1. Articles in category: Dermatology

    1-24 of 795 1 2 3 4 ... 32 33 34 »
    1. Effect of a Basic Skin Care Product on the Structural Strength of the Skin

      Effect of a Basic Skin Care Product on the Structural Strength of the Skin

      The process of aging involves numerous structural and functional changes also affecting the skin. The skin fulfills a variety of protective and regulatory functions. Compared to other organs, the skin is constantly exposed to harmful environmental influences. Besides intrinsic factors these external factors may accelerate skin aging. Due to its ageing-related loss of functional capacity the skin becomes susceptible to develop adverse skin conditions and dermatological diseases (e.g. skin dryness, fungal infections). Especially old aged, care depended, and severely ill individuals are at high risk for developing severe skin injuries and wounds (e.g. decubitus, skin tears) with high ...

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    2. Extracting Blood Vessels From Full-Field OCT Data of Human Skin by Short-Time RPCA

      Extracting Blood Vessels From Full-Field OCT Data of Human Skin by Short-Time RPCA

      Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) lead to the development of OCT angiography to provide additional helpful information for diagnosis of diseases like basal cell carcinoma. In this paper, we investigate how to extract blood vessels of human skin from full-field OCT (FF-OCT) data using the robust principal component analysis (RPCA) technique. Specifically, we propose a short-time RPCA method that divides the FF-OCT data into segments and decomposes each segment into a low-rank structure representing the relatively static tissues of human skin and a sparse matrix representing the blood vessels. The method mitigates the problem associated with the slow-varying ...

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    3. Acne vulgaris severity graded by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Acne vulgaris severity graded by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Acne is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be investigated in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Objectives By means of RCM and OCT to identify morphological characteristics of acne that may be associated with clinical acne severity. Methods Patients with mild to moderate facial acne ( n  = 14, Investigators Global Assessment scale, IGA 1–3), and healthy participants ( n  = 7, IGA 0) were included in this explorative study. A total of 108 RCM image blocks and 54 OCT scans (each RCM and OCT image measuring 6 × 6 mm) were captured from ...

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      Mentions: Mette Mogensen
    4. Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of skin cancer in adults

      Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of skin cancer in adults

      Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a microscopic imaging technique, which magnifies the surface of a skin lesion using near-infrared light. Used in conjunction with ...

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    5. Spatially confined quantification of bilirubin concentrations by spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography

      Spatially confined quantification of bilirubin concentrations by spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography

      Spatially confined measurements of bilirubin in tissue can be of great value for noninvasive bilirubin estimations during neonatal jaundice, as well as our understanding of the physiology behind bilirubin extravasation. This work shows the potential of spectroscopic visible-light optical coherence tomography (sOCT) for this purpose. At the bilirubin absorption peak around 460 nm, sOCT suffers from a strong signal decay with depth, which we overcome by optimizing our system sensitivity through a combination of zero-delay acquisition and focus tracking. In a phantom study, we demonstrate the quantification of bilirubin concentrations between 0 and 650 µM with only a 10% difference ...

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    6. Three-dimensional graph-based skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images for roughness estimation

      Three-dimensional graph-based skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images for roughness estimation

      Automatic skin layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is important for a topographic assessment of skin or skin disease detection. However, existing methods cannot deal with the problem of shadowing in OCT images due to the presence of hair, scales, etc. In this work, we propose a method to segment the topmost layer of the skin (or the skin surface) using 3D graphs with a novel cost function to deal with shadowing in OCT images. 3D graph cuts use context information across B-scans when segmenting the skin surface, which improves the segmentation as compared to segmenting each B-scan ...

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    7. Multimodal Optical Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation for Cutaneous Microparticle Delivery

      Multimodal Optical Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation for Cutaneous Microparticle Delivery

      Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate how pretreatment with a topical medication for acne affects application and delivery of gold microparticles to the skin in acne patients. In addition, the investigators want to investigate the biodistribution of gold microparticles in pretreated skin and compare this with the biodistribution of untreated skin using the non-invasive imaging techniques optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are non-invasive imaging technologies allowing for imaging of the upper skin layers. Gold microparticles have been shown to have a contrast effect on the ...

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    8. Basal Cell Carcinomas Treated With Ablative Fractional Laser and Ingenol Mebutate

      Basal Cell Carcinomas Treated With Ablative Fractional Laser and Ingenol Mebutate

      Brief Summary: A prospective clinical, uncontrolled, open-label, explorative phase 2a trial on patients with histologically-confirmed superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The study assesses tolerability and tumor clearance after laser-assisted topical delivery of topical ingenol mebutate. Detailed Description: Patients will receive ablative fractional laser (AFXl)-assisted ingenol mebutate (IM) as a treatment for their cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Treatment areas consisting of tumors and a 5 mm margin will undergo AFXl exposure (CO2 laser) followed by IM 0.015% or 0.05% under occlusion for 2-3 days. . local skin reactions are monitored at baseline (day1), day 3/4 ...

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    9. Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Melanoma incidence has been increasing in the US population, with early detection and treatment leading to decreased morbidity and mortality. The first steps in diagnosis are clinical examination and skin biopsy. Various methods of skin biopsy exist and the appropriate choice can be challenging. In this chapter, we review various biopsy techniques including excisional, scoop (saucerization), incisional or punch, shave, biopsy of special sites, and emerging noninvasive imaging techniques for pigmented lesions including reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, digital multispectral dermoscopy, and tape stripping mRNA.

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    10. Imaging technique for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma

      Imaging technique for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma

      Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour that derives from the nail matrix and grows within the nail plate. The clinical presentation can mimic many other tumors and conditions and surgical biopsy and histopathological examination are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Since nail surgery is a painful experience for the patient and sometimes can leave permanent onychodistrophy, more precise preoperative diagnosis is needed to distinguish onychomatricoma from other nail diseases more accurately and to limit surgical interventions. The objective of this study was to evaluate current literature on imaging techniques for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma in order to understand how this technology ...

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    11. Mechanical spectroscopy and imaging of skin components in vivo: Assignment of the observed moduli

      Mechanical spectroscopy and imaging of skin components in vivo: Assignment of the observed moduli

      Background The need to quantitatively identify the composition and organization of the macromolecular components of skin, skin lesions, scars, tumors, extracellular matrices (ECMs), and wound tissue has been a goal of researchers for many decades. A variety of studies have been recently reported applying optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image skin and cutaneous lesions. Materials and Methods This article describes the use of vibrational OCT to image and noninvasively characterize the macromolecular components of the ECM of skin. Results We report that the major macromolecular components of skin and scar can be identified noninvasively by their characteristic moduli calculated from ...

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    12. OCT‐based angiography of human dermal microvascular reactions to local stimuli: Implications for increasing capillary blood collection volumes

      OCT‐based angiography of human dermal microvascular reactions to local stimuli: Implications for increasing capillary blood collection volumes

      Objectives To measure and compare microvascular responses within the skin of the upper arm to local stimuli, such as heating or rubbing, through the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and to investigate its impact on blood volume collection. Materials and Methods With the use of heat packs or rubbing, local stimulation was applied to the skin of either the left or right upper arm. Data from the stimulated sites were obtained using OCTA comparing pre‐ and post‐stimulation microvascular parameters, such as vessel density, mean vessel diameter, and mean avascular pore size. Additionally, blood was collected using a ...

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    13. Multiscale skin imaging in vivo using optical coherence tomography

      Multiscale skin imaging in vivo using optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive high-resolution diagnostic imaging modality that plays an increasingly important role in dermatology. Diagnosis of skin diseases using OCT requires both cellular-level high resolution and large area skin coverage. In practice, however, there exists a trade-off between the achievable spatial resolutions and the transverse scanning range. In this study, we report a Micro-OCT ( μ OCT) system that is capable of providing three-dimensional images of the skin at multiple spatial scales with both cellular-level resolution (1–2 μ m) mode and large area (~ mm 2 ) scanning mode. Specifically, in the cellular-level scanning mode, we achieve a transverse ...

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    14. Imaging of human finger nail-fold with MHz A-scan rate swept source optical coherence tomography

      Imaging of human finger nail-fold with MHz A-scan rate swept source optical coherence tomography

      We present a non-invasive three-dimensional depth-resolved micro-structure and micro-vasculature imaging of a human fingernail-fold with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) system at a 1064 nm center wavelength. A phase variance OCT angiography (OCTA) method was implemented for motion contrast OCT imaging. A Fourier-domain mode-locked light source with an A-scan rate of 1.7 MHz (1 700 000 A-scans s −1 ) was utilized for imaging. The experimental setup demonstrates OCT and OCTA imaging with an area of ~5 mm   ×   5 mm (within the Nyquist limit). Details of the ssOCTA system such as system parameters, scanning protocols, acquisition time, challenges, and ...

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      Mentions: Raju Poddar
    15. Pseudo‐Kaposi sarcoma: report of a case investigated by dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Pseudo‐Kaposi sarcoma: report of a case investigated by dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Letter to the editor. First described in 1965 by Mali et al., pseudo‐Kaposi sarcoma (PKS), also known as acroangiodermatitis, is a rare disease inscribed in the setting of cutaneous reactive angiomatoses (CRAs). CRA are all characterized by occlusion and/or inflammation of cutaneous vessels, followed by histiocyte recruitment and endotheliocyte and pericyte hyperplasia. As the name suggests, PKS nearly resembles Kaposi sarcoma, but is benign in its nature. PKS typically presents with violaceous papules and plaques, usually located on the inferior limbs.

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    16. Dynamic optical coherence tomography of histamine induced wheals

      Dynamic optical coherence tomography of histamine induced wheals

      Background Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D‐OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique providing images of the skin and detecting movement in the tissue ie, measuring blood flow. The “attenuation coefficient” describes light absorption and scattering abilities of the tissue, while the dynamic signal provides a quantitative measure of the blood flow. Aim The study objective is to describe the dynamic changes of the skin and skin vessels during histamine release using D‐OCT. Methods Healthy volunteers had local histamine injections in the skin and D‐OCT‐scans performed at 2‐minute intervals to detect changes in blood flow, attenuation and ...

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    17. Advances in optical coherence tomography in dermatology—a review

      Advances in optical coherence tomography in dermatology—a review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced as an imaging system, but like ultrasonography, other measures, such as blood perfusion and polarization of light, have enabled the technology to approach clinical utility. This review aims at providing an overview of the advances in clinical research based on the improving technical aspects. OCT provides cross-sectional and en face images down to skin depths of 0.4 to 2.00 mm with optical resolution of 3 to 15  μm. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) enables the visualization of cutaneous microvasculature via detection of rapid changes in the interferometric signal of blood flow. Nonmelanoma ...

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    18. Sub-clinical assessment of atopic dermatitis severity using angiographic optical coherence tomography

      Sub-clinical assessment of atopic dermatitis severity using angiographic optical coherence tomography

      Measurement of sub-clinical atopic dermatitis (AD) is important for determining how long therapies should be continued after clinical clearance of visible AD lesions. An important biomarker of subclinical AD is epidermal hypertrophy, the structural measures of which often make optical coherence tomography (OCT) challenging due to the lack of a clearly delineated dermal-epidermal junction in AD patients. Alternatively, angiographic OCT measurements of vascular depth and morphology may represent a robust biomarker for quantifying the severity of clinical and sub clinical AD. To investigate this, angiographic data sets were acquired from 32 patients with a range of AD severities. Deeper vascular ...

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    19. Low-Coherence Reflectometry and Speckle Polarimetry in the Monitoring of Human Skin Pathologic Changes

      Low-Coherence Reflectometry and Speckle Polarimetry in the Monitoring of Human Skin Pathologic Changes

      We present the results of the study of normal and pathologic human skin using low-coherence reflectometry and speckle polarimetry. The statistical characteristics of local polarisation states in the individual coherence areas (speckles) of the forward scattered laser radiation demonstrate high sensitivity to the pathologic changes of the biotissue morphology in vitro. The analysis of the attenuation rate of the low-coherence reflectometer signal depending on the probing depth provides additional information for the identification of skin morphologic changes and the analysis of the effect of immersion agents on the biotissue optical properties.

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    20. Visualization of viscoelastic behavior in vivo skin using optical coherence tomography-based straingraphy combined with suction device

      Visualization of viscoelastic behavior in vivo skin using optical coherence tomography-based straingraphy combined with suction device

      Although various apparatuses have been developed to assess the skin mechanical function, the spatial viscoelastic behavior of each skin layer including the epidermis and dermis is yet unclear. To resolve that lack of clarity, we built a handmade system combining a suction device with optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT can visualize the vertical section of the skin with high spatial resolution and high acquisition speed. In addition, we developed an algorithm for time-dependent strain tomography, named Dynamic Optical Coherence Straingraphy (D-OCSA), which can analyze the changes in strain distributions over time in sequential OCT images. Using the system, successive OCT ...

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    21. Ultrasound and Infrared-Based Imaging Modalities for Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Diseases

      Ultrasound and Infrared-Based Imaging Modalities for Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Diseases

      Non-invasive bedside imaging tools are becoming more prevalent for assessing cutaneous lesions. Ultrasound used at specific frequencies allows us to assess margins of lesions to minimize the extent of the biopsy that is performed and improve cosmetic outcomes. Vascularity, seen on Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and stiffness, assessed on tissue elastography, can help differentiate between benign and malignant lesions for clinicians to be more judicious in deciding whether to biopsy. Moreover, research has shown the efficacy in using ultrasound in monitoring flares of hidradenitis suppurativa, a disease affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body, for which the current gold ...

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    22. Two optical coherence tomography systems detect topical gold nanoshells in hair follicles, sweat ducts and measure epidermis

      Two optical coherence tomography systems detect topical gold nanoshells in hair follicles, sweat ducts and measure epidermis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology that enables real time, high‐resolution, cross‐sectional and en face investigation of skin by detecting reflected broad‐spectrum near‐infrared light from tissue. OCT provides micron‐scale spatial resolution and millimeter‐scale depth of penetration [1]. Several commercial OCT systems with handheld probes targeted for Dermatology are now available [2].

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