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    1. Retinal Nerve Fiber and Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Analysis by Optical Coherence Tomography in Asymptomatic Empty Sella Patient

      Retinal Nerve Fiber and Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Analysis by Optical Coherence Tomography in Asymptomatic Empty Sella Patient

      Purpose: To investigate the clinical importance of the thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCL+) by spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in asymptomatic empty sella (ES) patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, nonrandomized prospective study, 44 ES patients and 74 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were evaluated. All the patients and controls competed an automated 30-2 visual field (VF) test. The mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), RNFL, and GCL + thickness values obtained with SD-OCT were compared statistically between the two groups. Results : No marked VF defects were found ...

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    2. Multimodal Imaging of Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome: A New Interpretation

      Multimodal Imaging of Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome: A New Interpretation

      Purpose : To investigate the pathogenesis of Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS) using multimodal imaging (MMI). Methods : Retrospective case series of 7 patients with acute MEWDS. Each patient underwent: near-infrared reflectance (IR), blue and near-infrared autofluorescence (FAF and NIRAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) on Spectralis, and optical coherence tomography angiography on OCTA Spectralis, XR Avanti or Plex Elite 9000. Results : OCTA and FA findings of early hyperfluorescence depict an unaffected choriocapillaris. On ICGA early to late hypofluorescent lesions corresponded to the hyporeflectivity on IR, consistent with altered reflectivity of the ...

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    3. Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Patients with Behçet’s Disease and Healthy Controls

      Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Patients with Behçet’s Disease and Healthy Controls

      Purpose : To investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in patients with Behçet’s disease (BD). Methods : Ninety-four eyes of 49 patients with BD and 53 eyes of 53 healthy subjects were included. Vascular density (VD), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, perifoveal capillary hypoperfusion, perifoveal capillary network disorganization, and FAZ irregularity were analyzed. Results : OCTA revealed retinal VD reduction and higher perifoveal capillary hypoperfusion, perifoveal capillary network disorganization and FAZ irregularity in ocular Behçet’s compared to nonocular Behçet’s ( p = .000). However, compared to normal eyes, there was no difference between any OCTA measurements in nonocular ...

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    4. Incidence of Irvine Gass Syndrome after Phacoemulsification with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Incidence of Irvine Gass Syndrome after Phacoemulsification with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : Incidence of significant and non-significant macular edema found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) following cataract surgery. Methods : Prospective, cohort series conducted at the Croix Rousse University Hospital. Significant macular edema (SME) was defined as the presence of fluid with an increase of 30% or more in central subfield macular thickness compared to baseline on SD-OCT at 6 weeks and non-significant macula edema (NSME) as an increase of less than 30%. Results : Nine hundred and twenty-eight eyes in 638 patients were included in the study. Incidence of Irvine Gass (IG) syndrome was 9%, 2.3% of patients presented SME ...

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    5. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography

      We present a novel method to image the vasculature of the anterior segment of the eye using a non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system with a modified lens system. This system utilises the Heidelberg Spectralis OCTA and a 3D printed lens mount holding a simple biconvex lens in place to allow capture of images in the anterior segment.

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    6. Relationship of Posterior Capsular Opacification and Capsular Bend Type Investigation Based on Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Relationship of Posterior Capsular Opacification and Capsular Bend Type Investigation Based on Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To investigate the relationship between capsular bend type and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) at a three-dimensional (3D) level using high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : This was a retrospective study. A total of 99 eyes that underwent standard cataract surgery with phacoemulsification 2 years ago were analyzed. Standard SS-OCT radial scanning was performed in all eyes and the obtained photos were used for morphological observations of the capsular bend-IOL complex, the adhesion of posterior capsule to the IOL optic, and the position of the anterior capsulorhexis. Digital retroillumination photographs were taken of the posterior capsule of each eye ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macula in Chronic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy Associated with Giant Cell Arteritis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Macula in Chronic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy Associated with Giant Cell Arteritis

      A 74-year-old man presented with bilateral optic nerve atrophy related to arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION) which started 22 years ago. Atrophic papilla was noted in both eyes and optical coherence tomography showed thinning of the retinal nerve fibres layer as well as the macular ganglion cell complex. Optical coherence tomography angiography of the macula found a decreased density of the superficial capillary complex, whereas deep capillary complex was well-preserved. Inner retinal layer atrophy in chronic arteritic AION is followed by a loss of vascularisation in these layers as a consequence of the neurodegeneration.

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    8. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Vitreoretinal Surgery

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Vitreoretinal Surgery

      Intraoperative OCT ( i OCT) is an emerging modality capable of displaying real-time OCT images to the surgeon during surgery. The use of iOCT during vitreoretinal surgery improves our understanding of the tissue alterations that occur during surgical manipulations, which may impact surgical decision-making. We review the current i OCT modalities and clinical applications of i OCT.

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    9. Imaging Amblyopia: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Imaging Amblyopia: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

      Amblyopia refers to visual impairment resulting from perturbations in visual experience during visual development, typically secondary to strabismus, uncorrected refractive error, and/or deprivation. Amblyopia has traditionally been considered a cortical disease, but the depth of our understanding of this complex neurodevelopmental condition is limited by our ability to appreciate structural pathophysiology in the visual pathway. Recent advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have facilitated numerous studies of the structural changes in the retina and optic nerve, thereby expanding our appreciation for the pathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarize findings from studies evaluating retinal, retinal nerve fiber ...

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    10. Anterior Segment Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Anterior Segment Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Purpose : To review the current literature regarding optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) applications in the anterior segment. Methods : A literature search was performed for terms including OCT-Angiography, anterior segment, cornea, conjunctiva, iris, applications and use in ophthalmology. Results : Fifteen studies were identified, 14 in human subjects. Studies with OCT-A of the conjunctiva, episclera, cornea, and iris were identified, some with normal eyes imaged and others with various pathologies. Most of these studies imaged corneal neovascularization. Three studies described protocols used for image acquisition, one of which was referenced by two later papers. Conclusions : OCT-A is a noninvasive technology with recent ...

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    11. For Mass Eye and Ear Special Issue: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications in Chorioretinal Disease

      For Mass Eye and Ear Special Issue: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications in Chorioretinal Disease

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has enabled fast, non-invasive, high-resolution visualization of vasculature within the eye. In the past few years, it has become increasingly utilized for a range of disorders including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and uveitis among others. This article reviews technical aspects of OCT-A, its applications in chorioretinal disease, and known limitations of the technology.

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    12. Influence of Axial Length on Parafoveal and Peripapillary Metrics from Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

      Influence of Axial Length on Parafoveal and Peripapillary Metrics from Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

      Purpose : To assess the effect of axial length (AL) on the quantification of superficial vessel density of both macular and disc region using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA). Methods : This is a cross-sectional clinical study. Seventy-five eyes from 75 Chinese healthy participants (56 females) with a mean age of 26.6±6.8 (range 19-50) years were included in this study. All eyes were imaged with SSOCTA, using a 3×3mm scan pattern centered on the macular and optic disc respectively, and the superficial layer was used for evaluation. The image size was corrected with AL using Bennett ...

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    13. New method to analyze sagittal images of upper eyelid obtained by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      New method to analyze sagittal images of upper eyelid obtained by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

      Purpose : To report a new method to analyze sagittal images of the upper eyelid by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods : Ninety subjects equally divided into young (20–39 years), middle age (40–59 years), and elderly (60–79 years) group were studied. A sagittal image of the upper eyelid was obtained by AS-OCT (CASIA2, Tomey, Japan) and the following parameters were determined: upper eyelid thickness (UET), the distance between two parallel lines tangential to the apexes of the cornea and the upper eyelid; the upper eyelid angle (UEA) was the angle formed by a line running tangential to ...

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    14. Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose : To evaluate artifacts in OCT-A images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Neurology and the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Subjects included patients with an established diagnosis of MS and healthy volunteers. OCT-A was performed using Spectralis® OCT-A prototype, OCT2 (Heidelberg, Germany). The type and frequency of artifacts, the clinical factors associated with them, and their impact on vessel density measurements were assessed. Results : Overall, 385 images from 102 participants were analyzed. The majority of images (97.1%) had some degree ...

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    15. Novel uses of retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Novel uses of retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Introduction : Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory condition in young adults. It is often accompanied by optic neuritis (ON) and retinal neuro-axonal damage causing visual disturbances. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a sensitive non-invasive method for quantifying intraretinal layer volumes. Recently, OCT not only showed to be a reliable marker for ON-associated damage, but also proved its high prognostic value for functional outcome and disability accrual in patients with MS. Consequently, OCT is discussed as a potential marker for monitoring disease severity and therapeutic response in individual patients. Areas covered : This article summarizes our current understanding ...

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      Mentions: Friedemann Paul
    16. Role of OCT Angiography in the Detection of Retinal Vascular and Macular Abnormalities in Subjects with Asteroid Hyalosis

      Role of OCT Angiography in the Detection of Retinal Vascular and Macular Abnormalities in Subjects with Asteroid Hyalosis

      Purpose : To study the role of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Angiography (OCTA) in detecting retinal vascular and macular abnormalities as compared to Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) in subjects with Asteroid hyalosis (AH). Methods : In a prospective study, patients with AH underwent OCTA and FFA. AH graded as Grade 1 in 8 (optic disc, second order vessels visible), Grade 2 in 4 (optic disc, first-order vessels visible), Grade 3 in 11 (hazy view of optic disc) and Grade 4 (no view of fundus) in 2 eyes. Results : A total of 20 patients (25 eyes) with AH were included. In comparison to ...

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    17. New Interpretation of Multimodality Fundus Imaging for Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma

      New Interpretation of Multimodality Fundus Imaging for Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma

      Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the multimodality imaging features of retinal cavernous hemangiomas (RCHs). Materials and Methods : The clinical data of three patients with RCH were reviewed and the imaging findings were analyzed. Results : The color photographs of the fundus showed bead-like vesicles in the retina. Some vesicles showed plasma erythrocyte separation—with plasma on the top and erythrocytes at the bottom—which was consistently detected as high spontaneous fluorescence on fundus fluorescence angiography. Other vesicles were surrounded by thick walls and fibrous tissue, showing high spontaneous fluorescence, although they did not show any changes on ...

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    18. The Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography as a Screening Test for the Early Detection of Retinal Changes in Patients with Hydroxychloroquine Therapy

      The Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography as a Screening Test for the Early Detection of Retinal Changes in Patients with Hydroxychloroquine Therapy

      Purpose : The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare both the vessel density of macular capillary plexuses and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) areas of patients receiving hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy for more than 5 years while using age- and sex- matched controls. Methods : The patients undergoing HCQ who were screened for toxic effects were evaluated. The FAZ parameters included the area, perimeter, and the acircularity index. The foveal density and vessel density values of both the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) were measured using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Results : This study included 80 eyes of 40 ...

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    19. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis in Asthmatic Children Under Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy

      Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis in Asthmatic Children Under Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy

      Purpose: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), ganglion cell layer thickness (GCLT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in asthmatic children who were under inhaled corticosteroid treatment by using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three children were prospectively analysed in the study. Group 1 included 31 asthmatic children and group 2 included 22 healthy children. Asthmatic children received a dose 250 μg daily of inhaled fluticasone propionate (Flexotide, GlaxoSmithKline, Middlesex, UK). Allergy parameters including, exposure to smoke, eosinophil count, percentage of eosinophils, Immunoglobuline (Ig) E levels, number of asthma attacks, number of ...

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    20. Quantitative Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features in Patients with Non-Ocular Behcet’s Disease

      Quantitative Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features in Patients with Non-Ocular Behcet’s Disease

      Purpose : To quantitatively measure the flow, non-flow, density, and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) assessment tool parameters of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with non-ocular Behcet’s Disease (BD), and to compare the results with those obtained in healthy controls. Methods : FAZ parameters, flow area of choriocapillaris, and vessel density values of both superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) were measured using OCTA. Results : The FAZ area in SCP, FAZ area in full retinal vasculature, and FAZ perimeter were significantly higher and foveal density-300 was significantly lower in the BD group than in the control group (p = 0 ...

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    21. Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Purpose : This study aims to develop a nomogram to predict brain lesions in patients with complete or incomplete bitemporal hemianopia by combining results from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field (VF) testing. Material and Methods : We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify brain lesions due to bitemporal hemianopia between January 2010 and March 2017, retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on MRI findings: brain-lesion (+) group that had brain lesions on MRI ( n = 63), and brain-lesion (-) group without brain lesions on MRI ( n = 16). We compared OCT and VF ...

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    22. Ocular toxicity due to colours used during Holi celebration in India: Correlation of clinical findings with the anterior segment OCT

      Ocular toxicity due to colours used during Holi celebration in India: Correlation of clinical findings with the anterior segment OCT

      Purpose: To correlate the anatomical extent of ocular surface toxicity due to colours using anterior segment optical coherence tomography with the clinical findings. Methods: Patients presenting to our emergency department with ocular colour toxicity during the Holi festival celebrations from 2 nd March 2018 to 5 th March 2018 were assessed for any adnexal, conjunctival, corneal and anterior chamber findings, as well as findings on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Results: A total of 21 patients were observed. The average age was 23 years with 16 patients being male (76.19%). Bilateral ocular involvement was more common (in 13 ...

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    23. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 14 HD patients who underwent a spectral domain OCT. Results were compared with a control group. Demographic data was also obtained. Results: Temporal and superior RNFL ...

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    24. Diurnal variations of foveoschisis by optical coherence tomography in patients with RS1 X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

      Diurnal variations of foveoschisis by optical coherence tomography in patients with RS1 X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

      ackground : To evaluate diurnal variations in macular schisis cavities in patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) with pathogenic variants in the RS1 gene using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods : Three consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of XLRS and pathogenic variants in the RS1 , treated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). Observational procedures : SD-OCT scans of the macula were acquired at 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 4 p.m. within 24 h. Results : All patients demonstrated increased measures of central foveal thickness in the morning with gradual decrease through the day (9–43%). Major changes were observed between ...

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