1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 986 1 2 3 4 ... 39 40 41 »
    1. Visible characteristics and structural modifications relating to enlarged facial pores

      Visible characteristics and structural modifications relating to enlarged facial pores

      Background Many factors relate to enlargement and visibility of facial pores. However, how enlargement relates to modification of the skin structure is still poorly analysed. Therefore, our aim was to characterise the visible features and the micro‐environment of facial pores. Materials and Methods We recruited 160 women, half of them with normal‐size facial pores, the other half presenting enlarged pores. We analysed their right cheek using standardised photography, in vivo reflectance microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Results If the area of pores is indeed the most differentiating visible characteristic, enlarged facial pores are also denser and more contrasted ...

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    2. Cumulative Sum Analysis of the Learning Curve for Optical Coherence Tomography Assisted Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Cumulative Sum Analysis of the Learning Curve for Optical Coherence Tomography Assisted Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

      The amount of training needed to correctly interpret optical coherence tomography scans of the skin is undefined. The aim of this study was to illustrate how cumulative sum charts can be used to determine how many optical coherence tomography scans novice assessors should evaluate in order to obtain competence in diagnosing basal cell carcinoma. Four hundred lesions suspect for non-melanoma skin cancer were evaluated by optical coherence tomography in combination with clinical photographs, using a 5-point confidence scale. The diagnostic error rate (sum of false-negative and false-positive optical coherence tomography results/total number of cases) was used to evaluate performance ...

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      Mentions: Julia Welzel
    3. Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted Evaluation of Fractional Er:YAG Laser Versus Fractional Microneedling Radiofrequency in Treating Striae Alba

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted Evaluation of Fractional Er:YAG Laser Versus Fractional Microneedling Radiofrequency in Treating Striae Alba

      Background and objectives: Striae distensae (SD) is a challenging skin condition. Striae alba (SA) represents the chronic late atrophic stage of SD. Fractional laser technology is among the modalities used for treating SD. Lately, fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) is gaining increased popularity in treating SD. The aim of our study was to assess and compare the efficacy of FMR and fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of SA. Study design/materials and methods: Twenty female patients were enrolled in the study fulfilling all inclusion and exclusion criteria. On a randomly selected half side of the body, the patients were ...

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    4. Melanin concentration and depolarization metrics measurement by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Melanin concentration and depolarization metrics measurement by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Imaging of melanin in the eye is important as the melanin is structurally associated with some ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) cannot distinguish tissues containing the melanin from other tissues intrinsically, polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) can detect the melanin through spatial depolarization of the backscattered light from the melanin granules. Entropy is one of the depolarization metrics that can be used to detect malanin granules in PS-OCT and valuable quantitative information on ocular tissue abnormalities can be retrived by correlating entropy with the melanin concentration. In this study, we investigate a relationship between the ...

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    5. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography of Cutaneous Blood Vessels in Melasma and Vessel Response to Oral Tranexamic Acid

      Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography of Cutaneous Blood Vessels in Melasma and Vessel Response to Oral Tranexamic Acid

      Background and objectives: Melasma may be related to aberrant blood vessels, but there has been no report on the utility of dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) in studying vessel characteristics in melasma. We studied the characteristics of cutaneous blood vessels in melasma and the effects of oral tranexamic acid (TXA) with D-OCT. Study design/materials and methods: Six patients with moderate to severe melasma had a D-OCT scanning of the areas on the face affected by melasma and not affected by it. Three of them had scans within 3 months after starting oral TXA and at a follow-up visit. Blood ...

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    6. Development of a Predictive Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Model for Ablative Fractional Skin Lasers

      Development of a Predictive Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Model for Ablative Fractional Skin Lasers

      It is possible to enhance topical drug delivery by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers (AFLs). However, the parameters to use for a given AFL to achieve the desired depth of ablation or the desired therapeutic or cosmetic outcome are hard to predict. This leaves open the real possibility of overapplication or underapplication of laser energy to the skin. In this study, we developed a numerical model consisting of a Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) code coupled to a heat transfer and tissue damage algorithm. The simulation is designed to predict the depth effects of AFL on the ...

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    7. Evaluation of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, and nevus

      Evaluation of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, and nevus

      Background: Basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis, and nevus are common skin conditions. Though most of the skin diseases can be distinguished from each other by physician's naked eyes, the diagnostic accuracy is not 100%. The accurate diagnosis and assessment of three diseases make a big difference on the clinical management. Nowadays, biopsy is still the gold standard for diagnosis even it is invasive, time-consuming, and painful. Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography is an emerging technology that can produce in situ, cellular-resolution, real-time, continuous, 3D images in a noninvasive way. Materials and methods: In our study, four basal cell carcinoma patients ...

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    8. Depth‐resolved investigation of multiple optical properties and wrinkle morphology in eye‐corner areas with multi‐contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Depth‐resolved investigation of multiple optical properties and wrinkle morphology in eye‐corner areas with multi‐contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Background Multi‐contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JM‐OCT) can provide quantitative depth‐resolved local optical properties by improving the measurement algorithm. Materials and methods We examined the relationship between depth‐resolved local optical properties of eye‐corner skin measured by JM‐OCT and corresponding wrinkle morphology of aged women (n = 21; age range, 71.7 ± 1.7 years). Wrinkle morphology was analyzed by measuring the surface topography of three‐dimensional replicas. The same regions were measured three‐dimensionally by JM‐OCT, and the local optical properties at each depth were computed. Results Birefringence (BR) and mean wrinkle depth ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients With Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

      The purpose of this study is to determine whether any eventual skin damage caused by radiation therapy can be detected and monitored at a subclinical level via optical coherence tomography (OCT). Another key question is whether subclinical OCT detected skin damage correlates with acute and late clinical toxicity.

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    10. Depth-resolved investigation of multiple optical properties and wrinkle morphology in eye-corner areas with multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Depth-resolved investigation of multiple optical properties and wrinkle morphology in eye-corner areas with multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

      Background: Multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) can provide quantitative depth-resolved local optical properties by improving the measurement algorithm. Materials and methods: We examined the relationship between depth-resolved local optical properties of eye-corner skin measured by JM-OCT and corresponding wrinkle morphology of aged women (n = 21; age range, 71.7 ± 1.7 years). Wrinkle morphology was analyzed by measuring the surface topography of three-dimensional replicas. The same regions were measured three-dimensionally by JM-OCT, and the local optical properties at each depth were computed. Results: Birefringence (BR) and mean wrinkle depth correlated significantly at a depth of 88.2-138.6 ...

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    11. Monitoring Response to Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients with Alopecia Areata with Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Series

      Monitoring Response to Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients with Alopecia Areata with Optical Coherence Tomography: A Case Series

      Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair loss condition that is difficult to treat and frequently disruptive to the psychosocial well-being of patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an innovative therapy that provides concentrated GFs that impart anti-inflammatory effects. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality with the potential for providing quantitative monitoring of AA response to PRP. Our objective is to share our experience using OCT to monitor the therapeutic progress of patients with AA treated with PRP. Two patients with patchy AA and one with alopecia universalis were treated with PRP three times at 6-week intervals as ...

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    12. Photoaging Reversing After Picosecond Laser With DLA Assessed by Cellular Resolution OCT in Asian Patient With Melasma

      Photoaging Reversing After Picosecond Laser With DLA Assessed by Cellular Resolution OCT in Asian Patient With Melasma

      Background Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects facial sun exposed areas, most commonly in Asians and other darker skin type females. Recent evidence has demonstrated melasma to be a photoaging disorder. The histological findings of melasma are similar to photoaging and include solar elastosis, increased mast cells and sebaceous glands, as well as increased vascularization. Pendulous active melanocytes with weakened basal membranes, and changes in nuclear morphology and chromatin texture of adjacent basal keratinocytes also seemed to be a characteristic feature of melasma.

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    13. Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography-Practical applications in dermatology and comparison with established imaging methods

      Line-field confocal optical coherence tomography-Practical applications in dermatology and comparison with established imaging methods

      Background Non‐invasive diagnostic techniques in dermatology gained increasing popularity in the last decade. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are meanwhile established in research and clinical routine. While OCT is mainly indicated for detecting non‐melanoma skin cancer, RCM has proven its usefulness additionally in distinguishing melanocytic lesions. Line‐field confocal optical coherence tomography (LC‐OCT) is an emerging tool combining the principles of both above‐mentioned methods. Methods Healthy skin at different body sites and exemplary skin lesions (basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, actinic keratosis) were examined using dermoscopy, RCM, OCT and LC‐OCT. Standard ...

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      Mentions: Julia Welzel
    14. https://practicaldermatology.com/news/optical-coherence-tomography-plus-ai-can-quickly-and-accurately-monitor-hair-regrowth?c4src=news:featured

      https://practicaldermatology.com/news/optical-coherence-tomography-plus-ai-can-quickly-and-accurately-monitor-hair-regrowth?c4src=news:featured

      Optical coherence tomography plus artificial intelligence methods can accurately and efficiently monitor hair growth therapies, suggests a new study in Lasers in Surgery and Medicine . One of the challenges in developing effective hair loss therapies is the lack of reliable non-invasive methods to monitor treatment response or alopecia progression, but optical coherence tomography (OCT) and automated deep learning can non-invasively evaluate hair and follicle counts that may be used to monitor the success of hair growth therapy more accurately and efficiently.

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    15. Skin tags imaged by reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and multispectral optoacoustic tomography at the bedside

      Skin tags imaged by reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and multispectral optoacoustic tomography at the bedside

      Background Skin tags are common and mostly benign, but occasionally contain skin cancers. This study analysed skin tags by combining three advanced optical imaging technologies: reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multispectral optoacoustic imaging (MSOT) supplemented by dermoscopy Materials and methods A prospective clinical study recruiting patients with skin tags from a university hospital clinic over a 2‐week period. OCT, RCM and MSOT imaging were performed prior to excisional biopsies. Image features such as pigmentation, cell types and skin architecture, angiographic information demonstrating vascular pattern were captured, analysed, and compared to melanin and haemoglobin content in ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography for patch test grading: a prospective study on its use for non‐invasive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis

      Optical coherence tomography for patch test grading: a prospective study on its use for non‐invasive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis

      Background The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis should be confirmed by skin patch‐tests. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic reactions is sometimes difficult. Objectives To analyse the in‐vivo morphological changes in patch test reactions compared to healthy skin, and to detect subclinical changes in doubtful reactions using OCT. To develop an OCT‐based algorithm to support patch‐test grading. Methods 129 skin patch‐test areas were scanned with OCT evaluating following features: architectural and vascular morphology, epidermal thickness, optical attenuation coefficient (AC) and blood flow at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.35 mm depth. Results Most common OCT ...

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    17. Comparison of the Meibomian Gland Openings by Optical Coherence Tomography in Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Normal Patients

      Comparison of the Meibomian Gland Openings by Optical Coherence Tomography in Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Normal Patients

      Purpose: The aim of this study was to use swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) to explore imaging the meibomian gland openings and to identify their in vivo characteristics in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and healthy participants. Methods: We enrolled 49 patients with MGD and 54 health controls in this case-control study. Each participant underwent slit-lamp examination, meibography, and OCT scanning. Sixteen patients with MGD underwent a repeat OCT examination after eyelid massage. The outcome measures included determinations of meibomian gland openings (orifices and terminal ducts) from OCT images and comparisons of the meibomian openings between ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    18. Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmented skin lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous melanoma

      Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmented skin lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous melanoma

      Introduction The incidence and mortality of melanoma are rising rapidly. Despite ongoing research and the introduction of new therapeutic methods, advanced melanoma is still considered incurable. Early detection and surgical excision of the tumor increases patients’ survival. Since the diagnostic protocol includes surgical excision of all suspicious lesions, it is burdened with a high rate of unnecessary excisions that cause unwanted scarring. This is why the development of accurate diagnostic techniques is crucial. The most common diagnostic tool in early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is dermoscopy, though there are emerging new techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence ...

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    19. Extramammary Paget Disease: In Vivo Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Extramammary Paget Disease: In Vivo Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow‐growing cancer related to Paget's disease of the breast, or mammary Paget’s disease (MPD). EMPD most commonly affects hormonally targeted tissues, such as vulvar skin in women and scrotal skin in men. Generally, a biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis. We report a case of a EMPD of the scrotum and highlight the use of dynamic optical coherence tomography (D‐OCT) as a diagnostic adjunct. A 60‐year‐old man presented with a three‐year history of an enlarging red rash on the scrotum. The patient’s medical ...

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    20. Applications and Future Directions for Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology

      Applications and Future Directions for Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non‐invasive optical imaging method that can generate high‐resolution en‐face and cross‐sectional images of the skin in vivo to a maximum depth of 2mm. Whilst OCT holds considerable potential for non‐invasive diagnosis and disease monitoring, it is poorly understood by many dermatologists. Here, we aim to equip the practicing dermatologist with an understanding of the principles of skin OCT and the potential clinical indications. We begin with an introduction to the technology and discuss the different modalities of OCT including angiographic (dynamic) OCT, which can image cutaneous blood vessels at ...

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    21. Combining Deep Learning With Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging to Determine Scalp Hair and Follicle Counts

      Combining Deep Learning With Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging to Determine Scalp Hair and Follicle Counts

      Background and Objectives One of the challenges in developing effective hair loss therapies is the lack of reliable methods to monitor treatment response or alopecia progression. In this study, we propose the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and automated deep learning to non‐invasively evaluate hair and follicle counts that may be used to monitor the success of hair growth therapy more accurately and efficiently. Study Design/Materials and Methods We collected 70 OCT scans from 14 patients with alopecia and trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically count all follicles present in the scans. The model is ...

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    22. Efficacy and Safety of Laser‐Assisted Combination Chemotherapy: An Explorative Imaging‐Guided Treatment With 5‐Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Efficacy and Safety of Laser‐Assisted Combination Chemotherapy: An Explorative Imaging‐Guided Treatment With 5‐Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Background and Objectives Rising incidences of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have increased the need for effective topical therapies. By enhancing cutaneous uptake of the chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and 5‐fluorouracil (5‐FU), laser‐assisted delivery may provide a new combination treatment for BCC. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate tumor response, safety, and drug biodistribution in tumors and blood after topical laser‐assisted 5‐FU + CIS treatment in BCC patients. Study Design/Materials and Methods This open‐label, proof‐of‐concept trial investigated laser‐assisted combination cisplatin + 5‐FU treatment in 20 patients with histologically verified, low‐risk superficial or ...

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