1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 452 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
    1. Longitudinal time‑domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ‑treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients

      Longitudinal time‑domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ‑treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients

      Quantification of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to provide an indirect measure for retinal axonal loss. The aim of the present study was to determine whether interferon beta (IFNβ) treatment impedes retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 48 patients with MS (24 IFNβ‑1b‑treated and 24 untreated subjects) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal OCT study. OCT measurements were performed for both eyes of each subject at baseline, and at 3‑, 6‑, and 12‑month follow‑up examinations using a time ...

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    2. OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      Background Previous research has consistently detected inflammation in the etiology of depression and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated grey matter abnormalities implying a neurodegenerative process in depression. The aim of this study was to compare ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volumes and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between first episode and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and controls using optic coherence tomography (OCT) in order to detect findings supporting a degenerative process. Also choroid thicknesses of the same groups were compared to examine effects of inflammation on MDD. Methods This study included 50 recurrent MDD ...

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    3. Automated segmentation and enhancement of optical coherence tomography-acquired images of rodent brain

      Automated segmentation and enhancement of optical coherence tomography-acquired images of rodent brain

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging method that has proven useful in various fields such as ophthalmology, dermatology and neuroscience. In ophthalmology, significant progress has been made in retinal layer segmentation and enhancement of OCT images. There are also segmentation algorithms to separate epidermal and dermal layers in OCT-acquired images of human skin. New Method We describe simple image processing methods that allow automatic segmentation and enhancement of OCT images of rodent brain. Results We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods for OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) and tissue injury mapping (TIM) of mouse cerebral cortex. The ...

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    4. Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis

      Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disease caused by the inflammatory demyelinating process that causes progressive nervous system degeneration over the time. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology, which can measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as well as the diameter of the macula. The purpose of the study is evaluation OCT findings in two common types of multiple sclerosis. For doing the cross-sectional study, 63 patients with two prevalent types of multiple sclerosis (35 patients with Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and 28 patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS) were evaluated ...

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    5. Effectiveness of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomograph to Evaluate Eyes with And Without Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosi Patients

      Effectiveness of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomograph to Evaluate Eyes with And Without Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosi Patients

      bstract Purpose: To compare the macular assessment and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by using two different optical coherence tomographies (OCTs): a time domain (TD) and a spectral domain (SD) OCT, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without unilateral optic neuritis (ON). Methods: We enrolled 34 patients (13 males and 21 females): 18 without previous episodes of ON and16 with a previous monolateral episode of ON occurred at least 3 months prior to examination. Patients underwent ophthalmological examination, TD OCT and SD OCT scans. We compared the outcomes of eyes with and without ON by using Student’s ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced in the beginning of the 1990s as a new imaging tool that enables the high-resolution in vivo examination of biological tissues. It was first used in ophthalmology where the OCT technology revolutionized the diagnostics of the conditions of the macula and the vitreo-retinal interface. Today, there is intensive research on the possible applications of OCT in other specialties, e.g., angiology, oncology, gastroenterology, dermatology, and dentistry. In the future, OCT may play an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases, owing to the fact that the retina is such a unique ...

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    7. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

      The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

      Objective: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. Methods: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. Results: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection ...

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    8. Detection of retinal blood vessel changes in multiple sclerosis with optical coherence tomography

      Detection of retinal blood vessel changes in multiple sclerosis with optical coherence tomography

      Although retinal vasculitis is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), it is not known if MS is associated with quantitative abnormalities in retinal blood vessels (BVs). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is suitable for examining the integrity of the anterior visual pathways in MS. In this paper we have compared the size and number of retinal blood vessels in patients with MS, with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON), and control subjects from the cross-sectional retinal images from OCT. Blood vessel diameter (BVD), blood vessel number (BVN), and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL T ) were extracted from OCT images ...

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    9. Adding Papillomacular Bundle Measurements to Standard Optical Coherence Tomography Does Not Increase Sensitivity to Detect Prior Optic Neuritis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Adding Papillomacular Bundle Measurements to Standard Optical Coherence Tomography Does Not Increase Sensitivity to Detect Prior Optic Neuritis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

      Purpose To improve the detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in multiple sclerosis (MS), a special peripapillary ring scanning algorithm (N-site RNFL, N-RNFL) was developed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In contrast to the standard protocol (ST-RNFL) scanning starts nasally, not temporally, and provides an additional sector of analysis, the papillomacular bundle (PMB). We aimed to ascertain whether the temporal RNFL differs between the two techniques, whether N-RNFL is more sensitive than ST-RNFL to detect previous optic neuritis (ON), and whether analyzing the PMB adds additional sensitivity. Furthermore, we investigated whether RNFL is associated with disease ...

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    10. Polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging

      Polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) have demonstrated the ability to investigate cyto- and myelo-architecture in the brain. Polarization-sensitive OCT provides sensitivity to additional contrast mechanisms, specifically the birefringence of myelination and, therefore, is advantageous for investigating white matter fiber tracts. In this Letter, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) with a 3.5 μm axial and 1.3 μm transverse resolution to investigate fiber organization and orientation at a finer scale than previously demonstrated with PS-OCT. In a reconstructed mouse brain section, we showed that at the focal depths of 20–70 μm, the ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography and neurodegeneration: are eyes the windows to the brain?

      Optical Coherence Tomography and neurodegeneration: are eyes the windows to the brain?

      Central nervous system (CNS) pathologies have ocular manifestations due to direct and/or retrograde degeneration of the visual pathways, most often related to a direct injury to the optic nerve, retinal ganglion cells and/or its surrounding cells. These ocular manifestations can be recognized and monitored by a non-invasive technique called Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT helps in the measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness which consists of retinal ganglion cells. OCT provides a near-histological level of image resolution up to 5µm by using principles of interferometry that can detect CNS inflammatory, as well ...

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    12. Timing of retinal neuronal and axonal loss in MS: a longitudinal OCT study

      Timing of retinal neuronal and axonal loss in MS: a longitudinal OCT study

      The objective of the study was to investigate the timing of central nervous system tissue atrophy in MS by evaluating longitudinal retinal volume changes in a broadly representative cohort with disease duration across the entire arc of disease. In this longitudinal study, 135 patients with MS and 16 healthy reference subjects underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at baseline and 2 years later. Following OCT quality control, automated segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), macular ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) and macular inner nuclear layer (mINL) was performed. Generalized estimation equations were used to analyze longitudinal ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently become a vital tool for clinicians and researchers in ophthalmology and, increasingly, in neurology. Optical coherence tomography is quickly and easily performed, well-tolerated by patients, and allows high-resolution viewing of unmyelinated axons and other retinal structures in vivo. These factors have led OCT to find favor as a method of quantifying neuroaxonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS), and the increasing acceptance of the anterior visual pathway as a model to investigate MS in humans. In this short review, the authors discuss OCT findings in MS research, and the relationships of these structural findings ...

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    14. Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression

      Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression

      • OCT has been used in various neurodegenerative diseases to visualize the process of neurodegeneration. • We assessed 58 patients with major depression and 57 healthy controls in terms of optical coherence tomography. • Depressed patients were not diferent from the healthy controls with regard to OCT parameters. • Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and nasal retinal fiber layer were correlated with the duration of the latest depressive episode.

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Optic Atrophy After Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Optic Atrophy After Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      A 75-year-old female noticed a lower visual field (VF) defect in the right eye. A diagnosis of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was made. The lower VF defect in the right eye did not change after onset. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiograms on the disc and the macula showed decreased retinal perfusion in the upper retina of the right eye. Retinal nerve fibre layer loss and ganglion cell complex loss in the upper retina were also seen in the right eye. OCT angiography could non-invasively detect the decrease of the retinal perfusion due to NAION.

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    16. Optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with type 1 sialidosis

      Optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with type 1 sialidosis

      Type 1 sialidosis is a metabolic storage disorder characterised by the accumulation of sialylated oligosaccharides. The condition is also known as macular cherry-red spot and myoclonus syndrome due to the characteristic macular appearance in affected individuals. This case outlines the presentation of a patient with type 1 sialidosis, including ophthalmological assessment with retinal photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT scans showed thickening of the perimacular and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, thought to be due to the abnormal accumulation of metabolic products. The cherry-red spot appearance is due to the normal appearing macula being seen in contrast ...

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    17. OCT in Central Nervous System Disease: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      OCT in Central Nervous System Disease: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      This book reviews recent important advances in the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to analyze neurodegeneration within the retina through the quantification of axonal loss. Detailed information is provided on the role of OCT as a promising tool for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. The disorders considered include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Shortly after the invention of the first two-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans by James Fujimoto and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1991, ophthalmologists recognized the extraordinary potential for OCT to facilitate quantitative assessment of the neuroretina. OCT rapidly became a commonplace tool in ophthalmologic practice to identify both inflammatory and degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve and retina. The utility of OCT to detect and quantify sequelae of optic neuropathies, including glaucoma and those associated with primary neurological diseases , was soon brought to the forefront. Rapid advances in the technology have followed and have included faster ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      In patients with multiple sclerosis, thinner peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layers (pRNFL) and retinal ganglion cell layers in eyes without previous optic neuritis, as measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT), have been associated with global brain atrophy and disability. Although most of the data so far have been obtained in cross-sectional studies, the idea to use OCT parameters as surrogate markers of neuroaxonal degeneration and multiple sclerosis disability has been put forth by Elena Martinez-Lapiscina and colleagues 1 in The Lancet Neurology .

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    20. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Background Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of disability worsening in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis who had at least one eye without optic neuritis available. Methods In this multicentre, cohort study, we collected data about patients (age ≥16 years old) with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from centres in Spain, Italy, France, Germany ...

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    21. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

      Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

      Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

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    22. Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      A big challenge during neurosurgeries is to distinguish between healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, but currently a suitable non-invasive real time imaging modality is not available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a potential technique for such a modality. OCT has a penetration depth of 1-2 mm and a resolution of 1-15 μm which is sufficient to illustrate structural differences between healthy tissue and brain tumor. Therefore, we investigated gray and white matter of healthy central nervous system and meningioma samples with a Spectral Domain OCT System (Thorlabs Callisto). Additional OCT images were generated after paraffin embedding and after the samples ...

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    23. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance

      Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance

      Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light–tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical ...

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    1-24 of 452 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
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