1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 324 1 2 3 4 ... 12 13 14 »
    1. University of Texas at Arlington Receives NIH Grant to Study All Optical Control and Monitoring of Neural Activity.

      University of Texas at Arlington Receives NIH Grant to Study All Optical Control and Monitoring of Neural Activity.

      University of Texas at Arlington Received at 2014 NIH Grant for $206,065 to Study All Optical Control and Monitoring of Neural Activity. The principal investigator is Samarendra Mohanty. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2015. Below is a summary of the propose work. Success of optogenetic intervention of neural activity requires optimization of delivery of genes encoding light sensitive proteins (opsins) to specific cells, and to record the changes in cells and tissue during optogenetic stimulation. The most-commonly used method for delivering opsin(s) is use of viral vector, which is prone to cause unexpected inflammatory responses ...

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    2. Feature Of The Week 9/14/14: UC Davis Investigates Brain Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Feature Of The Week 9/14/14: UC Davis Investigates Brain Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

      One of the nine high priority research areas in the recent BRAIN Initiative (executive summary available at HERE ) is to “Delineate mechanisms underlying human brain imaging technologies.” While empowering tools such as two-photon microscopy, used in conjunction with dyes and indicators, can image cellular and vascular activity, even measuring activity in all cells and vessels comprising a single voxel in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner remains a daunting task. Hence, mesoscopic imaging tools are needed to help bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic (human brain level) findings. Here, using Optical Coherence Tomography angiography at 1300 nm, we ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography appears valuable for tracking MS patients over time

      Optical coherence tomography appears valuable for tracking MS patients over time

      Retinal changes over time mirror global central nervous system processes in patients with multiple sclerosis, according to findings from a longitudinal study comparing optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. The results validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures for both clinical monitoring of patients, and as an outcome measure in clinical trials, and could have implications that reach beyond MS, Dr. Shiv Saidha said at the joint meeting of the European and Americas committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis. In 107 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a mean age of 44 years and median disease duration of ...

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    4. Ultrasensitive detection of 3D cerebral microvascular network dynamics in vivo

      Ultrasensitive detection of 3D cerebral microvascular network dynamics in vivo

      Despite widespread applications of multiphoton microscopy in microcirculation, its small field of view and inability to instantaneously quantify cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in vascular networks limit its utility in investigating the heterogeneous responses to brain stimulations. Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) provides 3D images of CBFv networks, but it suffers poor sensitivity for measuring capillary flows. Here we report on a new method, contrast-enhanced ODT with Intralipid that significantly improves quantitative CBFv imaging of capillary networks by obviating the errors from long latency between flowing red blood cells (low hematocrit ~ 20% in capillaries). This enhanced sensitivity allowed us to measure ...

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    5. Decreased light attenuation in cerebral cortex during cerebral edema detected using optical coherence tomography

      Decreased light attenuation in cerebral cortex during cerebral edema detected using optical coherence tomography

      Cerebral edema develops in response to a variety of conditions, including traumatic brain injury and stroke, and contributes to the poor prognosis associated with these injuries. This study examines the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting cerebral edema in vivo . Three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo water intoxication model in mice was performed using a spectral-domain OCT system centered at 1300 nm. The change in attenuation coefficient was calculated and cerebral blood flow was analyzed using Doppler OCT techniques. We found that the average attenuation coefficient in the cerebral cortex decreased over time as edema progressed. The initial ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography as a promising imaging tool for brain investigations

      Optical coherence tomography as a promising imaging tool for brain investigations

      This paper will review the newest results and directions for the usage of optical coherence tomography as an imaging tool for brain studies, focusing mostly on a rodent model. Together with state of the art in the field, based on some of the most recent work, this paper will include a brief look on some results obtained by our group. Brain injuries and stroke data obtained by optical coherence tomography analyzing will be presented as a possibility of detection and evaluation for affected tissue, using this imaging system. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, traumatic brain injuries, ischemic stroke, rodent model

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    7. Relationship between Optical Coherence Tomography and Electrophysiology of the Visual Pathway in Non-Optic Neuritis Eyes of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      Relationship between Optical Coherence Tomography and Electrophysiology of the Visual Pathway in Non-Optic Neuritis Eyes of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      Purpose Loss of retinal ganglion cells in in non-optic neuritis eyes of Multiple Sclerosis patients (MS-NON) has recently been demonstrated. However, the pathological basis of this loss at present is not clear. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate associations of clinical (high and low contrast visual acuity) and electrophysiological (electroretinogram and multifocal Visual Evoked Potentials) measures of the visual pathway with neuronal and axonal loss of RGC in order to better understand the nature of this loss. Methods Sixty-two patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with no previous history of optic neuritis in at least one ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: No

      Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: No

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an exciting technique that has been applied to multiple sclerosis (MS) research for around the last 10 years. OCT enables rapid, non-invasive in vivo measurement of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, reflecting neuroaxonal density within the optic nerve. Early studies applied to post-acute optic neuritis 1 demonstrate neuroaxonal loss. Further research extended the scope of OCT, finding that its measures appeared to be a useful surrogate of generalised brain axonal loss in MS patients; progressive RNFL thinning was evident even in the absence of a history of optic neuritis, 2 and RNFL thickness was ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: Commentary

      Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: Commentary

      There is no doubt that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been an extremely exciting development for medicine and for multiple sclerosis (MS). The value of OCT as a diagnostic tool has been demonstrated and it has been to shown to identify patients with highly active disease (but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does both better). Its possible use as an instrument to measure neurodegeneration over time is perhaps the application most welcome to MS neurologists. Readers are directed to a systematic review of OCT 1 and a discussion of the potential and the problems associated with OCT by Green. 2 An ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: Yes

      Optical coherence tomography should be part of the routine monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis: Yes

      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is the most widely established imaging modality for monitoring multiple sclerosis (MS). Although conventional MRI parameters such as the development of new T2 lesions and/or contrast-enhancing lesions are sensitive to inflammatory disease activity, the association between MRI markers of inflammation and disability progression in MS is modest. 1 Conversely, MRI measures of neurodegeneration, such as whole-brain atrophy, correlate well with disability progression, 2 with neurodegeneration considered the principal pathological substrate underlying disability in MS. MRI segmentation techniques also enable the measurement of brain substructure volumes. Gray matter (GM) atrophy is now recognized ...

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    11. The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Beginning almost 25 years ago, optical coherence tomography (OCT) began its journey into the mainstream of ophthalmology.  Initially developed for retinal an vitro-retinal interface disease and glaucoma, this revolutionary technology has proven to ultimately have broader applications in neuro-ophthalmology and neurology, 2 specialties in which a better understating of OCT has led to more widespread investigation and clinical use.

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    12. Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made possible the structure–function correlations that uniquely characterize the afferent visual pathway as a model for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and for developing new treatments. During the past decade, OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL) thickness have evolved from being a means to validate visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity, to provide a window on the axonal and neuronal loss that are now widely recognized as contributors to permanent visual dysfunction in MS. Although acute optic neuritis (ON) leads to thinning of ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Background: Grading of papilledema severity is subjective and based on monocular fundus features of the optic nerve. Interobserver agreement on grading the severity of papilledema is poor among expert observers, even using well-defined criteria such as the Frisen scale, which is a non-continuous ordinal scale of grading. Furthermore, non-expert clinicians often find it difficult to properly view and interpret features of the optic nerve using ophthalmoscopy, which can lead to failure to diagnose papilledema in non-ophthalmologic care settings. This may delay treatment, which can result in vision loss. Distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema can also be difficult when surface drusen are ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved over the past decade to become one of the most important ancillary tests in ophthalmic practice. This noninvasive ocular imaging technique provides high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular region, ganglion cell layer, and optic nerve head. With OCT, we can learn much about axonal–neuronal integrity in the anterior aspect of the afferent visual pathway and gain insights about mechanisms of brain injury in various central nervous system disorders.

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    15. Johns Hopkins University Receives NIH Grant to investigate OCT To Distinguish B/T Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer

      Johns Hopkins University Receives  NIH Grant to investigate OCT To Distinguish B/T Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for $47,676 to investigate OCT To Distinguish B/T Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer. The principal investigator is Carmen Kut. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. In brain cancers such as gliomas, aggressive removal of the solid tumor through surgery is associated with improved overall survival. In fact, i has been shown that at least 78% of the tumor has to be removed to make a meaningful difference in the patient's survival. Current techniques for tumor removal ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography angiography reveals laminar microvascular hemodynamics in the rat somatosensory cortex during activation

      Optical Coherence Tomography angiography reveals laminar microvascular hemodynamics in the rat somatosensory cortex during activation

      The BOLD (blood-oxygen-level dependent) fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) signal is shaped, in part, by changes in red blood cell (RBC) content and flow across vascular compartments over time. These complex dynamics have been challenging to characterize directly due to a lack of appropriate imaging modalities. In this study, making use of infrared light scattering from RBCs, depth-resolved Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) angiography was applied to image laminar functional hyperemia in the rat somatosensory cortex. After defining and validating depth-specific metrics for changes in RBC content and speed, laminar hemodynamic responses in microvasculature up to cortical depths of > 1 mm ...

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    17. Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for 3D Segmentation and Registration of Macular SD-OCT for Applications in Multiple Sclerosis

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for 3D Segmentation and Registration of Macular SD-OCT for Applications in Multiple Sclerosis

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for $387,284 for 3D Segmentation and Registration of Macular SD-OCT for Applications in Multiple Sclerosis. The principal investigator is Jerry Prince. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Vision is compromised in at least 55% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and may represent the very first manifestation of disease onset. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enables in-vivo, high-resolution studies of the retina, and is increasingly being used as a biomarker in neurodegenerative diseases. SD-OCT has provided phenotypical measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and overall ...

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    18. In vivo monitoring of glial scar proliferation on chronically implanted neural electrodes by fiber optical coherence tomography

      In vivo monitoring of glial scar proliferation on chronically implanted neural electrodes by fiber optical coherence tomography

      In neural prosthetics and stereotactic neurosurgery, intracortical electrodes are often utilized for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. Unfortunately, neuroinflammation impairs the neuron-electrode-interface by developing a compact glial encapsulation around the implants in long term. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities can not provide information in deep brain regions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well established imaging modality for in vivo studies, providing cellular resolution and up to 1.2 mm imaging depth in brain tissue ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography in patients with a history of juvenile multiple sclerosis reveals early retinal damage

      Optical coherence tomography in patients with a history of juvenile multiple sclerosis reveals early retinal damage

      Background and purpose Some 3%−10% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience disease onset before the age of 18 years (‘early’ onset MS, EOMS). Optical coherence tomography is a non-invasive method to measure retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV) and may be useful to differentiate axonal and neuronal damage in the retina of patients with a history of EOMS. Here RNFLT and TMV in EOMS patients after a mean disease duration of 11.6 years were compared with patients with age- or disease-duration-matched later onset MS (LOMS) and healthy controls (HCs). Methods In this ...

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    20. SPIE Launches Neurophotonics Journal With Special Section On BRAIN Initiative

      SPIE Launches Neurophotonics Journal With Special Section On BRAIN Initiative

      The new peer-reviewed journal Neurophotonics, published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, will facilitate further collaboration on technological advances in optogenetics, photoacoustics, spectroscopy, and more. This will have significant medical and cognitive applications, and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the brain. The inaugural issue includes a special section on the the U.S. BRAIN Initiative. The advanced optical methods and applications for imaging and manipulation of the brain that are driving a revolution in the neurosciences were the inspiration behind Neurophotonics, a new peer-reviewed journal published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics. The ...

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    21. Retinal Pathology detected by optical coherence tomography in an animal model of Parkinson's disease - Schneider - 2014 - Movement Disorders - Wiley Online Library

      Retinal Pathology detected by optical coherence tomography in an animal model of Parkinson's disease - Schneider - 2014 - Movement Disorders - Wiley Online Library

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive procedure for analysis of retinal morphology. Significant changes in the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported, and the current study was performed to examine whether such changes can also be detected in an animal model of PD. Methods Optical coherence tomography measurements of peripapillary RNFL thickness, macula volume, and foveal thickness were obtained from 10 normal and five 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated cynomolgus monkeys with stable Parkinsonian signs. Results Average RNFL thickness was significantly decreased in Parkinsonian monkeys compared ...

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    22. To Be or not TB?

      To Be or not TB?

      Relative to other specialties, ophthalmologists deal infrequently with uncertainty. Of course, every patient requires advice, which in turns requires a weighing of risks and benefits, and some pondering of potential unknowns. But unlike internists, ophthalmologists often see the pathology directly. And what once was hidden from us is now rapidly being revealed with new technologies like optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics. Within the ophthalmic kingdom, however, some subspecialties deal with more uncertainty than others. Specialists in uveitis, in particular, often confront uncertainty. Is the pathology autoimmune or infectious? Or even possibly a malignancy like lymphoma? And nothing confounds a ...

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    23. Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Diagnostic Features of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Rotation in Skew Deviation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A 41-year-old woman with skew deviation had cyclotorsion of both eyes. This resulted in a falsely low probability plot of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in adjacent clock hours on optical coherence tomography (OCT) due to displacement of the retinal nerve fiber layer peaks. Ocular cyclotorsion may cause misinterpretation of OCT probability plots. OCT retinal nerve fiber layer plots also may be used to objectively quantify the degree of ocular cyclotorsion.

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