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    1. The Effect of Radiologically Isolated Syndrome on Retinal and Choroidal Hemodynamics - An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      The Effect of Radiologically Isolated Syndrome on Retinal and Choroidal Hemodynamics - An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To evaluate vessel density of retinal plexuses and optic nerve head (ONH) and flow of choriocapillaris to detect possible subclinical retinal microvascular changes associated with the radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). Materials and Methods: We analyzed 26 eyes of 26 participants diagnosed with RIS and 39 age and sex-matched healthy controls in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters, the flow area of choriocapillaris were evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Results: Vessel density (VD) of the parafovea (p = 0.045) and parafoveal subregions (p = 0.049 for superior ...

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    2. The Impact of Laboratory Findings and Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers on Response to Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

      The Impact of Laboratory Findings and Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers on Response to Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

      Purpose To investigate potential laboratory and imaging biomarkers as treatment response predictors to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods The study included 36 treatment naïve patients with DME, treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents and followed-up for 12 months. At baseline, all participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, dilated fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography, color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, while full blood count and biochemical analysis of various parameters was also performed. At month 12, treatment response was examined and classified as “favorable” or “non-response”. Potential associations between laboratory/imaging ...

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    3. Grading Anterior Chamber Inflammation with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: An Overview

      Grading Anterior Chamber Inflammation with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography: An Overview

      The objective grading of anterior chamber inflammation (ACI) has remained a challenge in the field of uveitis. While the grading criteria produced by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) International Workshop have been widely adopted, limitations exist including interobserver variability and grading confined to discrete categories rather than a continuous measurement. Since the earliest iterations of optical coherence tomography (OCT), ACI has been assessed using anterior segment OCT and shown to correlate with slit-lamp findings. However, widespread use of this approach has not been adopted. Barriers to standardization include variability in OCT devices across clinical settings, lack of standardization of ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    4. Evaluation of progressive retinal degeneration in Bipolar disorder patients over a period of 5 years

      Evaluation of progressive retinal degeneration in Bipolar disorder patients over a period of 5 years

      Purpose: To quantify visual and retinal changes in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) over 5 years, compared with controls. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with BD and 122 healthy subjects underwent visual acuity (VA) evaluation, contrast sensitivity vision testing (CSV) with the Pelli Robson and CSV 1000E tests, and retinal thicknesses measurement (ganglion cell layer - GCL- and retinal nerve fiber layer -RNFL-) using Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). All subjects were re-evaluated after 5 years. The relationship between progressive structural changes and disease duration was analysed. Results: Visual function parameters in BD patients remained unchanged during the follow up period. A progressive ...

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    5. Artificial Intelligence and Imaging Processing in Optical Coherence Tomography and Digital Images in Uveitis

      Artificial Intelligence and Imaging Processing in Optical Coherence Tomography and Digital Images in Uveitis

      Introduction: Computer vision, understood as the area of science that trains computers to interpret digital images through both artificial intelligence (AI) and classical algorithms, has significantly advanced the analysis and interpretation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in retina research. The aim of this review is to summarise the recent advances of computer vision in imaging processing in uveitis, with a particular focus in optical coherence tomography images. Material and methods: Literature review. Results: The development of computer vision to assist uveitis diagnosis and prognosis is still undergoing, but important efforts have been made in the field. Conclusion: The automatising of ...

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    6. Navigating the White Dot Syndromes with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A)

      Navigating the White Dot Syndromes with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT Angiography (OCT-A)

      Introduction: White dot syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect different layers in the retina and choroid. Multimodal imaging is fundamental in the diagnosis, but also can be crucial in unveiling the pathogenesis of these entities. Material and methods: Literature review. Results: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides depth-resolved, histological grade images of the vitreous, retina, and choroid. This technology is very useful to localize the primary nature and level of pathology of the various white dot syndromes. En face OCT can provide additional information regarding the interrelationship of lesion types. Vascular involvement at the level of the retina ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Posner-Schlossman Syndrome – A Preliminary Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Posner-Schlossman Syndrome – A Preliminary Study

      Purpose To evaluate vessel density (VD) and structural features in Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) patients’ eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods An observational study was conducted among 23 affected eyes (group A), 23 contralateral unaffected eyes (group B), and 23 control eyes (group C). Result The macular superficial, macular deep, and optic nerve head (ONH) VD of group A were 45.26 ± 5.80, 46.78 ± 6.96, and 46.10 ± 4.22, respectively. The macular superficial VD, macular deep VD, and retinal thickness of group A were significantly lower than those of group C (all P < .05). The ...

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    8. Quantitative Evaluation of Macular Vessel Density Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Inactive Ocular Sarcoidosis

      Quantitative Evaluation of Macular Vessel Density Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Inactive Ocular Sarcoidosis

      Purpose: To evaluate the macular vessel density (VD) in inactive ocular sarcoidosis (OS) and investigate the relationship between VD and both disease duration and visual acuity (VA). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary hospital. The macular VDs of patients with OS were obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography and compared with healthy subjects. Results: Deep whole image macular VD (WI-MVD), parafoveal, and perifoveal VDs were lower in OS group (p = .01, p = .01, p = .02, respectively). Negative correlation between disease duration and both superficial and deep WI-MVD, parafoveal, and perifoveal VDs was obtained (for all p < .05 ...

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    9. Analysis of Microvasculature in Children Recovered from COVID-19 Using Swept-Source OCT/OCTA Technology

      Analysis of Microvasculature in Children Recovered from COVID-19 Using Swept-Source OCT/OCTA Technology

      Purpose: To analyze structural and vascular changes of the retina and choroid in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using optical coherence tomography (OCT)/OCT angiography (OCTA). Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study consists of the COVID-19 group including pediatric COVID-19 patients and the control group including healthy children. Vessel density (VD), central macular thickness,, and choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements were performed using swept-source OCT/OCTA 12 weeks after the recovery from COVID-19. Results: The mean VD measurements in the central fovea and nasal quadrants of all three retinal layers and choriocapillaris showed insignificantly lower values in the COVID-19 group ...

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    10. Intrasession Repeatability and Intersession Reproducibility of Macular Vessel Parameters on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucomatous and Non-Glaucomatous Eyes

      Intrasession Repeatability and Intersession Reproducibility of Macular Vessel Parameters on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Glaucomatous and Non-Glaucomatous Eyes

      Purpose: Using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), this study compared intrasession repeatability versus intersession reproducibility of macular vessel parameters in glaucoma and non-glaucoma subjects. Methods: 6x6 mm 2 macular OCTA scans (Cirrus HD-OCT 5000) were acquired from glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous subjects as part of an observational, longitudinal study. Vessel area density (VAD) and vessel skeleton density (VSD) were calculated using research-based quantification software while perfusion density (PD Z ) and vessel density (VD Z ) were calculated using commercially developed software (Cirrus 11.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec). Intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility were determined using within-eye standard deviation (S W ), within-eye coefficient ...

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    11. Glaucoma Detection Using Optical Coherence Tomography Images: A Systematic Review of Clinical and Automated Studies

      Glaucoma Detection Using Optical Coherence Tomography Images: A Systematic Review of Clinical and Automated Studies

      Glaucoma is a progressive and degenerative optic neuropathy that causes severe visual impairment or even blindness if left untreated. Glaucoma is majorly caused due to stress which increases intraocular pressure that leads towards optic nerve degeneration. The degenerative optic nerve then causes irreversible loss of peripheral vision which may lead to complete blindness. Although the progression of glaucoma can harshly affect the vision, it can be prevented if diagnosed in the early stages. However, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imagery is widely used by ophthalmologist for early glaucoma diagnosis and progression tracking. Owing to this objective screening capacity of the OCT ...

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    12. The Vascular Pattern In Vicinity Of Chorioretinal Coloboma: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      The Vascular Pattern In Vicinity Of Chorioretinal Coloboma: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Background: Chorioretinal coloboma is a congenital anomaly which can be present in a clinical spectrum with a possibility of significant influence on visual acuity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been frequently used for the study of chorioretinal coloboma. OCT angiography (OCTA), as a non-invasive method of taking high-resolution images of chorioretinal vessels, can improve our understanding of developmental aspects of this anomaly. Materials and methods: This observational case series evaluated patients with chorioretinal coloboma, who were referred to the eye clinic of a university-based hospital between March 2018 and October 2019. All patients underwent comprehensive ocular examination, OCT, and OCTA ...

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    13. Visualisation of peripheral retinal degenerations and anomalies with ocular imaging

      Visualisation of peripheral retinal degenerations and anomalies with ocular imaging

      Purpose Certain peripheral retinal degenerations pose a significant risk to vision and require prompt detection and management. Other historically “benign” peripheral lesions are being recognised as clinically significant due to their associations with ocular and systemic disorders. Assessment and documentation of these entities however can be difficult due to challenges in visualisation of the peripheral retina. This review addresses this by providing a series of clinical examples of these entities visualised with a variety of ocular imaging technologies. Methods A literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, and Google Scholar. We identified and analysed all papers referring to peripheral retinal ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Infectious Posterior Uveitis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Infectious Posterior Uveitis

      Purpose To describe and illustrate the main optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of infectious uveitis. Methods Narrative review. Results Posterior segment OCT in patients with infectious uveitis reveals posterior hyaloid face precipitates, superficial retinal precipitates and infiltrates, foveolitis, retinitis, neuro-retinitis, choroidal granulomas, and choroiditis as main imaging biomarkers. Some of these features are specific to the underlying causing etiology and may support the diagnosis and the initiation of treatment. Some OCT features disappear completely with resolution; some others are associated with irreversible retinal damage. Conclusions OCT identifies different features of infectious uveitis into the vitreous, the retina, and the choroid ...

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    15. Outcome Measures for Disease Monitoring in Intraocular Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases (OCTOMERIA): Understanding the Choroid in Uveitis with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Outcome Measures for Disease Monitoring in Intraocular Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases (OCTOMERIA): Understanding the Choroid in Uveitis with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Purpose: To compare imaging modalities for the choroid of the eye, and evaluate various choroidal changes in uveitides entities. Methods: A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted looking at current imaging modalities available to assess choroid architecture and commonly used parameters available to qualify and quantify choroidal changes, before looking at specific uveitides entities with choroidal involvement which have been broadly separated into non-infectious and infectious in etiology. Results: We describe the various modalities currently available to evaluate the choroid of the eye such as Ultrasound B Scan, ICGA, and OCT. Choroidal changes in various ocular and systemic diseases such ...

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    16. Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Study Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Study Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose: Ocular microvascular networks and variables were analyzed using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who had no pathological findings in their routine ophthalmologic examinations. Materials and methods: The study included 31 patients with a diagnosis of MM and 30 healthy controls. The ophthalmologic examination findings and OCTA measurements of the participants were prospectively analyzed. We evaluated the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) vessel density (VD) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) VD in macular region, radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) VD, optic nerve head (ONH) VD and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area. Results: The samples were ...

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    17. Three-Dimensional Choroidal Vascularity Index in High Myopia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Three-Dimensional Choroidal Vascularity Index in High Myopia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To characterize the choroidal vasculature in high myopic eyes by three-dimensional choroidal vascularity index (CVI) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 98 right eyes from 98 consecutive nonpathological myopic patients, including 46 high myopes (HM) and 52 low to moderate myopes (LMM). OCT and OCT angiography covering an area of 6 × 6 mm 2 centered on the fovea was conducted with a commercially available SS-OCT device. Three-dimensional CVI was defined as the ratio of choroidal vessel volume (CVV) to total choroidal volume. With the built-in automated quantification software, we assessed choroidal ...

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    18. Comparison of the Accuracy of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Localizing Rectus Muscle Insertions

      Comparison of the Accuracy of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Localizing Rectus Muscle Insertions

      Purpose To compare the accuracy of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in localizing rectus muscle insertions. Methods The study was performed on 27 patients (39 rectus muscles) who required primary or secondary surgery. Using caliper function in the AS-OCT and UBM software, the distance from the insertion site to the anterior chamber angle was measured. The actual muscle insertion distance from limbus was considered as the measured distance plus 1 mm. The measurements by UBM and AS-OCT were compared with intraoperative measurements and with each other. Results AS-OCT and UBM were performed on 13 medial ...

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    19. Early-term Optical Coherence Tomography Angiographic Findings in Pediatric Patients Infected with COVID-19

      Early-term Optical Coherence Tomography Angiographic Findings in Pediatric Patients Infected with COVID-19

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible vascular changes in pediatric patients infected with COVID-19 and to compare these with an age-matched control group. Methods: All patients underwent an ocular assessment and optical coherence tomography angiography examination. Two vascular networks were analyzed as the superficial and deep regions. Results: Evaluation was made of 40 eyes of 20 patients who had recently recovered from COVID infection and 80 eyes of 40 healthy individuals. The DCP-VD values of the COVID group were significantly lower than the control group in most quadrants. The FAZ PERIM and FAZ area values in ...

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    20. Choroidal Lymphoma: Diagnostic Value of Combined Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal Lymphoma: Diagnostic Value of Combined Indocyanine Green Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: To compare multimodal imaging findings in patients with choroidal lymphoma (CL). Methods: Multicenter retrospective observational case series. Multimodal imaging features of patients with CL were reviewed with particular attention to the patterns of choroidal infiltration on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: Eighteen eyes of 15 patients were included in this study. Average tumor thickness on ultrasonography was 2.6 mm (range, 1.2-5.7 mm). Choroidal infiltration on ICGA was characterized by multifocal, round areas (300-500 microns diameter) of hypocyanescence in all cases, whereas OCT at the same region disclosed diffuse choroidal infiltration. By ...

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    21. Visual function correlates with foveal slope, retinal and choroidal thickness on optical coherence tomography in type 2 Macular Telangiectasia

      Visual function correlates with foveal slope, retinal and choroidal thickness on optical coherence tomography in type 2 Macular Telangiectasia

      Purpose: To correlate the foveal slope angle (FSA), retinal (RT) and choroidal (CT) thickness measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) across different stages of type 2 macular telangiectasia (MacTel) with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods: A cross-sectional study of 182 gradable quality macular OCT images of 49 patients with type 2 MacTel was carried out. RT was measured on the Spectralis OCT machine from ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) retinal thickness map and later used for calculating FSA. RT and CT were measured at 500-µm intervals up to 1500 µm from foveal centre manually. The change in RT ...

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    22. Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography during Scleral Pass in Strabismus Surgery

      Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography during Scleral Pass in Strabismus Surgery

      We describe a novel application of integrated intraoperative OCT (iiOCT) to strabismus surgery during the scleral pass and demonstrate it to be a useful tool. A number of complications can arise from inappropriate scleral pass depth during strabismus surgery, leading to an increased risk of unwanted complications including endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, and a lost or slipped muscle. Our study demonstrated that the use of iiOCT provides easy to interpret, real-time feedback to the strabismus surgeon and may translate to safer, more consistent scleral suturing during strabismus surgery and strabismus surgical training.

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    23. Genetics and optical coherence tomography features in a child with an achromatic retinal patch

      Genetics and optical coherence tomography features in a child with an achromatic retinal patch

      Background: Achromatic retinal patch is associated with tuberous sclerosis. Its role as a diagnostic feature is often overlooked. Materials and methods: A clinical case was retrospectively reviewed and reported. Results: A 5-year-old male with a history of seizure disorder and a germline TSC2 variant was found to have a hypopigmented lesion in the nasal macula, most consistent with an achromatic retinal patch. The optical coherence tomography features of the retinal finding is illustrated. Conclusions: We highlight the importance of performing a retinal exam and genetic testing in cases that do not otherwise meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis ...

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    24. Analysis of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography measurement alterations in adult patients recovered from COVID-19

      Analysis of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography measurement alterations in adult patients recovered from COVID-19

      Clinical relevance: Vessel density (VD) measurements obtained using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) of the retinal layers and choriocapillaris have the capacity to demonstrated retinal changes in COVID-19 patients. Background: To investigate VD changes in the retinal layers and choroid using SS-OCTA in patients recovered from COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted in a single eye centre. The diagnosis of COVID-19 disease was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction test. Patients who had fully recovered from COVID-19 served as the COVID-19 group, and the control group comprised age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. VD measurements in the superficial ...

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