1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Analysis of the Variation in Thickness of Per-papillary Retinal Optic Nerve Fibres in Professional Rugby Players

      Analysis of the Variation in Thickness of Per-papillary Retinal Optic Nerve Fibres in Professional Rugby Players

      The main hypothesis is that exposure to repeated shocks is associated with a greater decrease in the thickness of optical nerve fibres. In order to show a association between the occurrence of concussions (in number and severity) and the variation in the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer, all participating rugby players will have an ophthalmologic examination (OCT and (retinophotography) at the beginning and end of the Rugby season.

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    2. Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for intereye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multicenter international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected in a subset ...

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    3. Jefferson and Wills Eye Launch World's First Center Focused on Connections Between the Eye and the Brain

      Jefferson and Wills Eye Launch World's First Center Focused on Connections Between the Eye and the Brain

      Poets have called eyes the windows to the soul. Now, Jefferson and Wills Eye researchers will be able to use eyes as windows into debilitating diseases of the brain. Thomas Jefferson University , in partnership with Wills Eye Hospital and thanks to the generosity of several prescient philanthropists, has launched the world's first center focused on the visual signatures of neurological diseases. The William H. Annesley, Jr., MD '48 EyeBrain Center will explore the connections between the retina, optic nerve, and disorders of the brain, potentially revealing novel treatments for confounding diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple ...

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    4. Assessing Retinal Structure in Patients with Parkinson Disease

      Assessing Retinal Structure in Patients with Parkinson Disease

      Objective : The retina is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS), and ocular symptoms can precede manifestations of CNS disorders. Given that several neurodegenerative conditions that affect the brain exhibit ocular symptoms, the retina may be an accessible biomarker to monitor disease progression. Dopamine, the key neurotransmitter related to Parkinson’s disease (PD), is contained in amacrine and interplexiform cells, which reside in specific retinal layers. Understanding how loss of dopaminergic cells affects retinal anatomy could be relevant for monitoring disease progression. Here, our objective is to evaluate retinal structure (foveal pit morphology and thickness) in patients with PD ...

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    5. Stanford University Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma

      Stanford University Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma

      Stanford University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $360,264 for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma. The principal investigator is Anthony Morcia. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This project will use a combination of structural and functional measurements to test the hypothesis that early- stage damage in human glaucoma occurs first in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina – especially its OFF sub-lamina – as suggested by murine glaucoma models. In the first Aim, we will use a novel visible-light optical coherence tomograph ...

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    6. Swept source optical coherence tomography to early detect multiple sclerosis disease. The use of machine learning techniques

      Swept source optical coherence tomography to early detect multiple sclerosis disease. The use of machine learning techniques

      Objective To compare axonal loss in ganglion cells detected with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) versus healthy controls using different machine learning techniques. To analyze the capability of machine learning techniques to improve the detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the complex Ganglion Cell Layer–Inner plexiform layer (GCL+) damage in patients with multiple sclerosis and to use the SS-OCT as a biomarker to early predict this disease. Methods Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 80) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 180) were enrolled. Different protocols from the DRI SS-OCT Triton ...

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    7. Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. Selisistat is a novel, highly potent Sirt1 inhibitor with supportive pre-clinical data. Facilitation of autophagy and amelioration of transcriptional dysregulation are proposed as mechanisms of action. A first in disease Phase 1B study showed safety and tolerability. The peripheral immune dysfunction in HD could be modulated by Sirtuins which have both pro and anti-inflammatory activities. However selisistat did not alter the cytokine profile in this study. Phase 2 data over a longer duration was also well tolerated however potential hepatotoxicity is a concern. Sub-analysis of clinical assessments ...

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    8. High frequency optical coherence tomography assessment of homogenous neck coverage by intrasaccular devices predicts successful aneurysm occlusion

      High frequency optical coherence tomography assessment of homogenous neck coverage by intrasaccular devices predicts successful aneurysm occlusion

      Background High frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) is a novel intravascular imaging technology developed for use in the cerebral vasculature. We hypothesize that HF-OCT characterization of intrasaccular device neck coverage can prognosticate exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. Methods Bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were made in six dogs. Seven aneurysms were treated with next generation intrasaccular devices (NGID) and four with traditional platinum coils. HF-OCT was performed to interrogate gaps in the neck coverage, coil herniation, or acute thrombus formation. Animals were re-imaged at 7, 30, 90, and 180  days following aneurysm embolization. An automated image processing method segmented ...

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    9. Retinal layers in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography studies

      Retinal layers in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography studies

      Background Patients with Parkinson's disease experience visual symptoms , partially originating from retinal changes. Since 2011, multiple case-control studies using spectral-domain OCT, which allows for studying individual retinal layers, have been published. The aim of this study was to substantiate the occurrence, extent, and location of retinal degeneration in Parkinson's by meta-analysis . Methods Spectral-domain OCT case-control data were collected by performing a search in PubMed and Embase with terms: “optical coherence tomography” and “parkinson”, up to November 5th, 2018. Studies with fewer than 10 patients or controls were excluded. We performed a random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated with ...

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    10. High-resolution in vivo imaging of peripheral nerves using optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study

      High-resolution in vivo imaging of peripheral nerves using optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study

      OBJECTIVE Because of their complex topography, long courses, and small diameters, peripheral nerves are challenging structures for radiological diagnostics. However, imaging techniques in the area of peripheral nerve diseases have undergone unexpected development in recent decades. They include MRI and high-resolution sonography (HRS). Yet none of those imaging techniques reaches a resolution comparable to that of histological sections. Fascicles are the smallest discernable structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the first imaging technique that is able to depict a nerve’s ultrastructure at micrometer resolution. In the current study, the authors present an in vivo assessment of human peripheral nerves ...

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      Mentions: Thorlabs
    11. Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition

      Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition

      Boston Medical Center Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $197,189 for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition. The principal investigator is Manju Subramanian. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The goal of our research is to identify ocular biomarkers that have diagnostic and potentially prognostic utility in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and establish a relationship to cognition. We seek to determine this relationship in an already established cohort of patients (the Vitreous Biomarkers Study, or VBS) with eye disease where protein biomarkers have been identified in the ...

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    12. Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the brain ventricles is critical for brain development. Altered CSF flow dynamics have been implicated in congenital hydrocephalus (CH) characterized by the potentially lethal expansion of cerebral ventricles if not treated. CH is the most common neurosurgical indication in children effecting 1 per 1000 infants. Current treatment modalities are limited to antiquated brain surgery techniques, mostly because of our poor understanding of the CH pathophysiology. We lack model systems where the interplay between ependymal cilia, embryonic CSF flow dynamics and brain development can be analyzed in depth. This is in part due to the poor ...

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      Mentions: Yale University
    13. First in vivo visualization of the human subarachnoid space and brain cortex via optical coherence tomography

      First in vivo visualization of the human subarachnoid space and brain cortex via optical coherence tomography

      The present work explores optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a suitable in vivo neuroimaging modality of the subarachnoid space (SAS). Patients ( n = 26) with frontolateral craniotomy were recruited. The temporal and frontal arachnoid mater and adjacent anatomical structures were scanned using microscope-integrated three-dimensional OCT, (iOCT). Analysis revealed a detailed depiction of the SAS (76.9%) with delineation of the internal microanatomical structures such as the arachnoid barrier cell membrane (ABCM; 96.2%), trabecular system (50.2%), internal blood vessels (96.2%), pia mater (26.9%) and the brain cortex (96.2%). Orthogonal distance measuring was possible. The SAS showed a ...

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      Mentions: Haag-Streit OPMedt
    14. Assessment of neurodegeneration by optical coherence tomography and mini–mental test in Parkinson's disease

      Assessment of neurodegeneration by optical coherence tomography and mini–mental test in Parkinson's disease

      Background: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease. Cognitive disorders and retinal degeneration may occur during the early stages of the disease. Retinal degeneration and cognitive findings can be assessed easily with optical coherence tomography and mini–mental test, respectively. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients who are being followed-up with Parkinson's disease and 22 healthy controls have been included in the study. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn–Yahr staging of the patients have been conducted at the time of admission. Retinal nerve fiber layer analysis and ganglion cell thickness (ganglion cell complexes [GCCs]) were ...

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    15. Efficacy of post-dilatation during carotid artery stenting for unstable plaque using closed-cell design stent evaluated by optical coherence tomography

      Efficacy of post-dilatation during carotid artery stenting for unstable plaque using closed-cell design stent evaluated by optical coherence tomography

      Background and Purpose: This study aimed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the efficacy of post-dilatation (PD) after stent placement for unstable plaques during carotid artery stenting (CAS) using closed-cell design stent. Materials and Methods: Twelve unstable carotid plaque lesions diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated by OCT during CAS. Pre-procedural minimum lumen diameter and area were 1.5 ± 0.6 mm and 2.6 ± 1.6 mm2, respectively. The lesion was pre-dilated with balloon catheters (diameter 4.8 ± 0.3 mm), and closed-cell stent was deployed. PD was performed with balloon catheters of the same size ...

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    16. Detecting eye and brain disease earlier

      Detecting eye and brain disease earlier

      The eyes may be the window to the soul, but to scientists, they are also the window to the brain. In particular, the retina, a delicate light-sensing neural network with specialized cells at the back of the eyeball, is linked directly to the brain via the optic nerve and is considered by some to be part of the brain itself. Xincheng Yao (Photo: Jenny Fontaine) Now, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago are developing imaging techniques that will allow them to study minute changes in the retina that indicate the early stages of brain diseases like Alzheimer’s ...

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      Mentions: Xincheng Yao
    17. Parafoveal vessel loss and correlation between peripapillary vessel density and cognitive performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s Disease on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Parafoveal vessel loss and correlation between peripapillary vessel density and cognitive performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s Disease on optical coherence tomography angiography

      Purpose Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) exhibit decreased retinal blood flow and vessel density (VD). However, it is not known whether these changes are also present in individuals with early AD (eAD) or amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), an enriched pre-AD population with a higher risk for progressing to dementia. We performed a prospective case-control clinical study to investigate whether optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in the macula and disc are altered in those with aMCI and eAD. Methods This is a single center study of 32 participants. Individuals with aMCI/eAD (n = 16) were 1:1 ...

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    18. Toward optical coherence tomography angiography-based biomarkers to assess the safety of peripheral nerve electrostimulation

      Toward optical coherence tomography angiography-based biomarkers to assess the safety of peripheral nerve electrostimulation

      Objective: Peripheral nerves serve as a link between the central nervous system and its targets. Altering peripheral nerve activity through targeted electrical stimulation is being investigated as a therapy for modulating end organ function. To support rapid advancement in the field, novel approaches to predict and prevent nerve injury resulting from the electrical stimulation must be developed to overcome the limitations of traditional histological methods. The present study aims to develop an optical imaging-based approach for real-time assessment of peripheral nerve injury associated with electrical stimulation.
 
 Approach: We developed an optical coherence tomography angiography system and a 3-D ...

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    19. Assessing the Acute Effects of Prenatal Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposure on Murine Fetal Brain Vasculature Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessing the Acute Effects of Prenatal Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposure on Murine Fetal Brain Vasculature Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Marijuana is one of the most commonly abused substances during pregnancy. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are a group of heterogeneous compounds that are 40‐ to 600‐fold more potent than ∆ 9 ‐tetrahydrocannabinol , the major psychoactive component of marijuana. With SCBs being legally available for purchase and the prevalence of unplanned pregnancies, the possibility of prenatal exposure to SCBs is high. However, the effects of prenatal SCB exposure on embryonic brain development are not well understood. In this study, we use complex correlation mapping optical coherence angiography to evaluate changes in murine fetal brain vasculature in utero , minutes after maternal exposure to ...

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    20. The NHS verdict on new eye test that can apparently detect Alzheimer's disease - and it's not great - North Wales Live

      The NHS verdict on new eye test that can apparently detect Alzheimer's disease - and it's not great - North Wales Live

      New research has been used to suggest that a 'simple eye test' could help detect Alzheimer's disease even before symptoms appear. The study, which was conducted by researchers in the US, looked at differences in blood vessels found in the eyes between those with and without the chronic neurodegenerative disease. Researchers detected the changes in the eyes through an eye test which uses the latest in optic technology. The media were quick to hail this scanning technique and the new study, though they've since been accused of "jumping to conclusions." The NHS has now shared its thoughts on ...

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    21. Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for brain tumor imaging

      Cross-polarization optical coherence tomography for brain tumor imaging

      This paper considers valuable visual assessment criteria for distinguishing between tumorous and non-tumorous tissues, intraoperatively, using cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) – OCT with a functional extension, that enables detection of the polarization properties of the tissues in addition to their conventional light scattering. Materials and methods. The study was performed on 176 ex vivo human specimens obtained from 30 glioma patients. To measure the degree to which the typical parameters of CP OCT images can be matched to the actual histology, 100 images of tumors and white matter were selected for visual analysis to be undertaken by three “single-blinded” investigators. An ...

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    22. Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Optimal Inter‐Eye Difference Thresholds by OCT in MS: An International Study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for inter‐eye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell+inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Background Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multi‐center international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected ...

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