated with visual acuity measured using Teller acuity cards. The study cohort was divided into three groups based on the corrected age, 3–<6 months, 6–<9 months, and ...

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      Mentions: Bioptigen
    18. The Influence of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer on Decision-Making in Glaucoma Diagnosis

      The Influence of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer on Decision-Making in Glaucoma Diagnosis

      Purpose : To quantify the influence of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) on decision-making in patients with suspected glaucoma. Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study involving 40 eyes of 20 patients referred by community optometrists due to suspected glaucoma. All patients had disc photographs and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and results were presented to 13 ophthalmologists who estimated pre-test probability of glaucoma (0–100%) for a total of 520 observations. Ophthalmologists were then permitted to modify probabilities of disease based on SDOCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements (post-test probability). The effect of information from SDOCT on decision to treat, monitor ...

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      Mentions: Andrew J. Tatham
    19. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography provides an ability to longitudinally image arteriogenesis in vivo

      Optical coherence tomography based microangiography provides an ability to longitudinally image arteriogenesis in vivo

      Purpose : To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). Methods : A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. Results : In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness ( p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery ...

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    20. Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Purpose : To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). Methods : A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. Results : In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness ( p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery ...

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    21. The assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell layer changes in obese children: a cross-sectional study using optical coherence tomography

      The assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell layer changes in obese children: a cross-sectional study using optical coherence tomography

      Objective : To evaluate the thickness of the peripapillary retinal fiber layer (RNFL) and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCL+) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with iron deficiency (ID) anemia. Methods : This study included 73 eyes of 39 patients with ID anemia and 68 eyes of 34 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The measurements included the peripapillary RNFL thicknesses as average, 4 quadrant and 12 clock-hour (CH) based and macula GCL+ thicknesses as average and 6 quadrant based. All measurements were completed with Cirrus HD-OCT and the results were compared between the groups. Results : A total of 73 eyes ...

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    22. Clinical Manifestations, Complications and Treatment of Ocular Sarcoidosis: Correlation between Visual Efficiency and Macular Edema as Seen on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Clinical Manifestations, Complications and Treatment of Ocular Sarcoidosis: Correlation between Visual Efficiency and Macular Edema as Seen on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which belongs to a group of systemic granulomatous diseases. It can be confirmed through characteristic systemic and ocular manifestations and histological findings. Biopsy is the golden standard for diagnosing sarcoidosis. Ocular sarcoidosis can be confirmed, probable, or possible. Over a two-year period, ocular manifestations were studied on a sample of 52 patients, each followed for four months and diagnosed with some form of systemic sarcoidosis. Most frequent systemic manifestations in patients with ocular sarcoidosis were pulmonary, skin, glandular, and systemic generalized sarcoidosis. The disease was diagnosed four times more frequently in females than ...

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