1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 659 1 2 3 4 ... 26 27 28 »
    1. Monitoring Acute Stroke in Mouse Model Using Laser Speckle Imaging-Guided Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring Acute Stroke in Mouse Model Using Laser Speckle Imaging-Guided Visible-Light Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: Monitoring hemodynamic and vascular changes in the acute stages of mouse stroke models is invaluable in studying ischemic stroke pathophysiology. However, there lacks a tool to simultaneously and dynamically investigate these changes. Methods: We integrated laser speckle imaging (LSI) and visible-light optical coherence tomography (Vis-OCT) to reveal dynamic vascular responses in acute stages in the distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) model in rodents. LSI provides full-field, real-time imaging to guide Vis-OCT imaging and monitor the dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF). Vis-OCT offers depth-resolved angiography and oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) measurements. Results: Our results showed detailed CBF and vasculature ...

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    2. Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Nomogram Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Field Parameters to Predict Brain Lesions in Patients with Bitemporal Hemianopia

      Purpose : This study aims to develop a nomogram to predict brain lesions in patients with complete or incomplete bitemporal hemianopia by combining results from optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field (VF) testing. Material and Methods : We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify brain lesions due to bitemporal hemianopia between January 2010 and March 2017, retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on MRI findings: brain-lesion (+) group that had brain lesions on MRI ( n = 63), and brain-lesion (-) group without brain lesions on MRI ( n = 16). We compared OCT and VF ...

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    3. First Human Evaluation of Endothelial Healing after a Pipeline Flex Embolization Device with Shield Technology Implanted in Posterior Circulation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      First Human Evaluation of Endothelial Healing after a Pipeline Flex Embolization Device with Shield Technology Implanted in Posterior Circulation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 64-year-old female presented with an incidentally-discovered right posterior inferior cerebral artery (PICA) aneurysm, initially treated in 2015 by simple coiling. Follow-up demonstrated significant coil compaction that required retreatment. Retreatment was done uneventfully using a Pipeline embolization device (PED) shield deployed starting from the basilar artery and ending at the V4 segment of the vertebral artery. Eight-weeks post-deployment, a follow-up digital subtraction imaging (DSA) and intravascular imaging with optical coherence tomography were obtained. The intravascular imaging demonstrated that the flow diverter had good wall apposition and concentric neointimal growth over the braid with exception to the areas that the PED ...

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      Mentions: St. Jude Medical
    4. Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings

      Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings

      Importance Biomarker testing for asymptomatic, preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) is invasive and expensive. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive technique that allows analysis of retinal and microvascular anatomy, which is altered in early-stage AD. Objective To determine whether OCTA can detect early retinal alterations in cognitively normal study participants with preclinical AD diagnosed by criterion standard biomarker testing. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study included 32 participants recruited from the Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri. Results of extensive neuropsychometric testing determined that all participants were ...

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    5. Correlation between Ciliary Muscle Thickness and Myopia in Saudi Females using Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Correlation between Ciliary Muscle Thickness and Myopia in Saudi Females using Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between ciliary muscle thickness and myopia in Saudi females using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Subjects and Methods: This study was a prospective, non-randomized, crosssectional, observational, and quantitative study. The study included 65 eyes (33 myopic eyes and 32 non-myopic eyes). All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, measurement of the refractive error, central corneal curvature (CCC), axial length (AL) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Ciliary muscle thickness (CMT) at 1 mm, 2mm and 3mm (from the scleral spur) was measured using AS-OCT (Visante; Carl Zeiss). Results: Concerning comparison between ...

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    6. Mapping and Quantitating Penetrating Vessels in Cortical Brain Using Eigen-Decomposition of OCT Signals and Subsequent Principal Component Analysis

      Mapping and Quantitating Penetrating Vessels in Cortical Brain Using Eigen-Decomposition of OCT Signals and Subsequent Principal Component Analysis

      Penetrating vessels bridge the mesh of communicating vessels on the surface of the cortex with the subsurface microvascular beds that feed the underlying neural tissue. Their accurate identification in vivo is important in the investigations of neural degenerative diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Here, we propose an efficient method to automatically map cortical penetrating vessels based on an eigen decompensation analysis of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiographic signals. We first project the ensemble of repeated OCT signals into a feature space that represents the power spectral components of eigenvectors through a well-known eigen-decomposition method ...

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    7. Intraoperative Imaging Modalities and the Potential Role of Speckle Modulating Optical Coherence Tomography

      Intraoperative Imaging Modalities and the Potential Role of Speckle Modulating Optical Coherence Tomography

      Maximizing extent of resection has been correlated with improved outcomes in a variety of pediatric and adult brain tumors. 1-11 While gross total resections are often achieved without the use of intraoperative adjuncts, difficulty in distinguishing tumor from normal brain can at times prevent the complete resection of brain tumors. Intraoperative imaging tools have increasingly been embraced with the goal of improving rates of gross total resection. In this review, we will discuss several currently used intraoperative imaging modalities, including intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), wide-field fluorescence, high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). 12-17 We will also discuss ...

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    8. Altered Macular Microvasculature in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

      Altered Macular Microvasculature in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

      Background: The goal of the present study was to analyze the macular microvacular network in mild cognitive impirment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Twelve patients with AD and 19 patients with MCI were recruited together with 21 cognitively normal controls with a similar range of ages. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to image the retinal microvascular network at the macular region, including retinal vascular network (RVN), superficial vascular plexus (SVP), and deep vascular plexus (DVP). Fractal analysis (box counting, D box ) representing the microvascular density was performed in different annular zones and quadrantal sectors. The macular ganglion cell ...

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    9. Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Topic Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) measurements with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the SD-OCT measurements in AD and MCI. Clinical Relevance Current methods of diagnosing early AD are expensive and invasive. Retinal measurements of SD-OCT, which are non-invasive, technically simple and inexpensive, are potential biomarkers of AD. Methods We conducted a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies published before 31 December 2017 ...

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    10. Detecting Dementia in the Retina

      Detecting Dementia in the Retina

      This retrospective case control explores the retinal features of dementia associated with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease. By linking a pseudonymised dataset of three-dimensional retinal scans, called optical coherence tomography , with nationally held data on dementia, corresponding characteristics will be evaluated through descriptive statistics and machine learning techniques.

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    11. Evaluation of Retinal Thickness in Neurodegenerative Diseases using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Retinal Thickness in Neurodegenerative Diseases using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by axonal lesions throughout the central nervous system, including the eye with changes in macular thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) on histopathologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography facilitates retina as a surrogate measure of neurodegenerative disease activity. Aim: To evaluate macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with neurodegenerative diseases using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Materials and Methods: An analytical observational case control study was carried out over a period of two years. Cases consisted of patients (n=20) with neurodegenerative disorders and controls were age and sex matched ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography as a means to characterize visual pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography as a means to characterize visual pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis

      Purpose of review Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive in-vivo imaging tool that enables the quantification of the various retinal layer thicknesses. Given the frequent involvement of the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis , OCT has become an important tool in clinical practice, research and clinical trials. In this review, the role of OCT as a means to investigate visual pathway damage in multiple sclerosis is discussed. Recent findings Evidence from recent OCT studies suggests that the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) appears to be an ideal marker of axonal integrity, whereas the macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform ...

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    13. Assessment of pathological features in Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue with a large field-of-view visible-light optical coherence microscope

      Assessment of pathological features in Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue with a large field-of-view visible-light optical coherence microscope

      We implemented a wide field-of-view visible-light optical coherence microscope (OCM) for investigating ex-vivo brain tissue of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and of a mouse model of AD. A submicrometer axial resolution in tissue was achieved using a broad visible light spectrum. The use of various objective lenses enabled reaching micrometer transversal resolution and the acquisition of images of microscopic brain features, such as cell structures, vessels, and white matter tracts. Amyloid-beta plaques in the range of 10 to 70  μm were visualized. Large field-of-view images of young and old mouse brain sections were imaged using an automated ...

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    14. Deep brain optical coherence tomography angiography in mice: in vivo, noninvasive imaging of hippocampal formation

      Deep brain optical coherence tomography angiography in mice: in vivo, noninvasive imaging of hippocampal formation

      The hippocampus is associated with memory and navigation, and the rodent hippocampus provides a useful model system for studying neurophysiology such as neural plasticity. Vascular changes at this site are closely related to brain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and epilepsy. Vascular imaging around the hippocampus in mice may help to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying these diseases. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an emerging technology that can provide label-free blood flow information. As the hippocampus is a deep structure in the mouse brain, direct in vivo visualisation of the vascular network using OCTA and other microscopic ...

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    15. Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography: a biomarker in multiple sclerosis?

      Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography: a biomarker in multiple sclerosis?

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by both inflammatory and degenerative components that affect genetically susceptible individuals. Currently, the cause of MS remains unclear, and there is no known cure. Commonly used therapies tend to target inflammatory aspects of MS, but may not halt disease progression, which may be governed by the slow, subclinical accumulation of injury to neuroaxonal structures in the central nervous system (CNS). A recognized challenge in the field of MS relates to the need for better methods of detecting, quantifying, and ameliorating the effects of subclinical disease. Simply stated, better biomarkers are required ...

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    16. Optician's eye test 'could spot early dementia signs'

      Optician's eye test 'could spot early dementia signs'

      A simple eye test carried out by opticians could help predict who is at risk of developing dementia, a study suggests. The test is usually done to spot early signs of eye disease, by looking at tissue at the back of the eye - the retina. Now scientists have found people with thinner retinas are more likely to have problems with memory and reasoning. Researchers believe the test could be used to screen for early dementia. Over 40s health check to include dementia advice The foods that might help with dementia Dementia patients 'abandoned' by system The study of 32,000 ...

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    17. Retinal and optic nerve changes in microcephaly: An optical coherence tomography study

      Retinal and optic nerve changes in microcephaly:  An optical coherence tomography study

      Objective To investigate the morphology of the retina and optic nerve (ON) in microcephaly. Methods This was a prospective case-control study including 27 patients with microcephaly and 27 healthy controls. All participants underwent ophthalmologic examination and handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula and ON head. The thickness of individual retinal layers was quantified at the foveal center and the parafovea (1,000 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea). For the ON head, disc diameter, cup diameter, cup-to-disc ratio, cup depth, horizontal rim diameter, rim area, peripapillary retinal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured. Results ...

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    18. Feature Of The Week 07/08/2018: Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness & Cognition - Results from UK Biobank

      Feature Of The Week 07/08/2018: Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness & Cognition - Results from UK Biobank

      Importance: Identifing potential screening tests for future cognitive decline is a priority for developing treatments for and the prevention of dementia. Objective: To examine the potential of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline in a large community cohort of healthy people. Design, Setting, and Participants: UK Biobank is a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of UK residents aged 40 to 69 years at enrollment who underwent baseline retinal optical coherence tomography imaging, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. The pilot study phase was conducted from March 2006 to June 2006, and ...

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    19. The role of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      The role of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an ocular imaging technique that can complement the neuro-ophthalmic assessment, and inform our understanding regarding functional consequences of neuroaxonal injury in the afferent visual pathway. Indeed, OCT has emerged as a surrogate end-point in the diagnosis and follow up of several demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS), including optic neuritis (ON) associated with: multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies. Recent advancements in enhanced depth imaging (EDI) OCT have distinguished this technique as a new gold standard in the diagnosis of optic disc drusen (ODD). Moreover ...

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    20. New research shows further connection between Alzheimer's, retinal nerve fibers

      New research shows further connection between Alzheimer's, retinal nerve fibers

      Researchers recently reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that nerve fibers in the eye are an early indication of Alzheimer’s disease. Two different groups report that the imaging of retinal nerve fiber layers in the eye show correlations to early disease and may even be predictive of disease. The eye, and particularly the retina as an extension of neurologic tissue, can provide information about disease status in the brain. The concept is not new, but the means to capture images with enough optical resolution to visualize the axons and ganglion cells has been evolving over the ...

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    21. The eye's structure holds information about the health of the mind - It is a window to the brain

      The eye's structure holds information about the health of the mind - It is a window to the brain

      BECAUSE it is locked away inside the skull, the brain is hard to study. Looking at it requires finicky machines which use magnetism or electricity or both to bypass the bone. There is just one tendril of brain tissue that can be seen from outside the body without any mucking about of this sort. That is the retina. Look into someone’s eyes and you are, in some small way, looking at their brain. This being so, a group of researchers at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, working with others around the world, decided to study the structure of the ...

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    22. Johns Hopkins Research Points to Increasing Role of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

      Johns Hopkins Research Points to Increasing Role of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

      The advent of electronic medical records with large image databases, along with advances in artificial intelligence with deep learning, is offering medical professionals new opportunities to dramatically improve image analysis and disease diagnostics. Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, and collaborators at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, have developed image analysis and machine learning tools to detect age-related macular degeneration. In Nature Medicine , members of the team discuss the potential of such tools to be used clinically and applied to other image-based medical diagnoses as well. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes lesions ...

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    23. Aging-associated changes in cerebral vasculature and blood flow as determined by quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aging-associated changes in cerebral vasculature and blood flow as determined by quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography

      Capillary velocity increases by 21% and velocity heterogeneity increases by 19% with older age. Abstract Normal aging is associated with significant alterations in brain’s vascular structure and function, which can lead to compromised cerebral circulation and increased risk of neurodegeneration. The in vivo examination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), including capillary beds, in aging brains with sufficient spatial detail remains challenging with current imaging modalities. In the present study, we use three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to examine characteristic differences of the cerebral vasculatures and hemodynamics at the somatosensory cortex (S1) between old (16-month-old) and young ...

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    24. Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Importance Identifing potential screening tests for future cognitive decline is a priority for developing treatments for and the prevention of dementia. Objective To examine the potential of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline in a large community cohort of healthy people. Design, Setting, and Participants UK Biobank is a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of UK residents aged 40 to 69 years at enrollment who underwent baseline retinal optical coherence tomography imaging, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. The pilot study phase was conducted from March 2006 to June 2006, and ...

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    1-24 of 659 1 2 3 4 ... 26 27 28 »
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