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    1. Ocular toxicity due to colours used during Holi celebration in India: Correlation of clinical findings with the anterior segment OCT

      Ocular toxicity due to colours used during Holi celebration in India: Correlation of clinical findings with the anterior segment OCT

      Purpose: To correlate the anatomical extent of ocular surface toxicity due to colours using anterior segment optical coherence tomography with the clinical findings. Methods: Patients presenting to our emergency department with ocular colour toxicity during the Holi festival celebrations from 2 nd March 2018 to 5 th March 2018 were assessed for any adnexal, conjunctival, corneal and anterior chamber findings, as well as findings on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Results: A total of 21 patients were observed. The average age was 23 years with 16 patients being male (76.19%). Bilateral ocular involvement was more common (in 13 ...

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    2. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 14 HD patients who underwent a spectral domain OCT. Results were compared with a control group. Demographic data was also obtained. Results: Temporal and superior RNFL ...

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    3. Diurnal variations of foveoschisis by optical coherence tomography in patients with RS1 X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

      Diurnal variations of foveoschisis by optical coherence tomography in patients with RS1 X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

      ackground : To evaluate diurnal variations in macular schisis cavities in patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) with pathogenic variants in the RS1 gene using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods : Three consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of XLRS and pathogenic variants in the RS1 , treated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). Observational procedures : SD-OCT scans of the macula were acquired at 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 4 p.m. within 24 h. Results : All patients demonstrated increased measures of central foveal thickness in the morning with gradual decrease through the day (9–43%). Major changes were observed between ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal shunts between the arterial and venous vascular systems. These usually produce ocular pain, increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and diplopia. Less frequently, they may cause retinal changes with visual impairment. Our purpose is to illustrate different retinal manifestations of AVF. We report the multimodal imaging study of three cases with retinal changes due to AVF, showing neurosensory retinal detachment, macular oedema, and macular ischemia. In conclusion, AVF may appear with different ophthalmic alterations. While usually increased IOP and diplopia are our main concerns, retinal study is mandatory, since a myriad of morphologic abnormalities might be present.

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    5. Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma care

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma care

      Rapid improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have allowed for enhancement of both image resolution and scanning speed, and the development of vascular assessment modality. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is the non-invasive in vivo imaging of the vasculature located within the retina and optic nerve head area. The principle of OCTA is to use the variations in OCT signals caused by moving particles as the contrast mechanism for imaging of flow. Several algorithms which aim to maximize the contrast signal and minimize the noise have been developed including the phase-based techniques, intensity-based techniques (e.g., split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation ...

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      Mentions: Shan C. Lin
    6. Predicting surgical success in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane using the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography segmentation module for single retinal layer analysis

      Predicting surgical success in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane using the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography segmentation module for single retinal layer analysis

      Introduction Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a proliferation of cells formed on the internal surface of the retina and may cause a slow decrease in visual acuity (VA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual layers of the retina by optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after vitrectomy with ERM peeling in order to refine surgical decision-making. Methods Forty-seven eyes of 45 patients (aged 55–87 years) with ERM were enrolled retrospectively from a tertiary referral centre. OCT examination was performed preoperatively and at a mean of 3.2 months postoperatively in all cases. Nine retinal surfaces ...

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    7. Optic Nerve Head Parameters Measured with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Turkish Children: Normal Values, Repeatability, and Interocular Symmetry

      Optic Nerve Head Parameters Measured with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Turkish Children: Normal Values, Repeatability, and Interocular Symmetry

      To determine normal values, repeatability, and interocular symmetry of optic nerve head measurements, three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained from 128 healthy Turkish children aged 5–17 years consecutively and prospectively. The mean disc area, rim area, cup volume, cup to disc area ratio, and vertical and horizontal cup to disc ratios were 2.30 ± 0.42 mm 2 , 1.84 ± 0.45 mm 2 , 0.09 ± 0.10 mm 3 , 0.20 ± 0.13, 0.37 ± 0.17, and 0.45 ± 0.20, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.9 for repeatability and >0.75 ...

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    8. Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Detected by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal and Choroidal Changes in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Detected by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To evaluate the ability of new Swept source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to detect changes in retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Design : Observational case–control cross sectional study, developed from January to May 2016. Methods : In total, 50 eyes from 50 patients diagnosed with PD and 54 eyes of 54 healthy controls underwent retinal and choroidal assessment using SS DRI Triton OCT (Topcon), using the 3D Wide protocol. Total macular thickness and peripapillary data (retinal, ganglion cell layer [GCL+, GCL++] and retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness) were analyzed. Macular and ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in diabetic retinopathy

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in diabetic retinopathy

      Introduction : Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness in working age population. Fluorescein angiography is still the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosis of macular ischemia. However, it is a costly, time-consuming procedure and it requires intravenous injection of contrast agent, exposing patients to potential side effects. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, non-invasive imaging technique that provides dyeless visualization of blood flow in different retinal layers. Areas covered : An extensive review of the literature was performed to detail technical principles of OCTA and to ...

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    10. Enhanced Vitreous Imaging in Uveitis

      Enhanced Vitreous Imaging in Uveitis

      Purpose : To study the structural visibility of the posterior vitreous cavity and vitreoretinal interface using Spectral Domain–Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with uveitis using conventional, Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI), Combined Depth Imaging (CDI), and Enhanced Vitreous Imaging (EVI) techniques. Methods : It was an observational cross-sectional study of 59 eyes of 33 patients between age group 12–72 years (Median 43) diagnosed as uveitis with posterior segment manifestations underwent OCT using conventional, EDI, CDI, and EVI techniques. The visibility of posterior vitreous was graded in all the techniques. Results : A statistically significant difference was seen in posterior vitreous visibility on ...

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      Mentions: Rohit Shetty
    11. En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography of Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography of Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinopathy

      Purpose : To report a unique case series of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinopathy (ASPPC) correlating en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) with standard imaging modalities. Methods : In this retrospective case series, multimodal imaging was performed in three ASPPC patients at the time of disease presentation. Results : Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with the diagnosis of ASPPC. In all the study patients, multiple hyperreflective dot-like lesions distributed in the macular area and observed with en-face OCT at the level of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) corresponded to the nodular RPE elevations on cross-sectional OCT and to the hyperautofluorescent spots on fundus autofluorescence ...

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    12. Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purposes : To (i) evaluate variations in choroidal thickness (CT) and choroidal volume (CV) in diabetic macular edema (DME), as demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (FA) and enhanced depth-imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) (EDI-OCT) and (ii) correlate these variations with visual acuity. Methods : This study was a retrospective observational case series of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DME. The study groups comprised 77 DR patients ( n = 87), all of whom underwent color fundus photography, FA, and OCT on the same day. The control group comprised 25 age-matched healthy individuals ( n = 50 eyes). CT was measured by manual segmentation (EDI-OCT built-in ...

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    13. Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Parameters

      Glaucoma Diagnostic Ability of the Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density Parameters

      Purpose : To investigate the glaucoma diagnostic abilities of vessel density parameters as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in different stages of glaucoma. Materials and Methods : A total of 113 healthy eyes and 140 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled. Diagnostic abilities of the OCT vessel density parameters in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary, and macular regions were evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operation characteristic curves (AUCs). AUCs of the peripapillary vessel density parameters and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were compared. Results : OCT angiography vessel densities in the ONH, peripapillary, and macular regions in ...

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    14. Early detection of macular and peripapillary changes with spectralis optical coherence tomography in patients with prediabetes

      Early detection of macular and peripapillary changes with spectralis optical coherence tomography in patients with prediabetes

      Purpose: To compare the retina ganglion cell complex (GCC) layer and peripapillary nerve fibre layer thickness (pRNFL) in patients with prediabetes and healthy subjects analysed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This cross-sectional and comparative study included prediabetic patients and healthy subjects. All participants underwent SD-OCT measurement of pRNFL thickness, and GCC thickness. Results: A total of 30 eyes of the 30 patients with prediabetes and 30 eyes of 30 controls were included. The overall calculated pRNFL thicknesses were similar between the prediabetic and control subjects. The GCC thickness was significantly lower in all quadrants of the inner ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography to guide percutaneous treatment of coronary bifurcation disease

      Optical coherence tomography to guide percutaneous treatment of coronary bifurcation disease

      Introduction : Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death worldwide. Enormous progress in the technology and applicability of percutaneous techniques to treat obstructive coronary heart disease has been made, and the number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is increasing. Coronary bifurcations are involved in a substantial number of PCIs and despite recent advances, bifurcation PCI remains a challenge in terms of immediate success and long-term outcome. Angiography has a limited capacity for showing important features of the 3 dimensional coronary vessel anatomy, position of stent struts and exact wire positions and is therefore suboptimal for guiding bifurcation PCI. Intracoronary ...

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    16. Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal and Retinal Anatomical Responses Following Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada Disease Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To assess structural changes in retina and choroid after systemic corticosteroid therapy in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods : SS-OCT was conducted before treatment and during first-month follow-up in 16 eyes treated with systemic corticosteroids for active VKH. Retina was divided into five zones depending on pretreatment choroidal thickness (CT) of <100, >100 to <200, >200 to <300, >300 to <400 and >400μm, and changes in retinal thickness and CT after treatment in these zones were compared with baseline. Results : Mean CT significantly improved from 83.1±8.75 to 156.4 ...

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    17. A major review of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert Review of Ophthalmology: Vol 0, No 0

      A major review of optical coherence tomography angiography: Expert Review of Ophthalmology: Vol 0, No 0

      Introduction : Recent innovations in ophthalmic imaging have led to new alternatives to conventional ocular angiography. We describe different methods of label-free angiography and their clinical utility in ophthalmic practice. Areas covered : The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA). A review of the literature was performed, including the physical principles and algorithms and OCTA features of different ocular diseases. The literature reviewed was found by searching Pubmed and Google Scholar for optical coherence tomography, OCT angiography, and label-free angiography. All results in the English language were read in full-text. Expert commentary ...

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    18. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Identification of Iris Vasculature and Staging of Iris Neovascularization

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Identification of Iris Vasculature and Staging of Iris Neovascularization

      Purpose/Aim of the study : To assess the ability of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) to visualize the normal iris vasculature as well as neovascularization of the iris (NVI). Materials and Methods : Study participants with healthy eyes, patients at risk of NVI development and patients with active or regressed NVI were consecutively included in this cross-sectional observational study. Imaging was performed using a commercially available OCTA system (RTVue- XR Avanti, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Abnormal iris vessels were graded on OCTA according to a modified clinical staging system and compared to slitlamp and gonioscopic findings. Results : Fifty eyes of ...

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    19. Evaluation of Choroidal and Retinal Thickness Changes in Parkinson’s Disease Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Choroidal and Retinal Thickness Changes in Parkinson’s Disease Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Material and methods : Participants in our study were 31 PD patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls. All participants underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundoscopy, and SD-OCT. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and choroidal thickness in all quadrants were recorded. Results : There was a statistically significant reduction in average, superior, and temporal RNFL thickness, average ganglion cell complex, and choroidal thickness in the subfoveal area and in all ...

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    20. Vitreous Hyper-Reflective Dots in Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Tear in Patients with Acute Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Vitreous Hyper-Reflective Dots in Optical Coherence Tomography and Retinal Tear in Patients with Acute Posterior Vitreous Detachment

      Purpose : To report the presence of hyper-reflective dots in the vitreous cavity using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with acute symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and investigate their association with the presence of retinal tear. Methods : The medical records of 77 patients with acute symptomatic PVD, who were examined between March 2013 and February 2015, were reviewed. The severity of vitreous hyper-reflective dots (VHDs) was graded using SD-OCT images, and the presence of retinal tear was assessed. Results : Forty-one (53.2%) eyes had mild VHDs, 13 (16.9%) eyes had moderate VHDs, and 14 (18.2%) eyes had ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Glaucoma causes a decrease in peripapillary perfused capillary density on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. However, other chronic optic neuropathies have not been explored with OCT angiography to see if these changes were specific to glaucoma. The authors evaluated OCT angiography in 10 patients who suffered various kinds of chronic optic neuropathies, including optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy, and found that all optic neuropathies showed a decrease in peripapillary vessel density on OCT angiography, regardless of the aetiology of the optic neuropathy. The peripapillary vessel loss on OCT angiography correlated well with the areas of retinal nerve fibre layer ...

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    22. Cystoid macular changes on optical coherence tomography in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD)-associated macular dystrophy

      Cystoid macular changes on optical coherence tomography in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD)-associated macular dystrophy

      The clinical presentation and optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) are presented to highlight the presence of macular cystoid spaces in some patients with this disease. Typically, patients with MIDD demonstrate progression of a pigmentary maculopathy into areas of geographic macular atrophy. At the time of initial visit, the 30-year-old patient had large macular cystoid changes in addition to retinal pigmentary changes in both eyes. The cystoid changes responded to treatment with systemic immunosuppression and a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI), recurred when treated with topical CAI monotherapy, and finally resolved after ...

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    23. Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To study the corneal changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in vivo , using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods : A case–control study was done on 43 RA patients and 40 controls. The disease activity score (DAS28-ESR) was calculated and all participants had lower tear meniscus, corneal thickness, and epithelial thickness evaluation using AS-OCT. Results : The lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) and the lower tear meniscus area (LTMA) were significantly lower in the RA patients than in controls ( p < 0.001). RA patients also had a significantly thinner central corneal thickness ( p = 0.02) and their ...

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