1. Articles in category: Gastroenterology

    1-24 of 661 1 2 3 4 ... 26 27 28 »
    1. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $46,036 for Volumetric mapping of tissue microstructure with OCT for enhanced dysplasia detection. The principal investigator is Taylor Cannon. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Better imaging-based screening and surveillance methods stand to improve patient outcomes in cancers that are typically diagnosed at late stages, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although success- ful proactive treatment options are available to patients diagnosed with low- or high-grade dysplasia, many at-risk patients are diagnosed at later stages with few effective treatment options, leading to high mortality rates. Dysplasia is diagnosed based ...

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    2. PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      Multimodal platform should allow cellular-level colon imaging in real-time. Improving diagnosis: PROSCOPE A project funded by the EU's Horizon 2020 program is on course to develop a new imaging system for the diagnosis of bowel cancer. PROSCOPE , officially titled "Point-of-care instrument for diagnosis and image-guided intervention of colorectal cancer," was launched in 2020 and backed by €6 million of EU funding. The project has now carried out an 18-month formal review, confirming that its research program is on target to help reduce the 160,000 deaths and €9 billion in healthcare costs associated with the disease. "Currently, only 14 ...

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    3. New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      Early intervention could prevent many of the 160,000 deaths from colon cancer in Europe each year. Colonoscopies, the gold standard for spotting bowel cancer early, can still miss up to 20% of precancerous cells. But now, thanks to a pan-European health consortium, a new concept that uses photonics to help doctors spot bowel cancer could soon prevent up to half of these deaths and save €9 billion in reduced healthcare costs. No tools exist that can look inside the colon at the cellular level in real-time to give an immediate diagnosis. But now, this European research team based across ...

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    4. A novel biliopancreatic duct endoscope combined optical coherence tomography with intraductal ultrasonography for exploring the bile duct: a diagnostic study in a porcine model

      A novel biliopancreatic duct endoscope combined optical coherence tomography with intraductal ultrasonography for exploring the bile duct: a diagnostic study in a porcine model

      Background and Aims There are many deficiencies of existing biliopancreatic duct endoscopy in the examination of early biliary and pancreatic tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a novel ultrafine separable biliopancreatic duct endoscopy device with dual modalities of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the in vivo assessment of biliopancreatic duct system during ERCP. Methods Five Bama miniature pigs were selected to probe their common bile duct and branches by using this novel equipment during ERCP. The feasibility of the procedure was evaluated by clear, clinically interpretable images obtained by using spiral ...

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    5. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients.

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients.

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $716,240 for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a prevalent allergic response to food that causes eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus. EoE can lead to esophageal remodeling, scarring, muscle hypertrophy, and stricture, decreasing quality of life and increasing risk of food impaction. Diagnosis of EoE is made by finding epithelial esophageal eosinophilia in biopsies acquired during upper endoscopy. Patients are treated with topical corticosteroids or dietary ...

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    6. Dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence tethered capsule endomicroscopy

      Dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence tethered capsule endomicroscopy

      OCT tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) is an emerging noninvasive diagnostic imaging technology for gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders. OCT measures tissue reflectivity that provides morphologic image contrast, and thus is incapable of ascertaining molecular information that can be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy. Here, we introduce an extension to OCT TCE that includes a fluorescence (FL) imaging channel for attaining complementary, co-registered molecular contrast. We present the development of an OCT-FL TCE capsule and a portable, plug-and-play OCT-FL imaging system. The technology is validated in phantom experiments and feasibility is demonstrated in a methylene blue (MB)-stained swine esophageal injury model ...

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    7. Prospects of Intraoperative Multimodal OCT Application in Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

      Prospects of Intraoperative Multimodal OCT Application in Patients with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

      Introduction: Despite the introduction of increasingly multifaceted diagnostic techniques and the general advances in emergency abdominal and vascular surgery, the outcome of treatment of patients with acute impaired intestinal circulation remains unsatisfactory. The non-invasive and high-resolution technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used intraoperatively to assess intestine viability and associated conditions that frequently emerge under conditions of impaired blood circulation. This study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of multimodal (MM) OCT for intraoperative diagnostics of both the microstructure (cross-polarization OCT mode) and microcirculation (OCT angiography mode) of the small intestine wall in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI ...

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    8. Tissue self-attention network for the segmentation of optical coherence tomography images on the esophagus

      Tissue self-attention network for the segmentation of optical coherence tomography images on the esophagus

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      Automatic segmentation of layered tissue is the key to esophageal optical coherence tomography (OCT) image processing. With the advent of deep learning techniques, frameworks based on a fully convolutional network are proved to be effective in classifying pixels on images. However, due to speckle noise and unfavorable imaging conditions, the esophageal tissue relevant to the diagnosis is not always easy to identify. An effective approach to address this problem is extracting more powerful feature maps, which have similar expressions for pixels in the same tissue and show discriminability from those from different tissues. In this study, we proposed a ...

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    9. Few-mode fiber endoscope

      Few-mode fiber endoscope

      Disclosed herein are configurations for few-mode fiber optical endoscope systems employing distal optics and few-mode, double-clad or other optical fiber wherein the systems directing an optical beam to a sample via the optical fiber; collecting light backscattered from the sample; direct the backscattered light to a detector via the optical fiber; and detect the backscattered light; wherein the directed optical beam is single mode and the collected light is one or more higher order modes.

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    10. Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural and angiographic imaging with miniaturized brushless motor probes

      Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural and angiographic imaging with miniaturized brushless motor probes

      Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) enables volumetric imaging of subsurface structure. However, applications requiring wide fields of view (FOV), rapid imaging, and higher resolutions have been challenging because multi-MHz axial scan (A-scan) rates are needed. We describe a microelectromechanical systems vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) SS-OCT technology for A-scan rates of 2.4 and 3.0 MHz. Sweep to sweep calibration and resampling are performed using dual channel acquisition of the OCT signal and a Mach Zehnder interferometer signal, overcoming inherent optical clock limitations and enabling higher performance. We demonstrate ultrahigh speed structural SS-OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging ...

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    11. Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural ...

      Multi-MHz MEMS-VCSEL swept-source optical coherence tomography for endoscopic structural ...

      Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) enables volumetric imaging of subsurface structure. However, applications requiring wide fields of view (FOV), rapid imaging, and higher resolutions have been challenging because multi-MHz axial scan (A-scan) rates are needed. We describe a microelectromechanical systems vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) SS-OCT technology for A-scan rates of 2.4 and 3.0 MHz. Sweep to sweep calibration and resampling are performed using dual channel acquisition of the OCT signal and a Mach Zehnder interferometer signal, overcoming inherent optical clock limitations and enabling higher performance. We demonstrate ultrahigh speed structural SS-OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging ...

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    12. Colon phantoms with cancer lesions for endoscopic characterization with optical coherence tomography

      Colon phantoms with cancer lesions for endoscopic characterization with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a growing imaging technique for real-time early diagnosis of digestive system diseases. As with other well-established medical imaging modalities, OCT requires validated imaging performance and standardized test methods for performance assessment. A major limitation in the development and testing of new imaging technologies is the lack of models for simultaneous clinical procedure emulation and characterization of healthy and diseased tissues. Currently, the former can be tested in large animal models and the latter can be tested in small animal disease models or excised human biopsy samples. In this study, a 23 cm by 23 cm ...

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    13. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Staging and Multimodal Therapy of Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

      Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Staging and Multimodal Therapy of Esophageal and Gastric Tumors

      Gastric and esophageal tumors are diverse neoplasms that involve mucosal and submucosal tissue layers and include squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, spindle cell neoplasms, neuroendocrine tumors, marginal B cell lymphomas, along with less common tumors. The worldwide burden of esophageal and gastric malignancies is significant, with esophageal and gastric cancer representing the ninth and fifth most common cancers, respectively. The approach to diagnosis and staging of these lesions is multimodal and includes a combination of gastrointestinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and cross-sectional imaging. Likewise, therapy is multidisciplinary and combines therapeutic endoscopy, surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapeutic tools. Future directions for diagnosis of ...

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      Mentions: Brown University
    14. Feasibility and safety of tethered capsule endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus in a multi-center study

      Feasibility and safety of tethered capsule endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus in a multi-center study

      Background & Aims Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) involves swallowing small tethered pill that implements optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, procuring high resolution images of the whole esophagus. Here, we demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility and safety of TCE and a portable OCT imaging system in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in a multi-center (5-site) clinical study. Methods Untreated patients with BE as per endoscopic biopsy diagnosis were eligible to participate in the study. TCE procedures were performed in unsedated patients by either doctors or nurses. After the capsule was swallowed, the device continuously obtained 10-μm-resolution cross-sectional images as it ...

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    15. Tethered capsule provides high-quality images for Barrett’s esophagus

      Tethered capsule provides high-quality images for Barrett’s esophagus

      Researchers were able obtain high-quality images of Barrett’s esophagus using tethered capsule endomicroscopy, according to study results. Guillermo Tearney , MD, PhD, from the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues wrote that the capsule, which uses optical coherence tomography, (OCT-TCE) provides 3D microscopic images of the esophagus for BE. “OCT-TCE does not require sedation, obtains microscopic images of the entire esophagus, and is a faster and more convenient procedure,” they wrote. “Our group and others have successfully conducted OCT-TCE in pilot, single-center studies showing exemplary images that demonstrate the potential of this technology to improve upper ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer: validation in a murine model

      Optical coherence tomography for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer: validation in a murine model

      Background: There is an urgent need to develop a non-invasive imaging technique for detecting colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Technology for early and real-time microscopic assessments to select the most representative biopsy sites would also be of clinical value. In this study, we explored the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting local lesions to demonstrate its potential for the early detection of colorectal dysplasia and cancer. Methods: An azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate mouse model of colorectal carcinogenesis was utilized. Mice were imaged by OCT, and colorectal tissue sections were observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The results of the ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    17. Stick-slip nonuniform rotation distortion correction in distal scanning optical coherence tomography catheters

      Stick-slip nonuniform rotation distortion correction in distal scanning optical coherence tomography catheters

      We present a robust and fiducial-marker-free algorithm that can identify and correct stick-slip distortion caused by nonuniform rotation (or beam scanning) in distally scanned catheters for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. This algorithm employs spatial frequency analysis to select and remove distortions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this algorithm on images acquired from ex vivo rat colon with a distally scanned DC motor-based endoscope. The proposed algorithm can be applied to general endoscopic OCT images for correcting nonuniform rotation distortion.

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    18. The Use of a OCT Probe in Assessment of Endoscopic and Surgical Resection Specimen of Gastrointestinal Tract

      The Use of a OCT Probe in Assessment of Endoscopic and Surgical Resection Specimen of Gastrointestinal Tract

      This is a pilot study aiming to investigate the ability of a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) probe in assessing the different layers of the gastrointestinal tract and the depth of invasion of early neoplasia, utilising surgically and endoscopically resected specimens Endoscopic treatment of early neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract has been established as the standard therapy in the past decade. Various endoscopic resection techniques have been developed, such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), to ensure complete removal of such lesions and avoid recurrence. Successful endoscopic resection of early gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasia relies on accurate ...

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    19. Dual-Stage U-Shape Convolutional Network for Esophageal Tissue Segmentation in OCT Images

      Dual-Stage U-Shape Convolutional Network for Esophageal Tissue Segmentation in OCT Images

      Automatic segmentation is the crucial step for esophageal optical coherence tomography (OCT) image processing, which is able to highlight diagnosis-related tissue layers and provide characteristics such as shape and thickness for esophageal disease diagnosis. This study proposes a dual-stage framework using a specifically designed encoder-decoder network configuration for accurate and reliable esophageal layer segmentation, which is named as the dual-stage U-shape convolutional network (D-UCN). The proposed approach utilized one UCN to locate the target tissue region, which is followed by another UCN with similar architecture to achieve the final segmentation. In this way, the proposed strategy effectively solves the problems ...

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    20. Correction of circumferential and longitudinal motion distortion in high-speed catheter/endoscope-based optical coherence tomography

      Correction of circumferential and longitudinal motion distortion in high-speed catheter/endoscope-based optical coherence tomography

      Catheter/endoscope-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful modality that visualizes structural information in luminal organs. Increases in OCT speed have reduced motion artifacts by enabling acquisition faster than or comparable to the time scales of physiological motion. However motion distortion remains a challenge because catheter/endoscope OCT imaging involves both circumferential and longitudinal scanning of tissue. This paper presents a novel image processing method to estimate and correct motion distortion in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions using a single en face image from a volumetric data set. The circumferential motion distortion is estimated and corrected using the ...

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    21. Advanced endoscopic imaging for detecting and guiding therapy of early neoplasias of the esophagus

      Advanced endoscopic imaging for detecting and guiding therapy of early neoplasias of the esophagus

      Esophageal cancers, largely adenocarcinoma in Western countries and squamous cell cancer in Asia, present a significant burden of disease and remain one of the most lethal of cancers. Key to improving survival is the development and adoption of new imaging modalities to identify early neoplastic lesions, which may be small, multifocal, subsurface, and difficult to detect by standard endoscopy. Such advanced imaging is particularly relevant with the emergence of ablative techniques that often require multiple endoscopic sessions and may be complicated by bleeding, pain, strictures, and recurrences. Assessing the specific location, depth of involvement, and features correlated with neoplastic progression ...

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    22. Visualization of Bacterial Colonization and Cellular Layers in a Gut-on-a-Chip System Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visualization of Bacterial Colonization and Cellular Layers in a Gut-on-a-Chip System Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging of cellular layers in a gut-on-a-chip system has been confined to two-dimensional (2D)-imaging through conventional light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) yielding three-dimensional- and 2D-cross-sectional reconstructions. However, CLSM requires staining and is unsuitable for longitudinal visualization. Here, we compare merits of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with those of CLSM and light microscopy for visualization of intestinal epithelial layers during protection by a probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain and a simultaneous pathogen challenge by an Escherichia coli strain. OCT cross-sectional images yielded film thicknesses that coincided with end-point thicknesses derived from cross-sectional CLSM images. Light microscopy on histological ...

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    23. Endoscopic imaging in inflammatory bowel disease: current developments and emerging strategies

      Endoscopic imaging in inflammatory bowel disease: current developments and emerging strategies

      Developments in enhanced and magnified endoscopy have signified major advances in endoscopic imaging of ileocolonic pathology in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used to augment the benefits of these advanced techniques. Nevertheless, treatment of IBD patients is frustrated by high rates of non-response to therapy, while delayed detection and failures to detect neoplastic lesions impede successful surveillance. A possible solution is offered by molecular imaging, which adds functional imaging data to mucosal morphology assessment through visualizing biological parameters. Other label-free modalities enable visualization beyond the mucosal surface without the need of tracers.

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