1. Articles in category: Neurology

    625-648 of 693 « 1 2 ... 24 25 26 27 28 29 »
    1. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis

      Purpose. To measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis (MS) taking into account previous history of optic neuropathy (ON). Methods. Thirty patients (60 eyes) with relapsing-remitting MS were selected (MS group). The MS ON group was composed of 31 eyes with previous history of optic neuropathy and the MS non-ON group of 29 eyes was without previous history of optic neuropathy. Thickness of the RNFL was measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with the Stratus OCT. As for sensitivity to spatial contrast, we used Pelli-Robson and Sloan charts. Sensitivity to ...
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    2. Multiple sclerosis. Part I: Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations

      Purpose of review: This update includes topics relating to multiple sclerosis (MS) for the ophthalmologist. Recent findings: Interest in the ophthalmology of MS is highlighted by the substantial amount of original research presented at recent medical conferences. At the 2008 World Congress on Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, 33 of 898 abstract presentations related to ophthalmology. The most represented topics were optical coherence tomography (OCT) and radiology of the visual system (19/33 posters). The 2009 North American neuro-ophthalmologic society (NANOS) conference featured MS-related topics in 6 of 24 platform presentations. This article reviews recent advancements in the neuro-ophthalmology ...
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    3. Evaluation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer: Descriptive or Predictive?

      Evaluation of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer: Descriptive or Predictive?
      For nearly a century, ophthalmologists have recognized that thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (rNFL) could be observed ophthalmoscopically in diseases of the optic nerve. Using high-resolution red-free fundus photography, Hoyt found slit-like rNFL defects that corresponded to visual field defects in glaucoma. Frisén extended these observations to multiple sclerosis, predicting the later discovery that axonal loss occurs in the retina without clinical bouts of optic neuritis. In measurement of the rNFL, red-free fundus photography has been superseded by more widely available, robust, and quantitative retinal imaging techniques, including Heidelberg retinal tomography, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography ...
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    4. Multiple Sclerosis treatment: Video UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

      The Multiple Sclerosis Center at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas is one of the few places in the United States that offers OCT, or optical coherence tomography, to monitor the progression of the disease. OCT is a painless eye test that measures the thickness of the retina. Dr. Elliot Frohman and patient Jeff Chase discuss the treatment of the incurable neurologic disease
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    5. Multiple Sclerosis treatment (Video)

      The Multiple Sclerosis Center at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas is one of the few places in the United States that offers OCT, or optical coherence tomography, to monitor the progression of the disease. OCT is a painless eye test that measures the thickness of the retina. Dr. Elliot Frohman and patient Jeff Chase discuss the treatment of the incurable neurologic disease
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    6. Optical coherence tomography: another useful tool in a neuro-ophthalmologist's armamentarium

      Purpose of review: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) affords clinicians the ability to quantify the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which is useful in managing diseases of the optic nerve. The purpose of this review is to coalesce the current literature on the use of OCT in neuro-ophthalmology to enhance its use in clinical practice. Recent findings: OCT's advancement into spectral domain refined its ability to measure the RNFL by increasing scanner speed. Although OCT was shown to be superior to other instruments in measuring the RNFL in certain conditions, it lacks laser polarimetry's ability to ...
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    7. Apparatus and method of diagnosis of optically identifiable ophthalmic conditions

      An apparatus that can measure images of at least a portion of an eye and record data sets indicative of a neurological condition. A method interrelates an image and a data set to provide an interpretive result. The apparatus and method thereby provide guidance as to the presence of a medical condition in a patient. The apparatus and method can be used in an iterative measurement process, in which the apparatus attempts to discern normal health from a state of health that is not normal health. If the interpretive result is consistent with normal health, the process terminates, information is ...
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    8. Distinctive retinal nerve fibre layer and vascular changes in neuromyelitis optica following optic neuritis

      Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional study comparing the retinal features of optic neuritis (ON) between 20 multiple sclerosis (MS) and 16 neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with a history of ON (visual acuity at time of attack >20/100) matched for age and gender using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundoscopy. Results: Compared with MS, NMO patients often had: (1) vascular changes, including attenuation of the peripapillary vascular tree (3/40 MS eyes, 22/32 NMO eyes; p = 0.001) and focal arteriolar narrowing (0/40 MS eyes and 9/32 NMO eyes; p<0.0001), (2) a ...
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      Mentions: UCSF
    9. Optical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies

      Objective: To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background: OCT can quantify damage to retinal ganglion cell axons and can identify abnormalities in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis (ON) eyes. OCT may also be useful in the evaluation of patients with NMO. Methods: OCT and visual function testing were performed in 26 NMO spectrum patients with a history of ON, 17 patients with isolated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) without ON, 378 patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 77 healthy controls at ...
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    10. Optical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis

      Objectives: Determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect clinical and subclinical remote optic neuritis (ON), its relationship to clinical characteristics of ON and visual function, and whether the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness functions as a surrogate marker of global disease severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 65 subjects with at least 1 clinical ON episode at least 6 months prior. Measures included clinical characteristics, visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), OCT, and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Results: Ninety-six clinically affected optic nerves were studied. The sensitivity of OCT RNFL after ON was 60%, decreasing further with ...
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    11. Retinal nerve fiber thickness in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of childhood onset

      Purpose B Weinstock-Guttman To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children with acquired demyelinating diseases.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of patients seen between 2006–2008 at the Pediatric MS Center of the Jacobs Neurological Institute. Consensus definitions for pediatric demyelinating disease were followed. All children received OCT testing and assessment of visual acuity (VA) using Snellen and low contrast letter acuity (LCLA) charts.ResultsThirty-eight children diagnosed with acquired demyelinating disease, 15 healthy controls, and five children with other neurological disorders (OND) were included. Average RNFLT in healthy controls was 107 ± 12 µm ...
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    12. Bilateral Optic Neuritis in Acute Hepatitis C.

      A 34-year-old woman developed bilateral optic neuritis 2 weeks after the onset of acute hepatitis C. The strong temporal relationship between the initial clinical manifestations of hepatitis C and the development of optic neuritis provides a basis for thinking that the hepatitis caused the optic neuritis After corticosteroid treatment, the optic neuropathy markedly improved but left behind retinal nerve fiber thinning, as measured by optical coherence tomography, and optic disc pallor. Optic neuritis has been reported in conjunction with hepatitis A and B but not with hepatitis C.
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    13. Sub-clinical atrophy of the retinal nerve fibre layer in multiple sclerosis

      Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with normal ophthalmic examination, and to compare the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) to detect axonal loss.Methods: Patients with MS and disease-free controls were invited to enrol in the study from 1 February 2007 to 30 June 2008. Ophthalmic examination, including evaluation of visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF), showed normal results in all subjects. Retinal nerve fibre layer properties were measured by means of OCT and GDx. Visual evoked ...
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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): the Effect of Glatiramer in Patients With a Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS)

      This is a study in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis to assess the effects of glatiramer acetate subcutaneously on the condition of the optical nerve in comparison to no medicinal therapy during 12 months and to assess the use of Optical Coherence tomography (OCT), a non-invasive ophthalmological technique, in daily practice as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning for follow-up of these patients.
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    15. Relationship of optic nerve and brain conventional and non-conventional MRI measures and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by OCT and GDx: A pilot study

      BackgroundMeasurement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in multiple sclerosis (MS) is gaining increasing attention.ObjectivesTo explore the relationship between RNFL thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx), and conventional and non-conventional optic nerve and brain MRI measures.MethodsTwelve relapsing–remitting (RR) MS patients (12 affected and 12 unaffected eyes) and 4 age- and sex-matched normal controls (NC) (8 unaffected eyes) were enrolled. Four MS patients had a history of bilateral optic neuritis (ON), four had a history of unilateral ON, and 4 had no history of ON. Optic ...

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    16. Imaging outcomes for neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis trials

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is commonly regarded as an inflammatory disease, but it also has a neurodegenerative component, which represents an additional target for treatment. The use of MRI to evaluate the inflammatory disease component in 'proof-of concept' clinical trials is well established, but no systematic assessment of imaging outcomes to evaluate neuroprotection or repair in MS has been performed. In this Review, we examine the potential of traditional and novel imaging parameters to serve as primary outcomes in phase II clinical trials of neuroprotective and reparative strategies in MS. We present the conclusions of an international meeting of imaging, clinical ...
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    17. Vision Compromised in Multiple Sclerosis Even Without Symptoms

      "The emergence of optical coherence tomography has allowed us to capture the unique structure-function correlations provided by the anterior visual pathway in multiple sclerosis," Dr. Bisker said in a presentation at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
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    18. Retinal architecture predicts pupillary reflex metrics in MS

      Objective To study the relation of retinal nerve fiber layer thinning to clinical and physiologic measures of visual function in patients with MS or neuromyelitis optica and unilateral optic neuropathy.MethodsWe studied a cohort of control subjects (n = 64) and patients (n = 24) with evidence of unilateral thinning of their average retinal nerve fiber layer as measured by optical coherence tomography in order to characterize the relationship between ganglion cell axonal degeneration and its impact upon vision and pupillary light reflex metrics using infrared pupillometry. Results When compared to the normal fellow eye, and with respect to normal subjects’ eyes ...
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    19. Optical coherence tomography differs in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis

      Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with destructive inflammatory lesions, resulting in necrosis and axonal injury. Disability from multiple sclerosis (MS) is due to a combination of demyelination and varying axonal involvement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), by measuring retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as a surrogate of axonal injury, has potential to discriminate between these two conditions. Methods: Included were 22 subjects with NMO or NMO spectrum disorders and 47 with MS. Seventeen subjects with NMO and all with MS had a remote history of optic neuritis (ON) in at least one eye, at least 6 months before OCT. Linear ...
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    20. Assessing structure and function of the afferent visual pathway in multiple sclerosis and associated optic neuritis

      Abstract  The afferent visual pathway is commonly affected in MS. Assessment of the afferent visual pathway using clinical, imaging and electrophysiological methods not only provides insights into the pathophysiology of MS, but also provides a method of investigating potential therapeutic measures in MS. This review summarises the various assessment methods, in particular imaging techniques of the visual pathway. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness is usually reduced following an episode of optic neuritis. Techniques such as optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry, and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy are used to quantify RNFL thickness. MRI of the optic nerve is not ...
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    21. Eye Scans Could Reveal Brain Health Status: An optical version of Ultrasound

      Eye Scans Could Reveal Brain Health Status: An optical version of Ultrasound
      Over the past few years, advancements in the field of opthalmology have allowed physicians to take better care of patients suffering from widespread diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. A new device that can scan the retina in a non-invasive manner has been devised recently, according to researchers at Danesh-Meyer. The new system, known as optical coherence tomography (OCT), allows for light beams to penetrate the deep layers of the retina – as much as a few millimeters deep – and to analyze any type of inconsistencies that may have occurred in the area, which could be indicators of severe brain ...
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    22. Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis
      The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by demyelination, which culminates in a reduction in axonal transmission. Axonal and neuronal degeneration seem to be concomitant features of MS and are probably the pathological processes responsible for permanent disability in this disease. The retina is unique within the CNS in that it contains axons and glia but no myelin, and it is, therefore, an ideal structure within which to visualize the processes of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and potentially even neurorestoration. In particular, the retina enables us to investigate a specific compartment of the CNS that is targeted by the disease process ...
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    23. Retinal nerve fiber layer and future risk of multiple sclerosis.

      BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT)--measured retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) values may represent a surrogate biomarker for axonal integrity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether RNFL measurements obtained within two years of an optic neuritis (ON) event distinguish patients at increased risk of developing clinically-definite MS (CDMS). METHODS: Fifty consecutively sampled patients who experienced a single ON event were followed prospectively for a mean period of 34 months with OCT testing. Values of RNFL in clinically-affected and non-affected eyes were compared between patients who developed CDMS and those that did not develop ...

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