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    1. Uveitis as a Confounding Factor in Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Uveitis as a Confounding Factor in Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in uveitic eyes and search for the associations with uveitis activity, etiology and location. Methods The files of 76 patients with uveitis and 76 controls were scanned. Associations of RNFLT were analyzed using generalized linear models. Results The RNFLT was significantly higher in patients with uveitis ( p < .001). Active uveitis patients had a thicker RNFL than the controls and the patients with quiescent uveitis ( p < .001). Anterior uveitis was associated with thinner RNFL in global and inferotemporal quadrant ( p = .011 and 0.013, respectively). Thickening of RNFL was associated with ...

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    2. Recent advances in imaging technologies for assessment of retinal diseases

      Recent advances in imaging technologies for assessment of retinal diseases

      Introduction Retinal imaging is a key investigation in ophthalmology. New devices continue to be created to keep up with the demand for better imaging modalities in this field. This review looks to highlight current trends and the future of retinal imaging. Areas covered This review looks at the advances in topographical imaging, photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography and molecular imaging. There is future scoping Expert opinion Retinal imaging continues to develop at a rapid pace to improve diagnosis and management of patients. We will see the development of big data to gain powerful insights and new technologies such as teleophthalmology ...

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    3. Assessment of anterior segment measurements using a high-resolution imaging device

      Assessment of anterior segment measurements using a high-resolution imaging device

      Purpose To assess repeatability of several anterior segment parameters obtained with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods We measured 5-times consequently several parameters in 69 eyes using the ANTERION SS-OCT. White-to-white (WTW), angle-to-angle (ATA), spur-to-spur (STS) and lens vault distances were measured in the horizontal- and vertical-meridian. Anterior-chamber-angle (ACA), scleral-spur-angle (SSA), angle-opening-distance (AOD) and trabecular-iris-space-area (TISA) were measured at 500 and 750 μm for the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal quadrants. Intrasubject standard deviation (S w ), coefficient of variation (CoV), coefficient of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated for each parameter. Bland-Altman analysis was done. Results We ...

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    4. Detection of Pre-clinical Involvement of the Second Eye in Viral Acute Retinal Necrosis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Detection of Pre-clinical Involvement of the Second Eye in Viral Acute Retinal Necrosis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose To report the detection of retinitis in the second eye of a patient with viral acute retinal necrosis (ARN), before the appearance of clinical change, using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Results A 63 year-old male developed right-sided varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ARN, confirmed with aqueous sampling. High-dose intravenous aciclovir caused renal impairment and was suspended for two-days. One day later, left eye macular SS-OCT revealed focal retinal thickening and disruption of retinal architecture without clinically detectable retinitis. The patient was asymptomatic. Aqueous sampling was VZV PCR positive. He received bilateral foscarnet injections and renal adjusted dose of aciclovir. The left ...

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    5. Ocular Toxocariasis: Beyond Typical Patterns through the New Imaging Technologies

      Ocular Toxocariasis: Beyond Typical Patterns through the New Imaging Technologies

      To report five cases of ocular Toxocariasis (OT) in which ultrawide-field (UWF) imaging was helpful in diagnosis and assessment. OT is an underdiagnosed condition triggered by the ocular invasion of Toxocara larvae. Typical features are peripheral granuloma or endophthalmitis. Methods: A retrospective case series of 10 outpatients were studied by complete ophthalmologic examination and complementary tests. UWF retinal imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients with suspected OT were included. Results: UWF imaging and FAF was able to detect all retinal lesions in a single rapid capture. Two patients showed positive serology ...

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    6. A Novel Method of Quantifying the Choriocapillaris in Normal and Post-inflammatory Eyes

      A Novel Method of Quantifying the Choriocapillaris in Normal and Post-inflammatory Eyes

      Objective To assess the reliability and validity of gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in the quantification of choriocapillaris and describe GLCM features in normal and eyes with resolved acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) and serpiginous choroiditis (SC). Methods In this, multicenter, reliability, validity and comparative study; OCTA was performed on eyes with resolved APMPPE and SC and normal individuals. CC texture classification, low flow area measurements and GLCM feature extraction were performed. Results A total of 13 normal, 8 APMPPE and 15 SC eyes were analyzed. All GLCM parameters demonstrated an excellent reliability. GLCM parameters were differently distributed ...

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    7. The effect of software versions on the measurement of retinal vascular densities using optical coherence tomography angiography

      The effect of software versions on the measurement of retinal vascular densities using optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background The goal of the study was to determine the effect of different software versions on the measurement of retinal vessel densities using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in normal subjects. Methods Thirty-two eyes of eighteen healthy subjects were imaged using two OCTA devices: the Optovue RTVue and the Zeiss Cirrus. The macular 3 × 3 mm scan protocol was used. The images acquired using the Optovue OCTA device were exported using two different software versions in the system and compared to the images acquired through the Zeiss OCTA. In addition, the Optovue OCTA images were exported after manual adjustment of ...

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    8. OCT-Angiography comparison between obstructive sleep apnea children and normal subjects in China

      OCT-Angiography comparison between obstructive sleep apnea children and normal subjects in China

      Purpose Using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to compare the retinal micro vessel alteration between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) children and normal subjects. Methods One hundred-thirty-two eyes (132 participants) were recruited in this study. The average age of OSA group (66 eyes) and healthy control group (66 eyes) were 6.23 ± 1.73 and 6.76 ±1.89 years, respectively). The retinal vascular network density indices and the fovea avascular zone (FAZ) size were analyzed by OCT-A. Results All of the OCT-A parafoveal vessel indices, including the vascular diameter (VD), vascular area density (VAD), vascular skeleton density (VSD), and vessel ...

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    9. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Documenting Optic Nerve Involvement in an Aggressive T-Cell Lymphoma

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Documenting Optic Nerve Involvement in an Aggressive T-Cell Lymphoma

      Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive neoplasms. The involvement of ocular structures in haematological neoplasms is rare and usually associated with central nervous system involvement, which may occur as a result of orbital invasion and optic nerve infiltration. In this case report, we describe ocular findings using the novel swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in a case of aggressive T-cell lymphoma. SS-OCT has faster scanning speed, deeper tissue penetration due to its longer wavelength laser of 1050 nm and wider scanning areas. In the present case, SS-OCT was helpful in documenting increased retinal nerve fibre ...

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    10. Evaluation of the effect of fingolimod (FTY720) on macular perfusion by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with multiple sclerosis

      Evaluation of the effect of fingolimod (FTY720) on macular perfusion by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with multiple sclerosis

      Aim To determine changes in retinal microcirculation, caused by fingolimod (FTY720) use, via swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Materials and methods 80 patients with RR-MS, who were using fingolimod, and 50 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Group 1 consisted of 40 eyes from 40 RR-MS patients, who had been using fingolimod for less than six months, and Group 2 consisted of 40 eyes from 40 RR-MS patients, who had been using fingolimod for longer than six months. All participants underwent SS-OCTA via DRI OCT Triton (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), analysing their ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography angiography cyclic remodeling of CNV in patients affected by Best macular dystrophy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography cyclic remodeling of CNV in patients affected by Best macular dystrophy

      Purpose To evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy and/or intravitreal injections on choroidal neovascularization in treatment-naïve patients affected by Best Macular Dystrophy using OCT-A Materials and Methods BMD patients with CNV treated using PDT and/or IV were included in the study. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, OCT and 3 × 3 mm OCT-A. The OCT-A images were analyzed using an open-source software (ImageJ) to assess the CNV membrane area (CNV-MA), the CNV vessel area (CNV-VA), and vessel density (VD) at the follow-ups (3 months after PDT and 1 month after IV). Results Five eyes of four ...

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    12. A Cross-sectional Optical Coherence Tomography Study in Patients on Taxane-based Therapy and A Case Report with the Literature Review

      A Cross-sectional Optical Coherence Tomography Study in Patients on Taxane-based Therapy and A Case Report with the Literature Review

      Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of macular retinal and subfoveal choroidal changes in patients already on taxane-based therapy by the help of spectral domain optical coherence tomograpy (SD-OCT) and determine the incidence of taxane- related cystoid macular edema (CME). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 202 patients who received taxane-based therapy due to treatment of various cancer and age and sex-matched 200 healthy control subjects were examined. Only patients who received at least 4 cycles of taxane-based therapy were taken into consideration for the taxane group. Taxane-based therapy was further divided into two subgroups; paclitaxel group (149 patients ...

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    13. Use of choroidal vascularity index for choroidal structural evaluation in smokers: an optical coherence tomography study

      Use of choroidal vascularity index for choroidal structural evaluation in smokers: an optical coherence tomography study

      Purpose : To compare the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) and choroidal thickness (CT) in smokers and healthy non-smoking subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Forty-two smokers with no systemic disorders and 46 age-sex matched healthy volunteers were included in the study. SD-OCT was used to measure choroidal thickness at the fovea and 1500 µm intervals from the foveal center in both nasal and temporal directions. Choroidal images were binarized and segmented to the luminal area (LA), stromal area (SA), and total choroidal area (TCA) using ImageJ software. The choroidal vascularity index was calculated as the ratio of LA to ...

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    14. A Cross-sectional Optical Coherence Tomography Study in Patients on Taxane-based Therapy and A Case Report with the Literature Review

      A Cross-sectional Optical Coherence Tomography Study in Patients on Taxane-based Therapy and A Case Report with the Literature Review

      Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of macular retinal and subfoveal choroidal changes in patients already on taxane-based therapy by the help of spectral domain optical coherence tomograpy (SD-OCT) and determine the incidence of taxane- related cystoid macular edema (CME). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 202 patients who received taxane-based therapy due to treatment of various cancer and age and sex-matched 200 healthy control subjects were examined. Only patients who received at least 4 cycles of taxane-based therapy were taken into consideration for the taxane group. Taxane-based therapy was further divided into two subgroups; paclitaxel group (149 patients ...

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    15. Analysis of Retinal Nerve Fibre Thickening in Progressive and Non-progressive Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Analysis of Retinal Nerve Fibre Thickening in Progressive and Non-progressive Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      The study aims to investigate the longitudinal changes in the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (cpRNFLT) in progressive and non-progressive non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). This retrospective observational case series study analysed 17 eyes with NAION. Patients sustaining any additional visual loss (additional decrease in visual acuity (VA) ≥0.2 logMAR) within two months after initial onset of symptoms were classified as having progressive NAION. Of the 17 eyes with NAION, 13 (76.5%) were diagnosed as non-progressive and 4 (23.5%) were diagnosed as progressive. Compared with control eyes, eyes with non-progressive NAION showed greater cpRNFLT in ...

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    16. Double diversity optical coherence tomography

      Double diversity optical coherence tomography

      This article provides theoretical analysis for a new generation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanners to overcome some main limitations of the technology. In the new design, exposure and detection are not limited to plane-waves that enter or reflect back from the sample exclusively orthogonally. Instead, the sample is scanned by more complex radiation patterns such as spherical or partially spherical light waves. Images that are generated based on this data acquisition strategy can reveal some structural features of the sample that usually remain hidden in conventional OCT imaging. Coherence tomography is based on wide-band reflectometry. Therefore, wavelength diversity is ...

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    17. Can ocular OCT findings be as a predictor for end-organ damage in systemic hypertension?

      Can ocular OCT findings be as a predictor for end-organ damage in systemic hypertension?

      Purpose Detection of end-organ damage (EOD) in systemic hypertension is essential for the management of systemic hypertension. We aimed to evaluate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and retinal layers’ thicknesses by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD‑OCT) in patients with systemic hypertension and to assess the relationship between EOD and SD-OCT parameters. Methods A total of 189 consecutive patients with systemic hypertension and 100 controls were included. Patients were examined to detect EOD including hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP), left ventricular hypertrophy assessed by transthoracic echocardiography and microalbuminuria assessed by 24-h urine analysis. SFCT, inner plexiform-ganglion cell complex (IP-GCC), peripapillary retinal ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of retinitis pigmentosa

      Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of retinitis pigmentosa

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test that provides easily obtainable and highly reproducible cross-sectional images of the retina. Improved modalities of the OCT that are capable of providing high quality images of not only the retina, but also the deeper structures and vasculature have been developed, including swept-source OCTs and OCT angiography. Materials and methods Review. Results The use of OCT in the monitoring of retinitis pigmentosa has been well described and numerous signs of disease progression have been studied. Notably among them are the detection of changes to retinal thickness, the ellipsoid zone, the vasculature ...

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    19. Evaluation of Diurnal Fluctuation in Parafoveal and Peripapillary Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients With Exfoliative Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Evaluation of Diurnal Fluctuation in Parafoveal and Peripapillary Vascular Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients With Exfoliative Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

      Purpose To determine the diurnal variations in parafoveal and peripapillary vessel density using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with exfoliative glaucoma, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 36 exfoliative glaucoma patients, 34 primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 35 healthy individuals were examined. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used for examining the vessel density of peripapillary (radial peripapillary capillary) and parafoveal (superficial layer) regions. Optical coherence tomography angiography readings were obtained at 09:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 16:00 on the same day. Intraocular pressure values were assessed ...

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    20. Increases in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness may represent the neuroprotective effect of cannabis: an optical coherence tomography study

      Increases in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness may represent the neuroprotective effect of cannabis: an optical coherence tomography study

      Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used in many neuropsychiatric disorders, data on substance use disorders (SUD) are not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and choroidal layer thickness in patients diagnosed with SUD especially cannabis use disorder (CUD). RNFL, GCL, IPL, and the choroidal layers of 111 patients diagnosed with SUD and 45 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty patients were diagnosed with CUD and 50 patients had multiple drug use (MDU). The mean age of the patient and control groups were ...

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    21. Multimodal Imaging Characteristics and Functional Test Findings in a Case of Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy Accompanied by Behçet Disease

      Multimodal Imaging Characteristics and Functional Test Findings in a Case of Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy Accompanied by Behçet Disease

      A 23-year-old male presented with a complaint for central scotoma in his right eye. He had been diagnosed with Behçet Disease 3 years ago. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20. Anterior chamber and fundus examinations were unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography revealed a paracentral area of outer nuclear layer thinning. Infrared reflectance showed a well-defined, circular, hyporeflective area. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed an area of capillary dropout in deep retinal capillary plexus corresponding to that hyporeflective lesion. Microperimetry test showed decreased macular sensitivity on the lesion area and the loss of the macular integrity. In multifocal electroretinogram, diminished ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma Care

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucoma Care

      Purpose: To provide the reader with information on the principal techniques of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA); the current literature on OCTA reproducibility; its applications to glaucoma detection and monitoring of progression; and the role of OCTA in the assessment of the vascular component in glaucoma pathogenesis. Methods: A literature review of the pertinent publications for the OCTA in relation to the development, techniques, and its use in glaucoma was carried out. Results: Rapid improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have allowed for enhancement of both image resolution and scanning speed, and the development of vascular assessment modality. OCTA ...

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    23. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Inflammatory Type 1 Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Inflammatory Type 1 Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

      Purpose : To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), which was not obvious with dye angiography but was detected with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : A 50-year-old female presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Funduscopic examination revealed a swollen hyperemic disc, peripapillary exudation, and choroidal infiltration. Results : Optical coherence tomography revealed intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid in the macular region, and subretinal hyperreflective material in the papillomacular area. Fluorescein angiography revealed early hypofluorescence in the areas of choroidal infiltrations, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) also showed hypocyanescence corresponding to these infiltrations and revealed a faint hypocyanescence in the ...

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    24. Ocular biometric repeatability using a new high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomographer

      Ocular biometric repeatability using a new high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomographer

      Purpose : To assess the repeatability of ocular biometric parameters using a high-resolution imaging device. Methods : 74 healthy right eyes were included in this study. 5-repeated measurements were taken the Anterion high-resolution swept-source optical coherence tomographer (SS-OCT) to measure: corneal thickness (central and at 2, 4 and 6-mm diameters), aqueous depth (AD), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber volume (ACV), axial length (AL), and pupil (diameter and position). The intrasubject standard deviation (S w ), coefficient of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Bland-Altman method was applied to analyze the difference between the first and the last measurement. The average ...

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