1. Articles in category: Gastroenterology

    1-24 of 694 1 2 3 4 ... 27 28 29 »
    1. A protocol paper for the MOTION Study—A longitudinal study in a cohort aged 60 years and older to obtain mechanistic knowledge of the role of the gut microbiome during normal healthy ageing in order to develop strategies that will improve lifelong health

      A protocol paper for the MOTION Study—A longitudinal study in a cohort aged 60 years and older to obtain mechanistic knowledge of the role of the gut microbiome during normal healthy ageing in order to develop strategies that will improve lifelong health

      Background Advances in medicine and public health mean that people are living longer; however, a significant proportion of that increased lifespan is spent in a prolonged state of declining health and wellbeing which places increasing pressure on medical, health and social services. There is a social and economic need to develop strategies to prevent or delay age-related disease and maintain lifelong health. Several studies have suggested links between the gut microbiome and age-related disease, which if confirmed would present a modifiable target for intervention development. The MOTION study aims to determine whether and how changes in the gut microbiome are ...

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    2. Swept-source endoscopic optical coherence tomography real-time imaging system based on GPU acceleration for axial megahertz high-speed scanning

      Swept-source endoscopic optical coherence tomography real-time imaging system based on GPU acceleration for axial megahertz high-speed scanning

      Objective: In order to solve the problem of image real-time processing and correction for high-speed endoscopic swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), we highly optimize a computer-unified device architecture-based platform and use a field-programmable gate array to summarize the application experience. Materials and methods: We use the Half-Sync/Half-Asyn mode to optimize memory in order to build a high-throughput data thread pool for CPU. We use asynchronous streaming architecture to multiplex multiple threads at high speed to accelerate data processing. At the same time, we design a rotary scanning position information encoding feedback module to suppress image drift, which can realize ...

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    3. How to improve microendoscopes? New probe design brings promises to improve biomedical imaging

      How to improve microendoscopes? New probe design brings promises to improve biomedical imaging

      Microendoscopes are the cornerstone of modern medical diagnostics—they allow us to see what we could not even describe two decades ago. The technology is constantly improving, with ICTER scientists contributing to the development of the probes. Microendoscopes using fiber optics are becoming increasingly important imaging tools, but they have physical limitations. They are essential for applications that require a long working distance, high resolution, and a minimum probe diameter. A new research paper by Dr. Karol Karnowski of ICTER, Dr. Gavrielle Untracht of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Dr. Michael Hackmann of the University of Western Australia (UWA ...

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    4. Attenuation coefficient for layer-by-layer assessment of the intestinal wall in acute ischemia according to optical coherence tomography

      Attenuation coefficient for layer-by-layer assessment of the intestinal wall in acute ischemia according to optical coherence tomography

      Small laboratory animals (rats) are suitable objects for modelling acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) and monitoring changes in the structural tissue and intramural blood flow using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography methods. Combined with evaluation of blood circulation the prevalence of a necrotic tissue is a key factor in assessing intestine viability during surgery and determining the resection margins. While the assessment of the blood vessels network is commonly performed visually by surgeons, the assessment of the necrosis within individual layers is quite challenging due to small thickness of each intestine layer in small objects. The study demonstrates that ...

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    5. Development of Advanced Imaging and Molecular Imaging for Barrett’s Neoplasia

      Development of Advanced Imaging and Molecular Imaging for Barrett’s Neoplasia

      Barrett esophagus (BE) is a precursor to a life-threatening esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Surveillance endoscopy with random biopsies is recommended for early intervention against EAC, but its adherence in the clinical setting is poor. Dysplastic lesions with flat architecture and patchy distribution in BE are hardly detected by high-resolution endoscopy, and the surveillance protocol entails issues of time and labor and suboptimal interobserver agreement for diagnosing dysplasia. Therefore, the development of advanced imaging technologies is necessary for Barrett’s surveillance. Recently, non-endoscopic or endoscopic technologies, such as cytosponge, endocytoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, autofluorescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography/volumetric laser endomicroscopy ...

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    6. Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $643,503 for Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed study. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a deadly cancer that is preceded by a metaplastic change called Barrett's esophagus (BE). It has long been thought that endoscopic screening for BE followed by endoscopic surveillance can significantly decrease the mortality of EAC. This unfortunately has not borne out as the cost and inconvenience of conscious sedation prohibits endoscopy from being used as a population-based ...

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    7. En-face polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to characterize early-stage esophageal cancer and determine tumor margin

      En-face polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to characterize early-stage esophageal cancer and determine tumor margin

      Current imaging tools are insufficiently sensitive to the early diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The application of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to detect tumor-stroma interaction is an interesting issue in cancer diagnosis. In this translational study, we found that en-face PS-OCT effectively characterizes protruding, flat, and depressive type ESCC regardless of animal or human specimens. In addition, the tumor contour and margin could also be drawn and determined on a broad en-face view. The determined tumor margin could be in the proximity of 2 mm to the actual tumor margin, which was proved directly using histology.

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    8. Comparative Study of Conventional and Ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Esophageal Neoplasia

      Comparative Study of Conventional and Ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Esophageal Neoplasia

      Early diagnosis of esophageal cancer can be enhanced by the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to gastrointestinal endoscopy. One of the most salient examples is the use of OCT to augment the detection of dysplasia during Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance, the established precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). 1 , 2 A previously commercially available balloon-based imaging catheter system, also known as volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE), was designed to provide circumferential esophageal imaging at the time of endoscopy. The VLE system uses a 1300 nm wavelength-swept laser and provides images with an axial resolution of 7 µm up to a ...

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    9. Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hosptial Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $46,752 for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection. The principal investigator is Taylor Cannon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Better imaging-based screening and surveillance methods stand to improve patient outcomes in cancers that are typically diagnosed at late stages, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although success- ful proactive treatment options are available to patients diagnosed with low- or high-grade dysplasia, many at-risk patients are diagnosed at later stages with few effective treatment options, leading to high mortality rates. Dysplasia is diagnosed based ...

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    10. First interobserver agreement of optical coherence tomography in the bile duct: A multicenter collaborative study

      First interobserver agreement of optical coherence tomography in the bile duct: A multicenter collaborative study

      Background and study aims  Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new technology available for evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. It allows under-the-surface visualization and preliminary studies have confirmed standardized characteristics associated with malignancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the first interobserver agreement in identifying previously agreed upon OCT criteria and diagnosing of malignant versus benign disease. Patients and methods  Fourteen endoscopists were asked to review an atlas of reference clips and images of eight criteria derived from expert consensus A total of 35 de-identified video clips were then evaluated for presence of the eight criteria and for ...

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    11. Soluplus®-based dissolving microarray patches loaded with colchicine: towards a minimally invasive treatment and management of gout

      Soluplus®-based dissolving microarray patches loaded with colchicine: towards a minimally invasive treatment and management of gout

      Considered as one of the most common inflammatory arthritis, gout is characterised by a sudden onset of severe joint pain. As the first-line drug of choice used in treating acute gout, colchicine (CLC) is hindered by poor gastrointestinal permeability as well as unfavourable gastrointestinal side effects. Herein, we present, for the first time, the preparation of microarray array patches (MAPs) made of a polymeric solubiliser, Soluplus®, loaded with CLC for its systemic delivery. The fabricated MAPs displayed acceptable mechanical properties and were capable of being inserted into the skin to a depth of ≈500 μm in full thickness ex vivo ...

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    12. Pairing imaging, AI may improve colon cancer screening, diagnosis

      Pairing imaging, AI may improve colon cancer screening, diagnosis

      A research team from the lab of Quing Zhu, the Edwin H. Murty Professor of Engineering at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, has combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and machine learning to develop a colorectal cancer imaging tool that may one day improve the traditional endoscopy currently used by doctors. The results were published in the June issue of the Journal of Biophotonics, with an image featured on the inside cover.

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    13. MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for multi-MHz endoscopic ...

      MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for multi-MHz endoscopic ...

      Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) enables volumetric imaging of subsurface structure, but applications requiring wide fields of view, rapid imaging, and higher resolutions have been challenging because of the need for multi-MHz A-scan rates. Until now, achieving multi-MHz A-scan rates has been limited to Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers or stretched-pulse lasers. We describe a microelectromechanical-system, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) for SS-OCT at A-scan rates of 2.4 and 3.0 MHz using a dual-channel acquisition system. Dual-channel operation enables simultaneous acquisition of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) fringes for sweep-to-sweep calibration and resampling, overcoming inherent optical clock limitations in state-of-the-art digitizers. We demonstrate ...

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    14. Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      Flexible, high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography endobronchial probe toward in vivo imaging of cilia

      We report the design and fabrication of a flexible, longitudinally scanning high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) endobronchial probe, optimized for micro-anatomical imaging in airways. The 2.4 mm diameter and flexibility of the probe allows it to be inserted into the instrument channel of a standard bronchoscope, enabling real-time video guidance of probe placement. To generate a depth-of-focus enhancing annular beam, we utilized a new fabrication method, whereby a hollow glass ferrule was angle-polished and gold-coated to produce an elongated annular reflector. We present validation data that verifies the preservation of linear scanning, despite the use of flexible materials. When ...

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    15. Passively scanned, single-fiber optical coherence tomography probes for gastrointestinal devices

      Passively scanned, single-fiber optical coherence tomography probes for gastrointestinal devices

      Background/objectives: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses low coherence interferometry to obtain depth-resolved tissue reflectivity profiles (M-mode) and transverse beam scanning to create images of two-dimensional tissue morphology (B-mode). Endoscopic OCT imaging probes typically employ proximal or distal mechanical beam scanning mechanisms that increase cost, complexity, and size. Here, we demonstrate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of unsedated human patients, that a passive, single-fiber probe can be used to guide device placement, conduct device-tissue physical contact sensing, and obtain two-dimensional OCT images via M-to-B-mode conversion. Materials and methods: We designed and developed ultrasmall, manually scannable, side- and forward-viewing single fiber-optic ...

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    16. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography using inverse SNR-amplitude decorrelation features and electrothermal micro-electro-mechanical system raster scan

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography using inverse SNR-amplitude decorrelation features and electrothermal micro-electro-mechanical system raster scan

      Background: Angiogenesis is closely associated with tumor development and progression. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) enables rapid inspection of mucosal 3D vasculature of inner organs in the early-stage tumor diagnosis; however, it is limited by instabilities of the optical signal and beam scanning. Methods: In the phase-unstable swept source OCTA (SS-OCTA), amplitude decorrelation was used to compute the motion-induced changes as motion contrast. The influence of the random noise-induced amplitude fluctuations on decorrelation was characterized as a function of inverse signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a multi-variate time series (MVTS) model and statistical analysis. Then, the noise-induced decorrelation artifacts in ...

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    17. Differential diagnosis of acute and chronic colitis in mice by optical coherence tomography

      Differential diagnosis of acute and chronic colitis in mice by optical coherence tomography

      Background: The differential diagnosis of acute and chronic colitis remains a common clinical problem. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique that can be used to measure morphological changes in the intestinal wall and estimate intestinal inflammation. We aimed to conduct an ex vivo experiment on a mouse model investigate the value of OCT as a tool for the differential diagnosis of acute and chronic colitis. Methods: Mice were administered dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) to construct acute and chronic colitis models. Acutely- and chronically-affected intestinal walls were scanned by OCT, and then the scanned colonic tissue ...

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    18. Apparatus, device and method for capsule microscopy

      Apparatus, device and method for capsule microscopy

      An exemplary apparatus for obtaining data for at least one portion within at least one luminal or hollow sample can be provided. For example, the apparatus can include a first optical arrangement configured to transceive at least one electromagnetic radiation to and from the portion(s). The apparatus can also include a wavelength dispersive second arrangement, which can be configured to disperse the electromagnetic radiation(s). A housing can be provided with a shape of a pill, and enclosing the first and second arrangements.

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    19. Esophageal optical coherence tomography image synthesis using an adversarially learned variational autoencoder

      Esophageal optical coherence tomography image synthesis using an adversarially learned variational autoencoder

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging offers a non-invasive way to detect esophageal lesions on the microscopic scale, which is of clinical potential in the early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancers. Recent studies focused on applying deep learning-based methods in esophageal OCT image analysis and achieved promising results, which require a large data size. However, traditional data augmentation techniques generate samples that are highly correlated and sometimes far from reality, which may not lead to a satisfied trained model. In this paper, we proposed an adversarial learned variational autoencoder (AL-VAE) to generate high-quality esophageal OCT samples. The AL-VAE combines ...

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    20. Dual-mode endoscope offers unprecedented insights into uterine health

      Dual-mode endoscope offers unprecedented insights into uterine health

      Researchers have developed a new endoscope that combines ultrasound with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess structural features of the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, in unprecedented detail. The new probe could one day help doctors diagnose infertility problems that are related to endometrial receptivity with greater accuracy than current imaging technologies while reducing the need for invasive biopsies.

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    21. Integrated US-OCT-NIRF Tri-modality Endoscopic Imaging System for Pancreaticobiliary Duct Imaging

      Integrated US-OCT-NIRF Tri-modality Endoscopic Imaging System for Pancreaticobiliary Duct Imaging

      Pancreaticobiliary carcinomas is a highly malignant gastrointestinal tumor. Most pancreaticobiliary cancers arise from epithelial proliferations within the pancreaticobiliary ducts, referred to as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). Some PanINs are benign metaplasia, while others progress to invasive duct adenocarcinoma (IDAC). However, there is no standard programme to diagnose the progression from PanINs to IDAC. In this study, we present a tri-modality imaging system, which integrates ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) for pancreaticobiliary duct imaging. This system can obtain OCT, US, and NIRF images in real time with a frame rate of 30 frames per second. For ...

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    22. Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Today’s Mistakes and Tomorrow’s Wisdom in Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus

      Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and its incidence is rising. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) can develop low- and high-grade dysplasia which can progress to EAC overtime. The golden standard to detect dysplastic BE (DBE) or EAC is surveillance with high-definition white-light endoscopy (HD-WLE) and random biopsies according to the Seattle protocol. However, this method is time-consuming and associated with a remarkable miss rate. Therefore, there is great need for the development of novel reliable techniques to optimize surveillance strategies and improve detection rates. Summary: Optical chromoendoscopy (OC) techniques like narrow-band imaging ...

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    23. Classification of gastric cancerous tissues by a residual network based on optical coherence tomography images

      Classification of gastric cancerous tissues by a residual network based on optical coherence tomography images

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, radiation-free, and high-resolution imaging technology. The intraoperative classification of normal and cancerous tissue is critical for surgeons to guide surgical operations. Accurate classification of gastric cancerous OCT images is beneficial to improve the effect of surgical treatment based on the deep learning method. The OCT system was used to collect images of cancerous tissues removed from patients. An intelligent classification method of gastric cancerous tissues based on the residual network is proposed in this study and optimized with the ResNet18 model. Four residual blocks are used to reset the model structure of ResNet18 ...

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    24. Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Classification of Colorectal Cancer in a Mouse Model

      Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Classification of Colorectal Cancer in a Mouse Model

      Noninvasive diagnosis of the malignant potential of colon polyps can improve prevention of colorectal cancer without the need for time-consuming and expensive biopsies. This study examines the use of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to classify tissue from genetically engineered mouse models of early-stage adenoma (APC) and advanced adenocarcinoma (AKP) in which tumors are induced in the distal colon. The optical tissue properties of scattering power and scattering attenuation coefficient are evaluated by analyzing the imaging data collected from tissues. Classifications are generated using 2D linear discriminant analysis with high levels of discrimination obtained. The overall classification accuracy obtained was ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
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