1. Articles in category: Gastroenterology

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    1. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophlic Esophagitis Patients

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophlic Esophagitis Patients

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $683,034 for Less Invasive Assessment of Inflammation and Subepithelial Remodeling in Eosinophlic Esophagitis Patients. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a prevalent allergic response to food that causes eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus. EoE can lead to esophageal remodeling, scarring, muscle hypertrophy, and stricture, decreasing quality of life and increasing risk of food impaction. Diagnosis of EoE is made by finding epithelial esophageal eosinophilia in biopsies acquired during upper endoscopy. Patients are treated with topical corticosteroids or dietary ...

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    2. A detailed comparison between the endoscopic images using blue laser imaging and three-dimensional reconstructed pathological images of colonic lesions

      A detailed comparison between the endoscopic images using blue laser imaging and three-dimensional reconstructed pathological images of colonic lesions

      Blue laser/light imaging (BLI) is an image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) technique that can provide an accurate diagnosis by closely observing the surface structure of various colonic lesions. However, complete correspondence between endoscopic images and pathological images has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to accurately compare endoscopic images and the pathological images using a three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed pathological model. Continuous thin layer sections were prepared from colonic tissue specimens and immunohistochemically stained for CD34 and CAM5.2. Three-dimensional reconstructed images were created by superimposing immunohistochemically stained pathological images. The endoscopic image with magnifying BLI was compared with ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography imaging of excised canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma tumors

      Optical coherence tomography imaging of excised canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma tumors

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that has been investigated for real‐time surgical margin evaluation in human breast cancer patients. Previous veterinary OCT studies have been limited to surgical margin imaging for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) tumors. To the authors knowledge, OCT has never been used to characterize or evaluate other types of neoplasia in dogs. The goal of this study was to characterize the OCT imaging appearance of apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) in excised ex vivo specimens from five client‐owned dogs. All excised tissue surgical margins were imaged using a clinical spectral ...

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    4. Optical coherent tomography to evaluate the degree of inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

      Optical coherent tomography to evaluate the degree of inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

      Background: There is an urgent need to develop a noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of early inflammatory lesions or early and real-time microscopic assessment before selecting the most representative biopsy sites. Methods: In this study, a dextran sulfate sodium colitis model was developed, and intestinal histological damage scores measured the degree of inflammation in colitis. According to these scores, 6 parameters were designed for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) sections based on morphological changes, and 2 parameters were designed for optical coherence tomography (OCT) images to measure submucosal edema by morphological changes to evaluate inflammation degrees in the colon. Spearman ...

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    5. TRANS-SEROSAL MULTIMODAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FOR VISUALIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND BLOOD CIRCULATION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE WALL

      TRANS-SEROSAL MULTIMODAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FOR VISUALIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND BLOOD CIRCULATION OF THE SMALL INTESTINE WALL

      The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of trans-serosal multimodal OCT (MM OCT) in in vivo detecting of changes in microstructure and blood circulation of the small intestine wall caused by arteriovenous ischemia resulted from intestine strangulation. Materials and Methods. In experiments on Wistar rats (n=22), we examined the small intestine wall in vivo using MM OCT; the access to the intestine was reached through laparotomy. The microvasculature and microstructure of the wall were studied before and after acute arteriovenous ischemia created by ligation of a small bowel segment. The results were then added with data ...

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    6. Tethered capsule en face optical coherence tomography for imaging Barrett’s esophagus in unsedated patients

      Tethered capsule en face optical coherence tomography for imaging Barrett’s esophagus in unsedated patients

      Objective Detection of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) at points of care outside the endoscopy suite may improve screening access and reduce esophageal adenocarcinoma mortality. Tethered capsule optical coherence tomography (OCT) can volumetrically image esophageal mucosa and detect BE in unsedated patients. We investigated ultrahigh-speed tethered capsule, swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) in unsedated patients, improved device design, developed procedural techniques, measured how capsule contact and longitudinal pullback non-uniformity affect coverage, and assessed patient toleration. Design OCT was performed in 16 patients prior to endoscopic surveillance/treatment. Unsedated patients swallowed the capsule with small sips of water and the esophagus imaged by retracting ...

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    7. Full-field optical coherence tomography: novel imaging technique for extemporaneous high-resolution analysis of mucosal architecture in human gut biopsies

      Full-field optical coherence tomography: novel imaging technique for extemporaneous high-resolution analysis of mucosal architecture in human gut biopsies

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is an imaging technique of biological tissue based on tissue light reflectance analysis. We evaluated the feasibility of imaging fresh digestive mucosal biopsies after a quick mounting procedure (5 min) using two distinct modalities of FFOCT. In static FFOCT mode, we gained high-resolution images of general gut tissue-specific architecture, such as oesophageal papillae, gastric pits, duodenal villi and colonic crypts. In dynamic FFOCT mode, we imaged individual epithelial cells of the mucosal lining with a cellular or subcellular resolution and identified cellular components of the lamina propria. FFOCT represents a promising dye-free imaging tool for ...

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    8. a/LCI-OCT Pilot in Esophagus

      a/LCI-OCT Pilot in Esophagus

      This study will test a newly developed dual modality probe, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI), in the human esophagus to determine 1) whether adequate tissue contact can be attained by the probe to acquire high quality images, and 2) to identify if these images can discern whether the imaged tissue is squamous or Barrett's Esophagus (BE) epithelium. This pilot study will test the operating characteristics of the probe and collect data for further optimization of the a/LCI-OCT device.

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    9. Merit Medical Reports Earnings for Quarter Ended March 31, 2020, Withdraws FY 2020 Guidance

      Merit Medical Reports Earnings for Quarter Ended March 31, 2020, Withdraws FY 2020 Guidance

      Merit Medical Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: MMSI), a leading manufacturer and marketer of proprietary disposable devices used in interventional, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, particularly in cardiology, radiology, oncology, critical care and endoscopy, today announced revenue of $243.5 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, an increase of 2.2% over revenue of $238.3 million for the quarter ended March 31, 2019....$1.4M Represents write-off of inventory related to our distribution agreement with NinePoint Medical, Inc.

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    10. Automatic differentiation of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia and columnar epithelia through feature structure extraction using OCT

      Automatic differentiation of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia and columnar epithelia through feature structure extraction using OCT

      As a type of precancerous lesion, metaplasia is usually considered to be associated with developing cancer. In clinical practice, surveillance of metaplastic cases usually relies on excisional biopsy followed by histological processing and analysis. As it is an invasive method accompanied by other complications, non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) can complement the existing method by enabling large area scanning. However, because it takes time to review large amount of data acquired from the whole suspected mucosal areas, an automatic classification method is preferred to alleviate the laboring hours and to avoid ‘sampling errors’ during image analysis ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography of the pancreatic and bile ducts: are we ready for prime time?

      Optical coherence tomography of the pancreatic and bile ducts: are we ready for prime time?

      Background and study aims  First-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to increase diagnostic sensitivity for malignant biliary and pancreatic-duct strictures. A newer OCT imaging system, NVision Volumetric Laser Endomicroscopy (VLE), allows for in vivo cross-sectional imaging of the ductal wall at the microstructure level during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate characteristics on OCT that are predictive of benign and malignant strictures. Patients and methods  Consecutive patients from six centers who underwent OCT between September 2016 and September 2017 were included in a dedicated registry. OCT images were analyzed, and ...

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    12. NinePoint Medical Receives NIH Grant for AI Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Algorithm for Identification of Dysplasia in Patients with Barrett Esophagus

      NinePoint Medical Receives NIH Grant for AI Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Algorithm for Identification of Dysplasia in Patients with Barrett Esophagus

      NinePoint Medical Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $852,440 for AI Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Algorithm for Identification of dysplasia in Patients with Barrett Esophagus. The principal investigator is Eman Namati. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The goal of this project is to develop a based computer aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithm for identification of regions at risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the esophagus. EAC is one of the deadliest cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%; yet the standard of care for detecting precursors to ...

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    13. University of Pittsburg Receives NIH Grant for Three Dimensional nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping based Taxonomy of Precursor Lesions for Predicting Colorectal Cancer Risk

      University of Pittsburg Receives NIH Grant for Three Dimensional nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping based Taxonomy of Precursor Lesions for Predicting Colorectal Cancer Risk

      University of Pittsburg Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $437,317 for Three Dimensional nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping based Taxonomy of Precursor Lesions for Predicting Colorectal Cancer Risk. The principal investigator is Yang Liu. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, with a concomitant increased emphasis on detection of even the smallest adenomas, has resulted in a new clinical challenge. An increased number of people are being identified as harboring an adenomatous polyp, the benign precursor to CRC. These patients are recommended to undergo surveillance, or repeated colonoscopy for monitoring for recurrence ...

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    14. Miniaturized precalibration-based Lissajous scanning fiber probe for high speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography

      Miniaturized precalibration-based Lissajous scanning fiber probe for high speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography

      We present a miniaturized precalibration-based forward-viewing Lissajous scanning fiber probe for high speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe is based on an asymmetric fiber cantilever driven by the piezoelectric bender to realize two-dimensional (2D) Lissajous scanning. The stability and repeatability of the Lissajous scanning trajectory of the probe is tested by a position sensitive detector (PSD)-based position calibration setup. The two orthogonal resonant frequencies of the cantilever are measured to be 167.2 and 121 Hz. A 25 µm focal spot is formed at the working distance of 5 mm by the graded-index (GRIN) lens, and the ...

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    15. NIR-II dual-modal optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic imaging-guided dose-control cancer chemotherapy

      NIR-II dual-modal optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic imaging-guided dose-control cancer chemotherapy

      In this study, an organic nano-drug delivery platform was constructed as a biocompatible cancer chemotherapeutic system, in which clini-cally approved sorafenib was loaded in the redox-responsive polymeric micelles, enabling dose-control release of drug to cancer tissues. In addition, visualizing tumor microenvironment changes is also essential for cancer chemotherapy, which can provide a priori and feedback control of drug delivery with reduced side effect. Therefore, second near-infrared window (NIR-II) dual-modal optical coherence tomogra-phy (OCT) and photoacoustic imaging were performed for real-time visualizing tumor microenvironment changes in vivo during chemo-therapy. In particular, the tumor angiogenesis, the vascular networks density change, and the ...

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    16. Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Microvasculature in Colon Field Carcinogenesis: Clinical-Biological Implications

      Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Microvasculature in Colon Field Carcinogenesis: Clinical-Biological Implications

      Boston Medical Center Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $683,687 for Microvasculature in Colon Field Carcinogenesis: Clinical-Biological Implications. The principal investigator is Hemat Roy. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall goal of this project is to develop a rectal probe for minimally intrusive highly accurate risk stratification with the vision of utilizing it for a precision medicine approach to colon cancer screening and also potentially chemoprevention (companion biomarker). We will employ cutting edge biophotonics (ISOCT) and biological approaches combined with large scale human studies to elucidate the clinical/biological implications of mucosal early increase in ...

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    17. Beating Cancer - One Patient at a Time

      Beating Cancer - One Patient at a Time

      Like most people, John Gifford wasn't looking forward to a colonoscopy when he arrived on the UCI Medical Center campus in Orange in 2018. The Riverside man, 65, was concerned about his family history of colorectal cancer and had dutifully scheduled an appointment with UCI Health gastroenterologist Dr. William Karnes. The exam turned out to be intriguing and enlightening - a far cry from what one expects during a colonoscopy, Gifford recalls with a laugh.

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    18. Capsule Endomicroscopy for Visualization of the Small Intestine in EED Population in Pakistan

      Capsule Endomicroscopy for Visualization of the Small Intestine in EED Population in Pakistan

      The laboratory has developed a minimally invasive screening method known as tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) for imaging intestinal mucosa. With TCE, an unsedated subject swallows a tethered pill, which captures microscopic images of the entire esophagus, stomach, and small intestine, as it is naturally transits these organs via peristalsis and under the influence of gravity. The capsule implements a microscopic imaging technology called optical coherence tomography (OCT) that obtains 10-µm-resolution cross-sectional images of tissue. The procedure is brief, well tolerated, and can be much less expensive than endoscopy. The Investigators have implemented TCE for imaging the upper gastrointestinal tract ...

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    19. Steerable OCT catheter for real-time assistance during teleoperated endoscopic treatment of colorectal cancer

      Steerable OCT catheter for real-time assistance during teleoperated endoscopic treatment of colorectal cancer

      When detected early, colorectal cancer can be treated with minimally invasive flexible endoscopy. However, since only specialized experts can delineate margins and perform endoscopic resections of lesions, patients still often undergo colon resections. To better assist in the performance of surgical tasks, a robotized flexible interventional endoscope was previously developed, having two additional side channels for surgical instrument. We propose to enhance the imaging capabilities of this device by combining it with optical coherence tomography (OCT). For this purpose, we have developed a new steerable OCT instrument with an outer diameter of 3.5 mm. The steerable instrument is terminated ...

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    20. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for A Tethered Capsule Endoscopic-Endomicroscopic (TEEM) Approach for Improving Upper GI Tract Diagnosis

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for A Tethered Capsule Endoscopic-Endomicroscopic (TEEM) Approach for Improving Upper GI Tract Diagnosis

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $627,739 for A Tethered Capsule Endoscopic-Endomicroscopic (TEEM) Approach for Improving Upper GI Tract Diagnosis. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The diagnosis of most upper GI tract conditions is currently accomplished by upper endoscopy with biopsy (EGD). EGD is costly primarily because it requires conscious sedation, necessitating that procedures be conducted by physicians in a specialized endoscopy suite, and that patients take time away from work and family. Another limitation is sampling error - endoscopic biopsies are frequently random, resulting in many instances ...

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    21. Automatic vessel lumen segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

      Automatic vessel lumen segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

      This paper presents a graph based method to automatically and accurately segment the lumen borders from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The proposed method unravels the OCT images from the Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates so that the segmentation is transferred into a height field delineation problem. In effect, the method imposes a simplistic star shape prior but without the bias towards narrower lumen size. The lumen border is identified as the solution to finding the minimum closed set on a node-weighed, directed graph. In order to cope with both the variability in imaging condition and different forms of image ...

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    22. Duke University School Receives NIH Grant for Advanced A/LCI systems for Improved Clinical Utility

      Duke University School Receives NIH Grant for Advanced A/LCI systems for Improved Clinical Utility

      Duke University School Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $436,303 for Advanced A/LCI systems for Improved Clinical Utility. The principal investigator is Adam Wax. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There is a critical unmet need for in vivo detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a neoplastic tissue state resulting from chronic acid reflux. BE is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, a disease with a high morbidity rate. Patients with BE undergo periodic endoscopic surveillance with systematic biopsy to search for pre-cancerous, dysplastic tissues, at which point therapeutic treatment ...

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    23. Deep-Learning System Detects Neoplasia in Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus With Higher Accuracy Than Endoscopists in a Multi-Step Training and Validation Study with Benchmarking

      Deep-Learning System Detects Neoplasia in Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus With Higher Accuracy Than Endoscopists in a Multi-Step Training and Validation Study with Benchmarking

      Background & Aims We aimed to develop and validate a deep-learning computer-aided detection (CAD) system, suitable for use in real time in clinical practice, to improve endoscopic detection of early neoplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Methods We developed a hybrid ResNet-UNet model CAD system using 5 independent endoscopy datasets. We performed pre-training using 494,364 labelled endoscopic images collected from all intestinal segments. Then, we used 1704 unique esophageal high-resolution images of rigorously confirmed early-stage neoplasia from patients with BE, and non-dysplastic BE, derived from 669 patients. System performance was assessed using datasets 4 and 5. Dataset 5 ...

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    24. Machine learning, imaging technique may boost colon cancer diagnosis

      Machine learning, imaging technique may boost colon cancer diagnosis

      Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer worldwide, with about 90% of cases occurring in people 50 or older. Arising from the inner surface, or muscosal layer, of the colon, cancerous cells can penetrate through the deeper layers of the colon and spread to other organs. Left untreated, the disease is fatal. Current colon cancer screening is performed by flexible colonoscopy. The procedure involves visual inspection of the mucosal lining of the colon and rectum with a camera mounted on an endoscope. Abnormal appearing areas are then biopsied for analysis. Although this is the current standard of ...

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