1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 643 1 2 3 4 ... 25 26 27 »
    1. Retinal and optic nerve changes in microcephaly: An optical coherence tomography study

      Retinal and optic nerve changes in microcephaly:  An optical coherence tomography study

      Objective To investigate the morphology of the retina and optic nerve (ON) in microcephaly. Methods This was a prospective case-control study including 27 patients with microcephaly and 27 healthy controls. All participants underwent ophthalmologic examination and handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula and ON head. The thickness of individual retinal layers was quantified at the foveal center and the parafovea (1,000 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea). For the ON head, disc diameter, cup diameter, cup-to-disc ratio, cup depth, horizontal rim diameter, rim area, peripapillary retinal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured. Results ...

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    2. Feature Of The Week 07/08/2018: Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness & Cognition - Results from UK Biobank

      Feature Of The Week 07/08/2018: Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness & Cognition - Results from UK Biobank

      Importance: Identifing potential screening tests for future cognitive decline is a priority for developing treatments for and the prevention of dementia. Objective: To examine the potential of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline in a large community cohort of healthy people. Design, Setting, and Participants: UK Biobank is a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of UK residents aged 40 to 69 years at enrollment who underwent baseline retinal optical coherence tomography imaging, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. The pilot study phase was conducted from March 2006 to June 2006, and ...

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    3. The role of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      The role of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an ocular imaging technique that can complement the neuro-ophthalmic assessment, and inform our understanding regarding functional consequences of neuroaxonal injury in the afferent visual pathway. Indeed, OCT has emerged as a surrogate end-point in the diagnosis and follow up of several demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS), including optic neuritis (ON) associated with: multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies. Recent advancements in enhanced depth imaging (EDI) OCT have distinguished this technique as a new gold standard in the diagnosis of optic disc drusen (ODD). Moreover ...

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    4. New research shows further connection between Alzheimer's, retinal nerve fibers

      New research shows further connection between Alzheimer's, retinal nerve fibers

      Researchers recently reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that nerve fibers in the eye are an early indication of Alzheimer’s disease. Two different groups report that the imaging of retinal nerve fiber layers in the eye show correlations to early disease and may even be predictive of disease. The eye, and particularly the retina as an extension of neurologic tissue, can provide information about disease status in the brain. The concept is not new, but the means to capture images with enough optical resolution to visualize the axons and ganglion cells has been evolving over the ...

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    5. The eye's structure holds information about the health of the mind - It is a window to the brain

      The eye's structure holds information about the health of the mind - It is a window to the brain

      BECAUSE it is locked away inside the skull, the brain is hard to study. Looking at it requires finicky machines which use magnetism or electricity or both to bypass the bone. There is just one tendril of brain tissue that can be seen from outside the body without any mucking about of this sort. That is the retina. Look into someone’s eyes and you are, in some small way, looking at their brain. This being so, a group of researchers at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, working with others around the world, decided to study the structure of the ...

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    6. Johns Hopkins Research Points to Increasing Role of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

      Johns Hopkins Research Points to Increasing Role of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

      The advent of electronic medical records with large image databases, along with advances in artificial intelligence with deep learning, is offering medical professionals new opportunities to dramatically improve image analysis and disease diagnostics. Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, and collaborators at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, have developed image analysis and machine learning tools to detect age-related macular degeneration. In Nature Medicine , members of the team discuss the potential of such tools to be used clinically and applied to other image-based medical diagnoses as well. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes lesions ...

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    7. Aging-associated changes in cerebral vasculature and blood flow as determined by quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography

      Aging-associated changes in cerebral vasculature and blood flow as determined by quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography

      Capillary velocity increases by 21% and velocity heterogeneity increases by 19% with older age. Abstract Normal aging is associated with significant alterations in brain’s vascular structure and function, which can lead to compromised cerebral circulation and increased risk of neurodegeneration. The in vivo examination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), including capillary beds, in aging brains with sufficient spatial detail remains challenging with current imaging modalities. In the present study, we use three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to examine characteristic differences of the cerebral vasculatures and hemodynamics at the somatosensory cortex (S1) between old (16-month-old) and young ...

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    8. Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Association of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Current and Future Cognitive Decline A Study Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Importance Identifing potential screening tests for future cognitive decline is a priority for developing treatments for and the prevention of dementia. Objective To examine the potential of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement in identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline in a large community cohort of healthy people. Design, Setting, and Participants UK Biobank is a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of UK residents aged 40 to 69 years at enrollment who underwent baseline retinal optical coherence tomography imaging, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. The pilot study phase was conducted from March 2006 to June 2006, and ...

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    9. Association of Retinal Neurodegeneration on Optical Coherence Tomography With Dementia: A Population-Based Study

      Association of Retinal Neurodegeneration on Optical Coherence Tomography With Dementia: A Population-Based Study

      Importance Retinal structures may serve as a biomarker for dementia, but longitudinal studies examining this link are lacking. Objective To investigate the association of inner retinal layer thickness with prevalent and incident dementia in a general population of Dutch adults. Design, Setting, and Participants From September 2007 to June 2012, participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study who were 45 years and older and had gradable retinal optical coherence tomography images and at baseline were free from stroke, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinopathy, myopia, hyperopia, and optic disc pathology were included. They were followed up until January ...

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    10. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY (OCT) STUDY IN ARGENTINEAN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE PATIENT

      Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 14 HD patients who underwent a spectral domain OCT. Results were compared with a control group. Demographic data was also obtained. Results: Temporal and superior RNFL ...

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    11. Modeling neurodegeneration in patients with visual pathway tumors by retinal Optical Coherence Tomography

      Modeling neurodegeneration in patients with visual pathway tumors by retinal Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive high-resolution imaging technique which was suggested to be a powerful biomarker of neurodegeneration. The objective of our study is to assess the pattern of retinal OCT changes in patients with visual pathway tumors. Methods A prospective clinical study was conducted and patients with single cerebral tumors with potential of compression on the visual pathway were included. Patients with multiple and/or metastatic tumors were excluded. Each patient underwent neurosurgical and ophthalmological evaluation, cranial-cerebral MRI, and ocular OCT in both eyes. The OCT parameters included circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (average and ...

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    12. Methodological concerns on Retinal Thickness evaluation by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      Methodological concerns on Retinal Thickness evaluation by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in patients with Major Depressive Disorder

      The aim of this article is to underline the importance of all the possible confounding factors involved in the variation of retinal thickness. More in detail, antidepressant drugs represent an important confounding factor that should not be neglected when measuring retinal thickness by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with major depressive disorder

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

      Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal shunts between the arterial and venous vascular systems. These usually produce ocular pain, increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and diplopia. Less frequently, they may cause retinal changes with visual impairment. Our purpose is to illustrate different retinal manifestations of AVF. We report the multimodal imaging study of three cases with retinal changes due to AVF, showing neurosensory retinal detachment, macular oedema, and macular ischemia. In conclusion, AVF may appear with different ophthalmic alterations. While usually increased IOP and diplopia are our main concerns, retinal study is mandatory, since a myriad of morphologic abnormalities might be present.

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    14. Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      Letter to the Editor Regarding “Optical Coherence Tomography in the Management of Skull Base Fibrous Dysplasia with Optic Nerve Involvement”

      In the recently published article by Loewenstern et al, 1 the authors attempted to determine the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and management of compressive optic neuropathy secondary to fibrous dysplasia (FD). OCT is a relatively new imaging modality, which uses high-resolution cross-sections of the retina to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. The study evaluated 6 patients with cranial base FD for optic nerve compression and RNFL thinning, using computed tomography (CT) and OCT, respectively.

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    15. Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) in neurological research

      Purpose To review the clinical and research value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the field of neurology. Methods Current literature involving OCTA were reviewed through PubMed using the search terms “optical coherence tomography angiography”, with “multiple sclerosis”, “Alzheimer’s disease”, “optic neuropathy”, or other closely-related terms. Results OCTA has been applied in research to advance our understanding of the pathobiology of neurological disorders. OCTA-derived blood flow and vessel density measures are altered in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and various optic neuropathies (ON) in varying regions of the posterior segment vasculature of the eye. These emerging ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique based on the detection of light back-reflected or backscattered by tissue. Based on the principles of low-coherence interferometry, OCT provides rapid volumetric imaging with micrometer-scale resolution. OCT has been massively successful in ophthalmology where it became a routine tool for retinal diagnostics. In recent years, however, OCT has also been applied to other fields including—amongst others—cardiovascular imaging, endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract, and neuroimaging. In the brain and other neural tissues, OCT provides contrast for tissue microstructures and enables noninvasive in vivo and in vitro imaging with high resolution. Novel ...

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      Mentions: Bernhard Baumann
    17. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography reveals gray matter and white matter atrophy in SCA1 mouse models

      Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography reveals gray matter and white matter atrophy in SCA1 mouse models

      Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we demonstrate the label-free optical imaging methodology that can detect, with a high degree of sensitivity, discrete areas of degeneration in the cerebellum of the SCA1 mouse models. We used ATXN1[82Q] and ATXN1[30Q]-D776 mice in which the transgene is directed only to Purkinje cells. Molecular layer, granular layer, and white matter regions are analyzed using the intrinsic contrasts provided by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Cerebellar atrophy in SCA1 mice occurred both in gray matter and white matter. While gray matter atrophy is obvious ...

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    18. Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Optic Disc Drusen in Children: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study

      Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are seen in up to 2.4% of the general population, but the etiology and pathophysiology of the condition is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ODD in a population-based child cohort and to determine if scleral canal diameter and fetal birth and pubertal parameters are associated with the presence of ODD. Methods: This observational, longitudinal population-based birth cohort study, with a nested case–control, included 1,406 children. Eye examinations were performed when the children were between 11 and 12 years of age. Assessment was performed of ...

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    19. Evolution of Visual Outcomes in Clinical Trials for Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies

      Evolution of Visual Outcomes in Clinical Trials for Multiple Sclerosis Disease-Modifying Therapies

      rom the Section Editor: In March 2018, the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology (JNO) launched its inaugural “Disease of the Year” section, featuring multiple sclerosis (MS). Beginning from a “Bench” perspective, Meltzner and colleagues presented an elegant overview of the pathogenic mechanisms believed to underpin central nervous system (CNS) injury in MS. To complement these efforts, Backner and Levin highlighted how the afferent visual pathway, as a putative model of CNS inflammation, can be interrogated with measures of structure and function to capture clinical and sub-clinical evidence disease activity in MS patients. Building on these concepts in this issue of the JNO ...

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    20. Extracting morphometric information from rat sciatic nerve using optical coherence tomography

      Extracting morphometric information from rat sciatic nerve using optical coherence tomography

      We apply three optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis techniques to extract morphometric information from OCT images obtained on peripheral nerves of rat. The accuracy of each technique is evaluated against histological measurements accurate to +/-1 µm. The three OCT techniques are: 1) average depth resolved profile (ADRP); 2) autoregressive spectral estimation (AR-SE); and, 3) correlation of the derivative spectral estimation (CoD-SE). We introduce a scanning window to the ADRP technique which provides transverse resolution, and improves epineurium thickness estimates - with the number of analysed images showing agreement with histology increasing from 2/10 to 5/10 (Kruskal-Wallis test, α = 0 ...

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    21. Dr. Steven Galetta Recognized For Lifetime Achievement in Neurologic Education

      Dr. Steven Galetta Recognized For Lifetime Achievement in Neurologic Education

      Steven L. Galetta , MD , the Philip K. Moskowitz, MD Professor and Chair of Neurology at NYU Langone Health, has been awarded the 2018 A.B. Baker Award for Lifetime Achievement in Neurological Education by the American Academy of Neurology for his career contributions to the field. Dr. Galetta received this prestigious honor on Monday, April 23 , during the 2018 American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, California .

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    22. Imaging of cortical structures and microvasculature using extended-focus optical coherence tomography at 1.3  μm

      Imaging of cortical structures and microvasculature using extended-focus optical coherence tomography at 1.3  μm

      Extended-focus optical coherence tomography (xf-OCT) is a variant of optical coherence tomography (OCT) wherein the illumination and/or detection modes are engineered to provide a constant diffractionless lateral resolution over an extended depth of field (typically 3 to 10 × 10× the Rayleigh range). xf-OCT systems operating at 800 nm have been devised and used in the past to image brain structures at high-resolution in vivo , but are limited to ∼ 500    μm ∼500  μm in penetration depth due to their short illumination wavelength. Here we present an xf-OCT system optimized to an image deeper within the cortex by using a longer ...

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