1. Articles in category: Gastroenterology

    1-24 of 667 1 2 3 4 ... 26 27 28 »
    1. Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Background and Aims Nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM), an optical coherence tomography-derived approach, is capable of detecting with nanoscale sensitivity, structural alterations in the chromatin of epithelial cell nuclei at risk for malignant transformation. Since these alterations predate the development of dysplasia, we aimed to utilize nanoNAM to identify patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) who progress to high grade dysplasia (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methods This is a nested case control study of 46 BE patients of which 21 progressed to HGD/EAC over 3.7 (± 2.37) years (cases/progressors) and 25 patients who did not progress ...

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    2. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Screening and Diagnosis of Colorectal Precancerous and Malignant Polyps

      Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Screening and Diagnosis of Colorectal Precancerous and Malignant Polyps

      Colorectal cancer arises from the mucosal layer of the colon. Current screening is performed by flexible endoscopy, which involves visual inspection of the mucosal lining of the colon and rectum with an optical camera mounted on the endoscope, with abnormal areas being biopsied. This method is somewhat limited in that there are no readily available surface pattern or morphological classification systems with adequate sensitivity or specificity to evaluate extent of submucosal invasion (deep, superficial, or none). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) using pattern recognition is a high-resolution imaging modality. There is currently an unmet need to predict depth of invasion for ...

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    3. Massachusetts General Hospital Receive NIH Grant for A tethered capsule endoscopic-endomicroscopic (TEEM) approach for improving upper GI tract diagnosis

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receive NIH Grant for A tethered capsule endoscopic-endomicroscopic (TEEM) approach for improving upper GI tract diagnosis

      Massachusetts General Hospital Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $480,931 for A tethered capsule endoscopic-endomicroscopic (TEEM) approach for improving upper GI tract diagnosis. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The diagnosis of most upper GI tract conditions is currently accomplished by upper endoscopy with biopsy (EGD). EGD is costly primarily because it requires conscious sedation, necessitating that procedures be conducted by physicians in a specialized endoscopy suite, and that patients take time away from work and family. Another limitation is sampling error - endoscopic biopsies are frequently random, resulting in many instances ...

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    4. Connectivity-based deep learning approach for segmentation of the epithelium in in vivo human esophageal OCT images

      Connectivity-based deep learning approach for segmentation of the epithelium in in vivo human esophageal OCT images

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for diagnosis of esophageal diseases such as Barrett's esophagus. Given the large volume of OCT data acquired, automated analysis is needed. Here we propose a bilateral connectivity-based neural network for in vivo human esophageal OCT layer segmentation. Our method, connectivity-based CE-Net (Bicon-CE), defines layer segmentation as a combination of pixel connectivity modeling and pixel-wise tissue classification. Bicon-CE outperformed other widely used neural networks and reduced common topological prediction issues in tissues from healthy patients and from patients with Barrett's esophagus. This is the first end-to-end learning method developed for automatic segmentation of ...

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    5. Spotting colon cancer early with the 'Google Earth of colonoscopies'

      Spotting colon cancer early with the 'Google Earth of colonoscopies'

      A new optical imaging system in the works could revolutionize the diagnosis of colon cancer. Currently, colonoscopies only manage to detect 39 % of bowel cancer cases in the early stages. Now, the EU-funded PROSCOPE project's novel screening platform has the potential to save up to half of the 160 000 lives lost in Europe every year because of this disease. Today's colonoscopy procedures are based on white light video or optical narrow-band imaging.

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    6. Optical coherence tomography of small intestine allograft biopsies using a handheld surgical probe

      Optical coherence tomography of small intestine allograft biopsies using a handheld surgical probe

      Significance: The current gold standard for monitoring small intestinal transplant (IT) rejection is endoscopic visual assessment and biopsy of suspicious lesions; however, these lesions are only superficially visualized by endoscopy. Invasive biopsies provide a coarse sampling of tissue health without depicting the true presence and extent of any pathology. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) presents a potential alternative approach with significant advantages over traditional white-light endoscopy. Aim: The aim of our investigation was to evaluate OCT performance in distinguishing clinically relevant morphological features associated with IT graft failure. Approach: OCT was applied to evaluate the small bowel tissues of two rhesus ...

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    7. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $46,036 for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection. The principal investigator is Taylor Cannon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Better imaging-based screening and surveillance methods stand to improve patient outcomes in cancers that are typically diagnosed at late stages, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although success- ful proactive treatment options are available to patients diagnosed with low- or high-grade dysplasia, many at-risk patients are diagnosed at later stages with few effective treatment options, leading to high mortality rates. Dysplasia is diagnosed based ...

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    8. PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      Multimodal platform should allow cellular-level colon imaging in real-time. Improving diagnosis: PROSCOPE A project funded by the EU's Horizon 2020 program is on course to develop a new imaging system for the diagnosis of bowel cancer. PROSCOPE , officially titled "Point-of-care instrument for diagnosis and image-guided intervention of colorectal cancer," was launched in 2020 and backed by €6 million of EU funding. The project has now carried out an 18-month formal review, confirming that its research program is on target to help reduce the 160,000 deaths and €9 billion in healthcare costs associated with the disease. "Currently, only 14 ...

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    9. New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      Early intervention could prevent many of the 160,000 deaths from colon cancer in Europe each year. Colonoscopies, the gold standard for spotting bowel cancer early, can still miss up to 20% of precancerous cells. But now, thanks to a pan-European health consortium, a new concept that uses photonics to help doctors spot bowel cancer could soon prevent up to half of these deaths and save €9 billion in reduced healthcare costs. No tools exist that can look inside the colon at the cellular level in real-time to give an immediate diagnosis. But now, this European research team based across ...

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    10. A novel biliopancreatic duct endoscope combined optical coherence tomography with intraductal ultrasonography for exploring the bile duct: a diagnostic study in a porcine model

      A novel biliopancreatic duct endoscope combined optical coherence tomography with intraductal ultrasonography for exploring the bile duct: a diagnostic study in a porcine model

      Background and Aims There are many deficiencies of existing biliopancreatic duct endoscopy in the examination of early biliary and pancreatic tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a novel ultrafine separable biliopancreatic duct endoscopy device with dual modalities of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the in vivo assessment of biliopancreatic duct system during ERCP. Methods Five Bama miniature pigs were selected to probe their common bile duct and branches by using this novel equipment during ERCP. The feasibility of the procedure was evaluated by clear, clinically interpretable images obtained by using spiral ...

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    11. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients.

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients.

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $716,240 for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a prevalent allergic response to food that causes eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus. EoE can lead to esophageal remodeling, scarring, muscle hypertrophy, and stricture, decreasing quality of life and increasing risk of food impaction. Diagnosis of EoE is made by finding epithelial esophageal eosinophilia in biopsies acquired during upper endoscopy. Patients are treated with topical corticosteroids or dietary ...

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    12. Dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence tethered capsule endomicroscopy

      Dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence tethered capsule endomicroscopy

      OCT tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) is an emerging noninvasive diagnostic imaging technology for gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders. OCT measures tissue reflectivity that provides morphologic image contrast, and thus is incapable of ascertaining molecular information that can be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy. Here, we introduce an extension to OCT TCE that includes a fluorescence (FL) imaging channel for attaining complementary, co-registered molecular contrast. We present the development of an OCT-FL TCE capsule and a portable, plug-and-play OCT-FL imaging system. The technology is validated in phantom experiments and feasibility is demonstrated in a methylene blue (MB)-stained swine esophageal injury model ...

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    13. Prospects of Intraoperative Multimodal OCT Application in Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

      Prospects of Intraoperative Multimodal OCT Application in Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

      Introduction: Despite the introduction of increasingly multifaceted diagnostic techniques and the general advances in emergency abdominal and vascular surgery, the outcome of treatment of patients with acute impaired intestinal circulation remains unsatisfactory. The non-invasive and high-resolution technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used intraoperatively to assess intestine viability and associated conditions that frequently emerge under conditions of impaired blood circulation. This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of multimodal (MM) OCT for intraoperative diagnostics of both the microstructure (cross-polarization OCT mode) and microcirculation (OCT angiography mode) of the small intestine wall in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI ...

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    14. Tissue self-attention network for the segmentation of optical coherence tomography images on the esophagus

      Tissue self-attention network for the segmentation of optical coherence tomography images on the esophagus

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      Automatic segmentation of layered tissue is the key to esophageal optical coherence tomography (OCT) image processing. With the advent of deep learning techniques, frameworks based on a fully convolutional network are proved to be effective in classifying pixels on images. However, due to speckle noise and unfavorable imaging conditions, the esophageal tissue relevant to the diagnosis is not always easy to identify. An effective approach to address this problem is extracting more powerful feature maps, which have similar expressions for pixels in the same tissue and show discriminability from those from different tissues. In this study, we proposed a ...

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    15. Few-mode fiber endoscope

      Few-mode fiber endoscope

      Disclosed herein are configurations for few-mode fiber optical endoscope systems employing distal optics and few-mode, double-clad or other optical fiber wherein the systems directing an optical beam to a sample via the optical fiber; collecting light backscattered from the sample; direct the backscattered light to a detector via the optical fiber; and detect the backscattered light; wherein the directed optical beam is single mode and the collected light is one or more higher order modes.

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    16. Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural and angiographic imaging with miniaturized brushless motor probes

      Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural and angiographic imaging with miniaturized brushless motor probes

      Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) enables volumetric imaging of subsurface structure. However, applications requiring wide fields of view (FOV), rapid imaging, and higher resolutions have been challenging because multi-MHz axial scan (A-scan) rates are needed. We describe a microelectromechanical systems vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) SS-OCT technology for A-scan rates of 2.4 and 3.0 MHz. Sweep to sweep calibration and resampling are performed using dual channel acquisition of the OCT signal and a Mach Zehnder interferometer signal, overcoming inherent optical clock limitations and enabling higher performance. We demonstrate ultrahigh speed structural SS-OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging ...

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    17. Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural ...

      Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural ...

      Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) enables volumetric imaging of subsurface structure. However, applications requiring wide fields of view (FOV), rapid imaging, and higher resolutions have been challenging because multi-MHz axial scan (A-scan) rates are needed. We describe a microelectromechanical systems vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) SS-OCT technology for A-scan rates of 2.4 and 3.0 MHz. Sweep to sweep calibration and resampling are performed using dual channel acquisition of the OCT signal and a Mach Zehnder interferometer signal, overcoming inherent optical clock limitations and enabling higher performance. We demonstrate ultrahigh speed structural SS-OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging ...

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    18. Colon phantoms with cancer lesions for endoscopic characterization with optical coherence tomography

      Colon phantoms with cancer lesions for endoscopic characterization with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a growing imaging technique for real-time early diagnosis of digestive system diseases. As with other well-established medical imaging modalities, OCT requires validated imaging performance and standardized test methods for performance assessment. A major limitation in the development and testing of new imaging technologies is the lack of models for simultaneous clinical procedure emulation and characterization of healthy and diseased tissues. Currently, the former can be tested in large animal models and the latter can be tested in small animal disease models or excised human biopsy samples. In this study, a 23 cm by 23 cm ...

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    19. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Staging and Multimodal Therapy of Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

      Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Staging and Multimodal Therapy of Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

      Gastric and esophageal tumors are diverse neoplasms that involve mucosal and submucosal tissue layers and include squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, spindle cell neoplasms, neuroendocrine tumors, marginal B cell lymphomas, along with less common tumors. The worldwide burden of esophageal and gastric malignancies is significant, with esophageal and gastric cancer representing the ninth and fifth most common cancers, respectively. The approach to diagnosis and staging of these lesions is multimodal and includes a combination of gastrointestinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and cross-sectional imaging. Likewise, therapy is multidisciplinary and combines therapeutic endoscopy, surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapeutic tools. Future directions for diagnosis of ...

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      Mentions: Brown University
    20. Feasibility and safety of tethered capsule endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus in a multi-center study

      Feasibility and safety of tethered capsule endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus in a multi-center study

      Background & Aims Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) involves swallowing small tethered pill that implements optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, procuring high resolution images of the whole esophagus. Here, we demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility and safety of TCE and a portable OCT imaging system in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in a multi-center (5-site) clinical study. Methods Untreated patients with BE as per endoscopic biopsy diagnosis were eligible to participate in the study. TCE procedures were performed in unsedated patients by either doctors or nurses. After the capsule was swallowed, the device continuously obtained 10-μm-resolution cross-sectional images as it ...

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    21. Tethered capsule provides high-quality images for Barrett’s esophagus

      Tethered capsule provides high-quality images for Barrett’s esophagus

      Researchers were able obtain high-quality images of Barrett’s esophagus using tethered capsule endomicroscopy, according to study results. Guillermo Tearney , MD, PhD, from the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues wrote that the capsule, which uses optical coherence tomography, (OCT-TCE) provides 3D microscopic images of the esophagus for BE. “OCT-TCE does not require sedation, obtains microscopic images of the entire esophagus, and is a faster and more convenient procedure,” they wrote. “Our group and others have successfully conducted OCT-TCE in pilot, single-center studies showing exemplary images that demonstrate the potential of this technology to improve upper ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer: validation in a murine model

      Optical coherence tomography for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer: validation in a murine model

      Background: There is an urgent need to develop a non-invasive imaging technique for detecting colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Technology for early and real-time microscopic assessments to select the most representative biopsy sites would also be of clinical value. In this study, we explored the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting local lesions to demonstrate its potential for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Methods: An azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate mouse model of colorectal carcinogenesis was utilized. Mice were imaged by OCT, and colorectal tissue sections were observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The results of the ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    23. Stick-slip nonuniform rotation distortion correction in distal scanning optical coherence tomography catheters

      Stick-slip nonuniform rotation distortion correction in distal scanning optical coherence tomography catheters

      We present a robust and fiducial-marker-free algorithm that can identify and correct stick-slip distortion caused by nonuniform rotation (or beam scanning) in distally scanned catheters for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. This algorithm employs spatial frequency analysis to select and remove distortions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this algorithm on images acquired from ex vivo rat colon with a distally scanned DC motor-based endoscope. The proposed algorithm can be applied to general endoscopic OCT images for correcting nonuniform rotation distortion.

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    24. The Use of a OCT Probe in Assessment of Endoscopic and Surgical Resection Specimen of Gastrointestinal Tract

      The Use of a OCT Probe in Assessment of Endoscopic and Surgical Resection Specimen of Gastrointestinal Tract

      This is a pilot study aiming to investigate the ability of a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) probe in assessing the different layers of the gastrointestinal tract and the depth of invasion of early neoplasia, utilising surgically and endoscopically resected specimens Endoscopic treatment of early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract has been established as the standard therapy in the past decade. Various endoscopic resection techniques have been developed, such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), to ensure complete removal of such lesions and avoid recurrence. Successful endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasia relies on accurate ...

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