1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 759 1 2 3 4 ... 30 31 32 »
    1. Comparison of light absorption levels with different skin phantoms and the Monte Carlo simulation using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Comparison of light absorption levels with different skin phantoms and the Monte Carlo simulation using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

      Dermatologic patients have various skin characteristics such as skin tone and pigmentation color. However most studies on laser ablation and treatment only considered laser operating conditions like wavelength, output power and pulse duration. The laser ablation arises from photothermal effect by photon energy absorption. Chromophores like melanin exist as the absorber in the skin. In this study, we painted color to mimic chromophores on in-vivo and in-vitro skin models to demonstrate influence on the laser ablation by skin color. Water-based pens were used to paint color. Cross sectional images of the laser ablation were acquired by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography ...

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      Mentions: Dae Yu Kim
    2. Two Optical Coherence Tomography Systems detect Topical Gold Nanoparticles in Hair follicles, Sweat Ducts and Measure Epidermis

      Two Optical Coherence Tomography Systems detect Topical Gold Nanoparticles in Hair follicles, Sweat Ducts and Measure Epidermis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology that enables real time, highresolution, cross-sectional and en face investigation of skin by detecting reflected broad-spectrum near-infrared light from tissue. OCT provides micron-scale spatial resolution and millimeter-scale depth of penetration [1]. Several commercial OCT systems with handheld probes targeted for Dermatology are now available [2]. The ability of OCT to achieve high diagnostic accuracy in skin diseases is hampered by the fact that not all diseases show sufficient contrast to be discriminated from normal skin. The challenge in realizing contrast enhancement in OCT imaging is to achieve signal from exogenous contrast ...

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    3. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography–Supervised Biopsy

      Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography–Supervised Biopsy

      BACKGROUND Currently, only skin biopsy can provide definitive histological confirmation for the diagnosis of skin diseases. To improve the diagnostic accuracy and to assist the dermatologist, various imaging techniques have been added to the examination of skin. Among all these techniques, the recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have made it possible to image the skin up to 2 millimeters in depth. OBJECTIVE To testify the feasibility of OCT imaging in skin biopsy, the authors investigated the OCT imaging for real-time visualization of needle insertion and punch biopsy techniques in both a tissue phantom and biological tissue. MATERIALS AND ...

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      Mentions: Saba Adabi
    4. A novel image processing workflow for the in vivo quantification of skin microvasculature using dynamic optical coherence tomography

      A novel image processing workflow for the in vivo quantification of skin microvasculature using dynamic optical coherence tomography

      Background Currently, imaging technologies that can accurately assess or provide surrogate markers of the human cutaneous microvessel network are limited. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) allows the detection of blood flow in vivo and visualization of the skin microvasculature. However, image processing is necessary to correct images, filter artifacts, and exclude irrelevant signals. The objective of this study was to develop a novel image processing workflow to enhance the technical capabilities of D-OCT. Materials and methods Single-center, vehicle-controlled study including healthy volunteers aged 18-50 years. A capsaicin solution was applied topically on the subject's forearm to induce local inflammation ...

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    5. Biomechanical analysis of decellularized dermis and skin: Initial in vivo observations using OCT and vibrational analysis

      Biomechanical analysis of decellularized dermis and skin: Initial in vivo observations using OCT and vibrational analysis

      Measurement of the mechanical properties of skin in vivo has been complicated by the lack of methods that can accurately measure the viscoelastic properties without assuming values of Poisson's ratio and tissue density. In this paper, we present the results of preliminary studies comparing the mechanical properties of skin and scar tissue measured using a technique involving OCT and vibrational analysis. This technique has been reported to give values of the modulus that correlate with those obtained from tensile measurements made on decellularized dermis [1, 2]. The high correlation between moduli measured using vibrational studies and uniaxial tensile tests ...

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    6. Visualization of age-related vascular alterations in facial skin using optical coherence tomography-based angiography

      Visualization of age-related vascular alterations in facial skin using optical coherence tomography-based angiography

      The assessment of dermal vasculature is crucial for understanding skin homeostasis, inflammation and disease. Various methods have been used to investigate structural alterations of the dermal vasculature [1,2]. Histological approaches have revealed vascular alterations in aged skin, for example decreasing vessel density, and irregular and disorganized vessels. However, the complex three-dimensional arrangement of vascular plexuses cannot be seen and investigated by the examination of conventional histological tissue sections.

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    7. Visualization of viscoelastic behavior in skin equivalent using optical coherence tomography-based straingraphy

      Visualization of viscoelastic behavior in skin equivalent using optical coherence tomography-based straingraphy

      Background/Purpose The relationships between the skin components and these mechanical roles are still unclear. To clarify these relationships, we investigated spatial mapping of the mechanical behavior of cultured skin equivalents (SEs) using optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based straingraphy. Methods We built a strain relaxation test system combined with OCT and developed an algorithm that could visualize a time-dependent strain distribution, named dynamic-optical coherence straingraphy (D-OCSA). Using this system, we analyzed how the spatial mechanical changes in the SEs depended on the culture duration. For quantitative analysis of viscoelastic behavior, we defined a relaxation attenuation coefficient of strain rate, which ...

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    8. Trimodal system for in vivo skin cancer screening with combined OCT-Raman and co-localized optoacoustic measurements

      Trimodal system for in vivo skin cancer screening with combined OCT-Raman and co-localized optoacoustic measurements

      A new multimodal system for rapid, noninvasive in vivo skin cancer screening is presented, combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optoacoustic (OA) modalities to provide precise tumor depth determination with a Raman spectroscopic modality capable of detecting the lesion type and, thus, providing diagnostic capability. Both optoacoustic and Raman setups use wide field skin illumination to ensure the compliance with Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) requirements. The Raman signal is collected via the OCT scanning lens to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured signal while keeping radiation levels below MPE limits. OCT is used to optically determine the tumor ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography angiography of normal skin and inflammatory dermatologic conditions

      Optical coherence tomography angiography of normal skin and inflammatory dermatologic conditions

      Background In clinical dermatology, the identification of subsurface vascular and structural features known to be associated with numerous cutaneous pathologies remains challenging without the use of invasive diagnostic tools. Objective To present an advanced optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) method to directly visualize capillary-level vascular and structural features within skin in vivo . Methods An advanced OCTA system with a 1310 nm wavelength was used to image the microvascular and structural features of various skin conditions. Subjects were enrolled and OCTA imaging was performed with a field of view of approximately 10 × 10 mm. Skin blood flow was identified using an ...

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    10. Reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus and surrounding sub-clinical lesions

      Reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus and surrounding sub-clinical lesions

      Background Diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) and pemphigus is based on clinical features, histology, immunofluorescence and laboratory data. Objectives To evaluate features of BP and pemphigus at reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to provide a rapid non-invasive bed-side diagnosis. Secondary objective was to evaluate the detectability of clinically non-visible lesions. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, multicentre study in which patients with suspicious lesions for BP or pemphigus underwent clinical assessment, RCM, OCT, blood tests and skin biopsy for histological and direct immunofluorescence examinations from January 2014 to December 2015. A total of 72 ...

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    11. In vivo classification of human skin burns using machine learning and quantitative features captured by optical coherence tomography

      In vivo classification of human skin burns using machine learning and quantitative features captured by optical coherence tomography

      We report the first fully automated detection of human skin burn injuries in vivo , with the goal of automatic surgical margin assessment based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our proposed automated procedure entails building a machine-learning-based classifier by extracting quantitative features from normal and burn tissue images recorded by OCT. In this study, 56 samples (28 normal, 28 burned) were imaged by OCT and eight features were extracted. A linear model classifier was trained using 34 samples and 22 samples were used to test the model. Sensitivity of 91.6% and specificity of 90% were obtained. Our results demonstrate ...

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    12. In Vivo Automated Quantification of Thermally Damaged Human Tissue Using Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      In Vivo Automated Quantification of Thermally Damaged Human Tissue Using Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Over the decades numerous technologies have been performed for the quantification of skin injuries, but their poor sensitivity, specificity and accuracy limits their applications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be potential tool for the identification but the modern high-speed OCT system acquires huge amount of data, which will be very time-consuming and tedious process for human interpretation. Our proposed method opens the possibility of fully automated quantitative analysis based on morphological features of thermally damaged tissue, which will become biomarker for the removal of non-viable skin. The proposed method is based on multi-level ensemble classifier by dissociating morphological features (A-line ...

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    13. Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

      Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

      Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. .

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    14. Universal in vivo Textural Model for Human Skin based on Optical Coherence Tomograms

      Universal in vivo Textural Model for Human Skin based on Optical Coherence Tomograms

      Currently, diagnosis of skin diseases is based primarily on the visual pattern recognition skills and expertise of the physician observing the lesion. Even though dermatologists are trained to recognize patterns of morphology, it is still a subjective visual assessment. Tools for automated pattern recognition can provide objective information to support clinical decision-making. Noninvasive skin imaging techniques provide complementary information to the clinician. In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a powerful skin imaging technique. According to specific functional needs, skin architecture varies across different parts of the body, as do the textural characteristics in OCT images. There is ...

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      Mentions: Saba Adabi
    15. Non-invasive multimodal optical coherence and photoacoustic tomography for human skin imaging

      Non-invasive multimodal optical coherence and photoacoustic tomography for human skin imaging

      The cutaneous vasculature is involved in many diseases. Current clinical examination techniques, however, cannot resolve the human vasculature with all plexus in a non-invasive manner. By combining an optical coherence tomography system with angiography extension and an all optical photoacoustic tomography system, we can resolve in 3D the blood vessels in human skin for all plexus non-invasively. With a customized imaging unit that permits access to various parts of patients’ bodies, we applied our multimodality imaging system to investigate several different types of skin conditions. Quantitative vascular analysis is given for each of the dermatological conditions to show the potential ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Dermatophytoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Dermatophytoma

      Dermatophytoma was first described in 1998 to complicate toenail infections and is characterized by fungal elements compacted into a fungal ball. 1 Clinically, it appears as a dense white or yellow linear or round white patch within the nail plate. Cutting back the overlying nail plate reveals a hyperkeratotic mass that can be easily removed because it is not adherent to the nail plate or nail bed, and histologic analysis reveals a dense mass of abnormal-appearing, densely walled, dermatophyte hyphae. 1 , 2 The standard diagnostic test for onychomycosis involves clinical suspicion and at least 1 positive finding on a laboratory ...

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    17. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: influence of location, subtype, observer variability and image quality on diagnostic performance

      Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: influence of location, subtype, observer variability and image quality on diagnostic performance

      Background We previously described the principal results from an observational, prospective, multi-centre, clinical trial of the diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a clinical setting. In this trial, much additional useful information was gathered that warranted further analysis, presented here. Objectives To investigate the influence of candidate diagnostic criteria, OCT image quality, lesion location, and observer confidence and inter-observer variability on the diagnostic performance, and to assess potential for diagnosis of BCC subtypes. Methods A total of 234 clinically unclear “pink lesions” were evaluated in three steps: after clinical examination, after adding dermoscopy ...

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    19. In vitro determination of Mexican Mestizo hair shaft diameter using optical coherence tomography

      In vitro determination of Mexican Mestizo hair shaft diameter using optical coherence tomography

      Background Mexican mestizo population has a pluriethnic mixture of Amerindian, European and African ancestry, predominant in most Latin American countries. Until now, there are no reports about hair characteristics in this population, necessary to define normal values, for hair diseases evaluation and comparison among other ethnic groups. Methods The VivoSight ® swept-source multibeam optical coherence tomography system was used to evaluate hair diameter and shape in 30 females. Three hair samples from each volunteer were measured transversely along three distances, generating nine cross-sectional images, two measurements per image and 18 measurements per patient for a total of 540 diameter measurements. Results ...

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    20. Viscoelastic Behavior of Tissues and Implant Materials: Estimation of the Elastic Modulus and Viscous Contribution Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Vibrational Analysis

      Viscoelastic Behavior of Tissues and Implant Materials: Estimation of the Elastic Modulus and Viscous Contribution Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Vibrational Analysis

      Recently, we have reported use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and vibrational analysis to determine the resonant frequency of a material from which the moduli of decellularized dermis, pig skin, silicone rubber and chemically modified dermis were calculated. In this paper, we present data on viscoelastic mechanical properties of extracellular matrices and silicone rubber at frequencies above and below the resonant frequency. The results reported suggest that measurement of the modulus at the resonant frequency of a viscoelastic material provides a good estimate of the elastic modulus while measurements below and above the resonant frequency contain a larger viscous contribution ...

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    21. An overview of methods to mitigate artifacts in optical coherence tomography imaging of the skin

      An overview of methods to mitigate artifacts in optical coherence tomography imaging of the skin

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of skin delivers three-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution modality, OCT images suffer from some artifacts that lead to misinterpretation of tissue structures. Therefore, an overview of methods to mitigate artifacts in OCT imaging of the skin is of paramount importance. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are three major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components ...

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    22. Laser Scanner Detects Skin Cancer in Less Than 30 Seconds

      Laser Scanner Detects Skin Cancer in Less Than 30 Seconds

      Current skin cancer diagnosis can last a number of weeks and be very upsetting. However, a new imaging system developed by a group of European scientists could dramatically speed up the process and reduce the need for debilitating sentinel-lymph node biopsies by placing real-time cancer diagnosis in the hands of a dermatologist. Multiple stages of skin cancer diagnosis can involve visiting a GP, being sent to a dermatologist for a skin biopsy, waiting for laboratory analysis, having a sentinel lymph node biopsy under general anaesthetic, and then having more tests if the cancer has spread. Now, using a handheld laser ...

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