1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for Collateral Flow and Stroke Outcome

      Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for Collateral Flow and Stroke Outcome

      Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for Collateral Flow and Stroke Outcome. The principal investigator is Jialing Liu. . Below is a summary of the proposed work. Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome, as well as response to thrombolytic therapies in patients with ischemic stroke. Genetic factors contribute to the extent and development of native collaterals, whereas patients with metabolic syndromes are associated with poor collateral status during acute ischemic stroke. Diabetes increases the risk of stroke and exacerbates ischemic brain damage, although the impact of diabetes on collateral dynamics remains to ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography angiography in preclinical neuroimaging

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in preclinical neuroimaging

      Preclinical neuroimaging allows for the assessment of brain anatomy, connectivity, and function in laboratory animals, such as mice and this imaging field has been a rapidly growing aimed at bridging the translation gap between animal and human research. The progress in the animal research could be accelerated by high-resolution in vivo optical imaging technologies. Optical coherence tomography-based angiography (OCTA) estimates the scattering from moving red blood cells, providing the visualization of functional micro-vessel networks within tissue beds in vivo without a need for exogenous contrast agents. Recent advancement of OCTA methods have expanded its application to neuroimaging of small animal ...

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      Mentions: Woo June Choi
    3. No alteration of optical coherence tomography and multifocal visual evoked potentials in eyes with symptomatic carotid artery disease

      No alteration of optical coherence tomography and multifocal visual evoked potentials in eyes with symptomatic carotid artery disease

      Background Symptomatic carotid artery disease (CAD) may cause modified blood supply to the retina possibly leading to retinal structure changes. Results of previous studies in asymptomatic CAD were heterogeneous in retinal layer changes measured by OCT. The objectives of this prospective, non-interventional study were to investigate if structural retinal changes occur in symptomatic CAD patients with macroangiopathic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods We used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to cross-sectionally and longitudinally analyze the retinal morphology of CAD patients with macroangiopathic ischemic stroke or TIA not permanently affecting the visual pathway. We employed semi-automated segmentation of ...

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    4. Spatiotemporal Tracking of Brain-Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells in Vivo through Optical Coherence Tomography with Plasmonic Labeling and Speckle Modulation

      Spatiotemporal Tracking of Brain-Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells in Vivo through Optical Coherence Tomography with Plasmonic Labeling and Speckle Modulation

      By their nature, tumors pose a set of profound challenges to the immune system with respect to cellular recognition and response coordination. Recent research indicates that leukocyte subpopulations, especially tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), can exert substantial influence on the efficacy of various cancer immunotherapy treatment strategies. To better study and understand the roles of TAMs in determining immunotherapeutic outcomes, significant technical challenges associated with dynamically monitoring single cells of interest in relevant live animal models of solid tumors must be overcome. However, imaging techniques with the requisite combination of spatiotemporal resolution, cell-specific contrast, and sufficient signal-to-noise at increasing depths in tissue ...

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    5. Suitability of intravascular imaging for assessment of cerebrovascular diseases

      Suitability of intravascular imaging for assessment of cerebrovascular diseases

      Purpose Arteriosclerosis of the vascular system is associated with many accompanying diseases. Especially cerebral arteriosclerosis is a main risk factor for ischemic strokes. We want to verify the practicability of intravascular imaging like intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography for the assessment of cerebral vessel walls and plaques. Methods We examined 18 Circuli arteriosi willisii postmortem. The data contained 48 plaques from 48 different vessel parts. The samples underwent intravascular and histological imaging to conduct a quantitative assessment of vessel wall parameters (healthy vessel wall, thinnest vessel wall, plaque thickness and vessel diameter) as well as to qualitatively evaluate the ...

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    6. Could optical coherence tomography add to the history of the pituitary incidentaloma?

      Could optical coherence tomography add to the history of the pituitary incidentaloma?

      Editor, While first described in the medical history as an incidental finding on autopsies or now abandoned diagnostic techniques like roentgenographic cephalometry, the pituitary incidentaloma as a clinical entity unfolded with the introduction of contemporary medical imaging like computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Nanda et al. 1967 ; Parent et al. 1982 ; Molitch & Russell 1990 ). Many pituitary tumours remain small and clinically silent. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of a pituitary incidentaloma necessitates evaluation for endocrine dysfunction or mass effect requiring treatment; the risk of serendipitous findings without any medical benefit to the patient remains an important dilemma of modern ...

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    7. The role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinsonism: A critical review

      The role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinsonism: A critical review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been evaluated as a tool to assess retinal changes in various neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD), is a neurodegenerative disorder wherein dopaminergic deficiency results in some of the symptoms. As retina also has high concentration of dopamine, it would be of interest for both the clinician as well as the basic scientist to know if there is a correlation between the clinical features and the retinal changes. The objective of this review is to critically evaluate the literature and study the utility of OCT as a tool to evaluate retinal changes in PD .

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    8. Retinal texture biomarkers may help to discriminate between Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and healthy controls

      Retinal texture biomarkers may help to discriminate between Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and healthy controls

      A top priority in biomarker development for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the focus on early diagnosis, where the use of the retina is a promising avenue of research. We computed fundus images from optical coherence tomography (OCT) data and analysed the structural arrangement of the retinal tissue using texture metrics. We built clinical class classification models to distinguish between healthy controls (HC), AD, and PD, using machine learning (support vector machines). Median sensitivity is 88.7%, 79.5% and 77.8%, for HC, AD, and PD eyes, respectively. When the same subject has the ...

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    9. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Tool Development for Quantitative Peripheral Nerve Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Tool Development for Quantitative Peripheral Nerve Imaging

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $388,832 for Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Tool Development for Quantitative Peripheral Nerve Imaging. The principal investigator is Benjamin Vakoc. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Peripheral nerves serve as a bidirectional link between the central nervous system (CNS) and its distal targets. The autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is part of the peripheral nervous system, innervates internal organs to modulate their function and transmits sensory information back to the CNS. By selectively stimulating the ANS nerves, neuromodulation of target ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography and Optic Neuritis Not Related to Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Optic Neuritis Not Related to Multiple Sclerosis

      The visual prognosis of optic neuritis not related to multiple sclerosis is unknown, both in terms of functional recovery and evolution. This prospective cohort study aim to assess the ophthalmological evolution of patients presenting an episode of optic neuritis (NO) not related to a multiple sclerosis or to a clinically isolated syndrome.

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    11. A Protocol To Evaluate Retinal Vascular Response Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      A Protocol To Evaluate Retinal Vascular Response Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Introduction: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel diagnostic tool with increasing applications in Ophthalmology clinics that provides non-invasive high-resolution imaging of the retinal microvasculature. Our aim is to report in detail an experimental protocol for analysing both vasodilatory and vasoconstriction retinal vascular responses with the available OCT-A technology. Methods: A commercial OCT-A device was used (AngioVue®, Optovue, CA, USA) and all examinations were performed by an experienced technician using the standard protocol for macular examination. Two standardized tests were applied: i) the hypoxia challenge test (HCT) ii) the handgrip test, in order to induce a vasodilatory and vasoconstriction ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    12. Comparison of Intensity- and Polarization-based Contrast in Amyloid-beta Plaques as Observed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Comparison of Intensity- and Polarization-based Contrast in Amyloid-beta Plaques as Observed by Optical Coherence Tomography

      One key hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta protein in cortical regions of the brain. For a definitive diagnosis of AD, post-mortem histological analysis, including sectioning and staining of different brain regions, is required. Here, we present optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a tissue-preserving imaging modality for the visualization of amyloid-beta plaques and compare their contrast in intensity- and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT. Human brain samples of eleven patients diagnosed with AD were imaged. Three-dimensional PS-OCT datasets were acquired and plaques were manually segmented in 500 intensity and retardation cross-sections per patient using the freely ...

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    13. Analysis of the Variation in Thickness of Per-papillary Retinal Optic Nerve Fibres in Professional Rugby Players

      Analysis of the Variation in Thickness of Per-papillary Retinal Optic Nerve Fibres in Professional Rugby Players

      The main hypothesis is that exposure to repeated shocks is associated with a greater decrease in the thickness of optical nerve fibres. In order to show a association between the occurrence of concussions (in number and severity) and the variation in the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer, all participating rugby players will have an ophthalmologic examination (OCT and (retinophotography) at the beginning and end of the Rugby season.

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    14. Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Optimal intereye difference thresholds by optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: An international study

      Objective To determine the optimal thresholds for intereye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. Methods In this multicenter international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High‐ and low‐contrast acuity were also collected in a subset ...

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    15. Jefferson and Wills Eye Launch World's First Center Focused on Connections Between the Eye and the Brain

      Jefferson and Wills Eye Launch World's First Center Focused on Connections Between the Eye and the Brain

      Poets have called eyes the windows to the soul. Now, Jefferson and Wills Eye researchers will be able to use eyes as windows into debilitating diseases of the brain. Thomas Jefferson University , in partnership with Wills Eye Hospital and thanks to the generosity of several prescient philanthropists, has launched the world's first center focused on the visual signatures of neurological diseases. The William H. Annesley, Jr., MD '48 EyeBrain Center will explore the connections between the retina, optic nerve, and disorders of the brain, potentially revealing novel treatments for confounding diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple ...

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    16. Assessing Retinal Structure in Patients with Parkinson Disease

      Assessing Retinal Structure in Patients with Parkinson Disease

      Objective : The retina is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS), and ocular symptoms can precede manifestations of CNS disorders. Given that several neurodegenerative conditions that affect the brain exhibit ocular symptoms, the retina may be an accessible biomarker to monitor disease progression. Dopamine, the key neurotransmitter related to Parkinson’s disease (PD), is contained in amacrine and interplexiform cells, which reside in specific retinal layers. Understanding how loss of dopaminergic cells affects retinal anatomy could be relevant for monitoring disease progression. Here, our objective is to evaluate retinal structure (foveal pit morphology and thickness) in patients with PD ...

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    17. Stanford University Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma

      Stanford University Receives NIH Grant for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma

      Stanford University Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $360,264 for Structural and Functional Tests of Ganglion cell Damage in Glaucoma. The principal investigator is Anthony Morcia. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2023. Below is a summary of the proposed work. This project will use a combination of structural and functional measurements to test the hypothesis that early- stage damage in human glaucoma occurs first in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina – especially its OFF sub-lamina – as suggested by murine glaucoma models. In the first Aim, we will use a novel visible-light optical coherence tomograph ...

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    18. Swept source optical coherence tomography to early detect multiple sclerosis disease. The use of machine learning techniques

      Swept source optical coherence tomography to early detect multiple sclerosis disease. The use of machine learning techniques

      Objective To compare axonal loss in ganglion cells detected with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) versus healthy controls using different machine learning techniques. To analyze the capability of machine learning techniques to improve the detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the complex Ganglion Cell Layer–Inner plexiform layer (GCL+) damage in patients with multiple sclerosis and to use the SS-OCT as a biomarker to early predict this disease. Methods Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 80) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 180) were enrolled. Different protocols from the DRI SS-OCT Triton ...

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    19. Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Early Phase Disease Modification Trials with Selisistat and Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Huntington’s Disease (Thesis)

      Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. Selisistat is a novel, highly potent Sirt1 inhibitor with supportive pre-clinical data. Facilitation of autophagy and amelioration of transcriptional dysregulation are proposed as mechanisms of action. A first in disease Phase 1B study showed safety and tolerability. The peripheral immune dysfunction in HD could be modulated by Sirtuins which have both pro and anti-inflammatory activities. However selisistat did not alter the cytokine profile in this study. Phase 2 data over a longer duration was also well tolerated however potential hepatotoxicity is a concern. Sub-analysis of clinical assessments ...

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    20. High frequency optical coherence tomography assessment of homogenous neck coverage by intrasaccular devices predicts successful aneurysm occlusion

      High frequency optical coherence tomography assessment of homogenous neck coverage by intrasaccular devices predicts successful aneurysm occlusion

      Background High frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) is a novel intravascular imaging technology developed for use in the cerebral vasculature. We hypothesize that HF-OCT characterization of intrasaccular device neck coverage can prognosticate exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. Methods Bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were made in six dogs. Seven aneurysms were treated with next generation intrasaccular devices (NGID) and four with traditional platinum coils. HF-OCT was performed to interrogate gaps in the neck coverage, coil herniation, or acute thrombus formation. Animals were re-imaged at 7, 30, 90, and 180  days following aneurysm embolization. An automated image processing method segmented ...

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    21. Retinal layers in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography studies

      Retinal layers in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography studies

      Background Patients with Parkinson's disease experience visual symptoms , partially originating from retinal changes. Since 2011, multiple case-control studies using spectral-domain OCT, which allows for studying individual retinal layers, have been published. The aim of this study was to substantiate the occurrence, extent, and location of retinal degeneration in Parkinson's by meta-analysis . Methods Spectral-domain OCT case-control data were collected by performing a search in PubMed and Embase with terms: “optical coherence tomography” and “parkinson”, up to November 5th, 2018. Studies with fewer than 10 patients or controls were excluded. We performed a random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated with ...

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    22. High-resolution in vivo imaging of peripheral nerves using optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study

      High-resolution in vivo imaging of peripheral nerves using optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study

      OBJECTIVE Because of their complex topography, long courses, and small diameters, peripheral nerves are challenging structures for radiological diagnostics. However, imaging techniques in the area of peripheral nerve diseases have undergone unexpected development in recent decades. They include MRI and high-resolution sonography (HRS). Yet none of those imaging techniques reaches a resolution comparable to that of histological sections. Fascicles are the smallest discernable structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the first imaging technique that is able to depict a nerve’s ultrastructure at micrometer resolution. In the current study, the authors present an in vivo assessment of human peripheral nerves ...

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      Mentions: Thorlabs
    23. Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition

      Boston Medical Center Receives NIH Grant for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition

      Boston Medical Center Receives a 2019 NIH Grant for $197,189 for Eye To Brain: Eye Biomarkers and Cognition. The principal investigator is Manju Subramanian. The program began in 2019 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The goal of our research is to identify ocular biomarkers that have diagnostic and potentially prognostic utility in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and establish a relationship to cognition. We seek to determine this relationship in an already established cohort of patients (the Vitreous Biomarkers Study, or VBS) with eye disease where protein biomarkers have been identified in the ...

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    24. Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Visualizing flow in an intact CSF network using optical coherence tomography: implications for human congenital hydrocephalus

      Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the brain ventricles is critical for brain development. Altered CSF flow dynamics have been implicated in congenital hydrocephalus (CH) characterized by the potentially lethal expansion of cerebral ventricles if not treated. CH is the most common neurosurgical indication in children effecting 1 per 1000 infants. Current treatment modalities are limited to antiquated brain surgery techniques, mostly because of our poor understanding of the CH pathophysiology. We lack model systems where the interplay between ependymal cilia, embryonic CSF flow dynamics and brain development can be analyzed in depth. This is in part due to the poor ...

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      Mentions: Yale University
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