1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Ophthalmic manifestations of dementing disorders

      Ophthalmic manifestations of dementing disorders

      Purpose of review Dementia is a term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking abilities, which significantly interferes with daily life. Certain dementing conditions may also affect visual function. The eye is an accessible window to the brain that can provide valuable information for the early diagnosis of people who suffer from Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease , dementia with Lewy bodies as well as from more rare causes of dementias, such as Creutzfeldt–Jacob and Huntington's diseases. Herein, we present the ocular manifestations of neurocognitive disorders focusing on the neuro-ophthalmic ones and further discuss potential ocular ...

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    2. Peripapillary Microvascularization Analysis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Chiasmal Compression

      Peripapillary Microvascularization Analysis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Optic Chiasmal Compression

      Purpose . To evaluate the vessel density (VD) of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) “en face” images of eyes with chiasmal compression caused by brain tumors before and after decompressive surgery compared with healthy controls. Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 patients with chiasmal compression confirmed by neuroimaging. Sixteen healthy participants were also included. All patients with chiasmal compression underwent a neuro-ophthalmological examination one week before and 6 months after brain surgery, including static automated perimetry as well as measurement of the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ...

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    3. Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Retinal Neurovascular Structural Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography and the Relationship between These Changes and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Migraine

      Introduction: This study aimed to reveal whether retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) inner plexiform layer, and choroidal layer (CL) thicknesses differed in patients with migraine. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to measure these neurovascular structural changes and determine the relationship between these structures and cranial white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Methods: This retrospective comparative registry study included a total of 155 individuals aged 18–55 (mean, 33.50 ± 8.34), consisting of 110 migraine patients and 45 healthy controls. Results: RNFLs were thinner in the migraine group than the control group but not to a statistically ...

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    4. Stability of OCT and OCTA in the Intensive Therapy Unit Setting

      Stability of OCT and OCTA in the Intensive Therapy Unit Setting

      To assess the stability of retinal structure and blood flow measures over time and in different clinical settings using portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) as a potential biomarker of central perfusion in critical illness, 18 oesophagectomy patients completed retinal structure and blood flow measurements by portable OCT and OCTA in the eye clinic and intensive therapy unit (ITU) across three timepoints: (1) pre-operation in a clinic setting; (2) 24-48 h post-operation during ITU admission; and (3) seven days post-operation, if the patient was still admitted. Blood flow and macular structural measures were stable between the examination settings, with no ...

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    5. Automatic Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Using Optical Coherence Tomography Data and Artificial Intelligence

      Automatic Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Using Optical Coherence Tomography Data and Artificial Intelligence

      Background: The aim of this study is to explore an objective approach that aids the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data which are analyzed using artificial intelligence. Methods: Structural analyses of nine layers of the retina were analyzed in 17 type I BD patients and 42 controls, according to the areas defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. The most discriminating variables made up the feature vector of several automatic classifiers: Gaussian Naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbors and support vector machines. Results: BD patients presented retinal thinning affecting most layers, compared to ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Evoked Potentials as Prognostic and Monitoring Tools in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Visual Evoked Potentials as Prognostic and Monitoring Tools in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

      Understanding the mechanisms underlying progression and developing new treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) are among the major challenges in the field of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases. Over the last 10 years, also because of some technological advances, the visual pathways have emerged as a useful platform to study the processes of demyelination/remyelination and their relationship with axonal degeneration/protection. The wider availability and technological advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) have allowed to add information on structural neuroretinal changes, in addition to functional information provided by visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The present review will address the ...

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    7. Detection of early stage alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

      Detection of early stage alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

      Systems and methods are described herein for determining that a patient has indications mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microperimetry is used to assess the functional integrity of the patient's retina. Optical Coherence Tomography is used to assess the structural integrity of the patient's retina. Reductions in the size and function of the patient's retina indicate that the patient may have MCI or early stage AD.

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    8. Theranostic applications of optical coherence tomography in neurosurgery?

      Theranostic applications of optical coherence tomography in neurosurgery?

      In light of our own experiences, we value the existing literature to critically point out possible "near" future applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an intraoperative neurosurgical guidance tool. "Pub Med", "Cochrane Library", "Crossref Metadata Search", and "IEEE Xplore" databases as well as the search engine "Google Scholar" were screened for "optical coherence tomography + neurosurgery", "optical coherence tomography + intraoperative imaging + neurosurgery", and "microscope integrated optical coherence tomography + neurosurgery". n = 51 articles related to the use of OCT as an imaging technique in the field of neurosurgery or neurosurgical research. n = 7 articles documented the intraoperative use of OCT in ...

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    9. Improving cerebral microvascular image quality of optical coherence tomography angiography with deep learning-based segmentation

      Improving cerebral microvascular image quality of optical coherence tomography angiography with deep learning-based segmentation

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can map the microvascular networks of the cerebral cortices with micrometer resolution and millimeter penetration. However, the high scattering of the skull and the strong noise in the deep imaging region will distort the vasculature projections and decrease the OCTA image quality. Here, we proposed a deep learning-based segmentation method based on a U-Net convolutional neural network to extract the cortical region from the OCT image. The vascular networks were then visualized by three OCTA algorithms. The image quality of the vasculature projections was assessed by two metrics, including the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and ...

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    10. MGH Receives NIH Grant for Developmental sensorimotor and cognitive pathways in infant cerebellum with multi-scale imaging

      MGH Receives NIH Grant for Developmental sensorimotor and cognitive pathways in infant cerebellum with multi-scale imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $210,000 for Developmental sensorimotor and cognitive pathways in infant cerebellum with multi-scale imaging. The principal investigator is Hui Wang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Development of the human cerebellum undergoes a precisely programmed sequence of processes, spanning from the third trimester of pregnancy into the first postnatal year. Due to advances in neonatal imaging techniques, cerebellar injury has been increasingly detected in premature infants and full-terms with birth complications. Although perinatal cerebellar injury and malformation have been broadly associated with developmental delays in motor, language, cognition, and ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography: a window to the brain?

      Optical coherence tomography: a window to the brain?

      First described in 1991 and introduced into clinical practice in 1996, optical coherence tomography (OCT) now has a very extensive role in many different areas of ophthalmological practice. It is non-invasive, cheap, highly reproducible, widely available and easy to perform. OCT also has a role in managing patients with neurological disorders, particularly idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This review provides an overview of the technology underlying OCT and the information it can provide that is relevant to the practising neurologist. Particular conditions discussed include papilloedema, optic disc drusen, multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, other optic neuropathies, compression of the anterior visual pathway ...

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    12. Preclinical mouse model of optical coherence tomography for subcortical brain imaging without dissection

      Preclinical mouse model of optical coherence tomography for subcortical brain imaging without dissection

      Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify internal brain lesions, specifically intracerebral hemorrhage, without dissection. Methods Mice with artificially injected brain hematomas were used to test the OCT system, and the recorded images were compared with microscopic images of the same mouse brains after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results The intracranial structures surrounding the hematomas were clearly visualized by the OCT system without dissection. These images reflect the ability of OCT to determine the extent of a lesion in several planes. Conclusions OCT is a useful technology, and ...

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    13. Retinal Flow Density Changes in Early-stage Parkinson’s Disease Investigated by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Retinal Flow Density Changes in Early-stage Parkinson’s Disease Investigated by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background : Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly population. The eye has been referred to as a window to the brain due to its inseparable relationship with the central nervous system. The development of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) technologies has offered us a better imaging modality to study the impact of PD on the retina. Method: Seventy-five eyes of 42 early-stage PD patients and 150 eyes of 75 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. We performed SS-OCT and SS-OCTA to assess retinal nerve fiber ...

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    14. Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Moyamoya Vasculopathy: A Pilot Study

      Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients with Moyamoya Vasculopathy: A Pilot Study

      Moyamoya (MM) disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disease that can lead to progressive stenosis of the terminal portions of the internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches. We sought to investigate and quantify retinal vascular changes in patients with MM vasculopathy (MMV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) compared to healthy controls. Our findings reveal retinal microvascular changes in patients with MMV and highlights the potential of OCTA imaging for the detection of subclinical retinal pathology.

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    15. Assessment of the outer retina and choroid in white matter lesions participants using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Assessment of the outer retina and choroid in white matter lesions participants using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Purpose: To assess the three-dimensional outer retina thickness and choroid in eyes with white matter lesions (WMLs) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: Participants without dementia and stroke with cerebral WMLs were enrolled in our study. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) were used to image and evaluate the outer retinal layer, choroidal structure, and perfusion of the choriocapillaris, microvessels of the choroid, respectively. Measurement of the outer retinal thickness, choroidal thickness and perfusion of the choriocapillaris was done by the SS-OCT tool. Results: Thirty-one eyes from 16 WMLs and 40 eyes from 20 healthy controls were ...

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    16. The Use of Electroretinography and Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Schizophrenia

      The Use of Electroretinography and Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Schizophrenia

      The use of electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) has currently expanded beyond ophthalmology alone. The aim of this review is to present the results and knowledge acquired by these two methods in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Reviewing the studies applying ERG and OCT methods in the field of psychiatry, one can conclude that results of the research imply morphological and functional changes of retina in patients with schizophrenia that are not consistent. However, in most studies there was reduction of the amplitude and changes in the implicit time related parameters on ERG and thinning of the retinal nerve ...

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    17. Navigated, Robot-Driven Laser Craniotomy for SEEG Application Using Optical Coherence Tomography in an Animal Model

      Navigated, Robot-Driven Laser Craniotomy for SEEG Application Using Optical Coherence Tomography in an Animal Model

      Objectives: We recently introduced a navigated, robot-driven laser beam craniotomy for use with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) applications. This method was intended to substitute the hand-held electric power drill in an ex vivo study. The purpose of this in vivo non-recovery pilot study was to acquire data for the depth control unit of this laser device, to test the feasibility of cutting bone channels, and to assess dura perforation and possible cortex damage related to cold ablation. Methods: Multiple holes suitable for SEEG bone channels were planned for the superior portion of two pig craniums using surgical planning software and a frameless ...

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    18. Inter-device reliability of swept source and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and retinal layer differences in schizophrenia

      Inter-device reliability of swept source and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and retinal layer differences in schizophrenia

      Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to study retinal structure in schizophrenia. Changes in retinal structure, especially the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) has been correlated with psychotic disorders. Measurement variability is a concern since there are various generations of OCT devices. We investigated the inter- and intra-device agreement of macular thickness between spectral domain (SD−OCT) and swept source−OCT (SS−OCT), and compared macula and peripapillary group differences in schizophrenia using SS−OCT. Methods Macular OCT thickness was obtained for schizophrenia (SZ, n = 30) and healthy controls (HC, n = 22) subjects using SD−OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) and ...

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    19. Retinal Ganglion Cell Complex in Alzheimer`s Disease: Comparison of Ganglion Cell Complex and Central Macular Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Subjects Using Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT)

      Retinal Ganglion Cell Complex in Alzheimer`s Disease: Comparison of Ganglion Cell Complex and Central Macular Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Subjects Using Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT)

      Introduction : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the commonest form of dementia worldwide. The modalities to diagnose AD are generally expensive and limited. Both CNS and Retina are derived from cranial neural crest, so the changes in retinal layers may reflect the changes in CNS tissue. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) machine can show the delicate retinal layers and is widely used in retinal disorders. The purpose of this study is to find a new biomarker to help clinicians diagnose AD by the means of retinal OCT examination. Methods: After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 patients with mild and moderate ...

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    20. Label-free detection of brain tumors in a 9L gliosarcoma rat model using stimulated Raman scattering-spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      Label-free detection of brain tumors in a 9L gliosarcoma rat model using stimulated Raman scattering-spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      Significance: In neurosurgery, it is essential to differentiate between tumor and healthy brain regions to maximize tumor resection while minimizing damage to vital healthy brain tissue. However, conventional intraoperative imaging tools used to guide neurosurgery are often unable to distinguish tumor margins, particularly in infiltrative tumor regions and low-grade gliomas. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of a label-free molecular imaging tool called stimulated Raman scattering-spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SRS-SOCT) to differentiate between healthy brain tissue and tumor based on (1) structural biomarkers derived from the decay rate of signals as a function of depth ...

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      Mentions: Emory University
    21. 1700 nm optical coherence microscopy enables minimally invasive, label-free, in vivo optical biopsy deep in the mouse brain

      1700 nm optical coherence microscopy enables minimally invasive, label-free, in vivo optical biopsy deep in the mouse brain

      In vivo, minimally invasive microscopy in deep cortical and sub-cortical regions of the mouse brain has been challenging. To address this challenge, we present an in vivo high numerical aperture optical coherence microscopy (OCM) approach that fully utilizes the water absorption window around 1700 nm, where ballistic attenuation in the brain is minimized. Key issues, including detector noise, excess light source noise, chromatic dispersion, and the resolution-speckle tradeoff, are analyzed and optimized. Imaging through a thinned-skull preparation that preserves intracranial space, we present volumetric imaging of cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture across the entire depth of the mouse neocortex, and some sub-cortical ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    22. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography as a Noninvasive Assessment of Cerebral Microcirculatory Disorders Caused by Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography as a Noninvasive Assessment of Cerebral Microcirculatory Disorders Caused by Carotid Artery Stenosis

      Purpose . Using retinal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), we aimed to investigate the changes in important indicators of cerebral microcirculatory disorders, such as the properties of the radial peripapillary capillaries, vascular complexes, and the retinal nerve fiber layer, caused by carotid stenosis and postoperative reperfusion. Methods . In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we recruited 40 carotid stenosis patients and 89 healthy volunteers in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (Harbin, China). Eyes with ipsilateral carotid stenosis constituted the experimental group, while the fellow eyes constituted the contralateral eye group. Digital subtraction angiography, CT perfusion imaging (CTP), and OCTA ...

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    23. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Different Multiple Sclerosis Types: Findings and Relationship with the Disability Status

      Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Different Multiple Sclerosis Types: Findings and Relationship with the Disability Status

      This study evaluates the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in treatment naïve patients with the clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and different multiple sclerosis (MS) types. A total of 126 patients (15 CIS, 65 relapsing-remitting MS, 14 secondary progressive MS, 11 primary progressive MS, 21 benign MS) with or without optic neuritis (ON) history and 63 healthy age-similar controls were assessed. Concerning controls' eyes, pRNFL thickness was significantly reduced in CIS-ON eyes ( p < 0.01), while both TMV and pRNFL thickness was decreased in all MS eyes regardless ...

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