1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 1118 1 2 3 4 ... 45 46 47 »
    1. Deep imaging with 1.3 µm dual-axis optical coherence tomography and an enhanced depth of focus

      Deep imaging with 1.3 µm dual-axis optical coherence tomography and an enhanced depth of focus

      For many clinical applications, such as dermatology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) suffers from limited penetration depth due primarily to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Here, we present a novel implementation of dual-axis optical coherence tomography (DA-OCT) that offers improved depth penetration in skin imaging at 1.3 µm compared to conventional OCT. Several unique aspects of DA-OCT are examined here, including the requirements for scattering properties to realize the improvement and the limited depth of focus (DOF) inherent to the technique. To overcome this limitation, our approach uses a tunable lens to coordinate focal plane selection with image ...

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    2. Laser Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma Under Imaging Guidance

      Laser Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma Under Imaging Guidance

      This pilot study will examine the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with laser technology under the guidance of imaging modalities to assist with surgical excision, including optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The laser modality that we plan to use is the long-pulse Nd:YAG 1064nm laser, which is a nonablative laser already shown to effectively treat BCC. The addition of OCT and RCM has the opportunity to enhance outcomes by better targeting the treatment and permitting more precise monitoring of clearance. OCT is being used to enhance the effectiveness of Mohs Micrographic Surgery of ...

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    3. A Machine Learning Based Quantitative Data Analysis for Screening Skin Abnormality Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA)

      A Machine Learning Based Quantitative Data Analysis for Screening Skin Abnormality Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA)

      Lack of accurate and standard quantitative evaluations limit the progress of applying the OCTA technique into skin clinical trials. More systematic research is required to investigate the possibility of using quantitative OCTA techniques for screening skin diseases. This prospective study included 88 participants (60 normal and 28 abnormal skin samples). In total, 40 OCTA quantitative parameters (3 for epidermis feature, 27 for dermis feature, 10 for vascular feature) were obtained by each OCT and OCTA data volumes. The proposed method relies on linear support vector machines (SVM), while the coefficient of multiple linear regression is also employed to select seven ...

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    4. Bedside Differentiation Between Benign and Malignant Pigmented Skin Tumours by Four Diagnostic Imaging Technologies – A Pilot Study

      Bedside Differentiation Between Benign and Malignant Pigmented Skin Tumours by Four Diagnostic Imaging Technologies – A Pilot Study

      Fast diagnosis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions is imperative, but current bedside skin imaging technologies are either limited in penetration depth or resolution. Combining imaging methods is therefore highly relevant for skin cancer diagnostics. This pilot study evaluates the ability of optical coherence tomography, reflectance confocal microscopy, photoacoustic imaging and high-frequency ultrasound to differentiate malignant from benign pigmented skin lesions. A total of 41 pigmented skin tumours were scanned prior to excision. Morphologic features and blood vessel characteristics were analysed in reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging images and diagnostic accuracy assessed. Three novel photoacoustic ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography

      During the past decade, noninvasive imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in clinical dermatology and dermatologic research. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one such type of noninvasive imaging. OCT uses the principle of interferometry to produce real-time images. A low-power diode laser shines infrared light onto tissues, which reflects back to an optical fiber interferometer. Using time delay and the backscattered light intensity, a two-dimensional image akin to an ultrasound is rendered. We review the history, types, and modalities of OCT, plus the many applications of frequency domain, high definition, and dynamic OCT in practice, including its utility in ...

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    6. Imaging Technologies for Pre-surgical Margin Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Imaging Technologies for Pre-surgical Margin Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer worldwide, necessitating the development of techniques to decrease treatment costs through efficiency and efficacy. Mohs micrographic surgery, a specialized surgical technique involving staged resection of the tumor with complete histologic evaluation of the peripheral margins, is highly utilized. Reducing stages by even 5-10% would result in significant improvement in care and economic benefits. Non-invasive imaging could aid in both establishing the diagnosis of suspicious skin lesions and streamlining the surgical management of skin cancers by improving pre-surgical estimates of tumor size. Herein, we review the current state of imaging techniques in dermatology ...

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    7. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography in the assessment of in-vivo primary basal cell carcinoma resection margins prior to Mohs' Micrographic Surgery

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography in the assessment of in-vivo primary basal cell carcinoma resection margins prior to Mohs' Micrographic Surgery

      The diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in-vivo assessment of resection margins of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) prior to Mohs' Micrographic Surgery (MMS) remains unknown.(1) Therefore, we conducted a multicentre, case-control study with the objective to estimate sensitivity and specificity values. Included were patients with a biopsy proven primary BCC and an indication for MMS (2), who visited the dermatology outpatient clinic of Maastricht University Medical Centre+ or Mohs Klinieken in Hoorn, The Netherlands.

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    8. Characterization of the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography: Do Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Stroma Reflect Structural Changes in the Extracellular Matrix of Cancerous Lesions?

      Characterization of the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography: Do Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Stroma Reflect Structural Changes in the Extracellular Matrix of Cancerous Lesions?

      Early detection of skin cancer is of critical importance since the five-year survival rate for early detected skin malignancies is 99% but drops to 27% for cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes and other organs. Over 2.5 million benign skin biopsies (55% of the total) are performed each year in the US at an alarming cost of USD ~2.5 B. Therefore there is an unmet need for novel non-invasive diagnostic approaches to better differentiate between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions, especially in cases when there is a legitimate doubt that a biopsy may be required. The purpose ...

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    9. Diagnostic Value of Optical Coherence Tomography Image Features for Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Diagnostic Value of Optical Coherence Tomography Image Features for Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method. Numerous morphological OCT features have been described for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In this study, we evaluate the diagnostic value of established features and we explore whether the use of a small set of features enables accurate discrimination between BCC and non-BCC lesions and between BCC subtypes. For each lesion, presence or absence of specific features was recorded. Histopathology was used as a gold standard. Diagnostic parameters were calculated for each feature and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the loss in discriminative ability when using a ...

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    10. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in pigmentary skin disorders and skin cancer

      Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in pigmentary skin disorders and skin cancer

      Background Diagnosis of pigmentary skin disorders, pre-cancerous and cancerous skin diseases is traditionally relied on visual assessment. The most widely applied invasive diagnostic technique is the skin biopsy. There have been significant technological advances in non-invasive diagnostic methods for skin disorders. Objective The objective of this article is to discuss different non-invasive diagnostic modalities, used in the diagnosis of pigmentary skin disorders and cutaneous cancers. Methods Comprehensive literature search was performed to screen articles related to non-invasive diagnostic techniques in pigmentary skin disorders and cutaneous cancers. Articles published in journals indexed in PubMed were searched along with those in Google ...

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    11. Quantifying skin sensitivity caused by mechanical insults: A review

      Quantifying skin sensitivity caused by mechanical insults: A review

      Background Skin sensitivity (SS) is a commonly occurring response to a range of stimuli, including environmental conditions (e.g., sun exposure), chemical irritants (e.g., soaps and cosmetics), and mechanical forces (e.g., while shaving). From both industry and academia, many efforts have been taken to quantify the characteristics of SS in a standardised manner, but the study is hindered by the lack of an objective definition. Methods A review of the scientific literature regarding different parameters attributed to the loss of skin integrity and linked with exhibition of SS was conducted. Articles included were screened for mechanical stimulation of ...

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    12. Quantitative assessment of vascular features in port wine stains through optical coherence tomography angiography

      Quantitative assessment of vascular features in port wine stains through optical coherence tomography angiography

      Background: Vascular lesions such as port wine stains (PWS) lead to facial and psychological problems, which require careful and precise treatments. The key point of treating PWS is to selectively destroy the abnormal blood vessels. Hence, the in vivo monitoring of targeted vessels is crucial. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), an emerging label-free imaging tool, facilitates the evaluation of skin structure and vasculature at a high resolution. In this study, we utilised OCTA to capture the structural and vascular morphology in patients with PWS. Moreover, we quantitatively characterised the morphological features of different types of PWS. Methods: This observational clinical ...

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    13. Emerging Minimally Invasive Technologies for the Detection of Skin Cancer

      Emerging Minimally Invasive Technologies for the Detection of Skin Cancer

      With the increasing incidence of skin cancer, many noninvasive technologies to detect its presence have been developed. This review focuses on reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), pigmented lesion assay (PLA), and Raman spectroscopy (RS) and discusses the basic principle, clinical applications, advantages, and disadvantages of each technology. RCM provides high cellular resolution and has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of skin cancer. OCT provides lower resolution than RCM, although its evaluable depth is deeper than that of RCM. RCM and OCT may be useful in reducing the number ...

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    14. Depth-dependent in vivo human skin backscattering spectra extraction from full-field optical coherence tomography

      Depth-dependent in vivo human skin backscattering spectra extraction from full-field optical coherence tomography

      With homemade active crystalline fibers, we generated bright and broadband light sources for full-field optical coherence tomography, offering deep penetration into skin tissues with cellular resolution at a high frame rate. Extraction of backscattered spectra from the tissue has potential applications in biomedicine. The hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric transducer actuating the Mirau interferometer has been greatly reduced by a by a feedforward compensation approach. The linearized hysteresis response enables us to extract depth-dependent spectra accurately. To validate, the complex dispersion of a fused silica plate was characterized with 2% error. Further validation on an in vitro setting, the backscattered ...

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    15. New diagnostic and imaging technologies in dermatology

      New diagnostic and imaging technologies in dermatology

      Introduction Diagnosis of dermatological disorders is primarily based on clinical examination in combination with histopathology. However, clinical findings alone may not be sufficient for accurate diagnosis and cutaneous biopsies are being associated with morbidity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the newer technologies along with their applications, limitation and future prospectus. Methodology Comprehensive literature search was performed using electronic online databases “PubMed” and “Google Scholar”. Articles published in English language were considered for the review. Results In order to improve and/or widen the armamentarium in dermatologic disease diagnosis and therapy, newer emerging technologies are being made ...

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    16. Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography as a tool for three-dimensional in vivo quantification of healthy epidermis: a pilot study

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography as a tool for three-dimensional in vivo quantification of healthy epidermis: a pilot study

      Epidermal three-dimensional (3D) topography/quantification have not been completely characterized yet. The recently developed line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) provides real-time, high-resolution, in-vivo 3D imaging of the skin. This pilot study aimed at quantifying epidermal metrics [epidermal thicknesses, dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) undulation and keratinocyte number/shape/size] using 3D LC-OCT. For each study participant (8 female, skin-type-II, younger/older volunteers), seven body sites were imaged with LC-OCT. Epidermal metrics were calculated by segmentations and measurements assisted by artificial intelligence (AI) when appropriate. Thicknesses of epidermis/SC, DEJ undulation and keratinocyte nuclei volume varied across body sites. Evidence of keratinocyte ...

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    17. Applicability of a Cellular Resolution Full-field OCT Image System for Pigmented and Non-pigmented Skin Tumors

      Applicability of a Cellular Resolution Full-field OCT Image System for Pigmented and Non-pigmented Skin Tumors

      The incidence of skin cancer has been continuously increasing over the past decades und the number of non melanoma skin cancer is well as melanoma is still going to increase. Invasive biopsy and histological examination represents the gold standard in diagnosis of benign and malignant skin tumors. However, novel technologies such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been introduced in dermatology. Multiple studies have shown the applicability of both technologies for diagnosis of skin tumors as well as other skin diseases and to increase the specificity of diagnosis resulting in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies ...

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    18. Line-Field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography May Enhance Monitoring of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Imiquimod 5% Cream: A Pilot Study

      Line-Field Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography May Enhance Monitoring of Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Imiquimod 5% Cream: A Pilot Study

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT) is a new non-invasive technique that allows the visualization of the epidermis and dermis and their different structures and findings at the cellular level, providing a sort of “virtual biopsy”. The interest of using LC-OCT in the diagnosis of skin disorders is growing. The purpose of this study was to investigate if LC-OCT may be useful to enhance the monitoring of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a series of patients treated with IQ 5% cream, an immune response modifier currently approved in Europe and the USA. In our experience, LC-OCT was able to ...

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    19. Nailfold Microvascular Imaging by Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Systemic Sclerosis: a Case-Controlled Pilot Study

      Nailfold Microvascular Imaging by Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Systemic Sclerosis: a Case-Controlled Pilot Study

      In systemic sclerosis (SSc) outcome measures of skin microvasculopathy are needed for both clinical trials and practice. Aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic-optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is able to provide information on microvasculopathy compared to the current gold-standard, nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC), in SSc patients. This case-controlled study included: 1) forty SSc patients, classified by NVC pattern in 4 age- and sex-matched groups (normal/non-specific, early, active, late); 2) a fifth group of ten age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent NVC and D-OCT. D-OCT images were compared with the corresponding NVC images. Reliability was assessed ...

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    20. Evaluating Onychomycosis Outcomes 2 Months into an 11-month-long Efinaconazole Regimen: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluating Onychomycosis Outcomes 2 Months into an 11-month-long Efinaconazole Regimen: The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background. Onychomycosis affects 43 million people in the United States and Europe. Topical therapies can be effective but require lengthy and costly regimens without an established method for predicting the treatment outcome. Objective. We studied the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive imaging device approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, in evaluating onychomycosis treatment outcomes. Methods. This investigator-initiated prospective clinical study recruited subjects from two urban medical centers. A total of 34 subjects with mild-to-moderate onychomycosis, confirmed using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, were treated with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, at which time a final ...

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