1. Articles in category: Gastroenterology

    1-24 of 452 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
    1. Advanced Imaging in Barrett's Esophagus

      Advanced Imaging in Barrett's Esophagus

      BE is estimated to be present in up to 5.6% of the US population and is the precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, which has a poor 5-year survival rate of 17%.1,2 Surveillance endoscopy is now the primary management approach for BE, with 4-quadrant biopsies being obtained every 1 to 2 cm at designated intervals in an attempt to identify dysplasia and early neoplasia. The goal of this approach is to treat patients with identified dysplastic or neoplastic lesions with endoscopic eradication therapies in lieu of surgery or chemoradiation, which is used for patients presenting with more advanced ...

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    2. Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler

      Laser tissue coagulation and concurrent optical coherence tomography through a double-clad fiber coupler

      Double-clad fiber (DCF) is herein used in conjunction with a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) to enable simultaneous and co-registered optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser tissue coagulation. The DCF allows a single channel fiber-optic probe to be shared: i.e. the core propagating the OCT signal while the inner cladding delivers the coagulation laser light. We herein present a novel DCFC designed and built to combine both signals within a DCF (>90% of single-mode transmission; >65% multimode coupling). Potential OCT imaging degradation mechanisms are also investigated and solutions to mitigate them are presented. The combined DCFC-based system was used to ...

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    3. Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in gastrointestinal tract

      Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in gastrointestinal tract

      Gastrointestinal tract cancer, the most common type of cancer, has a very low survival rate, especially for pancreatic cancer (five year survival rate of 5%) and bile duct cancer (five year survival rate of 12%). Here, we propose to use an integrated OCT-US catheter for cancer detection. OCT is targeted to acquire detailed information, such as dysplasia and neoplasia, for early detection of tumors. US is used for staging cancers according to the size of the primary tumor and whether or not it has invaded lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Considering the lumen size of the GI ...

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    4. Passive endoscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with completely fiber based optical components

      Passive endoscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with completely fiber based optical components

      Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) is a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that is sensitive to well-structured, birefringent tissue such as scars, smooth muscle and cartilage. In this work, we present a novel completely fiber based swept source PSOCT system using a fiber-optic rotary pullback catheter. This PSOCT implementation uses only passive optical components and requires no calibration while adding minimal additional cost to a standard structural OCT imaging system. Due to its complete fiber construction, the system can be made compact and robust, while the fiber-optic catheter allows access to most endoscopic imaging sites. The 1 ...

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    5. Feature Of The Week 03/08/2015: Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables Three Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature

      Feature Of The Week 03/08/2015: Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables Three Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature

      Endoscopic imaging technologies such as confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and narrowband imaging (NBI) have been used to investigate vascular changes as hallmarks of early cancer in the GI tract. However, the limited frame rate and field of view make CLE imaging sensitive to motion artifacts, whereas NBI has limited resolution and visualizes only the surface vascular pattern. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables high speed volumetric imaging of subsurface features at near-microscopic resolution, and can image microvasculature without exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescein, which obliterates the image in areas of bleeding, or after biopsies and resections. OCT has been ...

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    6. Postdoctoral Position for the Development of Advanced Optical Technologies in Gastrointestinal Diseases : Erlangen, Germany

      Postdoctoral Position for the Development of Advanced Optical Technologies in Gastrointestinal Diseases : Erlangen, Germany

      As part of the Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies ( SAOT ) granted by the German Excellence Initiative for Cutting-Edge Research at Institutions of Higher Education, the research group of SAOT Juniorprofessor Maximilian Waldner invites applications for a Postdoc Position Research focus of the Lab/Research projects: The research group focuses on the implementation of new optical technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Current projects evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy, optical coherence tomography, hyper-spectral imaging techniques, Raman spectroscopy etc. in preclinical models of inflammatory diseases and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Prerequisites for the position are ...

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    7. Emerging Enhanced Imaging Technologies of the Esophagus: Spectroscopy, Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Emerging Enhanced Imaging Technologies of the Esophagus: Spectroscopy, Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction Despite advances in diagnoses and therapy, esophageal adenocarcinoma remains a highly lethal neoplasm. Hence, a great interest has been placed in detecting early lesions and in the detection of Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Advanced imaging technologies of the esophagus have then been developed with the aim of improving biopsy sensitivity and detection of pre- and neoplastic cells. The purpose of this manuscript is to review emerging imaging technologies for esophageal pathology, Spectroscopy, Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Methods We conducted a PubMed search using the search string: (esophagus OR esophageal OR oesophageal OR oesophagus) AND ...

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    8. Medical College of Wisconsin Receives NIH Grant to study Inhibition of Reflux-Induced Esophageal Adenocarinoma by Proanthocyanidins.

      Medical College of Wisconsin Receives NIH Grant  to study Inhibition of Reflux-Induced Esophageal Adenocarinoma by Proanthocyanidins.

      Medical College of Wisconsin Received a 2015 NIH Grant for $317,475 to study Inhibition of Reflux-Induced Esophageal Adenocarinoma by Proanthocyanidins. The prinipal investigator is Laura Kreesty. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) rates have increased 500% over the last three decades resulting in EAC being identified as the fastest increasing of all cancer types in the US. Esophageal cancer is an extremely deadly malignancy with 5-year survival rates consistently under 20%. The precise reasons for increasing rates of EAC are an active area of investigation ...

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    9. Horizon Technology Finance Leads $15 Million Venture Loan Facility for NinePoint Medical

      Horizon Technology Finance Leads $15 Million Venture Loan Facility for NinePoint Medical

      Horizon Technology Finance Corporation ("Horizon") ( HRZN ), a leading specialty finance company that provides capital in the form of secured loans to venture capital backed companies in the technology, life science, healthcare information and services, and cleantech industries, today announced it has led a $15 million venture loan facility for NinePoint Medical, Inc. ("NinePoint"), an emerging leader in the development of medical devices for advanced optical imaging. NinePoint will use the proceeds for working capital purposes. Horizon funded an initial $5 million of its $7.5 million commitment under the venture loan facility. "We are pleased to lead a $15 million ...

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    10. Integrated Ultrasound And Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Endoscope For Image Guided Cancer Biopsy - Available technology for licensing from the University of California, Irvine

      Integrated Ultrasound And Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Endoscope For Image Guided Cancer Biopsy - Available technology for licensing from the University of California, Irvine

      Gastrointestinal cancers are very difficult to diagnosis due to poor biopsy and diagnosis techniques. The invention is a device that is minimally invasive and improves biopsy technique by enabling the physician to visualize a tissue in real time prior to its biopsy. This allows for improved biopsy collection and thereby increases the diagnosis accuracy. FULL DESCRIPTION Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers cause 140,000 deaths and more than 290,000 new cases in the US in 2014. These include esophageal, colorectal cancer and many others. The current standard for early diagnosis of GI cancers is to perform histological analysis based on biopsy ...

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    11. Advanced Endoscopic Imaging in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Book)

      Advanced Endoscopic Imaging in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Book)

      Advanced endoscopic imaging incorporates several methods to enhance visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is an evolving field within advanced endoscopy and particularly important for the endoscopist performing ESD, as these modalities can aid all stages of ESD. Advanced imaging involves several different techniques, from chromoendoscopy (e.g. Lugol’s solution, methylene blue, indigo carmine), to optical enhancement methods (e.g. magnified endoscopy, narrow band imaging, confocal endomicroscopy) and electronic methods (e.g. spectrometry, optical coherence tomography). Frequently, a combination of techniques is utilized to maximize visualization of the lesion and surrounding mucosa. The endoscopist performing ESD needs to ...

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    12. In vivo molecular mapping of the tumor microenvironment in an azoxymethane-treated mouse model of colon carcinogenesis

      In vivo molecular mapping of the tumor microenvironment in an azoxymethane-treated mouse model of colon carcinogenesis

      Background and Objective Development of miniaturized imaging systems with molecular probes enables examination of molecular changes leading to initiation and progression of colorectal cancer in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced mouse model of the disease. Through improved and novel studies of animal disease models, more effective diagnostic and treatment strategies may be developed for clinical translation. We introduce use of a miniaturized multimodal endoscope with lavage-delivered fluorescent probes to examine dynamic microenvironment changes in an AOM-treated mouse model. Study Design/Materials and Methods The endoscope is equipped with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging modalities. It is ...

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    13. Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications

      Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications

      Dual-band optical coherence tomography (OCT) can greatly enhance the imaging contrast with potential applications in functional (spectroscopic) analysis. A new simultaneous dual-band Fourier domain mode-locked swept laser configuration for dual-band OCT is reported. It was based on a custom-designed dual-channel driver to synchronize two different wavelength bands at 1310 and 1550 nm, respectively. Two lasing wavelengths were swept simultaneously from 1260 to 1364.8 nm for the 1310-nm band and from 1500 to 1604 nm for the 1550-nm band at an A-scan rate of 45 kHz. Broadband wavelength-division multiplexing was utilized to couple two wavelength bands into a common catheter ...

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    14. Dual optical modality endoscopic imaging of cancer development in the mouse colon

      Dual optical modality endoscopic imaging of cancer development in the mouse colon

      Background and Objective We utilize a miniature, dual-modality endoscope that combines fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to follow the anatomical changes that occur during adenoma development in the mouse colon. Materials and Methods Twenty-five mice were treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to induce tumor development in the distal colon, or were treated with saline as control, and were imaged over six months. OCT detects adenoma number with high sensitivity and specificity and can measure lesion size. In methylene blue-lavaged colons, SMC detects changes in the colonic crypts. SMC images of control mouse colons exhibit ...

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    15. NinePoint Medical Appoints Christopher von Jako, Ph.D., to Chief Executive Officer

      NinePoint Medical Appoints Christopher von Jako, Ph.D., to Chief Executive Officer

      NinePoint Medical, Inc., an emerging leader in the development of medical devices for advanced optical imaging, today announced the appointment of Christopher von Jako, Ph.D., as president and chief executive officer. Dr. von Jako brings to NinePoint Medical more than 20 years of experience in the global medical device industry and has demonstrated success leading and growing the value of organizations with early-stage commercial products. “Chris is a passionate and technology-minded individual who deeply understands the dynamics of today’s medical device field,” said Tom Miller, chairman of NinePoint’s board of directors. “We believe his commercial insights and ...

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    16. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables Three Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables Three Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature

      Endoscopic imaging technologies such as confocal laser endomicroscopy1 and narrow band imaging (NBI)2 have been used to investigate vascular changes as hallmarks of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the limited frame rate and field of view make confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging sensitive to motion artifacts, whereas NBI has limited resolution and visualizes only the surface vascular pattern. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables high-speed volumetric imaging of subsurface features at near-microscopic resolution,3, 4 and can image microvasculature without exogenous contrast agents,5 such as fluorescein, which obliterates the image in areas of bleeding, or after ...

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    17. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology

      Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology

      We describe an ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for clinical gastroenterology using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and micromotor imaging catheter. The system had a 600 kHz axial scan rate and 8 µm axial resolution in tissue. Imaging was performed with a 3.2 mm diameter imaging catheter at 400 frames per second with a 12 µm spot size. Three-dimensional OCT (3D-OCT) imaging was performed in patients with a cross section of pathologies undergoing upper and lower endoscopy. The use of distally actuated imaging catheters enabled OCT imaging with more flexibility, such as volumetric imaging ...

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    18. Miniaturized endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography with a tiny magnet driving device

      Miniaturized endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography with a tiny magnet driving device

      This paper proposes an endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT) applying on side-imaging of internal organs. The probe consists of single-mode fiber, a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, and a mirror of cylindrical wedge shape attaching to a magnetized metal piece by epoxy with a short steel wire. For OCT scanning, we use magnetic field generated by a larger magnet externally to drive the rotation of the magnetized metal. Compare with other probes, our probe design has two distinct advantages: 1) The exit beam will be unobstructed during 360 degree circumference scanning because there are no connecting wires in the scanning ...

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    19. Endoscopic imaging in Barrett's esophagus

      Endoscopic imaging in Barrett's esophagus

      Barrett’s esophagus is the only known precursor that predisposes patients to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current recommended surveillance method is targeted biopsies of any abnormalities followed by random four-quadrant biopsies every 2 cm using standard white light endoscopy. Compliance with this and sampling error are two of the biggest problems. Several novel imaging technologies have been developed to aid the diagnosis of early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. There are emerging data that some of these new modalities can increase the yield of detecting dysplasia. This review will discuss some of the present available techniques and technologies ...

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    20. Endoscopic Eradication Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus

      Endoscopic Eradication Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus

      B arrett’s esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma, which in an invasive stage causes significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment for patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and adenocarcinoma associated with BE. However, surgery in itself carries substantial morbidity. There has been tremendous progress in the minimally invasive treatment of BE in the past decade. The premise to be aggressive in treating dysplastic BE and early-stage adenocarcinoma is to prevent progression to an advanced-stage cancer. Most interventional endoscopists are comfortable treating dysplasia and intramucosal esophageal cancer, although recently there have been emerging data ...

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    21. Advanced Colonoscopic Imaging: Do New Technologies Improve Adenoma Detection?

      Advanced Colonoscopic Imaging: Do New Technologies Improve Adenoma Detection?

      C olorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Western world. 1 Screening colonoscopy and polypectomy have become widely accepted as the most effective available methods for early detection and prevention of CRC and have shown a reduction in mortality in the screened population. 2 However, colonoscopy remains imperfect and several studies have raised concerns about the miss rate of adenomatous polyps during screening. The overall miss rate is approximately 20%, and ranges from 6% for large (10 mm) adenomas to 26% for diminutive (<5 mm) lesions. 3 Missing these adenomas is one of the ...

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    22. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography as a tool to evaluate successful myotomy after a peroral endoscopic myotomy

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography as a tool to evaluate successful myotomy after a peroral endoscopic myotomy

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides imaging depth down to 3 mm and resolution of 7 μm over a 6-cm length over a 90 second scan. It is used to analyze tissue microstructure to scan for any potential abnormalities in the esophagus. As of now, the utility of OCT in assessing the esophageal muscular layers in achalasia patients after a peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure has not been assessed. We present a case in which this device was used for this indication.

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    23. Endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment in esophageal cancers: high-technology assessment

      Endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment in esophageal cancers: high-technology assessment

      The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the endoscopic tools to recognize squamous cell dysplasia; confocal laser endomicroscopy for Barrett's esophagus; confocal microscopy in the cancer patient; optical coherence tomography in the assessment of subsquamous Barrett's metaplasia; endoscopic mucosal resection for high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus; HALO in the treatment of squamous dysplasia; and the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

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    24. A feasibility study of full-field optical coherence tomography for rapid evaluation of EUS-guided microbiopsy specimens

      A feasibility study of full-field optical coherence tomography for rapid evaluation of EUS-guided microbiopsy specimens

      Background Rapid on-site evaluation of cytologic specimens is a way of determining the adequacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However, alternatives may be useful when the presence of a cytotechnologist and/or pathologist is not possible. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of using full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) for FNA specimen quality assessment. Design FFOCT images were acquired on gastric, pancreatic, pelvic, and lymph-node formalin-fixed FNA specimens and were compared with histology of the same samples. Setting Pathology suite in a hospital. Patients Fourteen patients undergoing gastric, pancreatic, pelvic, or lymph-node EUS-guided FNA biopsy. Interventions FFOCT imaging on formalin-fixed samples before ...

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    1-24 of 452 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
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