1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 807 1 2 3 4 ... 32 33 34 »
    1. Use of optical coherence tomography deemed feasible after first-in-human analysis

      Use of optical coherence tomography deemed feasible after first-in-human analysis

      Results of the first-in-human analysis of acute interactions and healing process after flow diverter implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was presented by Boris Pab ón and Juan Mejia as members of Angioteam, Angiodinamia, Clinica Del Norte, Medellín, Colombia, at the 15 th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (WFITN; 21–24 October 2019, Naples, Italy). Having evaluated three patients at the time of presentation, Pabón said: “The ultimate objective was to evaluate the feasibility and success of OCT technology after deploying dual layer flow diverter stents intracranially and extracranially, and to describe ...

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      Mentions: Gentuity
    2. Vascular changes with optical coherence tomography angiography during aura of migraine: A case report

      Vascular changes with optical coherence tomography angiography during aura of migraine: A case report

      Purpose: To demonstrate macular and optic disk vessel changes by optical coherence tomography angiography during and after a migraine attack with aura Methods: Case report Results: A 34-year-old healthy female patient was evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography imaging during visual aura with phosphenes in the left visual field. Optical coherence tomography angiography imaging showed diffuse narrowing of the retinal vessels, decreased radial peripapillary capillary density, and decreased superficial and deep foveal vessel density in the right eye. These changes improved 3 hours after visual aura. The patient suffered from right eye pain and right-sided headache, which are typical for ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography of the retina in schizophrenia: Inter-device agreement and relations with perceptual function

      Optical coherence tomography of the retina in schizophrenia: Inter-device agreement and relations with perceptual function

      Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies have demonstrated differences between people with schizophrenia and controls. Many questions remain including the agreement between scanners. The current study seeks to determine inter-device agreement of OCT data in schizophrenia compared to controls and to explore the relations between OCT and visual function measures. Methods Participants in this pilot study were 12 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Spectralis and Cirrus OCT machines were used to obtain retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume. Cirrus was used to obtain ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL ...

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      Mentions: Laura J. Balcer
    4. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Total Macular Volume in Multiple Sclerosis Subtypes and Their Relationship with Severity of Disease, a Cross-Sectional Study

      Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Total Macular Volume in Multiple Sclerosis Subtypes and Their Relationship with Severity of Disease, a Cross-Sectional Study

      Background: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory demyelinating lesion in the optic nerve, which is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique for the evaluation of the retinal layers. Our aim was to examine OCT metrics including retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and total macular volume (TMV), in MS subtypes and their relationship with duration, first manifestation, and severity of disease. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with a definite diagnosis of MS underwent complete ophthalmic and neurologic examination. OCT parameters including TMV and RNFLT were compared between MS subtypes ...

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    5. Associations Between Retina and Brain Function

      Associations Between Retina and Brain Function

      Case-control studies and meta-analysis have reported that several fundus features, especially the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, are related to the brain degeneration and cognitive impairment. In our study, we aim to quantitatively assess retina features using OCT and define its associations with brain development and intelligence in children.

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    6. Measurement and visualization of stimulus-evoked tissue dynamics in mouse barrel cortex using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Measurement and visualization of stimulus-evoked tissue dynamics in mouse barrel cortex using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      We describe a method to measure tissue dynamics in mouse barrel cortex during functional activation via phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT). The method measures the phase changes in OCT signals, which are induced by the tissue volume change, upon which to localize the activated tissue region. Phase unwrapping, compensation and normalization are applied to increase the dynamic range of the OCT phase detection. To guide the OCT scanning, intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) system equipped with a green light laser source (532 nm) is integrated with the PhS-OCT system to provide a full field time-lapsed images of the reflectance that ...

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    7. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $311,241 for Artificial Intelligence for Optical Coherence Tomography To Study Effects of Poly-Drug Exposure on Fetal Brain Development. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall objective of this study is to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based high- resolution mouse embryonic brain imaging and analysis approach, and to use this method in correlation with molecular analysis to understand the interplay between ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) effects on embryonic brain development. Maternal exposures to these substances are linked to fetal ...

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    8. OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases: The Eye as a Window to the Brain (Textbook)

      The second edition of OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases offers updated state-of-the-art advances using optical coherence tomography (OCT) regrading neuronal loss within the retina. Detailed information on the OCT imaging and interpretation is provided for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. Covering disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia, readers will given insights into effects on the retina and the and optic nerve. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique ...

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    9. Feasibility evaluation of micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) for rapid brain tumor type and grade discriminations: μOCT images versus pathology

      Feasibility evaluation of micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) for rapid brain tumor type and grade discriminations: μOCT images versus pathology

      Background Precise identification, discrimination and assessment of central nervous system (CNS) tumors is of critical importance to brain neoplasm treatment. Due to the complexity and limited resolutions of the existing diagnostic tools, however, it is difficult to identify the tumors and their boundaries precisely in clinical practice, and thus, the conventional way of brain neoplasm treatment relies mainly on the experiences of neurosurgeons to make resection decisions in the surgery process. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) as an intraoperative diagnostic imaging tool for identifying and discriminating glioma and meningioma with ...

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    10. Reader response: Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis: Are we there yet?

      Reader response: Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis: Are we there yet?

      I read with interest the editorial by Drs. Saidha and Naismith. 1 The corresponding study by Xu et al. 2 that reported the sensitivity of detecting previous optic neuritis (ON) is elegant. However, many questions remain. One of the reasons why neurologists in the United States do not use optical coherence tomography (OCT) routinely is because of the high cost of hardware and the continually changing algorithms that are used to perform retinal segmentation. In addition, why not use pattern shift visual evoked response data that shows delayed P100 latencies in most patients, even with visual recovery in detecting previous ...

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    11. Author response: Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis: Are we there yet?

      Author response: Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing optic neuritis: Are we there yet?

      We thank Dr. Avasarala for his comments on our editorial regarding the corresponding study by Xu et al., 1,2 in which the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures for detecting previous optic neuritis (ON) was examined. Although Naismith et al. reported that OCT was less sensitive than visual evoked potentials (VEP) in detecting previous ON, 3 this study used older third-generation time domain OCT. Undoubtedly, the greatest advance in OCT in the past decade has been the development of fourth-generation spectral domain OCT. Current commercially available spectral domain OCT has extremely high resolution (3–5 μm). Moreover, peripapillary ...

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    12. Retinal Imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease: In Search of the Holy Grail

      Retinal Imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease: In Search of the Holy Grail

      Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60% to 80% of cases worldwide. 1 The pathologic hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of extracellular beta amyloid plaques and intracellular tau filaments, ultimately leading to neuronal death. The current approved treatments slow down the progression of the disease, but do not stop the neurodegeneration caused by it. The past 2 decades have witnessed repeated failures of clinical trials using disease-modifying therapies targeting amyloid. 2 These failures have prompted a major rethinking of the approach, with the general consensus being that potential treatments would work ...

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    13. Intracranial pressure patterns in children with craniosynostosis utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Intracranial pressure patterns in children with craniosynostosis utilizing optical coherence tomography

      Background Better understanding the incidence and patterns of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with craniosynostosis may facilitate more timely intervention to alter neurocognitive outcomes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina can non-invasively diagnose elevated ICP, and has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity among patients with craniosynostosis. This study sought to characterize patterns of elevated ICP among patients with craniosynostosis. Methods Quantitative retinal parameters were prospectively assessed in both eyes of patients with craniosynostosis using spectral-domain OCT. Based on retinal OCT thresholds associated with elevated ICP (> 15 mmHg), subjects were assigned an OCT diagnosis of elevated or non-elevated ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) grew out of a convergence of rapid advancements in femtoseconds optics research and fiber optic commercial technology. The basic concept of OCT is to “see” into tissues using light echoes, analogous to the sound echoes of ultrasonography. Multiple A-scans are assembled into a B-scan two-dimensional image of the tissue of interest. Retina is an ideal tissue for evaluation by OCT, since the eye is designed to minimize light scattering through the anterior chamber and vitreous. OCT has had a significant impact on the field of multiple sclerosis, where it has allowed direct imaging of the myelin-free ...

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    15. Assessments of vessel density and foveal avascular zone metrics in multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Assessments of vessel density and foveal avascular zone metrics in multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Background/Objectives To investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics and macular & peripapillary vessel densities (VD) in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The study design was prospective and cross-sectional. FAZ metrics and VDs of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), retinal peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP) along with the structural OCT measurements were scanned by using the Nidek’s RS-3000 Advance in MS patients and healthy controls. All subject also underwent an assessment of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The relationships between the OCT-A parameters with other clinical findings were analysed. Results ...

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    16. Reflections on the Utility of the Retina as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review

      Reflections on the Utility of the Retina as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review

      As a part of the central nervous system, the retina may reflect both physiologic processes and abnormalities related to diseases of the brain. Indeed, a concerted effort has been put forth to understand how Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology may manifest in the retina as a means to assess the state of the AD brain. The development and refinement of ophthalmologic techniques for studying the retina in vivo have produced evidence of retinal degeneration in AD diagnosed patients. In this review, we will discuss retinal imaging techniques implemented to study the changes in AD retina as well as highlight the ...

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      Mentions: UCSD UCSF
    17. KU Leuven leads €6 million research project on heart disease and dementia

      KU Leuven leads €6 million research project on heart disease and dementia

      The starting point is an observation that people with conditions such as high blood pressure and obesity, or who are simply getting old, have a higher risk of certain kinds of dementia and heart disease. In particular, they seem to have a greater chance of developing vascular dementia, which is associated with reduced blood flow to the brain, and diastolic heart failure, which happens when the heart muscle cannot relax properly.

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      Mentions: K. U. Leuven
    18. Optical coherence tomography of patients with Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy

      Optical coherence tomography of patients with Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy

      Objectives To determine if Parkinson’s disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) differed on retinal measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and methods In a prospective, controlled, cross-sectional cohort study, we recruited patients with PD or PSP for more than three years, as well as control subjects. We measured peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume using spectral-domain OCT. The association between these OCT measures and the disease characteristics of duration and disability were examined using a linear mixed effect model. Results We analyzed eyes from n = 12 PD patients, n = 11 PSP patients, and ...

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    19. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Myotonic Dystrophy

      Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Myotonic Dystrophy

      The purpose of the study is to evaluate retinal involvement in a cohort of patients affected by Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1). 61 eyes of 31 patients with genetically proven diagnosis of DM1 and 40 eyes of 20 healthy age- and gender- matched subjects were enrolled. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, fundoscopy, fundus autofluorescence, infrared imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with central macular thickness (CMT) measurement. DM1 patients showed statistically significant higher CMT values than controls. In the DM1 group, butterfly (14.8%) and reticular (13.1%) pigment abnormalities were ...

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    20. Computed optical coherence microscopy of mouse brain ex vivo

      Computed optical coherence microscopy of mouse brain ex vivo

      The compromise between lateral resolution and usable imaging depth range is a bottleneck for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Existing solutions for optical coherence microscopy (OCM) suffer from either large data size and long acquisition time or a nonideal point spread function. We present volumetric OCM of mouse brain ex vivo with a large depth coverage by leveraging computational adaptive optics (CAO) to significantly reduce the number of OCM volumes that need to be acquired with a Gaussian beam focused at different depths. We demonstrate volumetric reconstruction of ex-vivo mouse brain with lateral resolution of 2.2  μm, axial resolution of ...

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    21. Macular Ganglion Cell and Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness Is More Strongly Associated With Visual Function in Multiple Sclerosis Than Bruch Membrane Opening–Minimum Rim Width or Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses

      Macular Ganglion Cell and Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness Is More Strongly Associated With Visual Function in Multiple Sclerosis Than Bruch Membrane Opening–Minimum Rim Width or Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thicknesses are associated with visual function (VF) and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the value of measuring Bruch membrane opening–minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) thickness in MS remains unclear. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with MS and 22 healthy controls (HCs) underwent spectral domain OCT, 100%-contrast visual acuity (VA), 2.5%- and 1.25%-contrast letter acuity (LA), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) testing. Mixed-effects linear regression models, accounting for within-subject, intereye correlations, were used to assess relationships. Results ...

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    22. Comparison between optical coherence tomography imaging and histological sections of peripheral nerves

      Comparison between optical coherence tomography imaging and histological sections of peripheral nerves

      OBJECTIVE Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses the light-backscattering properties of different tissue types to generate an image. In an earlier feasibility study the authors showed that it can be applied to visualize human peripheral nerves. As a follow-up, this paper focuses on the interpretation of the images obtained. METHODS Ten different short peripheral nerve specimens were retained following surgery. In a first step they were examined by OCT during, or directly after, surgery. In a second step the nerve specimens were subjected to histological examination. Various steps of image processing were applied to the OCT ...

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    23. Correlation of optical attenuation coefficient estimated using optical coherence tomography with changes in astrocytes and neurons in a chronic photothrombosis stroke model

      Correlation of optical attenuation coefficient estimated using optical coherence tomography with changes in astrocytes and neurons in a chronic photothrombosis stroke model

      The optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) estimated using optical coherence tomography (OAC-OCT) offers a label-free 3D mapping of tissue infarction, but the physiological origin of the OAC contrast remains unclear. For effectively suppressing OAC fluctuations, we propose a hybrid (wavelength/angle) division multiplexing (HDM) method, which improved the OAC contrast by 70.7% in tissue phantoms. To test the feasibility of OAC-based infarction detection, triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was performed on fresh ex vivo brain slices, and the TTC-defined infarction was used as the ground truth. Sharp OAC contrast was observed between the TTC-defined infarction (1.09 mm −1 ) and normal ...

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    24. Full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography and neural tissue classification for deep brain imagingv

      Full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography and neural tissue classification for deep brain imagingv

      Optical coherence tomography can differentiate brain regions with intrinsic contrast and at a micron scale resolution. Such a device can be particularly useful as a realtime neurosurgical guidance tool. We present, to our knowledge, the first full‐field swept‐source optical coherence tomography system operating near a wavelength of 1310 nm. The proof‐of‐concept system was integrated with an endoscopic probe tip, that is compatible with deep brain stimulation keyhole neurosurgery. Neuroimaging experiments were performed on ex vivo brain tissues and in vivo in rat brains. Using classification algorithms involving texture features and optical attenuation, images were successfully classified ...

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    1-24 of 807 1 2 3 4 ... 32 33 34 »
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