1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    265-288 of 632 « 1 2 ... 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 25 26 27 »
    1. Interest of High Definition Optical Coherent Tomography (HD‐OCT) for imaging of melanoma

      Interest of High Definition Optical Coherent Tomography (HD‐OCT) for imaging of melanoma

      We read with interest two recent studies which established that High Definition Optical Coherent Tomography (HD-OCT), a newly released skin imaging technique, facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers (1, 2). However, to the best of our knowledge there is no data available regarding HD-OCT and melanoma. A 61-year-old man, skin type II, with a previous history of melanoma 10 years before consulted for a follow-up visit. Clinical and dermoscopic examination pointed to two suspicious pigmented lesions in the right pectoral region and on the left scapula. RCM examination using a commercially available VivaScope ® 1500 (Lucid-Tech Inc., Henrietta ...

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    2. In vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) in periocular basal cell carcinoma: correlations between in vivo OCT images and postoperative histology

      In vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) in periocular basal cell carcinoma: correlations between in vivo OCT images and postoperative histology

      Aim To investigate in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Methods Consecutive patients with periocular BCC were prospectively investigated with VivoSight OCT imaging prior to surgical excision. Histology sections were compared with OCT images with regard to lesion measurements (x, y and z dimensions) and histological features. Results A total of 15 patients with biopsy proven BCC were recruited. The OCT horizontal margins correlated positively with histology (r=0.8 and 0.66, x and y axes) and could be identified in 3/15 (x axis) and 6/15 (y axis) cases. The ...

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    3. Functional and structural age-related changes in the scalp skin of Caucasian women

      Functional and structural age-related changes in the scalp skin of Caucasian women

      Background Ageing of the skin, being chronological or sun induced is highly documented. Scalp, as a specific skin site, has, however, received little attention. This work attempted to describe functional and structural alterations that occur in scalp skin with ageing. Methods Two different age groups (N = 15 each; 30 ± 3 and 62 ± 2 y.o. respectively) of Caucasian women participated in the study. Some functional parameters (TEWL, Sebum level, Hydration, T°) were recorded on the vertex part of the scalp, after having cut the hair flat on the scalp surface. Imaging of some structural criteria was carried out using high-frequency ...

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    4. Calluses, Corns and Heel Fissures

      Calluses, Corns and Heel Fissures

      Hypertrophy of the plantar stratum corneum (SC) of the epidermis (also known as hyperkeratosis) is one of the skin's primary protective responses, triggered by either physiological stresses, a result of underlying disease (eg, psoriasis, palmoplantar keratoderma), or external mechanical stresses. In the case of the foot the most common presentations of hyperkeratosis are: anhidrosis, calluses, corns and heel fissures. This article reviews the current evidence in the field of hyperkeratosis of the foot and will present the treatment options available to practitioners and patients. The gaps in the knowledge surrounding the efficacy of treatments are discussed and novel methods ...

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    5. Feasibility of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for anti-spoof sub-surface fingerprinting

      Feasibility of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for anti-spoof sub-surface fingerprinting

      We propose the use of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) to deliver additional biometrics associated with the finger that could complement existing fingerprint technology for law enforcement applications. The current study extends the existing fingerprint paradigm by measuring additional biometrics associated with sub-surface finger tissue such as sub-surface fingerprints, sweat glands, and the pattern of the capillary bed to yield a user-friendly cost effective and anti-spoof multi-mode biometric solution associated with the finger. To our knowledge no other method has been able to capture sub-surface fingerprint, papillary pattern and horizontal vessel pattern in a single scan or to show ...

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    6. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment

      Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment

      A combined high-resolution reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)/optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument for assessing skin burn gravity has been built and tested. This instruments allows for visualizing skin intracellular details with submicron resolution in the RCM mode and morphological and birefringence modifications to depths on the order of 1.2 mm in the OCT mode. Preliminary testing of the dual modality imaging approach has been performed on the skin of volunteers with some burn scars and on normal and thermally-injured Epiderm FTTM skin constructs. The initial results show that these two optical technologies have complementary capabilities that can offer the ...

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    7. Positional differences and aging changes in Japanese woman epidermal thickness and corneous thickness determined by OCT (optical coherence tomography)

      Positional differences and aging changes in Japanese woman epidermal thickness and corneous thickness determined by OCT (optical coherence tomography)

      Background/purpose A number of studies of the internal structure of Japanese woman's skin are now performed by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a technique capable of visualizing the internal structure in a non-invasive manner. Methods We measured the epidermal and corneous thicknesses at 11 sites in 116 healthy female volunteers aged from teens to sixties to examine possible positional differences and aging changes. Results The epidermal thickness determined at the 11 sites averaged 68.6 ± 23.0 μm (mean ± SD) and the corneous thickness averaged 14.1 ± 1.80 μm, the values of which were thinner ...

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      Mentions: Tetsuya Tsugita
    8. Optical coherence tomography: its role in daily dermatological practice

      Optical coherence tomography: its role in daily dermatological practice

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, tomographic imaging technique which generates high-resolution in-vivo images up to mid-dermal layers. Due to continuous technological improvements, OCT is moving from research projects into daily dermatological practice. It can complement other imaging methods like high-frequency ultrasound or confocal microscopy. There is a wide variety of indications for OCT. In addition to aiding in the diagnosis and clinical monitoring of inflammatory dermatoses, OCT is a very useful and feasible technique in dermato-oncology.

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    9. Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer

      Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer

      Purpose The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most investigated optical diagnostic techniques: optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectrometry, reflectance spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Methods A search of three databases was conducted using specific keywords and explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria for the analysis of the performances of these techniques in the pre- and postoperative diagnosis of skin cancers. Results Optical coherence tomography has shown promising results in the assessment of deep margins of skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases, but differentiating premalignant from malignant lesions proved to be less effective. Fluorescence spectroscopy proved ...

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    10. Evaluation of Moisture-Related Attenuation Coefficient and Water Diffusion Velocity in Human Skin Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Moisture-Related Attenuation Coefficient and Water Diffusion Velocity in Human Skin Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis ...

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    11. Investigation of basal cell carcinoma using dynamic focus optical coherence tomography

      Investigation of basal cell carcinoma using dynamic focus optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is becoming a popular modality for skin tumor diagnosis and assessment of tumor size and margin status. We conducted a number of imaging experiments on periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) specimens using an OCT configuration. This configuration employs a dynamic focus (DF) procedure where the coherence gate moves synchronously with the peak of the confocal gate, which ensures better signal strength and preservation of transversal resolution from all depths. A DF-OCT configuration is used to illustrate morphological differences between the BCC and its surrounding healthy skin in OCT images. The OCT images are correlated with the ...

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    12. Sonography of Facial Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma - A First-line Imaging Technique

      Sonography of Facial Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma - A First-line Imaging Technique

      Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in human beings, and the face is its most frequent location. Basal cell carcinoma is rarely lethal but can generate a high degree of disfigurement. Of all imaging techniques, sonography has proven to support the diagnosis and provide detailed anatomic data on extension in all axes, the exact location, vascularity, and deeper involvement. This information can be used for improving management and the cosmetic results of patients. Next Section Overview and Description of the Clinical Problem Even though the diagnosis of skin cancer predominantly relies on clinical inspection, imaging techniques are ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography: The first Quantitative Imaging Biomarker for Scleroderma

      Optical Coherence Tomography: The first Quantitative Imaging Biomarker for Scleroderma

      Michelson Diagnostics Press Release - Using the VivoSight OCT scanner, manufactured in the UK by Michelson Diagnostics Ltd, scientists at the Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds have developed the first quantitative imaging biomarker for skin involvement in Scleroderma. Scleroderma or Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a serious type of autoimmune disorder affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 people. It is a progressive disease that involves skin and internal organs by determining fibrosis, vasculopathy and immune system activation. The extent and severity of skin fibrosis is an important prognostic indicator of Scleroderma and often a primary endpoint in clinical ...

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    14. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

      Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

      The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was ...

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    15. Dynamic imaging of a small artery underneath skin surface of a human finger by optical coherence tomography

      Dynamic imaging of a small artery underneath skin surface of a human finger by optical coherence tomography

      OCT is a powerful tool for detection of physiological functions of micro organs underneath the human skin surface, besides the clinical application to ophthalmology, as recently demonstrated by the authors’ group. In particular, dynamics of peripheral vessels can be observed clearly in the time-sequential OCT images. Among the vascular system, only the small artery has two physiological functions both for the elastic artery and for muscle-controlled one. It, therefore, is important for dynamic analysis of blood flow and circulation. In the time-sequential OCT images obtained with 25 frames/sec, it is found that the small artery makes a sharp ...

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      Mentions: Osaka University
    16. Virtual Biopsy – is it possible?

      Virtual Biopsy – is it possible?

      In a remark made to my last post: New envelopment in measuring mechanical properties of tissue , Dr. Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Director and Founder of our Open Access Online Scientific Journal: Leaders of Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence, asked whether OCT can be used for the purpose of performing biopsy. My answer to her question was “YES”. I thought that it will be worthwhile explaining why I am so “optimistic” about this: A conventional biopsy is a process where a tissue sample is being cut out of the body and after being subjected to all kind of chemical processes a thin-film of ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography demonstrates differential epidermal thinning of human forearm volar skin after 2 weeks application of a topical corticosteroid vs a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory alternative

      Optical coherence tomography demonstrates differential epidermal thinning of human forearm volar skin after 2 weeks application of a topical corticosteroid vs a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory alternative

      The effects on skin of two commercially available topical creams for the treatment of eczema are quantitatively studied using optical coherence tomography. An archetypal corticosteroid (Betamethasone valerate) is compared with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Tacrolimus monohydrate) via left/right comparisons of the epidermal thickness of volar forearm skin on selected volunteers, at baseline and after 14 days of treatment. In 3 of 4 subjects we confirmed previous observations that corticosteroids produce pronounced physical thinning of the epidermis over timescales of a few weeks. In 3 of 4 subjects we further found that Tacrolimus produced no change in epidermal thickness. In ...

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    18. Non-invasive Quality Control for Production Processes of Artificial Skin Equivalents by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Non-invasive Quality Control for Production Processes of Artificial Skin Equivalents by Optical Coherence Tomography

      The engineering of artificial tissue and organs is widely gaining relevance in biotechnological and biomedical research. Particularly by the law enforced reduction of animal testing, alternative methods need to be developed to simulate and test the effects of chemical substances on human organs. Regarding the branches for pharmaceuticals, chemicals and cosmetics most products need to be tested on penetration of the human skin tissue. As an alternative method to animal testing, skin equivalents (SEs) based on tissue engineering may be used to test the skin barrier function. In the framework of a large scale research project, we built a fully ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography imaging of telangiectasias during intense pulsed light treatment: a potential tool for rapid outcome assessment

      Optical coherence tomography imaging of telangiectasias during intense pulsed light treatment: a potential tool for rapid outcome assessment

      Vascular malformations commonly occur in the facial region, and can be associated with significant stigma and embarrassment. Studies have shown that even recommended light-based treatments do not always result in complete clearance. This indicates the need for more accurate pre-treatment assessment of vessel morphology to optimize treatment settings and identify possible morphological predictors of the outcome. Fourteen patients (six males, eight females, and aged 37–66 years) with the diagnosis of telangiectasias were enrolled and were all scanned with OCT and digitally photographed before and minutes after IPL treatment. OCT images of the telangiectasias before treatment were displayed as hyporeflective ...

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    20. In vivo microcirculation imaging of the sub surface fingertip using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT)

      In vivo microcirculation imaging of the sub surface fingertip using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT)

      We describe a novel application of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for sub-surface fingerprint biometric identification. Fingerprint biometrics including automated fingerprint identification systems, are commonly used to recognise the fingerprint, since they constitute simple, effective and valuable physical evidence. Spoofing of biometric fingerprint devices can be easily done because of the limited information obtained from the surface topography. In order to overcome this limitation a potentially more secure source of information is required for biometric identification applications. In this study, we retrieve the microcirculation map of the subsurface fingertip by use of the cmOCT technique. To increase probing depth ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography to delineate the interactions of PAMAM dendrimers with the porcine skin surface

      Optical coherence tomography to delineate the interactions of PAMAM dendrimers with the porcine skin surface

      Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been topically applied to the skin and utilised as a permeation enhancer for a range of therapeutic compounds. However, very little is known about the mechanism of enhancement. This study used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate the influence of PAMAM dendrimers to alter surface refractive index (RI) in excised porcine skin. It is revealed that PAMAM dendrimers caused a sporadic disruption and disappearance of the white hyper-reflective band on the skin surface using OCT. Following the decontamination of the treated skin specimens, the entrance signal, resulting in the polarised light reflecting off the keratin of ...

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      Mentions: Ying Yang
    22. Quantitative evaluation of scattering in optical coherence tomography skin images using the extended Huygens–Fresnel theorem

      Quantitative evaluation of scattering in optical coherence tomography skin images using the extended Huygens–Fresnel theorem

      An optical properties extraction algorithm is developed based on enhanced Huygens–Fresnel light propagation theorem, to extract the scattering coefficient of a specific region in an optical coherence tomography (OCT) image. The aim is to quantitatively analyze the OCT images. The algorithm is evaluated using a set of phantoms with different concentrations of scatterers, designed based on Mie theory. The algorithm is then used to analyze basal cell carcinoma and healthy eyelid tissues, demonstrating distinguishable differences in the scattering coefficient between these tissues. In this study, we have taken advantage of the simplification introduced by the utilization of a dynamic ...

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    23. Mapping of spatial distribution of superficial blood vessels in human skin by double correlation analysis of optical coherence tomography images

      Mapping of spatial distribution of superficial blood vessels in human skin by double correlation analysis of optical coherence tomography images

      2D/3D spatial distribution of superficial blood vessels in human skin in vivo was conducted by double correlation analysis of the swept source Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. An adaptive Wiener filtering technique has been employed to remove background noise and increase the overall quality of the OCT images acquired experimentally. Correlation Mapping and Fourier domain correlation approaches have been subsequently applied to enhance spatial resolution of images of vascular network in human skin. The analysis of images performed on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) utilizing the recently developed Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework.

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