1. Articles in category: Neurology

    73-96 of 707 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 28 29 30 »
    1. Modeling neurodegeneration in patients with visual pathway tumors by retinal Optical Coherence Tomography

      Modeling neurodegeneration in patients with visual pathway tumors by retinal Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive high-resolution imaging technique which was suggested to be a powerful biomarker of neurodegeneration. The objective of our study is to assess the pattern of retinal OCT changes in patients with visual pathway tumors. Methods A prospective clinical study was conducted and patients with single cerebral tumors with potential of compression on the visual pathway were included. Patients with multiple and/or metastatic tumors were excluded. Each patient underwent neurosurgical and ophthalmological evaluation, cranial-cerebral MRI, and ocular OCT in both eyes. The OCT parameters included circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (average and ...

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    2. Methodological concerns on Retinal Thickness evaluation by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      Methodological concerns on Retinal Thickness evaluation by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      The aim of this article is to underline the importance of all the possible confounding factors involved in the variation of retinal thickness. More in detail, antidepressant drugs represent an important confounding factor that should not be neglected when measuring retinal thickness by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with major depressive disorder

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal shunts between the arterial and venous vascular systems. These usually produce ocular pain, increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and diplopia. Less frequently, they may cause retinal changes with visual impairment. Our purpose is to illustrate different retinal manifestations of AVF. We report the multimodal imaging study of three cases with retinal changes due to AVF, showing neurosensory retinal detachment, macular oedema, and macular ischemia. In conclusion, AVF may appear with different ophthalmic alterations. While usually increased IOP and diplopia are our main concerns, retinal study is mandatory, since a myriad of morphologic abnormalities might be present.

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    4. Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      In the recently published article by Loewenstern et al, 1 the authors attempted to determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and management of compressive optic neuropathy secondary to fibrous dysplasia (FD). OCT is a relatively new imaging modality, which uses high-resolution cross-sections of the retina to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. The study evaluated 6 patients with cranial base FD for optic nerve compression and RNFL thinning, using computed tomography (CT) and OCT, respectively.

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    5. Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Purpose To review the clinical and research value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the field of neurology. Methods Current literature involving OCTA were reviewed through PubMed using the search terms “optical coherence tomography angiography”, with “multiple sclerosis”, “Alzheimer’s disease”, “optic neuropathy”, or other closely-related terms. Results OCTA has been applied in research to advance our understanding of the pathobiology of neurological disorders. OCTA-derived blood flow and vessel density measures are altered in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and various optic neuropathies (ON) in varying regions of the posterior segment vasculature of the eye. These emerging ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique based on the detection of light back-reflected or backscattered by tissue. Based on the principles of low-coherence interferometry, OCT provides rapid volumetric imaging with micrometer-scale resolution. OCT has been massively successful in ophthalmology where it became a routine tool for retinal diagnostics. In recent years, however, OCT has also been applied to other fields including—amongst others—cardiovascular imaging, endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract, and neuroimaging. In the brain and other neural tissues, OCT provides contrast for tissue microstructures and enables noninvasive in vivo and in vitro imaging with high resolution. Novel ...

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      Mentions: Bernhard Baumann
    7. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography reveals gray matter and white matter atrophy in SCA1 mouse models

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography reveals gray matter and white matter atrophy in SCA1 mouse models

      Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we demonstrate the label-free optical imaging methodology that can detect, with a high degree of sensitivity, discrete areas of degeneration in the cerebellum of the SCA1 mouse models. We used ATXN1[82Q] and ATXN1[30Q]-D776 mice in which the transgene is directed only to Purkinje cells. Molecular layer, granular layer, and white matter regions are analyzed using the intrinsic contrasts provided by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Cerebellar atrophy in SCA1 mice occurred both in gray matter and white matter. While gray matter atrophy is obvious ...

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    8. Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are seen in up to 2.4% of the general population, but the etiology and pathophysiology of the condition is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ODD in a population-based child cohort and to determine if scleral canal diameter and fetal birth and pubertal parameters are associated with the presence of ODD. Methods: This observational, longitudinal population-based birth cohort study, with a nested case–control, included 1,406 children. Eye examinations were performed when the children were between 11 and 12 years of age. Assessment was performed of ...

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    9. Evolution of Visual Outcomes in Clinical Trials for Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies

      Evolution of Visual Outcomes in Clinical Trials for Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies

      rom the Section Editor: In March 2018, the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology (JNO) launched its inaugural “Disease of the Year” section, featuring multiple sclerosis (MS). Beginning from a “Bench” perspective, Meltzner and colleagues presented an elegant overview of the pathogenic mechanisms believed to underpin central nervous system (CNS) injury in MS. To complement these efforts, Backner and Levin highlighted how the afferent visual pathway, as a putative model of CNS inflammation, can be interrogated with measures of structure and function to capture clinical and sub-clinical evidence disease activity in MS patients. Building on these concepts in this issue of the JNO ...

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    10. Extracting morphometric information from rat sciatic nerve using optical coherence tomography

      Extracting morphometric information from rat sciatic nerve using optical coherence tomography

      We apply three optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis techniques to extract morphometric information from OCT images obtained on peripheral nerves of rat. The accuracy of each technique is evaluated against histological measurements accurate to +/-1 µm. The three OCT techniques are: 1) average depth resolved profile (ADRP); 2) autoregressive spectral estimation (AR-SE); and, 3) correlation of the derivative spectral estimation (CoD-SE). We introduce a scanning window to the ADRP technique which provides transverse resolution, and improves epineurium thickness estimates - with the number of analysed images showing agreement with histology increasing from 2/10 to 5/10 (Kruskal-Wallis test, α = 0 ...

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    11. Dr. Steven Galetta Recognized For Lifetime Achievement in Neurologic Education

      Dr. Steven Galetta Recognized For Lifetime Achievement in Neurologic Education

      Steven L. Galetta , MD , the Philip K. Moskowitz, MD Professor and Chair of Neurology at NYU Langone Health, has been awarded the 2018 A.B. Baker Award for Lifetime Achievement in Neurological Education by the American Academy of Neurology for his career contributions to the field. Dr. Galetta received this prestigious honor on Monday, April 23 , during the 2018 American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, California .

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    12. Imaging of cortical structures and microvasculature using extended-focus optical coherence tomography at 1.3  μm

      Imaging of cortical structures and microvasculature using extended-focus optical coherence tomography at 1.3  μm

      Extended-focus optical coherence tomography (xf-OCT) is a variant of optical coherence tomography (OCT) wherein the illumination and/or detection modes are engineered to provide a constant diffractionless lateral resolution over an extended depth of field (typically 3 to 10 × 10× the Rayleigh range). xf-OCT systems operating at 800 nm have been devised and used in the past to image brain structures at high-resolution in vivo , but are limited to ∼ 500    μm ∼500  μm in penetration depth due to their short illumination wavelength. Here we present an xf-OCT system optimized to an image deeper within the cortex by using a longer ...

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    13. MICRO-IMAGING CATHETERS FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION, IMAGE-GUIDED, ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR OF BRAIN ANEURYSMS

      MICRO-IMAGING CATHETERS FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION, IMAGE-GUIDED, ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR OF BRAIN ANEURYSMS

      This program will commercialize a high-speed, high-resolution, neuroendovascular imaging platform that allows neurointerventionalists to directly visualize intravascular devices and their interaction with vessels during treatment of brain aneurysms. The miniaturization of the design features of neurovascular stents and flow-diverters has enabled an explosion of technologies available for endovascular treatment of stroke. However, imaging technology has not kept pace with device technology to enable endovascular surgeons sufficient resolution to adequately visualize the device-vessel relationship. As such, there is a critical need for high-resolution imaging specific to cerebrovascular disease and endovascular treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new imaging technique ...

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    14. Can Optical Coherence Tomography Be Used to Guide Treatment Decisions in Adult or Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis?

      Can Optical Coherence Tomography Be Used to Guide Treatment Decisions in Adult or Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis?

      Purpose of review With the recognition that neurodegeneration represents the principal substrate of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), there has been increased strives towards identifying biomarkers for accurately quantifying and tracking neurodegeneration during the disease course. The retina provides an opportune “window” into the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, with retinal changes in MS reflecting not only local, but also global aspects of neurodegeneration and inflammation operative in the disease. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapid, inexpensive, reproducible, high-resolution imaging technique allowing accurate quantification of discrete retinal layers. OCT determined thinning of inner retinal layers such as the ...

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    15. Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

      Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

      One major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the deposition of extracellular senile plaques and vessel wall deposits composed of amyloid-beta (A β ). In AD, degeneration of neurons is preceded by the formation of A β plaques, which show different morphological forms. Most of them are birefringent owing to the parallel arrangement of amyloid fibrils. Here, we present polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy (PS-OCM) for imaging mature neuritic A β plaques based on their birefringent properties. Formalin-fixed, post-mortem brain samples of advanced stage AD patients were investigated. In several cortical brain regions, neuritic A β plaques were successfully ...

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    16. In vivo high-resolution cortical imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy in the visible-NIR wavelength range

      In vivo high-resolution cortical imaging with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy in the visible-NIR wavelength range

      Visible light optical coherence tomography has shown great interest in recent years for spectroscopic and high-resolution retinal and cerebral imaging. Here, we present an extended-focus optical coherence microscopy system operating from the visible to the near-infrared wavelength range for high axial and lateral resolution imaging of cortical structures in vivo . The system exploits an ultrabroad illumination spectrum centered in the visible wavelength range (λ c   =  650  nm, Δλ  ∼  250  nm) offering a submicron axial resolution (∼0.85  μm in water) and an extended-focus configuration providing a high lateral resolution of ∼1.4  μm maintained over ∼150  μm in depth in water. The ...

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    17. Optic Nerve Head Parameters Measured with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Turkish Children: Normal Values, Repeatability, and Interocular Symmetry

      Optic Nerve Head Parameters Measured with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Turkish Children: Normal Values, Repeatability, and Interocular Symmetry

      To determine normal values, repeatability, and interocular symmetry of optic nerve head measurements, three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained from 128 healthy Turkish children aged 5–17 years consecutively and prospectively. The mean disc area, rim area, cup volume, cup to disc area ratio, and vertical and horizontal cup to disc ratios were 2.30 ± 0.42 mm 2 , 1.84 ± 0.45 mm 2 , 0.09 ± 0.10 mm 3 , 0.20 ± 0.13, 0.37 ± 0.17, and 0.45 ± 0.20, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.9 for repeatability and >0.75 ...

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    18. White matter atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 mouse models revealed by serial optical coherence scanner

      White matter atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 mouse models revealed by serial optical coherence scanner

      Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disease. Post-mortem studies showed neurodegeneration involving white matter components in the cerebral lobes, the cerebellar peduncles and the more distal cranial nerves in human patients. However, the progression of SCA1 in the brain remains unclear. We present the study of white matter atrophy of SCA1 mouse models using serial optical coherence scanner (SOCS). SOCS consists of a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a tissue slicer (vibratome) with associated controls for serial imaging. The optical system has 5.5 µm axial resolution and utilizes a scan lens or a water-immersion ...

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    19. Multicenter reliability of semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation using OCT

      Multicenter reliability of semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation using OCT

      Objective To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of semiautomated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume scans. Methods Macular OCT volume scans of left eyes from 17 subjects (8 patients with MS and 9 healthy controls) were automatically segmented by Heidelberg Eye Explorer (v1.9.3.0) beta-software (Spectralis Viewing Module v6.0.0.7), followed by manual correction by 5 experienced operators from 5 different academic centers. The mean thicknesses within a 6-mm area around the fovea were computed for the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer, outer ...

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    20. Optical coherence tomography in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

      Optical coherence tomography in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

      Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the SACS gene. Thickened retinal nerve fibres visible on fundoscopy have previously been described in these patients; however, thickening of the retinal nerve fibre layer as demonstrated by optical coherence tomography appears to be a more sensitive and specific feature. To test this observation, we assessed 292 individuals (191 patients with ataxia and 101 control subjects) by peripapillary time-domain optical coherence tomography. The patients included 146 with a genetic diagnosis of ataxia (17 autosomal spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, 59 Friedreich’s ataxia, 53 spinocerebellar ataxias ...

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    73-96 of 707 « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... 28 29 30 »
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