1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: A 3-year prospective multicenter study

      Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: A 3-year prospective multicenter study

      Objective: To evaluate changes over 3 years in the thickness of inner retinal layers including the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and combined macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (mGCIPL), in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus healthy controls; to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to detect small degrees of neuroaxonal loss over time that correlate with changes in brain volume and disability progression as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Methods: Individuals with RRMS from 28 centers (n = 333) were matched with 64 healthy participants. OCT scans were ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: contributions to understanding its use in clinical practice

      Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: contributions to understanding its use in clinical practice

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting more than two million people worldwide. The disease is characterised by inflammation in the CNS (leading to episodes of focal neurological dysfunction, i.e. relapses) and neurodegeneration (leading to progressive and permanent disability). Depending on the localisation of the CNS damage, patients exhibit a wide range of symptoms including muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, problems with coordination, fatigue and cognitive impairment. Visual symptoms are common as well, with more dan 50% of MS patients experiencing one or more episodes of optic neuritis (ON) during the course of ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography & Neurology

      Optical Coherence Tomography & Neurology

      Visualization of baseline and serial images often provides direct evidence and biomarkers to challenge many preexisting “principles” in neurology, as is now possible with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Commercially available since 1993, OCT has achieved importance and significance equal to the ophthalmoscope. OCT makes the previously invisible structures of the retina and optic nerve visible at a 5- to 6-nm resolution in an imaging process that requires only 2 minutes per eye (Figure 1).

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    4. Correlation Between Retrograde Trans-Synaptic Degeneration of Ganglion Cells and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Following Ischemic Stroke

      Correlation Between Retrograde Trans-Synaptic Degeneration of Ganglion Cells and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Following Ischemic Stroke

      Objective Following nerve injury, the projection of posterior visual pathway lesions into the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) region indicates retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) as a mechanism of functional damage. Our purpose is to assess GCL damage and the impacts of ischemic brain lesions affecting the visual pathway on macular microvascularization in patients with stroke. Methods In a case-control study, we examined 15 ischemic stroke patients who showed visual field defects and 50 healthy controls using the high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques such as spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and GCL thicknesses, and OCT ...

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    5. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: A 3-year prospective multicenter study

      Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: A 3-year prospective multicenter study

      Objective: To evaluate changes over 3 years in the thickness of inner retinal layers including the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and combined macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (mGCIPL), in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus healthy controls; to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to detect small degrees of neuroaxonal loss over time that correlate with changes in brain volume and disability progression as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Methods: Individuals with RRMS from 28 centers (n = 333) were matched with 64 healthy participants. OCT scans were ...

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    6. Overview of Imaging Modalities in Stroke

      Overview of Imaging Modalities in Stroke

      Purpose of the Review This article reviews common imaging modalities used in diagnosis and management of acute stroke. Each modality is discussed individually and clinical scenarios are presented to demonstrate how to apply these modalities in decision-making. Recent Findings Advances in neuroimaging provide unprecedented accuracy in determining tissue viability as well as tissue fate in acute stroke. In addition, advances in machine learning have led to the creation of decision support tools to improve the interpretability of these studies. Summary Noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) remains the most commonly used initial imaging tool to evaluate stroke. Its exquisite sensitivity for ...

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    7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a neurodegenerative motor neuron disease with retinal involvement

      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a neurodegenerative motor neuron disease with retinal involvement

      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that damages the motor neurons, the spinal cord, the cerebellum, and some areas of the brain. However, more recent studies show that it can also affect the visual system, for example, through oculomotor and visual pathways. ALS patients do not usually complain of visual problems, so studies focusing on the visual pathway are scarce. Early work on ALS and the eye was related to oculomotor function and visual pathway analysis, with visually evoked potentials being used to study the disease. Subsequently, some works have appeared that analyze visual function, with tests such ...

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    8. Editorial: Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal and Optic Nerve Disorders

      Editorial: Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal and Optic Nerve Disorders

      Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive imaging modality capable of directly assessing retinal microvascular changes without intravenous dye injection ( 1 ). It maps the movement of red blood cells through the degree of motion contrast, which corresponds to angiographic flow ( 2 ). While fluorescein angiography (FA) has been widely used in clinical practice over the last 50 years to image flow, it has several limitations. One major limitation is that the visualization of retinal vessels is largely limited to the superficial vasculature ( 3 ). This occurs due to the scattering of light from inner retinal layers hence decreasing contrast of the ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography in the Differential Diagnosis of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Patients with MRI Nonspecific White Matter Lesions

      Optical Coherence Tomography in the Differential Diagnosis of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Patients with MRI Nonspecific White Matter Lesions

      In the differential diagnosis of nonspecific white matter lesions (NSWMLs) detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiple sclerosis (MS) should be taken into consideration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool applied in the differential diagnostic process of MS. We tested whether OCT may be useful in distinguishing between MS and NSWMLs patients. In patients with MS (n = 41) and NSWMLs (n = 19), the following OCT parameters were measured: thickness of the peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (pRNFL) in superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal segments; thickness of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL); thickness of macular RNFL (mRNFL); and ...

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    10. CNS Involvement in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: Subtle Retinal Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography

      CNS Involvement in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: Subtle Retinal Changes in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Background and objectives: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the peripheral nervous system. However, several noncontrolled studies have suggested concomitant inflammatory CNS demyelination similar to multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate an involvement of the visual pathway in patients with CIDP. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we used high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to compare the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and the deeper macular retinal layers as well as the total macular volume (TMV) in 22 patients with CIDP and 22 age-matched and sex-matched healthy control ...

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    11. Macular microcirculation characteristics in Parkinson’s disease evaluated by OCT-Angiography: a literature review

      Macular microcirculation characteristics in Parkinson’s disease evaluated by OCT-Angiography: a literature review

      Purpose: Given the fact that retina may provide a window into the central nervous system, there has been interest in identifying retinal biomarkers as predicting factors of pathological processes in neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging evidence has suggested that macular microcirculation changes in Parkinson disease (PD) may indicate the alterations of cerebral microvasculature. The use of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) has attracted significant attention in recent years as this technique offers a detailed analysis of the existence of changes at the macular capillary plexus. Methods: A detailed review of the literature was performed in PubMed until June 2021. We identified all ...

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    12. University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography

      University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography

      University or Rochester Receives a 2021 NIH Grant for $51,036 for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography. The principal investigator is Gary Ge. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The rapidly advancing field of “elastography” has had some major successes in answering basic science questions and improving clinical diagnostics and therapies. For example, increased liver stiffness is strongly correlated with advanced liver disease such as fibrosis, increased aortic stiffness has been linked with cardiovascular disease, and multiple cancers can be assessed with viscoelastic heterogeneity. Other studies have used ...

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    13. The Retinal Posterior Pole in Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Fundus Perimetry and SD-OCT Study

      The Retinal Posterior Pole in Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Fundus Perimetry and SD-OCT Study

      Purpose: To assess the structure and function of the retinal posterior pole in patients with early Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to identify possible biomarkers correlated with clinical features. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional case-control study of 21 patients with PD and 22 age-matched healthy controls (HC) was conducted. All subjects underwent full ophthalmological examinations, fundus perimetry (FP) and spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT) of the entire retinal posterior pole and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL). Results: We analyzed 41 eyes from 21 patients (14 males and 7 females) with early PD (Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) equal to or ...

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    14. The Relation of Optical Coherence Tomography Findings with Oxidative Stress Parameters in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

      The Relation of Optical Coherence Tomography Findings with Oxidative Stress Parameters in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

      Background : We aimed to evaluate the optical coherence tomography(OCT) findings and oxidative stress parameters in patients with bipolar disorder(BD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives(FDRs) and to explore OCT findings and oxidative stress parameters as potential endophenotype candidates. Methods : Fifty patients with BD, 40 FDRs of BD, and 50 healthy controls(HCs) were included. OCT was performed to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL), ganglion cell layer(GCL), inner plexiform layer(IPL), central macular, and minimum foveal thicknesses(CMT and MFT), choroidal thickness(ChT). 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal(HNE), total thiol(TT), native thiol(NT), total oxidant status(TOS), total ...

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    15. Analysis of the Peripapillary and Macular Regions Using OCT Angiography in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

      Analysis of the Peripapillary and Macular Regions Using OCT Angiography in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

      Purpose: To measure RNFL and vasculature around the optic disc and in the macula in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: 24 eyes of patients with SZ and 16 eyes of patients with BD as well as 30 eyes of healthy subjects were examined with OCTA. The radiant peripapillary capillary (RPC) density and RNFL thickness were measured in the peripapillary area. Moreover, macular thickness and vessel density were measured in both superficial and deep layers. Results: Significantly decreased values of vessel density in the macular deep vascular complex were found in ...

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    16. Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Screen for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Screen for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

      Background: Screening for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) could increase case identification, enhance clinical trial enrollment, and enable early intervention. MCI and ADRD screening would be most beneficial if detection measures reflect neurodegenerative changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be a marker of neurodegeneration (part of the amyloid-tau-neurodegeneration (ATN) framework). Objective: To determine whether OCT measurements can be used as a screening measure to detect individuals with MCI and ADRD. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 136 participants with comprehensive clinical, cognitive, functional, and behavioral evaluations including OCT with a subset ...

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    17. Quantifying Retinal Microvascular Morphology in Schizophrenia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Quantifying Retinal Microvascular Morphology in Schizophrenia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Background: Retinovascular changes are reported on fundus imaging in schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first study to use swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to comprehensively examine retinal microvascular changes in SZ. Methods: This study included 30 patients with SZ/schizoaffective disorder (8 early and 15 chronic) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). All assessments were performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Eye and Ear. All participants underwent swept-source OCT-A of right (oculus dextrus [OD]) and left (oculus sinister [OS]) eye, clinical, and cognitive assessments. Macular OCT-A images (6 × 6 mm) were collected with the DRI Topcon Triton ...

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    18. Quantification of volumetric morphometry and optical property in the cortex of human cerebellum at micrometer resolution

      Quantification of volumetric morphometry and optical property in the cortex of human cerebellum at micrometer resolution

      The surface of the human cerebellar cortex is much more tightly folded than the cerebral cortex. Volumetric analysis of cerebellar morphometry in magnetic resonance imaging studies suffers from insufficient resolution, and therefore has had limited impact on disease assessment. Automatic serial polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (as-PSOCT) is an emerging technique that offers the advantages of microscopic resolution and volumetric reconstruction of large-scale samples. In this study, we reconstructed multiple cubic centimeters of ex vivo human cerebellum tissue using as-PSOCT. The morphometric and optical properties of the cerebellar cortex across five subjects were quantified. While the molecular and granular layers exhibited ...

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    19. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuromyelitis Optica

      Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuromyelitis Optica

      Background and objectives: To determine optic nerve and retinal damage in aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in a large international cohort after previous studies have been limited by small and heterogeneous cohorts. Methods: The cross-sectional Collaborative Retrospective Study on retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) in neuromyelitis optica collected retrospective data from 22 centers. Of 653 screened participants, we included 283 AQP4-IgG-seropositive patients with NMOSD and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants underwent OCT with central reading including quality control and intraretinal segmentation. The primary outcome was thickness of combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform (GCIP) layer; secondary ...

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    20. The eye in migraine: a review of retinal imaging findings in migraine

      The eye in migraine: a review of retinal imaging findings in migraine

      Migraine is a common headache disorder with neurovascular involvement. Because eyecare practitioners are likely to encounter people with migraine in their everyday practice, it is important to understand how migraine might impact on ocular health. In this narrative review, we provide an update on the latest ophthalmic imaging evidence for retinal involvement in migraine, derived from studies of retinal structure and retinal vascular perfusion using spectral domain and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography. Combined structural OCT evidence from a recent meta-analysis indicates subtle and non-specific thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in people ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography monitoring and diagnosing retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography monitoring and diagnosing retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      This study explores the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to monitor and diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS). The analysis of reduced total macular volume and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning are shown. The severity of these defects increases as MS progresses, reflecting the progressive degeneration of nerve fibers and retinal ganglion cells. The OCT parameters are noninvasive, sensitive indicators that can be used to assess the progression of neurodegeneration and inflammation in MS.

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    22. Refractive-index matching enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography quantification in human brain tissue

      Refractive-index matching enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography quantification in human brain tissue

      The importance of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been increasingly recognized in human brain imaging. Despite the recent progress of PS-OCT in revealing white matter architecture and orientation, quantification of fine-scale fiber tracts in the human brain cortex has been a challenging problem, due to a low birefringence in the gray matter. In this study, we investigated the effect of refractive index matching by 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE) immersion on the improvement of PS-OCT measurements in ex vivo human brain tissue. We obtain the cortical fiber orientation maps in the gray matter, which reveals the radial fibers in the ...

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