1. Articles in category: Neurology

    649-672 of 734 « 1 2 ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 »
    1. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of retinal sheet implants in live rats

      Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of retinal sheet implants in live rats
      Purpose To obtain three-dimensional images from retinal transplants in live animals and evaluate the placement and structural quality of the transplants. Methods Donor retinal sheets were isolated from E19 fetuses of transgenic rats expressing human alkaline phosphatase (hPAP), and transplanted to the subretinal space of 19–56 days old S334ter-3 rat recipients with fast retinal degeneration (average age at surgery 32 days). A total of 143 rats were imaged 1 day to 2.8 months after surgery, using a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) system, with an axial resolution of 3.5 μm. The CCD A-line integration time was set ...
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    2. Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Longitudinal study of vision and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis

      Objective Cross-sectional studies of optical coherence tomography (OCT) show that retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlates with visual function. We determined how longitudinal changes in RNFL thickness relate to visual loss. We also examined patterns of RNFL thinning over time in MS eyes with and without a prior history of acute optic neuritis (ON). Methods Patients underwent OCT measurement of RNFL thickness at baseline and at 6-month intervals during a mean follow-up of 18 months at 3 centers. Low-contrast letter acuity (2.5%, 1.25% contrast) and visual acuity (VA) were assessed ...

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    3. Interweaving neurology and ophthalmology

      Interweaving neurology and ophthalmology
      Neuro-ophthalmology—a subspecialty at the intersection of ophthalmology, neurology, neurosurgery, and general medicine—deals with ocular diseases as well as myriad neurological and systemic conditions with ophthalmic manifestations. More than ever before, successful practice of neuro-ophthalmology requires both careful clinical observation (aided by familiar tools such as slit-lamp microscopes and stereoscopic ophthalmoscopes) and use of increasingly sophisticated technologies, such as neuroradiological imaging and optical coherence tomography. New tools will never replace the need for clinical acumen, but they are helping to transform aspects of neuro-ophthalmology.
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    4. A preliminary longitudinal study of the retinal nerve fiber layer in progressive multiple sclerosis

      Abstract  Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of clinically unaffected eyes is seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is uncertain when this thinning occurs, and whether ongoing RNFL loss can be measured over time with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using time-domain OCT, we studied 34 patients with progressive MS (16 primary progressive MS, 18 secondary progressive; 14 male; 20 female; mean age at study entry 51 years; median EDSS 6; mean disease duration at study entry 12 years) on two occasions with a median interval of 575 (range 411–895) days apart. Eighteen healthy controls (10 ...
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    5. A new window in multiple sclerosis pathology: non-conventional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging outcomes

      A new window in multiple sclerosis pathology: non-conventional quantitative magnetic resonance imaging outcomes
      Recent findings suggest that neuronal pathology occurs early in the course of multiple sclerosis and seems to be responsible for accumulation of disability. Nonetheless, the nervous system has an intrinsic potential for repair and compensation in the neuronal component. Disease-modifying drugs such as glatiramer acetate interfere with, and down-regulate, inflammatory pathology and slow neurodegeneration. Moreover, certain regulatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors have the capacity to promote neuronal and axonal repair. Given the importance of neuronal injury in multiple sclerosis and the potential of certain treatments for neuronal repair, it is important to possess adequate and sensitive tools to visualise the ...
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    6. Alzheimer's disease: Visual system review

      Alzheimer's disease: Visual system review
      Background Ten million baby boomers in the United States will get Alzheimer's disease. Optometrists can benefit from understanding the impact the Alzheimer's disease process has on the visual system. This can result in more effective management of the condition and in more effective communication with members of the Alzheimer's disease multidisciplinary team. Methods This is a review of the literature but by no means a completely exhaustive review. Alzheimer's disease is a complex disease. A rapidly expanding body of knowledge covers multiple disciplines. Results The visual system shows deficits early in the degenerative process of Alzheimer ...
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    7. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique routinely used in ophthalmology to visualize and quantify the layers of the retina. OCT allows direct visualization and measurement of the topography of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in the peripapillary and macular regions with micron-scale resolution. These measurements are of particular interest in optic neuropathies and in numerous neurologic disorders in which there is axonal loss, such as multiple sclerosis. This article provides a detailed overview of OCT and its potential applications in neurology.
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    8. Announcement of Michelson-Diagnostics OCT-News Student Travel Grant Winner

      Announcement of Michelson-Diagnostics OCT-News Student Travel Grant Winner
      On November 4th OCT News in partnership with Michelson Diagnostics and funded by a generous donation from Michelson Diagnostics, announced a $1,500 student travel grant opportunity. We received numerous submissions all of which displayed outstanding work. The awards were ranked by OCT News, Michelson Diagnostics, and an independent 3rd party based on results, presentation, novelty, and potential utility. The final rankings of the top 3rd of the presentations were nearly identical and choosing a winner was difficult. The winner was Yan Wang for her submission on “Quantitative assessment of peripheral nerve damage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography”. Ms. Wang ...
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    9. Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography

      Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography

      We describe methods and algorithms for rapid volumetric imaging of cortical vasculature with optical coherence tomography (OCT). By optimizing system design, scanning protocols, and algorithms for visualization of capillary flow, comprehensive imaging of the surface pial vasculature and capillary bed is performed in approximately 12 s. By imaging during hypercapnia and comparing with simultaneous CCD imaging, the sources of contrast of OCT angiography are investigated.

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    10. Depth resolved imaging of neural activity by optical coherence tomography (functional OCT)

      We have developed a functional imaging technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique resolves 0.01-0.1 mm functional structures along the depth axis. The basis of the technique is that neural activation changes light scattering of the light penetrating the neural tissue due to activity dependent structural changes.
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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography in Clinically Isolated Syndrome: No Evidence of Subclinical Retinal Axonal Loss

      Background  Optical coherence tomography has emerged as a new tool for quantifying axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). A reduction in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score and brain atrophy. Objective  To investigate RNFL and macular volume measurements using optical coherence tomography in the clinically isolated syndrome population. Design  Prospective case series. Settings  Neurologic clinics at the university hospitals of Lille and Strasbourg (France). Participants  Fifty-six consecutive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (18 with optic neuritis and 38 without optic neuritis) and 32 control subjects. Main Outcome Measures  Macular volume and RNFL ...

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    12. Macular Volume Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography as a Measure of Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

      Macular Volume Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography as a Measure of Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background  Inner (area adjacent to the fovea) and outer regions of the macula differ with respect to relative thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer (neurons) vs retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL; axons).Objective  To determine how inner vs outer macular volumes relate to peripapillary RNFL thickness and visual function in multiple sclerosis (MS) and to examine how these patterns differ among eyes with vs without a history of acute optic neuritis (ON).Design  Study using cross-sectional optical coherence tomography.Setting  Three academic tertiary care MS centers.Participants  Patients with MS, diagnosed by standard criteria, and disease-free control participants.Main Outcome ...

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    13. A rat model for studying neural stem cell transplantation

      Aim:The goal of this project was to develop a rat model for neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation studies in which NSCs were modified with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes that may permit extensive and reliable analysis of the transplants.Methods: NSCs were cultured and purified by limiting dilution assay in vitro and infected with recombinant retrovirus pLXSN-BDNF (BDNF-NSCs) and retrovirus pLXSN (p-NSCs). The expression of BDNF genes in transgenic and control NSC groups was measured by FQ-PCR and ELISA assays. NSCs were then transplanted into the subretinal space of normal rat retinas in four groups, which included NSCs alone ...

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    14. Progressive changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis

      Purpose. To quantify changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 1-year time period and to compare the ability of noninvasive diagnostic imaging devices and visual evoked potentials (VEP) to detect axonal loss in these patients. Methods. Eighty-one patients with MS underwent a complete ophthalmic examination that included assessment of visual acuity and color vision, refractive evaluation, visual field examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), and measurement of VEP. All the patients were re-evaluated after a period of 12 months in order to quantify any change in the RNFL ...
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    15. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis

      Purpose. To measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis (MS) taking into account previous history of optic neuropathy (ON). Methods. Thirty patients (60 eyes) with relapsing-remitting MS were selected (MS group). The MS ON group was composed of 31 eyes with previous history of optic neuropathy and the MS non-ON group of 29 eyes was without previous history of optic neuropathy. Thickness of the RNFL was measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the Stratus OCT. As for sensitivity to spatial contrast, we used Pelli-Robson and Sloan charts. Sensitivity to ...
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    16. Multiple sclerosis. Part I: Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations

      Purpose of review: This update includes topics relating to multiple sclerosis (MS) for the ophthalmologist. Recent findings: Interest in the ophthalmology of MS is highlighted by the substantial amount of original research presented at recent medical conferences. At the 2008 World Congress on Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, 33 of 898 abstract presentations related to ophthalmology. The most represented topics were optical coherence tomography (OCT) and radiology of the visual system (19/33 posters). The 2009 North American neuro-ophthalmologic society (NANOS) conference featured MS-related topics in 6 of 24 platform presentations. This article reviews recent advancements in the neuro-ophthalmology ...
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    17. Evaluation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer: Descriptive or Predictive?

      Evaluation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer: Descriptive or Predictive?
      For nearly a century, ophthalmologists have recognized that thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (rNFL) could be observed ophthalmoscopically in diseases of the optic nerve. Using high-resolution red-free fundus photography, Hoyt found slit-like rNFL defects that corresponded to visual field defects in glaucoma. Frisén extended these observations to multiple sclerosis, predicting the later discovery that axonal loss occurs in the retina without clinical bouts of optic neuritis. In measurement of the rNFL, red-free fundus photography has been superseded by more widely available, robust, and quantitative retinal imaging techniques, including Heidelberg retinal tomography, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography ...
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    18. Multiple Sclerosis treatment: Video UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

      The Multiple Sclerosis Center at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas is one of the few places in the United States that offers OCT, or optical coherence tomography, to monitor the progression of the disease. OCT is a painless eye test that measures the thickness of the retina. Dr. Elliot Frohman and patient Jeff Chase discuss the treatment of the incurable neurologic disease
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    19. Multiple Sclerosis treatment (Video)

      The Multiple Sclerosis Center at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas is one of the few places in the United States that offers OCT, or optical coherence tomography, to monitor the progression of the disease. OCT is a painless eye test that measures the thickness of the retina. Dr. Elliot Frohman and patient Jeff Chase discuss the treatment of the incurable neurologic disease
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    20. Optical coherence tomography: another useful tool in a neuro-ophthalmologist's armamentarium

      Purpose of review: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) affords clinicians the ability to quantify the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which is useful in managing diseases of the optic nerve. The purpose of this review is to coalesce the current literature on the use of OCT in neuro-ophthalmology to enhance its use in clinical practice. Recent findings: OCT's advancement into spectral domain refined its ability to measure the RNFL by increasing scanner speed. Although OCT was shown to be superior to other instruments in measuring the RNFL in certain conditions, it lacks laser polarimetry's ability to ...
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    21. Apparatus and method of diagnosis of optically identifiable ophthalmic conditions

      An apparatus that can measure images of at least a portion of an eye and record data sets indicative of a neurological condition. A method interrelates an image and a data set to provide an interpretive result. The apparatus and method thereby provide guidance as to the presence of a medical condition in a patient. The apparatus and method can be used in an iterative measurement process, in which the apparatus attempts to discern normal health from a state of health that is not normal health. If the interpretive result is consistent with normal health, the process terminates, information is ...
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