1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 879 1 2 3 4 ... 35 36 37 »
    1. Optical coherence tomography of onychomycosis: proposed terminology and a suggestion of practical usage

      Optical coherence tomography of onychomycosis: proposed terminology and a suggestion of practical usage

      Onychomycosis is the most common cause of nail changes accounting for about half of all nail diseases. It is important to diagnose the fungal pathogen to prescribe adequate treatment, but as genus- and species-specific diagnostic tests can be time consuming and expensive, it is crucial to obtain representative tissue during nail scrapings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool enabling real-time imaging of skin and tissue. Pilot studies using OCT have described morphological characteristics of onychomycosis, though diagnostic criteria of onychomycosis and other nail diseases are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of ...

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    2. Noninvasive Imaging Tools in Dermatology

      Noninvasive Imaging Tools in Dermatology

      The diagnosis of skin disease relies on visual inspection, often followed by biopsy and histopathologic examination, which remains the gold standard in diagnosis. New imaging tools, including dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), can provide noninvasive diagnoses while sparing unnecessary biopsies. We discuss dermoscopy, RCM, and OCT, and compare cost, clinical integration, reimbursement, and accuracy of these imaging modalities.

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    3. Monitoring the topical delivery of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

      Monitoring the topical delivery of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles using optical coherence tomography

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging modality for skin cancer diagnosis. However, this capability has been hindered by the low contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. To overcome this limitation, gold nanoparticles have been used to enhance the contrast in OCT images and are topically administered to reduce the risk of systematic side effects associated with intravenous injection. To ensure efficient penetration and distribution of the nanoparticles, an enhanced delivery strategy is required. In this porcine study, we assessed two delivery methods: (a) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and (b) via sonophoresis. Materials and Methods The gold nanoparticles ...

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    4. 2D Fourier Fractal Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Basal Cell Carcinomas and Melanomas

      2D Fourier Fractal Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Basal Cell Carcinomas and Melanomas

      The optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique is applied in the diagnosis of the skin tissue. In general, quantitative imaging features obtained from OCT images have already been used as biomarkers to categorize skin tumors. Particularly, the fractal dimension (FD) could be capable of providing an efficient approach for analyzing OCT images of skin tumors. The 2D Fourier fractal analysis (FFA) as well as the differential box counting method (DBCM) was used in this paper to classify the basal cell carcinomas (BCC), melanomas, and benign melanocytic nevi. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between skin tumors. Our results ...

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    5. Comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency ultrasound imaging in mice for the assessment of skin morphology and intradermal volumes

      Comparison of optical coherence tomography and high frequency ultrasound imaging in mice for the assessment of skin morphology and intradermal volumes

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), two established imaging modalities in the field of dermatology, were evaluated and compared regarding their applicability for visualization of skin tissue morphology and quantification of murine intradermal structures. The accuracy and reproducibility of both methods were assessed ex vivo and in vivo using a standardized model for intradermal volumes based on injected soft tissue fillers. OCT revealed greater detail in skin morphology, allowing for detection of single layers due to the superior resolution. Volumetric data measured by OCT (7.9 ± 0.3 μl) and HFUS (7.7 ± 0.5 μl) were in ...

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    6. Nodular skin lesions: correlation of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features

      Nodular skin lesions: correlation of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features

      Nodular lesions have a common clinical appearance but very different prognostic implications. The differential diagnosis between malignant and benign nodular lesions is a challenge in everyday clinical practice. The malignant melanoma (MM) nodular variant expresses a vertical phase of growth and often has relatively high Breslow indexes 1,2 , so a timely correct diagnosis is crucial for correct lesion management. Conversely, non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rarely impacts on patient mortality and is most frequently observed in the form of a basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a locally aggressive, low‐grade neoplasia, prevalent among sun‐damaged elders 3,4 .

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    7. Separation of Overlapping Fingerprints in Multilayered Carrier Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Separation of Overlapping Fingerprints in Multilayered Carrier Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Fingerprints lifted from crime scenes are often overlapped because of multiple impressions of fingers. Current methods to separate overlapping fingerprints are primarily based on algorithms that estimate the orientation field of component prints. However, these methods need human intervention, and the accuracy of the separation may easily be degraded. In this paper, a novel tomographic imaging technique, optical coherence tomography (OCT), was used to separate overlapping fingerprints intuitively and noninvasively. The OCT system was also applied to reveal a hidden blood fingerprint that was completely covered by one layer of nontransparent paint. An additional experiment was conducted using a piece ...

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    8. Basal cell carcinoma treated with combined ablative fractional laser and ingenol mebutate – An exploratory study monitored by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

      Basal cell carcinoma treated with combined ablative fractional laser and ingenol mebutate – An exploratory study monitored by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

      Background Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have previously been treated off‐label with ingenol mebutate (IM). Ablative fractional laser (AFL) may improve efficacy of IM by increasing drug uptake in the tumor. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) detect BCC non‐invasively. Our aim was to investigate BCC response and tolerability after combined AFL and IM treatment of low‐risk BCCs. Methods Twenty patients with histologically verified superficial (n=7) and nodular (n=13) BCCs were treated with combined fractional CO 2 ‐laser (10,600 nm) and IM 0.015% or 0.05%, the concentration depending on anatomical ...

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    9. Application of High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography in Skin Disease: Amyloidosis and Differential Diagnosis

      Application of High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography in Skin Disease: Amyloidosis and Differential Diagnosis

      Amyloidosis is caused by the misfolding protein accumulated in tissue, which affects the function of the organs. In addition to the primary cutaneous amyloidosis, a skin lesion may also appear in another classification - systemic amyloidosis. Physicians can confirm diagnosis of the above classification by skin biopsy. Primary cutaneous amyloidosis is common in Asia and South America. In Taiwan, 80 people are diagnosed with primary cutaneous amyloidosis in every 100,000 people. Among the disease, macular amyloidosis and lichen amyloidosis are the most common subtypes. Primary cutaneous amyloidosis can cause severe itching, pigmentation, and skin keratosis, and further affect the social ...

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    10. Early Feasibility Study: Application of OCT Imaging in Dermatology

      Early Feasibility Study: Application of OCT Imaging in Dermatology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established medical imaging technique that uses light to capture biological images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue). A high-resolution OCT has the characteristics of non-invasive, label-free, real-time, cellular resolution with high tissue penetration depth that are highly valuable for clinical use. Apollo Medical Optics, Ltd. (AMO)'s product originated at National Taiwan University (NTU), when AMO's researchers first began investigating medical optics. Apollo Medical Optics has developed a platform-based OCT tissue scanning system (B100) and have been conducting studies at the Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei as well as the Memorial ...

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    11. Skin evaluation method and skin evaluation device

      Skin evaluation method and skin evaluation device

      A profile of optical reflectance relative to a depth within a depth range from an epidermis to an upper layer of a dermis is created based on a coherence signal obtained by optical coherence tomography, an evaluation index is determined by calculating a difference between reflectance at a local minimum point and reflectance at a second local maximum point from the created profile, and skin conditions are evaluated based on the evaluation index.

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    12. Smart bandages fitted with microsensors could soon be used to make sure wounds are healing properly

      Smart bandages fitted with microsensors could soon be used to make sure wounds are healing properly

      sensor is being developed which could one day be embedded in bandages to ensure wounds are healing as planned. Engineers from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh are working on a project to create a micro sensor capable of detecting tiny fluctuations in the repair process. Microscale mechanical changes will be observed and tracked to allow for better healing, the researchers hope. It is estimated wounds cost the NHS up to £5.1 billion a year with resources used on burns, diabetic ulcers, caesarean section scars, surgical incisions and simple cuts. Scroll down for video Grazes, such as this one obtained whilst ...

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    13. Dermoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Histological Correlation of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

      Dermoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Histological Correlation of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

      We propose the case of a 17-year-old female patient with multiple, soft, yellowish papules symmetrically distributed on the neck ( Figure 1A ). Dermoscopy showed a yellowish orange area associated with reddish and whitish areas [ 1 ] ( Figure 1B ). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed normal epidermis associated with clusters of horizontally oriented dermal aggregates with peripheral clefts ( Figure 1C ). A biopsy was performed in the same site of previous noninvasive imaging techniques. Histology disclosed the presence of altered elastic fibers in the upper and reticular dermis with extension to the papillary dermis stained with hematoxylin and eosin ( Figure 1D ). Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is ...

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    14. OCT in the diagnosis of head and neck pre-cancerous and cancerous cutaneous lesions: An immediate ex vivo study

      OCT in the diagnosis of head and neck pre-cancerous and cancerous cutaneous lesions: An immediate ex vivo study

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to reliably identify skin changes with the combined advantage of resolution and penetration depth. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of OCT in diagnosing various skin pathologies, using pre-set diagnostic criteria, by two reviewers blinded to the actual diagnosis. Material and methods This immediate ex-vivo study included skin specimens from 103 patients with suspicious skin lesions. In total, 110 lesions were scanned using OCT immediately following surgical resection. Two experienced OCT reviewers assessed these OCT diagnostic parameters blindly at two different intervals based on the parameters of the ...

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    15. First Use of Optical Coherence Tomography on In Vivo Inflammatory Acne‐Like Lesions: A Murine Model

      First Use of Optical Coherence Tomography on In Vivo Inflammatory Acne‐Like Lesions: A Murine Model

      Background and Objectives Successful outcomes of clinical studies for acne vulgaris depend greatly on achieving statistically significant reduction in acne lesion count and improvement in Investigator's Global Assessment score of the investigational drug product against its vehicle control. To date, there has not been a validated preclinical acne model to evaluate investigational drug products in order to improve the probability of clinical success. An inflammatory acne‐like lesion mouse model developed in‐house has previously been used for clinical guidance in our drug development program. In this study, we aim to implement and assess the adequacy of swept‐source ...

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    16. Physical Sciences Inc Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Optical Probe for Skin Cancer Detection and Therapy Guidance

      Physical Sciences Inc Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Optical Probe for Skin Cancer Detection and Therapy Guidance

      Physical Sciences Inc Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $300,000 for Multimodal Optical Probe for Skin Cancer Detection and Therapy Guidance. The principal investigator is Nicusor Iftimia. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The primary goal of this research project is to develop and translate to clinical use a novel optical imaging technology based on combined Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Confocal Microscopy (CM) for non- invasive real-time diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), tumor subtyping and margin mapping that will assist physician-patient decision in treatment planning (biopsy ...

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    17. Use of Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography to Characterize Skin Lesions and a Congenital Nevus

      Use of Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography to Characterize Skin Lesions and a Congenital Nevus

      We have used vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) to image and measure the mechanical properties of normal skin and skin lesions. It is observed that in a congenital nevus and normal skin, the cellular epidermis is qualitatively not as bright as in skin lesions including basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and a melanocytic nevus. Melanin and cytochrome c oxidase are reported to attenuate the reflection of near-infrared light at a wavelength of 810 nm and therefore may explain the reduced reflection of light in a congenital nevus and normal skin under conditions where cytochrome c oxidase levels would be expected ...

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    18. Successful Treatment of Genital Warts with Ingenol Mebutate Monitored with Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

      Successful Treatment of Genital Warts with Ingenol Mebutate Monitored with Optical Coherence Tomography and Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

      Ingenol mebutate (IM) is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis and induces cell death in precancerous lesions. The efficacy of IM in the treatment of genital warts was investigated in a therapy-refractory patient. The 74-year-old male was treated with IM gel for three consecutive days. Treatment course and efficacy were evaluated by clinical inspection and non-invasive diagnostics namely optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Within 24 to 48 hours IM induced a strong local inflammatory reaction. One week later a complete response was observed. OCT and RCM showed a strong reaction after treatment with erosions, swelling ...

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    19. The Impact of First‐Aid Dressing Design on Healing of Porcine Partial Thickness Wounds

      The Impact of First‐Aid Dressing Design on Healing of Porcine Partial Thickness Wounds

      Literature describes that a well‐maintained moist wound healing environment leads to faster healing by preventing scabbing and drying of the wound. A moist wound speeds healing by allowing for unimpeded movement of newly dividing epidermal cells in the wound. Contrary to what is described in literature and practiced by clinicians, first‐aid dressings used at home by consumers advertise breathability and absorptivity as benefits. This manuscript examines the effects of dressing breathability and highly absorptive pads on healing and wound appearance in a porcine dermatome wound model, designed to mimic an abrasion injury. Partial thickness wounds were covered with ...

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    20. En-face optical coherence tomography/fluorescence endomicroscopy for minimally invasive imaging using a robotic scanner

      En-face optical coherence tomography/fluorescence endomicroscopy for minimally invasive imaging using a robotic scanner

      We report a compact rigid instrument capable of delivering en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images alongside (epi)-fluorescence endomicroscopy (FEM) images by means of a robotic scanning device. Two working imaging channels are included: one for a one-dimensional scanning, forward-viewing OCT probe and another for a fiber bundle used for the FEM system. The robotic scanning system provides the second axis of scanning for the OCT channel while allowing the field of view (FoV) of the FEM channel to be increased by mosaicking. The OCT channel has resolutions of 25  /  60  μm (axial/lateral) and can provide en-face images with ...

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