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    1. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Macular Necrotizing Retinitis: A Case Report

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Macular Necrotizing Retinitis: A Case Report

      Purpose: To report the fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting merely with ocular symptoms. Case report: A 20-year-old patient presented with sudden loss of vision in the left eye (LE). Fundus photograph showed a yellow lesion in the macula and SD-OCT showed increased reflectivity of the inner retinal layers. Disorganization of the necrotizing retinal layers in the LE gradually progressed to the atrophic retina. Then, visual complaints began in the right eye (RE) accompanied by neurological symptoms. SD-OCT revealed the inner and outer plexiform layers edema and ...

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    2. Deep learning-based noise reduction improves optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of radial peripapillary capillaries in advanced glaucoma

      Deep learning-based noise reduction improves optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of radial peripapillary capillaries in advanced glaucoma

      Purpose: We applied deep learning-based noise reduction (NR) to optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA) images of the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs) in eyes with glaucoma and investigated the usefulness of this method as an objective analysis of glaucoma. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study included 118 eyes of 94 open-angle glaucoma patients (male/female =38/56, age: 56.1 ± 10.3 years). We used OCTA (OCT-HS100, Canon) and built-in software (RX software, v. 4.5) to perform NR and calculate RPC vessel area density (VAD) and skeleton vessel length density (VLD). We also examined NR's effect on reproducibility. Finally, we ...

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    3. Quantitative Analysis of the Choroidal Vascularity in Eyes with Uveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantitative Analysis of the Choroidal Vascularity in Eyes with Uveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify techniques used for quantification of choriocapillaris (CC) flow in eyes with uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), report reliability and level of correlation with techniques such as indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: A systematic search of several databases was done. The studies were analyzed for techniques of measurement, reliability, and correlation with other modalities. Risk of bias assessment was performed. Results: Thirteen studies were included. CC vessel density (7 studies) and flow deficit area (4 studies) were the most used indices. There was significant heterogeneity in the studies due ...

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    4. Effect of ocular magnification on macular choroidal thickness measurements made using optical coherence tomography in children

      Effect of ocular magnification on macular choroidal thickness measurements made using optical coherence tomography in children

      Purpose/aim of the study: To evaluate the relationship between ocular magnification correction and macular choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements in children, and to demonstrate when ocular magnification correction is necessary. Materials and methods: Chinese children aged 6-9 years with various refractive statuses were included. Swept-source optical coherence tomography was used to measure macular ChT. A self-designed program was adopted to simulate ChT changes in each sector of the ETDRS grid in the macula under various simulated axial lengths (ALs). Results: ChT measurements were not affected for all simulated ALs in over 95% of the individuals in the central fovea. In ...

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    5. Axial length measurement failure rates using optical biometry based on swept-source OCT in cataractous eyes

      Axial length measurement failure rates using optical biometry based on swept-source OCT in cataractous eyes

      Introduction: Ocular dimensions measurement is extremely important in cataract procedures and refractive surgery. The use of optical techniques for axial measurements has been developed in recent years. Areas covered: The purpose was to summarize the outcomes reported when swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) optical biometry failed during axial length measurement. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out to identify publications reporting clinical outcomes for cataractous eyes measured with SS-OCT optical biometers available on the market. A comprehensive analysis of the available data was performed, focusing on parameters such as the sample of eyes evaluated, failure rates, and specifically, the cataract ...

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    6. Evaluation of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

      Evaluation of the Tear Meniscus Using Optical Coherence Tomography in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

      Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate tear meniscus parameters in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) using optical coherence tomography and ImageJ software. Methods: We enrolled 66 eyes of 66 participants and measured tear meniscus parameters, including height, depth, turbidity, and percentage area occupied by particles (PAOP) in the meniscus in the MGD and control groups. Results: Tear meniscus turbidity and PAOP were significantly higher in the MGD group, but tear meniscus height (TMH) and depth (TMD) did not differ significantly between groups. Tear meniscus turbidity and PAOP were positively correlated with each other and ocular surface parameters, including OSDI and ocular ...

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    7. Role of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in scleral diseases

      Role of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in scleral diseases

      Background: Scleritis and episcleritis are an overlapping spectrum of diseases and accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance as the treatment and prognosis are vastly different. Predominantly a clinical diagnosis, the challenge lies in those cases with equivocal clinical features. Furthermore, clinical grading of scleritis is subjective and hence is neither very reliable nor reproducible. Existing modalities such as slit lamp examination and clinical photographs in scleritis describe macroanatomy but do not provide details on the microanatomy of the sclera. A recent adjusted algorithm for anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) imaging has improved the ability of this device to aid ...

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    8. Imaging-based Assessment of Choriocapillaris: A Comprehensive Review

      Imaging-based Assessment of Choriocapillaris: A Comprehensive Review

      PURPOSE Over the past two decades, advancements in imaging modalities have significantly evolved the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases. Through these novel platforms, we have developed a deeper understanding of the anatomy of the choroidal vasculature and the choriocapillaris. The recently developed tools such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have helped elucidate the pathological mechanisms of several posterior segment diseases. In this review, we have explained the anatomy of the choriocapillaris and its close relationship to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. METHODS A comprehensive search of medical literature was performed through the Medline ...

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    9. Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Active and Scarred Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis

      Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Active and Scarred Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis

      Purpose: To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in eyes with active and scarred toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Methods: OCTA scans in active (25 eyes) and scarred (17 eyes) retinochoroiditis were retrospectively reviewed. Results: In active lesions, OCTA findings included a non-detectable flow signal area in retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris in all 25 eyes (100%), an abnormal intraretinal vascular process in 2 eyes (8%), and an associated area of retinal flow deficit secondary to branch retinal artery occlusion in one eye (4%). In scarred lesions, OCTA findings included a flow deficit area in retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris in all ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Endogenous Aspergillus Endophthalmitis Secondary to HIV Infection

      Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Endogenous Aspergillus Endophthalmitis Secondary to HIV Infection

      Purpose: To report imaging findings, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), of a case of endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis in a patient with newly diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 38-year-old patient presented with acute painful vision loss in his right eye (RE). Examination of the RE revealed anterior inflammation, vitritis and a fluffy macular infiltrate; OCT showed preretinal hyperreflective aggregates extending into the vitreous cavity with no evidence of subretinal and/or choroidal involvement. Lab tests showed leukopenia with lymphocyte T CD4+ count of 13 cells/μL and positive HIV serology. Vitreous biopsy was positive for Aspergillus ...

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    11. The Vitreous in Uveitis: Characterizing the Invisible with Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Vitreous in Uveitis: Characterizing the Invisible with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose The current gold standard to grade vitreous inflammation is the Nussenblatt scale based in clinical examination, published in 1985. Nowadays a big effort is undergoing to come out with more objective and reliable methods based in optical coherence (OCT) imaging analysis. Methods A systematic review was done to identify the articles that quantify or assess qualitatively vitreous inflammation with OCT. Results Twelve papers were included. Only one paper analyzed qualitatively the anatomy of the vitreous body and its potential influence in cystoid macular edema, while the rest assessed vitreous inflammation quantitatively using the relative reflectivity of the vitreous body ...

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    12. OCT imaging of macular cysts and treatment response with nepafenac in mucopolysaccharidosis type 1

      OCT imaging of macular cysts and treatment response with nepafenac in mucopolysaccharidosis type 1

      Purpose Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a defect in the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase. Glycosaminoglycan accumulation causes ocular involvement such as corneal clouding or pigmentary retinopathy. Here we report bilateral macular cysts in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) that responds to nepafenac treatment. Methods Retrospective case report. Results A 27-year-old woman with MPS I (Scheie phenotype) was complaining of slightly blurred vision. She had been on alpha-L-iduronidase enzyme replacement therapy for ten years. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in both eyes. Biomicroscopy was normal. Dilated fundus examination revealed pigmentary retinopathy. Optical coherence ...

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    13. Retinal Vascular Patterns and Capillary Plexus Reflectivity of Intraocular Tumors; an Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Retinal Vascular Patterns and Capillary Plexus Reflectivity of Intraocular Tumors; an Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose To define the vascular characteristics of malignant and benign intraocular tumors by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and consequently to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the imaging technique in clinical practice. Materials and Methods This prospective, descriptive study consisted of choroidal hemangioma, choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma, ocular melanocytoma, congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), and choroidal osteoma. Retinal angiography images were taken by OCTA in a 6 × 6 mm HD scan protocol. OCTA characteristics were defined by considering different tumor types separately. Results This study included 93 eyes of 90 patients diagnosed with benign or malignant intraocular ...

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    14. Evaluating Depth and Width of Corneal Wounds Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography After Foreign Body Removal

      Evaluating Depth and Width of Corneal Wounds Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography After Foreign Body Removal

      Purpose To determine corneal foreign body (FB) location together with corneal wound depth and width by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after uncomplicated FB removal. Method This prospective study was conducted with patients injured by a superficial metallic corneal FB. Under slit-lamp examination, after determining its location, the FB was removed with a 27-G needle. The depth and width of the corneal wound and the thinnest stromal thickness at the wound site were measured initially using AS-OCT. Measurements were repeated to assess the wound healing process at one week and at two months following FB removal. Results Totally ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Amblyopia

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Amblyopia

      To determine the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters including foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vessel density (VD) in the amblyopic eyes compared with the fellow sound eyes and the eyes of the non-amblyopic subjects. In this case–control study, a total of 23 eyes from unilateral amblyopic children were included as cases. The sound eye of the amblyopic children was considered as the internal control and the right eyes of the non-amblyopic children were considered as the external control. All participants underwent image recording with OCTA. In the present study, an equal number of 23 unilateral amblyopic eyes and ...

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    16. Experts Opinion: OCTA vs. FFA/ICG in Uveitis - Which Will Survive?

      Experts Opinion: OCTA vs. FFA/ICG in Uveitis - Which Will Survive?

      Will optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) replace invasive imaging techniques like fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography entirely? While OCTA is being increasingly applied in the field of medical retina, will we see this change in the subspeciality of uveitis? In this article, five uveitis specialists with renowned imaging expertise answer to 10 specific questions to address this issue. The final verdict based on the comments of the experts suggests that FFA and ICG cannot be replaced by OCTA in uveitis, at least for now. While OCTA can offer new insights into the pathogenesis of certain inflammatory ...

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    17. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) Visualization of Anterior Vitritis

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) Visualization of Anterior Vitritis

      The clinical grading of vitreous haze presents some limitations such as subjectivity and intra-grader variability. On the other hand the proposed OCT-based methods only explore the posterior part of the vitreous. Here we describe the inflammatory changes affecting the anterior vitreous imaged by Anterior Segment Optical Coherence, Tomography (AS-OCT) from patients affected by uveitis. The AS-OCT (Anterion, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) detected vitreous sheets, vitreous lacunae, and formations resembling inflammatory cells, providing an objective characterization of the inflammatory changes in the anterior vitreous as well as their relationships with the other ocular structures.

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    18. Macrophage-like Cells Characterized by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography was Associated with Fluorescein Vascular Leakage in Behçet's Uveitis

      Macrophage-like Cells Characterized by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography was Associated with Fluorescein Vascular Leakage in Behçet's Uveitis

      Purpose: To investigate the features of macrophage-like cell (MLC) characterized by en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Behçet's uveitis (BU). Methods: The extent of fluorescein vascular leakage (FVL) was graded on a scale of 0-3 (0=none, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe) for the optic nerve head (ONH), macula and peripheral retina. The 3μm en face OCT slabs on inner limiting membrane of ONH or macular region was used to visualize the MLCs. Results: The MLC densities of BU group in ONH and macular region were significantly higher than the control group (both p<0 ...

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    19. Imaging of the Ciliary Body: A Major Review

      Imaging of the Ciliary Body: A Major Review

      Purpose We conducted a systematic search of literature to understand the various methods of imaging of the ciliary body. Methods PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched comprehensively and systematically to find studies related to the various modalities of ciliary body imaging. Results The various ciliary body parameters that have been described are Ciliary body thickness, Ciliary body length, ciliary muscle thickness, ciliary process length, ciliary muscle length, ciliary muscle anterior length, trabecular ciliary process distance and Iris ciliary process distance. The various angles which have been measured, which mostly have a significance in Primary angle closure ...

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    20. Effect of OCT B-scan density on sensitivity for detection of intraretinal hyperreflective foci in eyes with age-related macular degeneration

      Effect of OCT B-scan density on sensitivity for detection of intraretinal hyperreflective foci in eyes with age-related macular degeneration

      Purpose To evaluate the impact of reducing the density of B-scans in an optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume on the sensitivity for detecting intraretinal hyperreflective foci (IHRF) in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Methods A total of 165 eyes with intermediate AMD and IHRF were evaluated in this retrospective analysis. For each case, Cirrus HD-OCT volumes were imported into the reading center 3D-OCTOR software. The number of IHRF cases was assessed based on all 128 B-scans (spaced 47 μm apart), using a categorical scale (graded as 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, and >20). Additionally, the ...

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    21. The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Differential Diagnosis of Posterior Uveitis

      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Differential Diagnosis of Posterior Uveitis

      Purpose: Modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have improved the diagnostic utility of fundus imaging in management of uveitis. The purpose of this study is to review role of OCT and OCTA in differential diagnosis of certain posterior uveitic entities. Methods: Narrative review. Results: In this review, we have comprehensively summarized the utility of OCT and OCTA in helping the clinician diagnose common but challenging inflammatory conditions including ocular toxoplasmosis, viral retinitis, and vitreoretinal lymphoma, among others. OCT and OCTA can also be used to assess the choriocapillaris involvement in conditions such as multiple evanescent ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
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