1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 470 1 2 3 4 ... 18 19 20 »
    1. Imaging Spinal Structures With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging Spinal Structures With Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

      Impact Statement: We investigate polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to obtain both intensity and polarization contrast images of in vivo and ex vivo spinal structures like subcutaneous fat, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum, dura, and spinal cord in a piglet model. The PS-OCT can provide enhanced contrast characteristic structures compared to the intensity OCT; therefore it has the potential for guidance in spine interventional procedures. Abstract: We investigate polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to obtain both intensity and polarization contrast images of in vivo and ex vivo spinal structures like subcutaneous fat, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum, dura ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Predicting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Progression (Video)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Predicting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Progression (Video)

      Retinal thickness is a significant independent predictor of worsening disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and should be incorporated into clinical trials and treatment decisions, according to a large longitudinal cohort study presented at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is used to measure retinal thickness, can help clinicians predict multiple sclerosis (MS) progression two to five years later, according to an international longitudinal cohort study presented at the 2016 AAN Annual Meeting and published in Lancet Neurology. Overall, the researchers found that thinning in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber of patients with either ...

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    3. Avoiding Clinical Misinterpretation and Artifacts of Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Optic Nerve, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer

      Avoiding Clinical Misinterpretation and Artifacts of Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of the Optic Nerve, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an important tool for diagnosing optic nerve disease. The structural details and reproducibility of OCT continues to improve with further advances in technology. However, artifacts and misinterpretation of OCT can lead to clinical misdiagnosis of diseases if they go unrecognized. Evidence Acquisition: A literature review using PubMed combined with clinical and research experience. Results: We describe the most common artifacts and errors in interpretation seen on OCT in both optic nerve and ganglion cell analyses. We provide examples of the artifacts, discuss the causes, and provide methods of detecting them. In addition, we ...

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    4. The association between retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and N-acetyl aspartate levels in multiple sclerosis brain normal-appearing white matter: a longitudinal study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

      The association between retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and N-acetyl aspartate levels in multiple sclerosis brain normal-appearing white matter: a longitudinal study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

      Background and purpose N -acetyl aspartate (NAA) assessed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) has a high pathological specificity for axonal density. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by using optical coherence tomography is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to investigate the relation between RNFLT and NAA/creatine in brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), their dynamics over time and the association with clinical outcome measures in relapsing MS. T2 WM lesions served as control tissue. Methods Forty-three MS patients underwent standardized neurological examination including the Expanded Disability ...

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    5. Tail artifact removal in OCT angiography images of rodent cortex

      Tail artifact removal in OCT angiography images of rodent cortex

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a surging non-invasive, label-free, in vivo volumetric imaging method, currently being translated to clinical ophthalmology and becoming popular in neuroscience. Despite its attractiveness, there is an inherent issue of using OCT angiograms for quantitative cerebrovascular studies: The dynamic scattering of moving erythrocytes within pial vasculature creates tail-like artifacts that shadow the capillary vessels in the deeper layers of cortex. This false flow effect is relatively benign for qualitative visualization purposes, but it might have a significant impact on quantitative interpretation of angiographic results. In this work, we propose a simple image processing method to ...

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    6. Evaluation of Retinal Vessel Morphology in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Using Optical ...

      Evaluation of Retinal Vessel Morphology in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Using Optical ...

      Purpose The retina has been found affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is unclear if this is due to neurodegeneration of local dopamine-dependent retinal cells, a result of central nervous degeneration including the optic nerve or retinal small vessel disease. This study aimed to detect changes of the retinal vasculature in PD patients compared to controls. Methods We examined 49 PD patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with a circular scan centred at the optic disc. Vessels within the retinal nerve fibre layer were identified by an automated algorithm and ...

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    7. News from the Alzheimer's Association International Conference: A View from the Retina May Help in Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease

      News from the Alzheimer's Association International Conference: A View from the Retina May Help in Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease

      People with the thinnest retinas scored poorly on a series of tests — memory, pair matching, numeric and verbal reasoning, and reaction time, according to a large study on retinal thinning and cognitive functioning. The team of scientists from the University College London Institute of Ophthalmology assessed the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in 33,068 people — and conducted a series of cognitive tests, making it one of the largest studies of its type to date. The findings from the study were presented here in July in a session on biomarkers at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference ...

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    8. Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

      Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

      A blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the cortical branch will seriously affect the blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Real-time monitoring of MCA hemodynamic parameters is critical for therapy and rehabilitation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality that can produce not only structural images but also functional information on the tissue. We use OCT to detect hemodynamic changes after MCA branch occlusion. We injected a selected dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a depth of 1 mm near the MCA and let the blood vessels follow a process first of occlusion and then of slow ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography imaging of optic disc cavernous haemangioma

      Optical coherence tomography imaging of optic disc cavernous haemangioma

      Optic disc cavernous haemangiomas are either found incidentally or after presentation with vitreous haemorrhage. They are characterised by a cluster of grapes appearance to the multiple vascular saccules that make up the tumour. They are more often found in the retinal periphery but rarely occur at the optic disc. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging may be a useful non-invasive imaging modality to follow-up these lesions. We present the case of an asymptomatic 60-year-old lady referred from her optometrist with a lesion overlying the optic disc and the ensuing diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma using fundus fluorescein angiography and OCT.

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    10. Optical coherence tomography impacts the evaluation of visual pathway tumors

      Optical coherence tomography impacts the evaluation of visual pathway tumors

      The objective of this systematic literature review is to assess the role of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the evaluation of patients with tumors of the visual pathway. We performed a PubMed database search according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The search was restricted to articles published in English between 2000 and 2016, with at least 10 human adult participants enrolled. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. All studies investigated tumors of the anterior visual pathway. Both time-domain and spectral-domain OCT technologies were used and the role of OCT as diagnostic ...

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    11. Nonglaucomatous Cupping: Fundus Photography and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Features

      Nonglaucomatous Cupping: Fundus Photography and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Features

      Nonglaucomatous cupping is commonly encountered in neuro-ophthalmic practice. However, the progression of clinical and imaging findings over time has not been well described. We present serial fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography from a pediatric patient with neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder, which demonstrated progression of both cupping and optic atrophy in the setting of normal intraocular pressure.

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      Mentions: Duke University
    12. YOUR eyes and ears could help diagnose early signs of dementia and THIS is how

      YOUR eyes and ears could help diagnose early signs of dementia and THIS is how

      Scientists have also found an impaired sense of smell may predict dementia and could be an early indicator of the disease. A new study has found the thinning of the retinal nerve at the back of the eye can flag up impending neuro-degeneration. It was linked with poorer performance on cognitive tests including memory, numeric and verbal reasoning and reaction times. A protein called beta-amyloid builds up in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease - forming into clumps and causing memory loss and confusion...The researchers carried out a type of eye scan called spectral domain optical coherence tomography ...

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    13. Johns Hopkins University Receives a NIH Grant for OCT to Distinguish BT Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a NIH Grant for OCT to Distinguish BT Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer

      Johns Hopkins University Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $48,576 for OCT to Distinguish BT Tumor & Non-Tumor Tissue in Infiltrating Brain Cancer. The principal investigator is Carmen Kut. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. In brain cancers such as gliomas, aggressive removal of the solid tumor through surgery is associated with improved overall survival. In fact, i has been shown that at least 78% of the tumor has to be removed to make a meaningful difference in the patient's survival. Current techniques for tumor removal are limited ...

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    14. Advanced OCT and Adaptive Optics Imaging in Retinal Disease (The ACAD Study)

      Advanced OCT and Adaptive Optics Imaging in Retinal Disease (The ACAD Study)

      The objectives of this study include using the new technology of SS-OCT (swept source optical coherence tomography ) to evaluate morphological abnormalities of the vitreous, retina and choroid and to assess the repeatability of retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in retinal disease using SS-OCT. A secondary objective is to use the new imaging modality of adaptive optics to directly visualize photoreceptor mosaics and microvasculature in eyes with retinal and choroidal disease.

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    15. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $590,459 for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation. The principal investigator is Bruce Fischl. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The human brain is made up of an array of functionally and structurally defined regions. Localizing these regions is critical for early diagnosis of an array of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as for neuroscientific research aimed at understanding the brain's functional and structural properties and clinical intervention in drug-resistant depression ...

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    16. Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Primary Craniopharyngioma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      BACKGROUND : The aim of this study was to compare the differences in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) in child and adult patients with primary craniopharyngioma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and to evaluate their significance in the diagnosis of primary craniopharyngioma. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Ninety-six participants were divided into 3 groups: 32 in the child craniopharyngioma group (CCG) and 32 in the adult craniopharyngioma group (ACG) who were treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between November 2013 and October 2014, and 32 in the normal group (NG). All subjects were scanned by FD-OCT ...

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    17. Longitudinal time‑domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ‑treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients

      Longitudinal time‑domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ‑treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients

      Quantification of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to provide an indirect measure for retinal axonal loss. The aim of the present study was to determine whether interferon beta (IFNβ) treatment impedes retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 48 patients with MS (24 IFNβ‑1b‑treated and 24 untreated subjects) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal OCT study. OCT measurements were performed for both eyes of each subject at baseline, and at 3‑, 6‑, and 12‑month follow‑up examinations using a time ...

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    18. OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      OPTIC COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SHOWS INFLAMMATION AND DEGENERATION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER PATIENTS CORRELATED WITH DISEASE SEVERITY

      Background Previous research has consistently detected inflammation in the etiology of depression and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated grey matter abnormalities implying a neurodegenerative process in depression. The aim of this study was to compare ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volumes and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between first episode and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and controls using optic coherence tomography (OCT) in order to detect findings supporting a degenerative process. Also choroid thicknesses of the same groups were compared to examine effects of inflammation on MDD. Methods This study included 50 recurrent MDD ...

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    19. Automated segmentation and enhancement of optical coherence tomography-acquired images of rodent brain

      Automated segmentation and enhancement of optical coherence tomography-acquired images of rodent brain

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging method that has proven useful in various fields such as ophthalmology, dermatology and neuroscience. In ophthalmology, significant progress has been made in retinal layer segmentation and enhancement of OCT images. There are also segmentation algorithms to separate epidermal and dermal layers in OCT-acquired images of human skin. New Method We describe simple image processing methods that allow automatic segmentation and enhancement of OCT images of rodent brain. Results We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods for OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) and tissue injury mapping (TIM) of mouse cerebral cortex. The ...

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    20. Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis

      Findings of Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Two Common Types of Multiple Sclerosis

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disease caused by the inflammatory demyelinating process that causes progressive nervous system degeneration over the time. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology, which can measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as well as the diameter of the macula. The purpose of the study is evaluation OCT findings in two common types of multiple sclerosis. For doing the cross-sectional study, 63 patients with two prevalent types of multiple sclerosis (35 patients with Relapse Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and 28 patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS) were evaluated ...

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    21. Effectiveness of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomograph to Evaluate Eyes with And Without Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosi Patients

      Effectiveness of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomograph to Evaluate Eyes with And Without Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosi Patients

      bstract Purpose: To compare the macular assessment and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by using two different optical coherence tomographies (OCTs): a time domain (TD) and a spectral domain (SD) OCT, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without unilateral optic neuritis (ON). Methods: We enrolled 34 patients (13 males and 21 females): 18 without previous episodes of ON and16 with a previous monolateral episode of ON occurred at least 3 months prior to examination. Patients underwent ophthalmological examination, TD OCT and SD OCT scans. We compared the outcomes of eyes with and without ON by using Student’s ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography of the Optic Disc and the Macula in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced in the beginning of the 1990s as a new imaging tool that enables the high-resolution in vivo examination of biological tissues. It was first used in ophthalmology where the OCT technology revolutionized the diagnostics of the conditions of the macula and the vitreo-retinal interface. Today, there is intensive research on the possible applications of OCT in other specialties, e.g., angiology, oncology, gastroenterology, dermatology, and dentistry. In the future, OCT may play an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases, owing to the fact that the retina is such a unique ...

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