1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 281 1 2 3 4 ... 10 11 12 »
    1. Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      Potential new diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease using a linear discriminant function for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To calculate and validate a linear discriminant function (LDF) for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve the diagnostic ability of retinal and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters in the detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method: AD patients (n=151) and age-matched, healthy subjects (n=61) were enrolled. The Cirrus and Spectralis OCT systems were used to obtain retinal measurements and circumpapillary RNFL thickness for each participant. A LDF was calculated using all retinal and RNFL OCT measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and compared among the LDF and the standard parameters provided ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials in healthy persons

      Optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials in healthy persons

      Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) represent non-invasive objective examination of the visual system. While the OCT measures a morphological property of the retina (thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer – RNFL), the VEP allows assessment a function of the visual system. There are numerous studies describing a mutual involvement of both mentioned aspects in diseases like multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis or glaucoma, however, normative studies of these relationship are missing. In our study we address this issue with an expectation to translate the findings into interpretation of pathological findings. Methods We examined a group of ...

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    3. Potential Applications of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in the Study of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Potential Applications of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence  Tomography (SD-OCT) in the Study of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. As the prevalence of dementia is projected to increase, the burden of the disease on society is expected to become increasingly significant. The link between eye pathology and neurodegenerative diseases has been established in multiple studies. In particular, optic nerve parameters associated with neuronal loss in AD include retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Retinal ganglion cells are similar to neurons in the cerebral cortex, and have been correlated to neurodegeneration in AD. Ocular imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have provided a rapid and non-invasive method for quantifying ...

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    4. Update on Susac Syndrome: New Insights in Brain and Retinal Imaging and Treatment Options

      Update on Susac Syndrome: New Insights in Brain and Retinal Imaging and Treatment Options

      Susac syndrome (SuS) is a rare endotheliopathy of the brain, the retina, and the inner ear. The underlying pathophysiology is likely an autoimmune mediated occlusion of microvessels resulting in variable degrees of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, visual disturbances, and hearing loss. The disease manifests either with a monophasic or polycyclic course. Patients suffering from SuS are frequently misdiagnosed as having inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease, particularly multiple sclerosis because of some overlap in the clinical presentation and the paraclinical findings. Since appropriate treatment of SuS is crucial for the prognosis, a timely and sound establishment of the diagnosis is important ...

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    5. Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Assessment of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Enhanced Depth Imaging and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are calcific deposits buried or at the surface of the optic disc. Although ONHD may be associated with progressive visual field defects, the mechanism of drusen-related field loss is poorly understood. Methods for detecting and imaging disc drusen include B-scan ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These modalities are useful for drusen detection but are limited by low resolution or poor penetration of deep structures. This review was designed to assess the potential role of new OCT technologies in imaging ONHD. Evidence Acquisition: Critical appraisal of published literature and comparison of new ...

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    6. Reliability and validity of Cirrus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography for detecting retinal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease

      Reliability and validity of Cirrus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography for detecting retinal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease

      Background To evaluate and compare the ability of two Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices to detect retinal and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) atrophy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared with healthy subjects; to test the intra-session reliability of two OCT devices in AD patients and healthy subjects. Methods AD patients (n = 75) and age-matched healthy subjects (n = 75) underwent three Macular Cube 200 × 200 protocols using the Cirrus and Spectralis OCT devices and three 360° circular scans centred on the optic disc using the Cirrus OCT device, the classic glaucoma application, and the new Nsite Axonal ...

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    7. Stimulated penetrating keratoplasty using real-time virtual intraoperative surgical optical coherence tomography

      Stimulated penetrating keratoplasty using real-time virtual intraoperative surgical optical coherence tomography

      An intraoperative surgical microscope is an essential tool in a neuro- or ophthalmological surgical environment. Yet, it has an inherent limitation to classify subsurface information because it only provides the surface images. To compensate for and assist in this problem, combining the surgical microscope with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been adapted. We developed a real-time virtual intraoperative surgical OCT (VISOCT) system by adapting a spectral-domain OCT scanner with a commercial surgical microscope. Thanks to our custom-made beam splitting and image display subsystems, the OCT images and microscopic images are simultaneously visualized through an ocular lens or the eyepiece of ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials: which is more sensitive in multiple sclerosis?

      Optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials: which is more sensitive in multiple sclerosis?

      Objective: To assess the sensitivity of optic coherence tomography (OCT) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to visual pathway abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 40 MS subjects, 28 with optic neuritis (ON) at least 3 months before (bilateral in 5), underwent assessment of visual acuity, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), OCT and VEPs, the latter quantified with a 0–4 conventional score. Results: OCT and VEPs were abnormal in 36% and 56% respectively in all eyes ( p =0.11), 68% and 86% in eyes with previous ON ( p =0.12), and in 19% versus 40% in eyes ...

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    9. Choroidal Thinning as a New Finding in Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Choroidal Thinning as a New Finding in Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: The involvement of retina and its vasculature has been recently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the previous works have yet investigated the choroid in vivo. Objective: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and enhanced depth imaging (EDI) technique is non-invasively used to assess choroidal thickness in patients with AD and to determine whether the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and central retinal thickness are reduced compared to normal subjects. Methods: Forty-two eyes of 21 patients (mean age, 73.1 ± 6.9 years) with a diagnosis of mild to moderate AD and 42 eyes of ...

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    10. A Bibliometric Analysis of Optic Coherence Tomography Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

      A Bibliometric Analysis of Optic Coherence Tomography Studies in  Multiple Sclerosis

      igh-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina that has been used for ten years in multiple sclerosis (MS) related optic neuropathies. The objective of this study is to determine the scientific output in use of OCT in multiple sclerosis between 1982 and 2012 using ISI Web of Knowledge. Methods: The ISI Web of Knowledge was searched for articles on OCT published between 1982 and February 2012 using appropriate terms. Articles were characterized each year by publication type. Results: Search yielded 154 publications after the search for keywords “optical coherence tomography and multiple sclerosis and 167 publications after the search for the ...

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    11. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in migraine patients: implications for the association of migraine and glaucoma

      Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in migraine patients: implications for the association of migraine and glaucoma

      Aim To compare the choroidal thickness measurements obtained during the attack period and during the pain-free interval in migraine patients using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods 58 eyes of 29 subjects with a diagnosis of migraine with or without aura were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. Two OCT scans were performed for each patient, one during the peak period of the migraine attack and the other during the headache-free interval, using the enhanced depth imaging mode. Choroidal thicknesses were measured at the fovea, at three locations nasal and at three locations temporal to the fovea at ...

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    12. High-resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis, Part II – the total macular volume. The first follow-up study over 2 years

      High-resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis, Part II – the total macular volume. The first follow-up study over 2 years

      Background: Recent studies investigating the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have resulted in wide-ranging and often contradictory outcomes. This is mainly due to the complex etiology and heterogeneity of MS, physiological variations in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and/or total macular volume (TMV), and limitations in methodology. It remains to be discovered whether any retinal changes in MS develop continuously or in a stepwise fashion, and whether these changes occur in all or a subset of patients. High-resolution spectral domain-OCT devices (SD-OCT) would be required to detect subtle retinal changes and longitudinal ...

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    13. Angiography and Monitoring of Hemodynamic Signals in the Brain via Optical Coherence Tomography (Thesis)

      Angiography and Monitoring of Hemodynamic Signals in the Brain via Optical Coherence Tomography (Thesis)

      The brain is a complex network of interconnected neurons with each cell functioning as a nonlinear processing unit. Neural responses to stimulus can be described by activity in neurons. While blood flow changes have been associated with neural activity and are critical to brain function, this neurovascular coupling is not well understood. This work presents a technique for neurovascular interrogation, combining optogenetics and optical coherence tomography. Optogenetics is a recently developed neuromodulation technique to control activity in the brain using light with precise spatial neuronal control and high temporal resolution. Using this method, cells act as light-gated ion channels and ...

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    14. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects in Alzheimer‘s disease using SD-OCT

      Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects in Alzheimer‘s disease using SD-OCT

      Introduction: To examine the clinical value of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis OCT) to detect retinal nerve fibre layer defects in patients with clinically defined Alzheimer‘s disease (AD). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 22 patients with AD (mean age: 75.9 ± 6.1 years) and 22 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and a series of high-resolution OCT examinations of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness using the Spectralis 3.5-mm circle scan protocol with ART-Modus and eye tracking were obtained, and compared to age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Results: Patients with AD ...

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    15. Quantification of the neurodegenerative status in patients with multiple sclerosis by optical coherence tomography in respect to functional vision (Thesis)

      Quantification of the neurodegenerative status in patients with multiple sclerosis by optical coherence tomography in respect to functional vision (Thesis)

      Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent, non-traumatic, neurological disorder in young adults in western countries which leads to chronic impairment. The cause of the immune mediated illness remains elusive. Neither clinical nor paraclinical measures can estimate the disability degree or the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is crucial to improve the methods which can be a window to the neurodegenerative status of individuals. Structural investigations of the ZNS by MRI own a key position but discriminate between demyelinisation and axonal damage insufficiently and show a discrepancy between lesion load and clinical symptoms. The axonal degeneration goes in line with ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinson's Disease: Is the Retina a Biomarker?

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinson's Disease: Is the Retina a Biomarker?

      Visual symptoms are a common feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and retinal dopamine loss and dysfunctions in foveal vision have been described in PD patients. Because visual hallucination (VH) is a specific feature of PD which is differentiated from other parkinsonian disorders, defective visual information processing from both the central and peripheral pathways is suggested to be the pathophysiological mechanisms of VH in PD. Decreased visual acuity as well as impaired contrast sensitivity and color vision is known to be related to the appearance of VH in PD. However, these functional studies were also affected by cognitive ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography: a quantitative tool to screen for papilledema in craniosynostosis

      Optical coherence tomography: a quantitative tool to screen for papilledema in craniosynostosis

      Purpose Our aim was to evaluate if optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used as an alternative for fundoscopy to screen for increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in children with craniosynostosis Methods We performed a prospective cohort study at the Dutch Craniofacial Centre. We included 38 patients with nonsyndromic scaphocephaly and Crouzon’s syndrome aged 3–8 years old, in whom we scored complaints suggestive of increased ICP and performed fundoscopy and OCT. Main outcome measures total retinal thickness (TRT) which was measured on 58 OCT scans. Results Forty-three percent of fundoscopies revealed pathologic changes of the papil in at least ...

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    18. Visual Involvement in MS: Optic Neuritis and Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visual Involvement in MS: Optic Neuritis and Optical Coherence Tomography

      This optic neuritis and optical coherence tomography multiple sclerosis webcast identifies the most current clinical trials, treatment options, and the use of optical coherence tomography in patients with multiple sclerosis. To learn more about the Multiple Sclerosis Virtual Grand Rounds series or to claim CME credit, visit

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    19. Perspectives of an innovative ophthalmological technology: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – What should be of interest to the neurologist?

      Perspectives of an innovative ophthalmological technology: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – What should be of interest to the neurologist?

      Ocular coherence tomography has revolutionised the prospects of measuring the loss of retinal ganglion cells secondary to degenerative diseases and monitoring time-dependent changes of optic disc morphology, since the resolution has been improved considerably and the time required has been reduced. Although the non-invasive technique promises a high inter-session reproducibility, the limitations of retinal imaging and the problems of segmenting of the retinal layers have to be taken into account. While the first studies were limited to single sessions in small groups, further trials will elucidate how the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is altered in the course of different ...

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    20. University of Minnesota Receives NIH Grant for Depth-Resolved Optical Imaging of Neural Action Potentials

      University of Minnesota Receives NIH Grant for Depth-Resolved Optical Imaging of Neural Action Potentials

      The University of Minnesota Received a 2013 NIH Grant for $293,971 for Depth-Resolved Optical Imaging of Neural Action Potentials. The principal investigator is Taner Akkin. The program began in 2010 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the proposed work. As the development of new methods that directly assess neural activity becomes a pressing need, a variety of optical techniques is being investigated for imaging neural structure and function with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Recently, the emerging technology of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has allowed us to simultaneously detect action potential (AP) related phase changes ...

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    21. UC Davis wins NIH Grant for Functional Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging of Cortical Hemodynamics

      UC Davis wins NIH Grant for Functional Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging of Cortical Hemodynamics

      The University of California at Davis received a 2013 NIH Grant for $224,099 for Functional Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging of Cortical Hemodynamics. The principal investigator was Vivek Srinivasan. The program began in 2011 and ends in 2014. Below is a summary of the propose work. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging modality that can perform micron scale, tomographic cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. Due to the high axial resolution, OCT is ideally suited for imaging tissues with a laminar structure, such as the retina. Recent advances in OCT ...

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    1-24 of 281 1 2 3 4 ... 10 11 12 »
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