1. Articles in category: Dermatology

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    1. High-definition optical coherence tomography: Contribution to the non-invasive near infrared optical imaging techniques of the skin (Thesis)

      High-definition optical coherence tomography: Contribution to the non-invasive near infrared optical imaging techniques of the skin (Thesis)

      Background. The development of non-invasive imaging techniques has been stimulated by the shortcomings of histopathology. Currently the only valid diagnostic technique in dermatology is skin biopsy which remains a painful, invasive intervention for the patient. Moreover, this approach is not always convenient for monitoring and follow-up of a skin disease. Optical imaging technologies could solve these shortcomings as they are fast, precise, repeatable and painless. There are four established non-invasive skin imaging techniques used in daily practice: dermoscopy, high-frequency ultrasound, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and conventional optical coherence tomography (C-OCT). In imaging there is a trade-off between resolution and penetration ...

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    2. Ethyl cellulose nanocarriers and nanocrystals differentially deliver dexamethasone into intact, tape-stripped or sodium lauryl sulfate-exposed ex vivo human skin - assessment by intradermal microdialysis and extraction from the different skin layers

      Ethyl cellulose nanocarriers and nanocrystals differentially deliver dexamethasone into intact, tape-stripped or sodium lauryl sulfate-exposed ex vivo human skin - assessment by intradermal microdialysis and extraction from the different skin layers

      Understanding penetration not only in intact, but also in lesional skin with impaired skin barrier function is important, in order to explore the surplus value of nanoparticle-based drug delivery for anti-inflammatory dermatotherapy. Herein, short-term ex vivo cultures of (i) intact human skin, (ii) skin pretreated with tape-strippings and (iii) skin pre-exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to assess the penetration of dexamethasone (Dex). Intradermal microdialysis was utilized for up to 24 h after drug application as commercial cream, nanocrystals or ethyl cellulose nanocarriers applied at the therapeutic concentration of 0.05%, respectively. In addition, Dex was assessed in ...

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    3. Apparatus and method for capturing a vital vascular fingerprint

      Apparatus and method for capturing a vital vascular fingerprint

      A method using optical coherence tomography to capture the microvascular network of the superficial layer of the finger skin for the purpose of fingerprint authentication and liveness detection. At the dermal papilla region, the vascular pattern follows the same pattern of the fingerprint and this vascular pattern forms a live vascular fingerprint. This live vascular fingerprint provides for ultrahigh security and a unique way for fingerprint-based personal verification. Because the system is based on blood flow, which only exists in a living person, the technique is robust against spoof attaching. After performing non-contact in-vivo imaging of a human fingertip, a ...

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    4. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Capillaroscopy A New Imaging Tool in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease

      Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Capillaroscopy A New Imaging Tool in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease

      Importance Vasculopathy characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of the microcirculation plays an important role in systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Although there are several advantages in using capillaroscopy, the method does not offer insight on the skin architecture, flow status, or morphology of the deeper dermal vessels. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a recently developed OCT technique that enables detection of high-speed changes in back-scattered light caused by moving cells in vessels. The high resolution of OCT enables the detection of the papillary loops. Objective To explore the potential for OCT capillaroscopy of the nailfolds using D-OCT. Design, Setting ...

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    5. OCT Technology Improves Diagnosis of Skin Cancer

      OCT Technology Improves Diagnosis of Skin Cancer

      As part of an ongoing series of occasional article on cancer prevention, Dr. Markowitz from The Mount Sinai Hospital discusses skin cancer and the use Optical Coherence Tomography in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. MedicalResearch.com: How common is the problem of non-melanoma skin cancer? Are they difficult to detect and treat? Dr. Markowitz: Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. Non melanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, are the most common malignancies of the skin, constituting around 80 percent of all skin cancers. The annual cost of treating skin ...

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      Mentions: Orit Markowitz
    6. In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching

      In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching

      Stratum corneum and epidermal layers change in terms of thickness and roughness with gender, age and anatomical site. Knowledge of the mechanical and tribological properties of skin associated with these structural changes are needed to aid in the design of exoskeletons, prostheses, orthotics, body mounted sensors used for kinematics measurements and in optimum use of wearable on-body devices. In this case study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC) were combined to determine skin surface strain and sub-surface deformation behaviour of the volar forearm due to natural tissue stretching. The thickness of the epidermis together with geometry changes ...

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    7. A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Background High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of actinic keratosis (AK) may aid in its diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. A diagnostic algorithm permitting discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin has been proposed. However, diagnostic accuracy strongly depends on the experience of physicians. In two recent studies, it was demonstrated that HD-OCT permits to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in intrinsic ageing skin, in melanocytic lesions and in basal cell carcinoma. This approach seems to permit a semiautomated classification of lesions easier to handle by non-experts. Objectives The aim of this paper ...

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    8. Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

      Accurate measurement of edema volume is essential for the investigation of tissue response and recovery following a traumatic injury. The measurements must be noninvasive and repetitive over time so as to monitor tissue response throughout the healing process. Such techniques are particularly necessary for the evaluation of therapeutics that are currently in development to suppress or prevent edema formation. In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to image and quantify edema in a mouse ear model where the injury is induced by a superficial-thickness burn. Extraction of edema volume is achieved by an attenuation compensation ...

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    9. Utilization of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Cherry Hemangiomas

      Utilization of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Cherry Hemangiomas

      Cherry hemangiomas are common vascular proliferative lesions that can be concerning from a cosmetic perspective. Laser therapy is often used to eradicate cherry hemangiomas, but some lesions require multiple treatments or do not resolve at all. The suboptimal response to laser treatment may be due to limitations in penetration depth by vascular lasers such as the pulsed dye laser. Optical coherence tomography is a low-energy, light-based imaging device that can evaluate the depth and extent of vascular lesions such as cherry hemangiomas by allowing visualization of tissue structure and blood vessel architecture, which cannot be appreciated by clinical or dermatoscopic ...

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    10. New laser treatment could hold key to less-invasive skin cancer treatment

      New laser treatment could hold key to less-invasive skin cancer treatment

      Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer in the United States, with more than four million cases are diagnosed every year. Until now, surgery has been the standard treatment, but a new non-invasive option is helping cancer patients get rid of the disease. Will Leggett had basal cell carcinoma which his doctor was able to diagnose and treat using the new technique. Legett was scheduled for an invasive forehead flap surgery until he got a second opinion from Dr. Orit Markowitz at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. “[Dr. Markowitz] said, ‘I think I can do ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most OCT studies on the subject of BCC have had a qualitative focus, i.e. on morphological analysis of the OCT images. The aim of this study was to explore the use of quantitative OCT measurements, density, and attenuation coefficient in BCC lesions as a way to improve the OCT evaluation of BCC. Methods The study was based ...

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    12. Commentary on the Diagnostic Utility of Non-invasive Imaging Devices for Field Cancerization

      Commentary on the Diagnostic Utility of Non-invasive Imaging Devices for Field Cancerization

      In this issue of Experimental Dermatology , Marneffe and collegues present a practical algorithmic guide to differentiating actinic keratosis (AK) from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), outlining steps and markers to guide both novice and more experienced skin cancer experts (1).

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    13. Investigation of optical attenuation imaging using optical coherence tomography for monitoring of scars undergoing fractional laser treatment

      Investigation of optical attenuation imaging using optical coherence tomography for monitoring of scars undergoing fractional laser treatment

      En face 2D OCT attenuation coefficient map of a treated immature scar derived from the pre-treatment (top) and the post-treatment (bottom) scans. (Vasculature (black) is masked out.) The scale bars are 0.5 mm. We demonstrate the use of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient, measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), in longitudinal assessment of hypertrophic burn scars undergoing fractional laser treatment. The measurement method incorporates blood vessel detection by speckle decorrelation and masking, and a robust regression estimator to produce 2D en face parametric images of the attenuation coefficient of the dermis. Through reliable co-location of the field of view across ...

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    14. Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

      Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

      Objectives Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is anangiographic variation of OCT that non-invasively provides images of the in vivo microvasculature of the skin by combining conventional OCT images with flow data. The objective of this study was to investigate and report on the D-OCT technique for imaging of the vascular networks in skin as well as to validate the method by comparing the results against already accepted blood flow measuring tools. Methods 35 healthy subjects were recruited for the multicentre study, consisting of three experiments set up to examine the vascular blood perfusion during different induced physiologic changes in the ...

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    15. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor ( µ raf ) at different skin layers could be assessed. . IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µ raf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with ...

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    16. Defining Field Cancerization of the Skin Using Noninvasive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging to Detect and Monitor Actinic Keratosis in Ingenol Mebutate 0.015%-Treated Patients

      Defining Field Cancerization of the Skin Using Noninvasive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging to Detect and Monitor Actinic Keratosis in Ingenol Mebutate 0.015%-Treated Patients

      Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect clinical and subclinical actinic keratoses confirmed by histopathology. The efficacy of ingenol mebutate treatment of actinic keratosis was also evaluated using optical coherence tomography, and correlation of treatment efficacy with severity of local skin reactions was determined. Design: Single-arm, open-label, split-face study. Setting: Hospital outpatient clinic. Participants: Male subjects (N=30) with seven actinic keratoses. Measurements: A suspected actinic keratosis and the normal-appearing, perilesional skin were imaged, biopsied for histopathologic analysis, and the results compared with the clinical and a blinded optical coherence ...

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    17. An Elastic Second Skin

      An Elastic Second Skin

      We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss ...

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    18. OCT Laser Device Allows Visualization of Skin Without Biopsy

      OCT Laser Device Allows Visualization of Skin Without Biopsy

      The annual incidence of skin cancer is more than breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancer combined. Of the 7 most common skin cancers in the US melanoma is the only one whose incidence is increasing. The highest risk group for skin cancer are fair skin, adults with a history of sun exposure.

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    19. Eye Scan May Detect Early Signs of Alzheimer's Disease

      Eye Scan May Detect Early Signs of Alzheimer's Disease

      as well: Scientists have developed an eye-scan technique that may detect Alzheimer's disease at its earliest stage, before major symptoms appear. With early detection, a person could seek treatment for Alzheimer's at a time when therapies would be most effective at slowing the progression of the memory-robbing disease, the researchers said. The research was presented today (May 5) at the annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) in Seattle. Alzheimer's disease , the most common form of dementia, is an epidemic that shows no signs of abating, according to the Centers for Disease ...

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      Mentions: Brown University
    20. OCT variant looks good for vascular imaging

      OCT variant looks good for vascular imaging

      Researchers in New York have shown that a variation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to tell melanomas apart from other skin lesions, by imaging the patterns of blood vessels that surround them. The small, early-stage study suggests that speckle-variance (sv) OCT could become a useful clinical tool for quickly identifying the most dangerous form of skin cancer, although a larger clinical trial of the technique will be needed to prove its utility first. Writing in the open access journal Dermatology Online , Orit Markowitz and colleagues looked at two pairs of malignant and benign lesions that are typically difficult ...

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    21. Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), consisting overwhelmingly of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most prevalent malignancy in Western populations with large populations of Caucasians. BCC forms the majority of NMSC and its incidence continues to rise in many countries; Australia has the highest incidence rate worldwide at >1000/100,000 person-years.(1-3) Although BCC is usually not life-threatening, it represents a major public health burden. In Australia, the number of treatment episodes for NMSC is more than five times that of all other cancers combined, making them the most expensive cancers to treat.(4)

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    22. VivoSight OCT used to visualize vascular networks in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers

      VivoSight OCT used to visualize vascular networks in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers

      Maidstone, UK, 3rd May 2016 New results have been published in Dermatology Online demonstrating that Michelson Diagnostics’ VivoSight OCT scanner can be used to image the blood vessel networks grown by skin cancers, and showing that skin lesions could be differentiated using their characteristic vascular patterns. This new technology may become a powerful tool in the dermatologists’s toolkit for the diagnosis of skin cancer and other conditions. The paper, entitled “Speckle-variance optical coherence tomography: a novel approach to skin cancer characterization using vascular patterns” was by Dr Orit Markowitz and co-workers from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New Your Harbor ...

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    23. Mount Sinai Health System Experts Share Skin Cancer Tips and Patient Stories for Skin Cancer Awareness Month and Melanoma Monday

      Mount Sinai Health System Experts Share Skin Cancer Tips and Patient Stories for Skin Cancer Awareness Month and Melanoma Monday

      Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, with one in five Americans developing it over the course of their lives. It’s also one of the most preventable types of cancers. In recognition of May’s Skin Cancer Awareness Month and Melanoma Monday on May 2nd, Mount Sinai Health System experts are arming the public with vital tips on prevention and offering FREE skin cancer screenings. Experts Available for Interview • Mark G. Lebwohl , MD, Sol and Clara Kest Professor of Dermatology, Kimberly and Eric J. Waldman Professor and Chair of the Kimberly and Eric ...

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    24. Adjunct use of optical coherence tomography increases the detection of recurrent basal cell carcinoma over clinical and dermoscopic examination alone

      Adjunct use of optical coherence tomography increases the detection of recurrent basal cell carcinoma over clinical and dermoscopic examination alone

      Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally destructive form of skin cancer, mainly affecting Caucasians. In the last few years non-surgical treatments of BCC have become widely used and non-invasive methods for treatment monitoring and follow-up are therefore becoming increasingly warranted. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of adjunct use of non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for the detection of recurrent BCC over clinical and dermoscopic examination alone, in a real-world setting. Methods A total of 58 patients, previously treated with curettage and/or MAL-PDT for BCC, were included in the study. The patients ...

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