1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 807 1 2 3 4 ... 32 33 34 »
    1. Preclinical quantitative in-vivo assessment of skin tissue vascularity in radiation-induced fibrosis with optical coherence tomography

      Preclinical quantitative in-vivo assessment of skin tissue vascularity in radiation-induced fibrosis with optical coherence tomography

      Radiation therapy (RT) is widely and effectively used for cancer treatment but can also cause deleterious side effects, such as a late-toxicity complication called radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Accurate diagnosis of RIF requires analysis of histological sections to assess extracellular matrix infiltration. This is invasive, prone to sampling limitations, and thus rarely used; instead, current practice relies on subjective clinical surrogates, including visual observation, palpation, and patient symptomatology questionnaires. This preclinical study demonstrates that functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful tool for objective noninvasive in-vivo assessment and quantification of fibrosis-associated microvascular changes in tissue. Data were collected from murine ...

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    2. Quantitative evaluation of skin surface roughness using optical coherence tomography in vivo

      Quantitative evaluation of skin surface roughness using optical coherence tomography in vivo

      The quantitative monitoring of skin topography is important in the field of cosmetics and dermatology. The most widespread method for determining skin roughness in vivo is to use skin microrelief, PRIMOS device, which allows a noninvasive, fast and direct measurement of the skin surface. However, it has drawbacks, such as the interference of backscattering from volumetric skin and motion artifacts. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of OCT for providing reliable and quantitative skin surface roughness. In order to evaluate the performance of OCT for skin surface analysis, different types of skin phantoms were fabricated and measured. We utilized ...

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    3. The vascular morphology of melanoma is related to Breslow index: an in vivo study with dynamic optical coherence tomography

      The vascular morphology of melanoma is related to Breslow index: an in vivo study with dynamic optical coherence tomography

      Background Malignant melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer, which can lead to metastasis development. Vascularization enhancement is fundamental for tumor growth, worsening the prognosis. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography (D‐OCT) enables the in vivo evaluation of vascular patterns in skin lesions. Objective In vivo evaluation of the melanoma vessel morphology by means of D‐OCT and correlation with Breslow index. Methods Retrospective analysis of histologically proven melanomas, evaluated by D‐OCT at three different depths (150, 300 and 500 μm) was performed. Vessels were classified according to morphology (dots, blobs, coiled, line, curved, serpiginous), distribution (regular, irregular), and presence/type ...

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    4. The utility of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: A quantitative review

      The utility of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: A quantitative review

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non‐invasive near‐infrared light imaging technology that can be utilized to diagnose basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) based on specific morphologic features. Objectives To conduct a quantitative review using tumor level data from published studies to assess i) in‐vivo diagnostic accuracy of different OCT systems; ii) correlation between OCT features and histopathological diagnosis; and iii) factors that impact accuracy of tumor depth estimation. Methods Primary tumor‐level data were extracted from published studies on use of time‐domain (TD‐OCT), frequency‐domain (FD‐OCT) or high‐definition (HD‐OCT) systems for diagnosis ...

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    5. In vivo Micro-Tomographic Visualization of Capillary Angio-Dynamics Around Upper Dermis Under Mechanical Stimulus Using Low Coherence Interferometer “Optical Coherence Doppler Velocigraphy”

      In vivo Micro-Tomographic Visualization of Capillary Angio-Dynamics Around Upper Dermis Under Mechanical Stimulus Using Low Coherence Interferometer “Optical Coherence Doppler Velocigraphy”

      The skin aging process, e.g. wrinkles and sagging, caused by not only aging but also ultraviolet irradiation, could be related to the depression of metabolic function. Therefore, an in vivo quantitative measurement of capillary blood flow velocity governing skin metabolism functionally, i.e. microcirculation, is crucial to clarify the skin aging and to create skincare products. The purpose of this study is to visualize the tomographic velocity of red blood cell in capillaries just below human epidermal skin using Optical Coherence Doppler Velocigraphy, namely OCDV. This was constructed on a low coherence interferometer, which could provide tomographic distribution of ...

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      Mentions: Osaka University
    6. Evaluation of a Combined Reflectance Confocal Microscopy–Optical Coherence Tomography Device for Detection and Depth Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Evaluation of a Combined Reflectance Confocal Microscopy–Optical Coherence Tomography Device for Detection and Depth Assessment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Importance The limited tissue sampling of a biopsy can lead to an incomplete assessment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes and depth. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may enable real-time, noninvasive, comprehensive three-dimensional sampling in vivo, which may improve the diagnostic accuracy and margin assessment of BCCs. Objective To determine the accuracy of a combined RCM-OCT device for BCC detection and deep margin assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants This pilot study was carried out on 85 lesions from 55 patients referred for physician consultation or Mohs surgery at Memorial Sloan Kettering Skin Cancer Center ...

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      Mentions: Nicusor Iftimia
    7. Visualization of skin microvascular dysfunction of type 1 diabetic mice using in vivo skin optical clearing method

      Visualization of skin microvascular dysfunction of type 1 diabetic mice using in vivo skin optical clearing method

      To realize visualization of the skin microvascular dysfunction of type 1 diabetic mice, we combined laser speckle contrast imaging and hyperspectral imaging to simultaneously monitor the noradrenaline (NE)-induced responses of vascular blood flow and blood oxygen with the development of diabetes through optical clearing skin window. The main results showed that venous and arterious blood flow decreased without recovery after injection of NE; furthermore, the decrease of arterious blood oxygen induced by NE greatly weakened, especially for 2- and 4-week diabetic mice. This change in vasoconstricting effect of NE was related to the expression of α1-adrenergic receptor. This study ...

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    8. In vivo detection of UV-induced acute skin effects using optical coherence tomography

      In vivo detection of UV-induced acute skin effects using optical coherence tomography

      Ultraviolet (UV) rays have been identified as a carcinogen with long-term irradiation and are an important risk factor for skin cancer. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography/optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT/OCTA) to study acute UV-induced effects on skin in vivo . To understand the relationship between the acute effects and irradiated UV power density, three groups were irradiated with different power densities in our experiments. Furthermore, the same skin area was repeatedly scanned with OCT during UV irradiation to investigate the progress of the induced acute effects and after irradiation for observation of skin recovery. Subsequently ...

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    9. A compact high‐speed full‐field optical coherence microscope for high‐resolution in vivo skin imaging

      A compact high‐speed full‐field optical coherence microscope for high‐resolution in vivo skin imaging

      A compact high‐speed full‐field optical coherence microscope has been developed for high‐resolution in vivo imaging of biological tissues. The interferometer, in the Linnik configuration, has a size of 11×11×5 cm 3 and a weight of 210 g. Full‐field illumination with low‐coherence light is achieved with a high‐brightness broadband light‐emitting diode. High‐speed full‐field detection is achieved by using part of the image sensor of a high‐dynamic range CMOS camera. En face tomographic images are acquired at a rate of 50 Hz, with an integration time of 0.9 ms ...

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    10. Effect of a Basic Skin Care Product on the Structural Strength of the Skin

      Effect of a Basic Skin Care Product on the Structural Strength of the Skin

      The process of aging involves numerous structural and functional changes also affecting the skin. The skin fulfills a variety of protective and regulatory functions. Compared to other organs, the skin is constantly exposed to harmful environmental influences. Besides intrinsic factors these external factors may accelerate skin aging. Due to its ageing-related loss of functional capacity the skin becomes susceptible to develop adverse skin conditions and dermatological diseases (e.g. skin dryness, fungal infections). Especially old aged, care depended, and severely ill individuals are at high risk for developing severe skin injuries and wounds (e.g. decubitus, skin tears) with high ...

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    11. Extracting Blood Vessels From Full-Field OCT Data of Human Skin by Short-Time RPCA

      Extracting Blood Vessels From Full-Field OCT Data of Human Skin by Short-Time RPCA

      Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) lead to the development of OCT angiography to provide additional helpful information for diagnosis of diseases like basal cell carcinoma. In this paper, we investigate how to extract blood vessels of human skin from full-field OCT (FF-OCT) data using the robust principal component analysis (RPCA) technique. Specifically, we propose a short-time RPCA method that divides the FF-OCT data into segments and decomposes each segment into a low-rank structure representing the relatively static tissues of human skin and a sparse matrix representing the blood vessels. The method mitigates the problem associated with the slow-varying ...

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    12. Acne vulgaris severity graded by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Acne vulgaris severity graded by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Acne is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be investigated in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Objectives By means of RCM and OCT to identify morphological characteristics of acne that may be associated with clinical acne severity. Methods Patients with mild to moderate facial acne ( n  = 14, Investigators Global Assessment scale, IGA 1–3), and healthy participants ( n  = 7, IGA 0) were included in this explorative study. A total of 108 RCM image blocks and 54 OCT scans (each RCM and OCT image measuring 6 × 6 mm) were captured from ...

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      Mentions: Mette Mogensen
    13. Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of skin cancer in adults

      Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of skin cancer in adults

      Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a microscopic imaging technique, which magnifies the surface of a skin lesion using near-infrared light. Used in conjunction with ...

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    14. Spatially confined quantification of bilirubin concentrations by spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography

      Spatially confined quantification of bilirubin concentrations by spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography

      Spatially confined measurements of bilirubin in tissue can be of great value for noninvasive bilirubin estimations during neonatal jaundice, as well as our understanding of the physiology behind bilirubin extravasation. This work shows the potential of spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography (sOCT) for this purpose. At the bilirubin absorption peak around 460 nm, sOCT suffers from a strong signal decay with depth, which we overcome by optimizing our system sensitivity through a combination of zero-delay acquisition and focus tracking. In a phantom study, we demonstrate the quantification of bilirubin concentrations between 0 and 650 µM with only a 10% difference ...

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    15. Three-dimensional graph-based skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images for roughness estimation

      Three-dimensional graph-based skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images for roughness estimation

      Automatic skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is important for a topographic assessment of skin or skin disease detection. However, existing methods cannot deal with the problem of shadowing in OCT images due to the presence of hair, scales, etc. In this work, we propose a method to segment the topmost layer of the skin (or the skin surface) using 3D graphs with a novel cost function to deal with shadowing in OCT images. 3D graph cuts use context information across B-scans when segmenting the skin surface, which improves the segmentation as compared to segmenting each B-scan ...

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    16. Multimodal Optical Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation for Cutaneous Microparticle Delivery

      Multimodal Optical Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation for Cutaneous Microparticle Delivery

      Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate how pretreatment with a topical medication for acne affects application and delivery of gold microparticles to the skin in acne patients. In addition, the investigators want to investigate the biodistribution of gold microparticles in pretreated skin and compare this with the biodistribution of untreated skin using the non-invasive imaging techniques optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are non-invasive imaging technologies allowing for imaging of the upper skin layers. Gold microparticles have been shown to have a contrast effect on the ...

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    17. Basal Cell Carcinomas Treated With Ablative Fractional Laser and Ingenol Mebutate

      Basal Cell Carcinomas Treated With Ablative Fractional Laser and Ingenol Mebutate

      Brief Summary: A prospective clinical, uncontrolled, open-label, explorative phase 2a trial on patients with histologically-confirmed superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The study assesses tolerability and tumor clearance after laser-assisted topical delivery of topical ingenol mebutate. Detailed Description: Patients will receive ablative fractional laser (AFXl)-assisted ingenol mebutate (IM) as a treatment for their cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Treatment areas consisting of tumors and a 5 mm margin will undergo AFXl exposure (CO2 laser) followed by IM 0.015% or 0.05% under occlusion for 2-3 days. . local skin reactions are monitored at baseline (day1), day 3/4 ...

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    18. Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Melanoma incidence has been increasing in the US population, with early detection and treatment leading to decreased morbidity and mortality. The first steps in diagnosis are clinical examination and skin biopsy. Various methods of skin biopsy exist and the appropriate choice can be challenging. In this chapter, we review various biopsy techniques including excisional, scoop (saucerization), incisional or punch, shave, biopsy of special sites, and emerging noninvasive imaging techniques for pigmented lesions including reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, digital multispectral dermoscopy, and tape stripping mRNA.

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    19. Imaging technique for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma

      Imaging technique for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma

      Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour that derives from the nail matrix and grows within the nail plate. The clinical presentation can mimic many other tumors and conditions and surgical biopsy and histopathological examination are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Since nail surgery is a painful experience for the patient and sometimes can leave permanent onychodistrophy, more precise preoperative diagnosis is needed to distinguish onychomatricoma from other nail diseases more accurately and to limit surgical interventions. The objective of this study was to evaluate current literature on imaging techniques for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma in order to understand how this technology ...

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    20. Mechanical spectroscopy and imaging of skin components in vivo: Assignment of the observed moduli

      Mechanical spectroscopy and imaging of skin components in vivo: Assignment of the observed moduli

      Background The need to quantitatively identify the composition and organization of the macromolecular components of skin, skin lesions, scars, tumors, extracellular matrices (ECMs), and wound tissue has been a goal of researchers for many decades. A variety of studies have been recently reported applying optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image skin and cutaneous lesions. Materials and Methods This article describes the use of vibrational OCT to image and noninvasively characterize the macromolecular components of the ECM of skin. Results We report that the major macromolecular components of skin and scar can be identified noninvasively by their characteristic moduli calculated from ...

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