1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for brain tumor imaging

      Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for brain tumor imaging

      This paper considers valuable visual assessment criteria for distinguishing between tumorous and non-tumorous tissues, intraoperatively, using cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) – OCT with a functional extension, that enables detection of the polarization properties of the tissues in addition to their conventional light scattering. Materials and methods. The study was performed on 176 ex vivo human specimens obtained from 30 glioma patients. To measure the degree to which the typical parameters of CP OCT images can be matched to the actual histology, 100 images of tumors and white matter were selected for visual analysis to be undertaken by three “single-blinded” investigators. An ...

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    2. Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for inter‐eye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell+inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Background Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multi‐center international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected ...

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    3. Time-related ex vivo changes in the optical properties of normal brain tissues

      Time-related ex vivo changes in the optical properties of normal brain tissues

      The aim of the study was to observe time-related changes in the optical properties of normal brain tissues as measured using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT). 32 ex vivo tissue samples from 16 animals (rats) were monitored under different external conditions, over a period of 1 hour after excision, to measure time-related optical changes. It was found that the optical properties of white matter were quite stable over the time scales of the experiments, while the optical properties of the gray matter could change significantly. However, these changes could be minimized by using fresh sections from samples that had ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography: a window to the optic nerve in clinically isolated syndrome

      Optical coherence tomography: a window to the optic nerve in clinically isolated syndrome

      In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of asymptomatic optic nerve demyelinating lesion in patients presenting a clinically isolated syndrome with the asymptomatic retinal neuro-axonal loss previously reported at clinically isolated syndrome. We prospectively recruited 66 patients presenting a clinically isolated syndrome and 66 healthy control subjects matched according to age and gender. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including 3D-double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence, optical coherence tomography examination and visual function evaluation, at 2.5–4.5 months after CIS. Evaluation criteria were presence and length of optic nerve DIR hypersignal, retinal layers (including ganglion cell ...

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    5. Could An Eye Doctor Diagnose Alzheimer’s Before You Have Symptoms?

      Could An Eye Doctor Diagnose Alzheimer’s Before You Have Symptoms?

      A quick eye exam might one day allow eye doctors to check up on both your eyeglasses prescription and your brain health. A study of more than 200 people at the Duke Eye Center published March 11 in the journal Ophthalmology Retina suggests the loss of blood vessels in the retina could signal Alzheimer’s disease. In people with healthy brains, microscopic blood vessels form a dense web at the back of the eye inside the retina, as seen in 133 participants in a control group. In the eyes of 39 people with Alzheimer’s disease, that web was less ...

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    6. Retinal Microvascular and Neurodegenerative Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Compared with Control Participants

      Retinal Microvascular and Neurodegenerative Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Compared with Control Participants

      Purpose Evaluate and compare the retinal microvasculature in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitively intact controls using OCT angiography. OCT parameters were also compared. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Seventy eyes from 39 AD participants, 72 eyes from 37 MCI participants, and 254 eyes from 133 control participants were enrolled. Methods Participants were imaged using Zeiss Cirrus HD-5000 with AngioPlex (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and underwent cognitive evaluation with Mini-Mental State Examination. Main Outcome Measures Vessel density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) in the SCP within the Early Treatment Diabetic ...

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    7. New Research Says Your Eyes Can Reveal A Lot About Your Brain Health

      New Research Says Your Eyes Can Reveal A Lot About Your Brain Health

      It's no secret that the body acts as one big interconnected unit. It explains why certain injuries and physical distress can manifest themselves in entirely different parts of the body. Nausea and insomnia? Anxiety might be wreaking havoc on your system. Cystic acne? Unbalanced hormones could be at the root of the problem. Sluggishness and bloating? That could mean poor digestion (that's when probiotics come to the rescue, but we digress). The point we're trying to make is that health and wellness, it seems, is a continuous feedback loop between our mind and our bodies, and the ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    8. Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant for Intra-Operative, Label-Free Detention of Brain Cancer infiltration with Quantitative Optical Imaging

      Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant for Intra-Operative, Label-Free Detention of Brain Cancer infiltration with Quantitative Optical Imaging

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $589,760 for Intra-Operative, Label-Free Detention of Brain Cancer infiltration with Quantitative Optical Imaging. The principal investigator is Xingde Li The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Glioma is the most common adult primary brain cancer, with inevitable recurrence and finite survival times. Safe maximal resection for glioma patients remains the standard of care based on best evidence medicine (coupled with adjuvant therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy). Multiple studies have shown clear relief of symptoms, improvement of life quality, survival ...

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    9. Quantitative nontumorous and tumorous human brain tissue assessment using microstructural co- and cross-polarized optical coherence tomography

      Quantitative nontumorous and tumorous human brain tissue assessment using microstructural co- and cross-polarized optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method for detecting cancer margins during tumor resection. This study focused on differentiating tumorous from nontumorous tissues in human brain tissues using cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT). The study was performed on fresh ex vivo human brain tissues from 30 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas. Different tissue types that neurosurgeons should clearly distinguish during surgery, such as the cortex, white matter, necrosis and tumorous tissue, were separately analyzed. Based on volumetric CP OCT data, tumorous and normal brain tissue were differentiated using two optical coefficients — attenuation and forward cross-scattering. Compared with white matter ...

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    10. Johns Hopkins Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

      Johns Hopkins Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $628,385 for Imaging Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis. The principal investigator is Peter Calabresi. The program began in 2013 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. One of the significant challenges facing treatment of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is determining their individual likelihood of progression, as this information would significantly influence the type of therapy selected. Thus, developing specific tools to monitor and predict progression is critical to better manage patient care and to understand mechanisms of disease. We have been developing a multi-faceted approach ...

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    11. Monitoring acute stroke progression: multi-parametric OCT imaging of cortical perfusion, flow, and tissue scattering in a mouse model of permanent focal ischemia

      Monitoring acute stroke progression: multi-parametric OCT imaging of cortical perfusion, flow, and tissue scattering in a mouse model of permanent focal ischemia

      Cerebral ischemic stroke causes injury to brain tissue characterized by a complex cascade of neuronal and vascular events. Imaging during early stages of its development allows prediction of tissue infarction and penumbra, so that optimal intervention can be determined in order to salvage brain function impairment. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel imaging techniques that can characterize brain injury in the earliest phases of ischemic stroke. This study examined optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging acute injury in experimental ischemic stroke in vivo. Based on endogenous optical scattering signals provided by OCT imaging, we have developed a single ...

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    12. Georgia Institute of Technology Receives NIH Grant for Stimulated Raman Scattering Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SRS-SOCT) for Label-Free Molecular Imaging of Brain Tumor Pathology

      Georgia Institute of Technology Receives NIH Grant for Stimulated Raman Scattering Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SRS-SOCT) for Label-Free Molecular Imaging of Brain Tumor Pathology

      Georgia Institute of Technology Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $182,900 for Stimulated Raman Scattering Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SRS-SOCT) for Label-Free Molecular Imaging of Brain Tumor Pathology. The principal investigator is Francisco Robels. The program began in 2018 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The extent of resection of brain tumors is one of the most important factors associated with prolonged survival for patients with brain cancer. Unfortunately, achieving complete resection of the preoperatively-defined tumor region remains a significant clinical challenge. This is due, in part, to the lack of intraoperative tools ...

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    13. Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Image Artifacts In Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose : To evaluate artifacts in OCT-A images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Neurology and the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Subjects included patients with an established diagnosis of MS and healthy volunteers. OCT-A was performed using Spectralis® OCT-A prototype, OCT2 (Heidelberg, Germany). The type and frequency of artifacts, the clinical factors associated with them, and their impact on vessel density measurements were assessed. Results : Overall, 385 images from 102 participants were analyzed. The majority of images (97.1%) had some degree ...

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    14. Comparison of optic coherence tomography results in patients with diagnosed epilepsy: Findings in favor of neurodegeneration

      Comparison of optic coherence tomography results in patients with diagnosed epilepsy: Findings in favor of neurodegeneration

      Background Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterized with recurrent seizures. Progressive neuronal degeneration is a common consequence of long-term and/or recurrent seizure activity in epilepsy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new medical imaging technique that displays biological tissue layers as high-resolution tomographic sections. The aim of our study was to evaluate OCT findings in patients with epilepsy and to compare OCT findings in terms of disease duration , presence of status, seizure frequency, and drug use. Methods Forty-three patients who had epilepsy according to the Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis Are we there yet?

      Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis Are we there yet?

      Acute optic neuritis (ON) results in rapid and prominent peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and composite ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thinning, as measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, the degree of thinning within these layers following ON is heterogeneous, varying across patients, even within the same disease state. 1 Moreover, OCT measures in healthy individuals have a broad range, creating difficulties establishing an absolute diagnostic cutoff for prior ON with good sensitivity and specificity. Whereas earlier generation time-domain OCT could be insensitive to subtle RNFL changes following ON, 2 and less sensitive than visual evoked ...

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    16. Diagnosis and treatment evaluation of in-stent restenosis of carotid artery stenting using optical coherence tomography

      Diagnosis and treatment evaluation of in-stent restenosis of carotid artery stenting using optical coherence tomography

      A 65-year-old man underwent balloon angioplasty and repeat carotid artery stenting (CAS) due to in-stent restenosis (ISR). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a severe ISR with fibrotic neointimal growth ( figure 1 ). Post 6.0 × 30 mm balloon angioplasty, OCT showed intimal disruption and artery dissection ( figure 2 ). After the 8 × 40 mm stent fully expanded, OCT showed stent struts well apposed, but tissue protrusion from the spaces between stent struts can be observed ( figure 2 ). OCT allowed measurement of intimal hyperplasia after the CAS and observation of intimal disruption and stent strut apposition intraoperatively. 1 , 2

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    17. In Vivo Rat Brain Imaging through Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy Using an Ultrathin Short Multimode Fiber Probe

      In Vivo Rat Brain Imaging through Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy Using an Ultrathin Short Multimode Fiber Probe

      We demonstrate full-field optical coherence microscopy (OCM) using an ultrathin forward-imaging short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe with a core diameter of 50 μm, outer diameter of 125 μm, and length of 7.4 mm, which is a typical graded-index multimode fiber used for optical communications. The axial and lateral resolutions were measured to be 2.14 μm and 2.3 μm, respectively. By inserting the SMMF 4 mm into the cortex of an in vivo rat brain, scanning was performed to a depth of 147 μm from the SMMF facet with a field of view of 47 μm. Three-dimensional (3D ...

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    18. Peripapillary Vessel Density Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      Peripapillary Vessel Density Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      Background: Although alterations in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) have been characterized using optical coherence tomography (OCT), there are little data regarding the peripapillary vasculature in this patient population. Our aim was to evaluate findings of OCT angiography (OCT-A) in the peripapillary region in addition to the RNFL measurements on OCT in patients with IIH. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients with IIH and 42 eyes of 21 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Papilledema was graded according to the Frisen scale. Peripapillary RNFL and vessel density were evaluated with ...

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    19. Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Tumor Characterization

      Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Tumor Characterization

      Complete removal of brain tumor is of the most interest to a surgeon because the resection area directly relates to recurrence rate. Although there are many biomedical imaging modalities applied to locate the positions of tumors, they lack the spatial resolution to precisely delineate the boundary between brain tumor and normal brain tissues and are also inconvenient to be used intraoperatively. This study aims to examine the feasibility of the label-free, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for distinguishing brain tumors from normal brain tissues. Ex vivo samples were obtained from two patients with grade II and II-III glioma; healthy porcine ...

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    20. Novel uses of retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Novel uses of retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Introduction : Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory condition in young adults. It is often accompanied by optic neuritis (ON) and retinal neuro-axonal damage causing visual disturbances. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a sensitive non-invasive method for quantifying intraretinal layer volumes. Recently, OCT not only showed to be a reliable marker for ON-associated damage, but also proved its high prognostic value for functional outcome and disability accrual in patients with MS. Consequently, OCT is discussed as a potential marker for monitoring disease severity and therapeutic response in individual patients. Areas covered : This article summarizes our current understanding ...

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      Mentions: Friedemann Paul
    21. Retinal layer parcellation of optical coherence tomography images: Data resource for Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls

      Retinal layer parcellation of optical coherence tomography images: Data resource for Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls

      This paper presents optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human retina and manual delineations of eight retinal layers. The data includes 35 human retina scans acquired on a Spectralis OCT system (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), 14 of which are healthy controls (HC) and 21 have a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The provided data includes manually delineation of eight retina layers, which were independently reviewed and edited. The data presented in this article was used to validate automatic segmentation algorithms [1].

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    22. Perspective: Current challenges and solutions of Doppler optical coherence tomography and angiography for neuroimaging

      Perspective: Current challenges and solutions of Doppler optical coherence tomography and angiography for neuroimaging

      The nervous system, based on a complex network of nerves and cells, carries messages by transmitting signals to and from different parts of the body. The supply of blood flow in the nervous system is critical to maintain physiological functions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability to noninvasively image the microvascular networks and accurately quantify the blood flow in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolutions in three dimensions. It has been used to measure changes in blood supplies and assess physiological functions before and after occurrences of diseases, drug administration, and external stimulation in the nervous system, especially ...

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    23. Unique characteristics of optical coherence tomography (OCT) results and visual acuity testing in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive pediatric patients

      Unique characteristics of optical coherence tomography (OCT) results and visual acuity testing in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive pediatric patients

      Background Optic nerve involvement in anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated syndrome (MOG ab syndrome) tends to have unique features. Few studies have reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures like retinal nerve fiber layer thickness findings in the setting of pediatric MOG ab syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study is to compare visual acuity between MOG ab positive and MOG ab negative pediatric cohorts and examine correlations with OCT findings. Methods We included outpatients less than 18 years of age who had optic neuritis (ON) of at least one eye and who completed visual testing and OCT in the study ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography in the investigation of systemic neurologic disease

      Optical coherence tomography in the investigation of systemic neurologic disease

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well‐established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT‐derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions.

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