1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 440 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
    1. Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently become a vital tool for clinicians and researchers in ophthalmology and, increasingly, in neurology. Optical coherence tomography is quickly and easily performed, well-tolerated by patients, and allows high-resolution viewing of unmyelinated axons and other retinal structures in vivo. These factors have led OCT to find favor as a method of quantifying neuroaxonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS), and the increasing acceptance of the anterior visual pathway as a model to investigate MS in humans. In this short review, the authors discuss OCT findings in MS research, and the relationships of these structural findings ...

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    2. Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression

      Duration of the depressive episode is correlated with ganglion cell inner plexifrom layer and nasal retinal fiber layer thicknesses: Optical coherence tomography findings in major depression

      • OCT has been used in various neurodegenerative diseases to visualize the process of neurodegeneration. • We assessed 58 patients with major depression and 57 healthy controls in terms of optical coherence tomography. • Depressed patients were not diferent from the healthy controls with regard to OCT parameters. • Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and nasal retinal fiber layer were correlated with the duration of the latest depressive episode.

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Optic Atrophy After Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in a Patient with Optic Atrophy After Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

      A 75-year-old female noticed a lower visual field (VF) defect in the right eye. A diagnosis of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was made. The lower VF defect in the right eye did not change after onset. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiograms on the disc and the macula showed decreased retinal perfusion in the upper retina of the right eye. Retinal nerve fibre layer loss and ganglion cell complex loss in the upper retina were also seen in the right eye. OCT angiography could non-invasively detect the decrease of the retinal perfusion due to NAION.

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    4. Optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with type 1 sialidosis

      Optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with type 1 sialidosis

      Type 1 sialidosis is a metabolic storage disorder characterised by the accumulation of sialylated oligosaccharides. The condition is also known as macular cherry-red spot and myoclonus syndrome due to the characteristic macular appearance in affected individuals. This case outlines the presentation of a patient with type 1 sialidosis, including ophthalmological assessment with retinal photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT scans showed thickening of the perimacular and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, thought to be due to the abnormal accumulation of metabolic products. The cherry-red spot appearance is due to the normal appearing macula being seen in contrast ...

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    5. OCT in Central Nervous System Disease: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      OCT in Central Nervous System Disease: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      This book reviews recent important advances in the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in order to analyze neurodegeneration within the retina through the quantification of axonal loss. Detailed information is provided on the role of OCT as a promising tool for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. The disorders considered include multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Disease (Textbook)

      Shortly after the invention of the first two-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans by James Fujimoto and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1991, ophthalmologists recognized the extraordinary potential for OCT to facilitate quantitative assessment of the neuroretina. OCT rapidly became a commonplace tool in ophthalmologic practice to identify both inflammatory and degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve and retina. The utility of OCT to detect and quantify sequelae of optic neuropathies, including glaucoma and those associated with primary neurological diseases , was soon brought to the forefront. Rapid advances in the technology have followed and have included faster ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis

      In patients with multiple sclerosis, thinner peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layers (pRNFL) and retinal ganglion cell layers in eyes without previous optic neuritis, as measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT), have been associated with global brain atrophy and disability. Although most of the data so far have been obtained in cross-sectional studies, the idea to use OCT parameters as surrogate markers of neuroaxonal degeneration and multiple sclerosis disability has been put forth by Elena Martinez-Lapiscina and colleagues 1 in The Lancet Neurology .

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    8. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study

      Background Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of disability worsening in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis who had at least one eye without optic neuritis available. Methods In this multicentre, cohort study, we collected data about patients (age ≥16 years old) with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from centres in Spain, Italy, France, Germany ...

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    9. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

      Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

      Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

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    10. Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

      A big challenge during neurosurgeries is to distinguish between healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, but currently a suitable non-invasive real time imaging modality is not available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a potential technique for such a modality. OCT has a penetration depth of 1-2 mm and a resolution of 1-15 μm which is sufficient to illustrate structural differences between healthy tissue and brain tumor. Therefore, we investigated gray and white matter of healthy central nervous system and meningioma samples with a Spectral Domain OCT System (Thorlabs Callisto). Additional OCT images were generated after paraffin embedding and after the samples ...

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    11. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance

      Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance

      Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light–tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical ...

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    12. Optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head detects acute changes in intracranial pressure

      Optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head detects acute changes in intracranial pressure

      We aimed to determine if there are measurable objective changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) immediately after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in a prospective case-series of five patients undergoing a clinically indicated lumbar puncture (LP) for diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) was used to acquire images in the lateral decubitus position. Optic disc cube and high-definition line raster scans centered on the ONH were obtained immediately before and after draining CSF, while the patient maintained the lateral decubitus position. Measured parameters included retinal nerve fiber layer ...

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    13. A Case Series of Dural Venous Sinus Stenting in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Association of Outcomes with Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Case Series of Dural Venous Sinus Stenting in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Association of Outcomes with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose/Aim : Pseudotumor cerebri, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is characterized by increased intracranial pressure of unknown etiology. A subset of patients has shown benefit from endovascular dural venous sinus stenting (DVSS). We sought to identify a population of IIH patients who underwent DVSS to assess outcomes. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study was performed to identify IIH patients with dural sinus stenosis treated with DVSS. Outcome measures included dural sinus pressure gradients, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using optical coherence tomography, and improvement in symptoms. Results : Seventeen patients underwent DVSS. Average pre- and post-intervention pressure gradients were 23 ...

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    14. Ophthalmological assessment of OCT and electrophysiological changes in migraine patients

      Ophthalmological assessment of OCT and electrophysiological changes in migraine patients

      Background: A cross-sectional study to investigate the morphological and functional changes of the visual pathway, taking place in patients with migraine. Methods: Fifteen patients (14 female, 1 male) diagnosed with migraine with aura (MA group) and 23 patients (21 female, 2 male) diagnosed with migraine without aura (MO group) were compared to 20 healthy volunteers (18 Female, 2 male). All the participants underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan, electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) recording. Results: Assessing ERG recordings, no significant differences in mean N1-P1 amplitudes were measured among the groups. The mean VEP N80-P100 amplitudes ...

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    15. Review of optical coherence tomography based angiography in neuroscience

      Review of optical coherence tomography based angiography in neuroscience

      The brain is a complex ecosystem, consisting of multiple layers and tissue compartments. To facilitate the understanding of its function and its response to neurological insults, a fast in vivo imaging tool with a micron-level resolution, which can provide a field of view at a few millimeters, is desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution ( ∼ 10    μ m ∼10  μm ) and without a need for contrast agents. Recent development of OCT-based angiography has started to shed some new light on cerebral hemodynamics in neuroscience. We give an overview of the recent ...

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    16. Macular Ganglion Cell Layer and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness in Patients with Unilateral Posterior Cerebral Artery Ischaemic Lesion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Macular Ganglion Cell Layer and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness in Patients with Unilateral Posterior Cerebral Artery Ischaemic Lesion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      The purpose of this study is to evaluate the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with unilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ischaemic lesions using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A prospective, case-control study of patients with unilateral PCA lesion was conducted in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Macular and peripapillary SD-OCT scans were performed in both eyes of each patient. Twelve patients with PCA lesions (stroke group) and 12 healthy normal controls were included in this study. Peripapillary RNFL comparison between both eyes of the same subject in ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Detection of Remote Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography for the Detection of Remote Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosis

      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence of remote optic neuritis is often used to support a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide qualitative and quantitative data on the retina, where the effects of optic neuritis can be seen. Our aim was to determine whether there is a quantitative difference in retinal structures in eyes with optic neuritis compared with those without, and which measures were best able to discriminate eyes with a history of optic neuritis from nonoptic neuritis eyes in MS patients. METHODS We performed a prospective cohort study of 30 MS-optic neuritis patients, 22 MS-nonoptic ...

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      Mentions: Peter K. Kaiser
    18. Photodynamic therapy in VEGF inhibition non-responders—pharmacogenetic study in age-related macular degeneration assessed with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Photodynamic therapy in VEGF inhibition non-responders—pharmacogenetic study in age-related macular degeneration assessed with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Background Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) remains a major challenge in ophthalmology. It is essential to determine which of VEGF inhibition non-responders can benefit from photodynamic therapy (PDT). As AMD is strongly related to gene polymorphisms, genetic factors can modify efficacy of treatment. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) gives exceptional insight into the retina and choroid. SS-OCT usefulness needs to be evaluated in nAMD patients. Methods Prospective 6-month study included consecutive 110 patients (110 eyes) with predominantly classic neovascular AMD treated with photodynamic therapy. Only non-responders to anti-VEGF were included in the study. Greatest linear dimension (GLD) of ...

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    19. Laboratory tests of headache disorders – dawn of a new era?

      Laboratory tests of headache disorders – dawn of a new era?

      Context The classification of headache disorders has improved over the years, but further work is needed to develop and improve headache diagnosis within headache subtypes. The present review is a call for action to implement laboratory tests in the classification and management of primary and some secondary headaches. Background In this narrative review we present and discuss published tests that might be useful in phenotyping and/or diagnosis of long-lasting headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, trigeminal neuralgia and persisting secondary headaches. Aim The palpometer test, quantitative sensory testing, nociceptive blink reflex and autonomic tests may ...

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    20. Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of monocular visual loss related to retinal ischemia

      Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of monocular visual loss related to retinal ischemia

      We report four patients with monocular visual loss for whom optical coherence tomography (OCT) was helpful in distinguishing the sequelae of retinal artery occlusion from those of primary optic neuropathy. Determinations of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as well as macular retinal layer thicknesses and architecture were used. The major findings in our patients show that changes in the inner retinal layers (including ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer) with disruption of normal macular architecture supports a diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion. Our results support the use of OCT imaging for patients with monocular visual loss of ...

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      Mentions: Laura J. Balcer
    21. Neurodegeneration in ocular and central nervous systems: optical coherence tomography study in normal-tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

      Neurodegeneration in ocular and central nervous systems: optical coherence tomography study in normal-tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

      Background/aim: To evaluate, in vivo, the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and those with Alzheimer disease (AD) in comparison with healthy subjects. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 18 patients with NTG, 20 with AD, and 20 control subjects. An ophthalmologic examination and OCT scans of both eyes were performed in all patients. Results: There was a significant reduction in peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular GCC thickness and a significant increase in the global loss volume (GLV) rate in both the ...

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    22. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $424,849 for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall objective of this study is to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based high- resolution mouse embryonic brain imaging and analysis approach, and to use this method in correlation with molecular analysis to understand the interplay between ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) effects on embryonic brain development. Maternal exposures to ...

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    1-24 of 440 1 2 3 4 ... 17 18 19 »
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