1. Articles in category: Neurology

    673-696 of 734 « 1 2 ... 26 27 28 29 30 31 »
    1. Distinctive retinal nerve fibre layer and vascular changes in neuromyelitis optica following optic neuritis

      Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional study comparing the retinal features of optic neuritis (ON) between 20 multiple sclerosis (MS) and 16 neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with a history of ON (visual acuity at time of attack >20/100) matched for age and gender using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundoscopy. Results: Compared with MS, NMO patients often had: (1) vascular changes, including attenuation of the peripapillary vascular tree (3/40 MS eyes, 22/32 NMO eyes; p = 0.001) and focal arteriolar narrowing (0/40 MS eyes and 9/32 NMO eyes; p<0.0001), (2) a ...
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      Mentions: UCSF
    2. Optical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies

      Objective: To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background: OCT can quantify damage to retinal ganglion cell axons and can identify abnormalities in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis (ON) eyes. OCT may also be useful in the evaluation of patients with NMO. Methods: OCT and visual function testing were performed in 26 NMO spectrum patients with a history of ON, 17 patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) without ON, 378 patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 77 healthy controls at ...
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    3. Optical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis

      Objectives: Determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect clinical and subclinical remote optic neuritis (ON), its relationship to clinical characteristics of ON and visual function, and whether the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness functions as a surrogate marker of global disease severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 65 subjects with at least 1 clinical ON episode at least 6 months prior. Measures included clinical characteristics, visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), OCT, and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Results: Ninety-six clinically affected optic nerves were studied. The sensitivity of OCT RNFL after ON was 60%, decreasing further with ...
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    4. Retinal nerve fiber thickness in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of childhood onset

      Purpose B Weinstock-Guttman To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children with acquired demyelinating diseases.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of patients seen between 2006–2008 at the Pediatric MS Center of the Jacobs Neurological Institute. Consensus definitions for pediatric demyelinating disease were followed. All children received OCT testing and assessment of visual acuity (VA) using Snellen and low contrast letter acuity (LCLA) charts.ResultsThirty-eight children diagnosed with acquired demyelinating disease, 15 healthy controls, and five children with other neurological disorders (OND) were included. Average RNFLT in healthy controls was 107 ± 12 µm ...
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    5. Bilateral Optic Neuritis in Acute Hepatitis C.

      A 34-year-old woman developed bilateral optic neuritis 2 weeks after the onset of acute hepatitis C. The strong temporal relationship between the initial clinical manifestations of hepatitis C and the development of optic neuritis provides a basis for thinking that the hepatitis caused the optic neuritis After corticosteroid treatment, the optic neuropathy markedly improved but left behind retinal nerve fiber thinning, as measured by optical coherence tomography, and optic disc pallor. Optic neuritis has been reported in conjunction with hepatitis A and B but not with hepatitis C.
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    6. Sub-clinical atrophy of the retinal nerve fibre layer in multiple sclerosis

      Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with normal ophthalmic examination, and to compare the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) to detect axonal loss.Methods: Patients with MS and disease-free controls were invited to enrol in the study from 1 February 2007 to 30 June 2008. Ophthalmic examination, including evaluation of visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF), showed normal results in all subjects. Retinal nerve fibre layer properties were measured by means of OCT and GDx. Visual evoked ...
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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): the Effect of Glatiramer in Patients With a Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS)

      This is a study in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis to assess the effects of glatiramer acetate subcutaneously on the condition of the optical nerve in comparison to no medicinal therapy during 12 months and to assess the use of Optical Coherence tomography (OCT), a non-invasive ophthalmological technique, in daily practice as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning for follow-up of these patients.
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    8. Relationship of optic nerve and brain conventional and non-conventional MRI measures and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by OCT and GDx: A pilot study

      BackgroundMeasurement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in multiple sclerosis (MS) is gaining increasing attention.ObjectivesTo explore the relationship between RNFL thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx), and conventional and non-conventional optic nerve and brain MRI measures.MethodsTwelve relapsing–remitting (RR) MS patients (12 affected and 12 unaffected eyes) and 4 age- and sex-matched normal controls (NC) (8 unaffected eyes) were enrolled. Four MS patients had a history of bilateral optic neuritis (ON), four had a history of unilateral ON, and 4 had no history of ON. Optic ...

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    9. Imaging outcomes for neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis trials

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is commonly regarded as an inflammatory disease, but it also has a neurodegenerative component, which represents an additional target for treatment. The use of MRI to evaluate the inflammatory disease component in 'proof-of concept' clinical trials is well established, but no systematic assessment of imaging outcomes to evaluate neuroprotection or repair in MS has been performed. In this Review, we examine the potential of traditional and novel imaging parameters to serve as primary outcomes in phase II clinical trials of neuroprotective and reparative strategies in MS. We present the conclusions of an international meeting of imaging, clinical ...
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    10. Vision Compromised in Multiple Sclerosis Even Without Symptoms

      "The emergence of optical coherence tomography has allowed us to capture the unique structure-function correlations provided by the anterior visual pathway in multiple sclerosis," Dr. Bisker said in a presentation at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
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    11. Retinal architecture predicts pupillary reflex metrics in MS

      Objective To study the relation of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning to clinical and physiologic measures of visual function in patients with MS or neuromyelitis optica and unilateral optic neuropathy.MethodsWe studied a cohort of control subjects (n = 64) and patients (n = 24) with evidence of unilateral thinning of their average retinal nerve fiber layer as measured by optical coherence tomography in order to characterize the relationship between ganglion cell axonal degeneration and its impact upon vision and pupillary light reflex metrics using infrared pupillometry. Results When compared to the normal fellow eye, and with respect to normal subjects’ eyes ...
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    12. Optical coherence tomography differs in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis

      Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with destructive inflammatory lesions, resulting in necrosis and axonal injury. Disability from multiple sclerosis (MS) is due to a combination of demyelination and varying axonal involvement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), by measuring retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as a surrogate of axonal injury, has potential to discriminate between these two conditions. Methods: Included were 22 subjects with NMO or NMO spectrum disorders and 47 with MS. Seventeen subjects with NMO and all with MS had a remote history of optic neuritis (ON) in at least one eye, at least 6 months before OCT. Linear ...
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    13. Assessing structure and function of the afferent visual pathway in multiple sclerosis and associated optic neuritis

      Abstract  The afferent visual pathway is commonly affected in MS. Assessment of the afferent visual pathway using clinical, imaging and electrophysiological methods not only provides insights into the pathophysiology of MS, but also provides a method of investigating potential therapeutic measures in MS. This review summarises the various assessment methods, in particular imaging techniques of the visual pathway. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness is usually reduced following an episode of optic neuritis. Techniques such as optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry, and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy are used to quantify RNFL thickness. MRI of the optic nerve is not ...
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    14. Eye Scans Could Reveal Brain Health Status: An optical version of Ultrasound

      Eye Scans Could Reveal Brain Health Status: An optical version of Ultrasound
      Over the past few years, advancements in the field of opthalmology have allowed physicians to take better care of patients suffering from widespread diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. A new device that can scan the retina in a non-invasive manner has been devised recently, according to researchers at Danesh-Meyer. The new system, known as optical coherence tomography (OCT), allows for light beams to penetrate the deep layers of the retina – as much as a few millimeters deep – and to analyze any type of inconsistencies that may have occurred in the area, which could be indicators of severe brain ...
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    15. Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis
      The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelination, which culminates in a reduction in axonal transmission. Axonal and neuronal degeneration seem to be concomitant features of MS and are probably the pathological processes responsible for permanent disability in this disease. The retina is unique within the CNS in that it contains axons and glia but no myelin, and it is, therefore, an ideal structure within which to visualize the processes of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and potentially even neurorestoration. In particular, the retina enables us to investigate a specific compartment of the CNS that is targeted by the disease process ...
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    16. Retinal nerve fiber layer and future risk of multiple sclerosis.

      BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT)--measured retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) values may represent a surrogate biomarker for axonal integrity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether RNFL measurements obtained within two years of an optic neuritis (ON) event distinguish patients at increased risk of developing clinically-definite MS (CDMS). METHODS: Fifty consecutively sampled patients who experienced a single ON event were followed prospectively for a mean period of 34 months with OCT testing. Values of RNFL in clinically-affected and non-affected eyes were compared between patients who developed CDMS and those that did not develop ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis; Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer as a potential measure of axonal loss and brain atrophy

      Background Axonal distribution within the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlates with axonal viability and integrity. Objective To investigate correlations between RNFL and MRI measures of axonal loss in MS patients. Methods Fifty one remitting-relapsing MS patients, 20 with a history of optic neuritis (MS-ON), 31 without optic neuritis (MS N-ON), and 12 healthy control subjects (HC) were included in the study. RNFL was measured by OCT and brain atrophy was assessed by MRI. Results The average RNFL in the affected eye (AE) in the MS-ON group was significantly lower than the RNFL in ...
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    18. Retinal atrophy using optical coherence tomography (oct) in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis and comparison with healthy subjects.

      Authors: Jeanjean L, Castelnovo G, Carlander B, Villain M, Mura F, Dupeyron G, Labauge P INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is a common disabling progressive neurological disorder. Axonal loss is thought to be a likely cause of persistent disability after a multiple sclerosis relapse. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) imaging by optical coherence tomography (OCT) seems to be a non-invasive way of detecting optical axonal loss following optic neuritis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether multiple sclerosis affects retinal nerve fiber layer measurements obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT3-Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diagnosis of MS was based on the ...
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    19. OCT imaging has potential as outcome measure for multiple sclerosis

      Researchers have demonstrated that quantifying axon thickness in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) can be reproducibly measured by trained technicians in a multiple sclerosis center using optical coherence tomography (OCT), according to a study published in the September issue of Archives of Neurology. OCT is a promising new imaging method that has been used predominantly by ophthalmologists to monitor glaucoma. It is being considered as a potential outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS)
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    20. Reproducibility of Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background  Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new method of quantifying axon thickness in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) that has been used predominantly by ophthalmologists to monitor glaucoma. Optical coherence tomography is being considered as a potential outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials, but no data exist on the reproducibility of this technique in MS centers.Objective  To determine the reproducibility of OCT measurement of mean RNFL thickness in the undilated eyes of healthy control subjects and patients with MS.Design  Prospective analysis of 4 healthy controls to determine interrater, intrarater, and longitudinal reproducibility. Cross-sectional ...

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    21. Retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy is associated with physical and cognitive disability in multiple sclerosis

      BackgroundStudying axonal loss in the retina is a promising biomarker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT) techniques to measure the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with MS, and to explore the relationship between changes in the RNFL thickness with physical and cognitive disability. We studied 52 patients with MS and 18 proportionally matched controls by performing neurological examination, neuropsychological evaluation using the Brief Repetitive Battery-Neuropsychology and RNFL thickness measurement using OCT and HRT.ResultsWe found that both OCT and HRT could define a ...
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    22. Retinal Imaging by Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Evidence of Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis.

      Related Articles Retinal Imaging by Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Evidence of Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2008 Jul;65(7):924-928 Authors: Zaveri MS, Conger A, Salter A, Frohman TC, Galetta SL, Markowitz CE, Jacobs DA, Cutter GR, Ying GS, Maguire MG, Calabresi PA, Balcer LJ, Frohman EM BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx) are similar yet provide information on different aspects of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) structure (thickness values similar to histology for OCT vs birefringence of microtubules for GDx). OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of ...
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    23. Retinal Imaging by Laser Polarimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography Evidence of Axonal Degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx) are similar yet provide information on different aspects of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) structure (thickness values similar to histology for OCT vs birefringence of microtubules for GDx). Objectives To compare the ability of OCT and GDx to distinguish eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from eyes of disease-free controls and thus identify RNFL abnormalities. We also sought to examine the capacity of these techniques to distinguish MS eyes from those without a history of optic neuritis and to correlate with visual function. Design Cross-sectional ...

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