1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 570 1 2 3 4 ... 22 23 24 »
    1. Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography

      Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography

      Quantification of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be useful in evaluating structural characteristics and pathological changes. Previous studies primarily used an exponential model to analyze low numerical aperture (NA) OCT measurements and obtain the total attenuation coefficient for biological tissue. In this study, we develop a systematic method that includes the confocal parameter for modeling the depth profiles of high NA OCT, when the confocal parameter cannot be ignored. This approach enables us to quantify tissue optical properties with higher lateral resolution. The model parameter predictions for the scattering coefficients were tested with calibrated ...

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    2. The Optic Disc Drusen Studies Consortium Recommendations for Diagnosis of Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Optic Disc Drusen Studies Consortium Recommendations for Diagnosis of Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background: Making an accurate diagnosis of optic disc drusen (ODD) is important as part of the work-up for possible life-threatening optic disc edema. It also is important to follow the slowly progressive visual field defects many patients with ODD experience. The introduction of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) has improved the visualization of more deeply buried ODD. There is, however, no consensus regarding the diagnosis of ODD using OCT. The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus recommendation for diagnosing ODD using OCT. Methods: The members of the Optic Disc Drusen Studies (ODDS) Consortium are either ...

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    3. Longitudinal optical coherence tomography study of optic atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: Results from a clinical trial cohort

      Longitudinal optical coherence tomography study of optic atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: Results from a clinical trial cohort

      Background: Limited prospective information exists regarding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Objective: Document cross-sectional and longitudinal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) features of an SPMS clinical trial cohort. Methods: Prospective, observational study using a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled SPMS trial cohort with yearly SD-OCT testing. Post hoc analysis determined influences of optic neuritis (ON), disease duration, and baseline SD-OCT on annualized atrophy rates and on correlations between OCT and brain atrophy. Results: Mean RNFL and GCIPL values of patients ( n = 47, mean age = 59 years, mean ...

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    4. Communicating malapposition of flow diverters assessed with optical coherence tomography correlates with delayed aneurysm occlusion

      Communicating malapposition of flow diverters assessed with optical coherence tomography correlates with delayed aneurysm occlusion

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution intravascular imaging method that allows visualization of flow diverter struts and the vessel wall. In this study, malapposition of the flow diverter that continues into the neck of the aneurysm, named communicating malapposition (CM), was investigated as a potential factor for delayed aneurysm healing. Methods 40 New Zealand White rabbits underwent elastase induced aneurysm creation, and were subsequently assigned to one of four treatment groups based on flow diverter type and administration of antiplatelet therapy. All animals underwent post device deployment balloon angioplasty and subsequent OCT to assess device/vessel apposition ...

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    5. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer as measured by optical coherence tomography is a prognostic biomarker not only for physical but also for cognitive disability progression in multiple sclerosis

      Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer as measured by optical coherence tomography is a prognostic biomarker not only for physical but also for cognitive disability progression in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness is emerging as a marker of axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: We aimed to prospectively assess the predictive value of pRNFL for progression of physical and cognitive disability in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Methods: In this 3-year longitudinal study on 151 RRMS patients, pRNFL was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). We used proportional hazard models, correcting for age, sex, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) at baseline, to test a pRNFL thickness ≤88 µm at baseline for prediction of EDSS progression and ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neuro-Ophthalmology

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Neuro-Ophthalmology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become the most commonly performed imaging procedure in ophthalmology (1,2). Conventional OCT provides high-resolution structural information of the retina and optic nerve. More recent functional extensions such as Doppler OCT (3) and OCT angiography (OCTA) (4) have emerged as useful tools for vascular evaluation of eye diseases, including optic neuropathies. This issue of the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology has 2 articles (5,6) demonstrating the utilization of OCTA in the evaluation of 2 different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we put these reports in the context of overall applications of OCT and OCTA in neuro-ophthalmology ...

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    7. Apparatus to detect amyloid in a patient user's retina in a diagnosis, advancement and prognosis of alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, macular degeneration and a plurality of neurodegenerative disorders and ocular diseases

      Apparatus to detect amyloid in a patient user's retina in a diagnosis, advancement and prognosis of alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, macular degeneration and a plurality of neurodegenerative disorders and ocular diseases

      An eye imaging apparatus to produce an image of an eye of a patient user is disclosed. The eye imaging apparatus may include a video camera, a slit lamp chinrest, a camera housing, a plurality of illumination source optics and a processing system. The eye imaging apparatus may also include a video camera, a plurality of video camera optics, a camera housing, a microscope assembly, a plurality of illumination source optics and a floor base. The eye imaging apparatus may be utilized in combination with one or more contrasting agents. The eye imaging apparatus may detect amyloid-beta plaque, amyloid or ...

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    8. Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Purpose: To investigate radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Eleven patients (22 eyes) with previous diagnosis of RP and 16 age-matched healthy subjects (16 eyes) were enrolled. The diagnosis of RP was made based on both clinical features and electrophysiological examination. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and visual field (VF). The primary outcomes were the RPC vessel density in the peripapillary and disc areas; the secondary outcomes were the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and the mean defect (MD) at VF. Results: A ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Correlations With VEP in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Correlations With VEP in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

      Results and conclusion: The performed ОСТ examinations demonstrated substantial thinning of RNFL (83.38 μm) and GCC (79.18 μm) in the eyes with ON in the past. The changes found in this group are more severe in comparison to the findings in patients with acute ON (mean thickness of 87.16 μm for RNFL and 86.08 μm for GCC). Most probably the reason for this fact is the time needed for the development of the reported atrophic changes.

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      Mentions: Optovue
    10. Optical coherence tomography and subclinical optical neuritis in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

      Optical coherence tomography and subclinical optical neuritis in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

      Objective: The aim is to compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) eyes without previous optic neuritis with that of healthy control subjects. Methods: Over 20 LETM eyes and 20 normal control eyes were included in the study and subjected to optical coherence tomography to evaluate and compare the RNFL thickness. Result : Significant RNFL thinning was observed at 8 o'clock position in LETM eyes as compared to the control eyes ( P = 0.038). No significant differences were seen in other RNFL measurements. Conclusion : Even in the absence of previous optic neuritis LETM ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique routinely used in ophthalmology to visualize and quantify the layers of the retina. It also provides information on optic nerve head topography, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and macular volume, which correlate with axonal loss. These measurements are of particular interest in optic neuropathies and in multiple sclerosis, and OCT parameters are now used as endpoints in neurologic clinical trials.

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      Mentions: Emory University
    12. Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells In Vivo

      Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells In Vivo

      Structural changes in the retina are common manifestations of ophthalmic diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables their identification in vivo —rapidly, repetitively, and at a high resolution. This protocol describes OCT imaging in the mouse retina as a powerful tool to study optic neuropathies (OPN). The OCT system is an interferometry-based, non-invasive alternative to common post mortem histological assays. It provides a fast and accurate assessment of retinal thickness, allowing the possibility to track changes, such as retinal thinning or thickening. We present the imaging process and analysis with the example of the Opa1 delTTAG mouse line. Three types of ...

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    13. Optical coherence tomography angiography retinal vascular network assessment in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography retinal vascular network assessment in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a new method to assess the density of the vascular networks. Vascular abnormalities are considered involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Objective: To assess the presence of vascular abnormalities in MS and to evaluate their correlation to disease features. Methods: A total of 50 MS patients with and without history of optic neuritis (ON) and 46 healthy subjects were included. All underwent spectral domain (SD)-OCT and OCT angiography. Clinical history, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) and disease duration were collected. Results: Angio-OCT showed a vessel density reduction ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      A 32-year-old man with a pituitary tumor had bitemporal hemianopia (figure 1). Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) was reduced, which corresponded to visual field defects. OCT angiography showed a dropout of capillaries and correlated well with RNFL loss in the OCT (figure 2). Compressive optic neuropathy may be associated with loss of the retinal ganglion cell layer and impaired peripapillary retinal perfusion. OCT angiography may be helpful to detect various optic neuropathies and in analyzing the vascular status of the optic nerve head and RNFL.1

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    15. The contribution of optical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      The contribution of optical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) comprises a group of central nervous system disorders of inflammatory autoimmune origin that mainly affect the optic nerves and the spinal cord and can cause severe visual and general disability. The clinical signs are similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS), with the result that it is often difficult to differentiate between the two, thus leading to misdiagnosis. As the treatment and prognosis of NMOSD and MS are different, it is important to make an accurate and early diagnosis of NMOSD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that enables a quantitative study of ...

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    16. Optical coherence tomography and T cell gene expression analysis in patients with benign multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography and T cell gene expression analysis in patients with benign multiple sclerosis

      Benign multiple sclerosis is a retrospective diagnosis based primarily on a lack of motor symptom progression. Recent findings that suggest patients with benign multiple sclerosis experience non-motor symptoms highlight the need for a more prospective means to diagnose benign multiple sclerosis early in order to help direct patient care. In this study, we present optical coherence tomography and T cell neurotrophin gene analysis findings in a small number of patients with benign multiple sclerosis. Our results demonstrated that retinal nerve fiber layer was mildly thinned, and T cells had a distinct gene expression profile that included upregulation of interleukin 10 ...

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    17. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) for optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis - Coric - 2017 - European Journal of Neurology - Wiley Online Library

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) for optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis - Coric - 2017 - European Journal of Neurology - Wiley Online Library

      Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) associated optic neuritis (MSON) causes atrophy of the inner retinal layers, which can be quantified by optical coherence tomography (OCT). It has been suggested that the Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) of atrophy may be of diagnostic value in MSON. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study in MS patients and healthy controls (HC). Spectral-domain OCT of both eyes was performed, followed by automated retinal layer segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL). Receiver Operator Characteristics Curves were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Objective: Whereas Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with inner retina thinning visualized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we sought to determine if the retina has a distinguishing biomarker for frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined retinal structure in 38 consecutively enrolled patients with FTD and 44 controls using a standard SD-OCT protocol. Retinal layers were segmented with the Iowa Reference Algorithm. Subgroups of highly predictive molecular pathology (tauopathy, TAR DNA–binding protein 43, unknown) were determined by clinical criteria, genetic markers, and a CSF biomarker (total tau: β-amyloid) to exclude presumed AD. We excluded eyes ...

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    19. Feature Of The Week 09/03/2017: Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      Feature Of The Week 09/03/2017: Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      A visible light spectral domain optical coherence microscopy system was developed. A high axial resolution of 0.88 μm in tissue was achieved using a broad visible light spectrum (425 – 685 nm). Healthy human brain tissue was imaged to quantify the difference between white (WM) and grey matter (GM) in intensity and attenuation. The high axial resolution enables the investigation of amyloid-beta plaques of various sizes in human brain tissue and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). By performing a spectroscopic analysis of the OCM data, differences in the characteristics for WM, GM, and neuritic amyloid-beta plaques were found ...

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    20. OCT based evaluation of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      OCT based evaluation of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Optical coherence tomography is a non-invasive imaging technique routinely used in ophthalmology to visualize and quantify the layers of the retina. It also provides information on optic nerve head topography, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and macular volume which correlate with axonal loss. These measurements are of interest in optic neuropathies and in multiple sclerosis. The OCT parameters are now used as endpoints in neurologic clinical trials. Methods: A prospective study involving 30 patients of multiple sclerosis and equal number of age and sex matched controls were subjected to evaluation of retinal changes (peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer ...

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    21. Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Mark Wolff wanted to know. To him, the thought of suffering through Alzheimer's disease the way his father did—without knowing, and without his family knowing, what he was up against until late in its progression— is worse than learning, even while he's still perfectly healthy, that a possible precursor of the disease has gained a toehold Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-08-alzheimer-early-peeking-eyes.html#jCp

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    22. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $474,273 for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex. The principal investigator is Anastasia Yendiki. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of the proposed research is to map the organization of human white matter (WM) with cutting-edge ex vivo imaging technologies. This work will produce microscopic-level information on several long-range WM projections, as well as a more targeted mapping of circuits that serve the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These circuits are of particular interest in ...

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    23. The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      Purpose of review In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. Recent findings Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss ...

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