1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      In this paper we review three common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and genetic testing. Early diagnosis promotes optimal management. While there is currently no definitive cure for these conditions, therapeutic modalities under investigation include pharmacologic treatment, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

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    2. Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Chicago Style Research Article Open Access Peer-reviewed Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Sandeep C S , Sukesh Kumar A , K Mahadevan , Manoj P American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering . 2017 , 5(2), 58-63. DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-5-2-4 Published online: April 27, 2017 Alzheimer’s disease OCT early diagnosis wavelons Full Text Authors Metrics Citations Related Content Licencing Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative process, which ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography as a marker of neurodegeneration in patients with Wilson’s disease

      Optical coherence tomography as a marker of neurodegeneration in patients with Wilson’s disease

      Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that leads to pathological copper accumulation in different organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed as a marker of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Thinning of the total retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness (Mth) examined by OCT was detected in patients with WD, especially those with brain magnetic resonance imaging changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OCT parameters and the progression of neurological signs measured by the Unified Wilson’s Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) in patients with WD. Consecutive patients with ...

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    4. The Retina In Multiple System Atrophy: Review and Meta-Analysis

      The Retina In Multiple System Atrophy: Review and Meta-Analysis

      Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, adult-onset, rapidly progressive fatal synucleinopathy that primarily affects oligodendroglial cells in the brain. Patients with MSA only rarely have visual complaints but recent studies of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed atrophy of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to a lesser extent the macular ganglion cell layer complex. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before January 2017, identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases, which reported OCT-related outcomes in patients with MSA and controls. A random-effects model was ...

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    5. Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography As a New Diagnostic Marker for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus | Neurology

      Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography As a New Diagnostic Marker for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus | Neurology

      Purpose: Characterized by a progressive onset of gait disturbances, dementia, and urinary incontinence, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered a rare, but under-diagnosed disease. Non-invasive diagnostic markers are still insufficient to enable the diagnosis of iNPH with certainty and yet early treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting can reverse symptoms and stop disease progression. Vascular circulation abnormalities in iNPH may be reflected by changes in subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPChT). This study uses spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-based measures of retinal and choroidal thickness to test this hypothesis and to assess ophthalmological non-invasive markers for iNPH. Methods: Twelve ...

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    6. Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

      Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

      Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection. In this paper, we report a novel frequency-domain (FD) algorithm to enable robust and fast characterization of optical ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

      Background Research in bipolar disorder suggests the presence of structural brain abnormalities. It is not clear whether these findings are trait markers or operate with the onset and progress with disease severity and duration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that detects degenerative changes in the retina reflecting brain degeneration. This study aimed at detecting these changes and relating them to disease severity and clinical characteristics. Methods A case-control study conducted in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine hospital, Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Forty inpatients with bipolar disorder -according to the 4 th edition of the Diagnostic and ...

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    8. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Neuroretinitis is a form of papillitis associated with the delayed onset of an exudative macular star among other inflammatory ocular findings. We describe 4 patients with neuroretinitis who displayed several distinctive and novel findings on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that include "epipapillary infiltrates" and an atypical pattern of inner retinal folds. The recognition of these findings on OCT may help in the early diagnosis of neuroretinitis.

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    9. Spiking cortical model based non-local means method for despeckling multiframe optical coherence tomography data

      Spiking cortical model based non-local means method for despeckling multiframe optical coherence tomography data

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are severely degraded by speckle noise. Existing methods for despeckling multiframe OCT data cannot deliver sufficient speckle suppression while preserving image details well. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM) based non-local means (NLM) method has been proposed in this letter. In the proposed method, the considered frame and two neighboring frames are input into three SCMs to generate the temporal series of pulse outputs. The normalized moment of inertia (NMI) of the considered patches in the pulse outputs is extracted to represent the rotational and scaling invariant features of the corresponding patches ...

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    10. Scientists look FTD in the eye

      Scientists look FTD in the eye

      A routine eye test may help clinicians identify early signs of at least one form of FTD according to a new study published on April 12 in Science Translational Medicine. The study, led by Li Gan and Ari Green at the University of California in San Francisco, found that people heterozygous for progranulin (GRN) mutations without cognitive symptoms exhibited twice the number of lipid-rich deposits, known as lipofuscin, in the retina than age and gender-matched controls. What’s more, these deposits could be detected post-mortem in more than 60% of cortical neurons in the frontal cortex – a key region affected ...

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      Mentions: UCSF
    11. A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      SCA3 presents with a CAG expansion at 14q24.3-q32 while SCA10 shows an ATTCT expansion at 22q13-qter. SCA10 seems to be less aggressive than SCA3. For an in vivo, noninvasive approach of the correlation between central nervous system and clinical evolution, we can use optic coherence tomography (OCT) to measure retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. To describe OCT findings in SCA10, correlate it with expansion size and disease severity and compare with those of SCA3. We analyzed ten individuals with SCA3 and nine with SCA10 recruited from the neurology service of Hospital de Clínicas ...

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    12. Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinae of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as part of the central nervous system (CNS), display inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. There is increasing evidence suggesting that retinal changes, and in particular neurodegeneration, mirror global CNS alterations in MS. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is an inexpensive, rapid, non-invasive, and reproducible imaging technique that generates high-resolution images of tissues such as the retina. An advantage of SD-OCT over magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the assessment of neurodegeneration may be its sensitivity to capture changes at the individual patient level. Several studies demonstrate that changes within the inner retina (primarily as ...

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    13. UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      University of California at Davis Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $78,500 for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy. The principal investigator is Shau Chong. The program began in 20-17 and ends in 2-019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subcortical pathology is a common feature in aging, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia but has been challenging to study with micron resolution in vivo. Optical methods such as two-photon microscopy image the superficial cortex at the micron-scale, but the resolution of these conventional ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Glaucoma causes a decrease in peripapillary perfused capillary density on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. However, other chronic optic neuropathies have not been explored with OCT angiography to see if these changes were specific to glaucoma. The authors evaluated OCT angiography in 10 patients who suffered various kinds of chronic optic neuropathies, including optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy, and found that all optic neuropathies showed a decrease in peripapillary vessel density on OCT angiography, regardless of the aetiology of the optic neuropathy. The peripapillary vessel loss on OCT angiography correlated well with the areas of retinal nerve fibre layer ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has demonstrated good utility in qualitative analysis of retinal and choroidal vasculature and therefore may be relevant in the diagnostic and treatment efforts surrounding nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 10 eyes of 9 patients with a previous or new diagnosis of NAION that received imaging with OCTA between November 2015 and February 2016. Two independent readers qualitatively analyzed the retinal peripapillary capillaries (RPC) and peripapillary choriocapillaris (PCC) for flow impairment. Findings were compared with automated visual field and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies. Results: Flow impairment seen ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Pressure

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Pressure

      Glaucoma is defined as an optic neuropathy, primarily induced by an intraocular pressure (IOP) that is higher than the optic nerve can tolerate. But what determines the pressure the optic nerve can tolerate? Seemingly, the answer is that the pressure a given optic nerve can tolerate is related to the eye’s biomechanics, local optic nerve anatomy, optic nerve perfusion, and finally the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pressure. The CSF pressure serves as the back pressure on the optic disc, and a growing body of evidence shows that eyes with a lower CSF pressure are more susceptible to glaucoma. One ...

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    17. Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease

      Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease

      Aim To evaluate visual dysfunction and its correlation with structural changes in the retina in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Patients with AD (n = 24) and controls (n = 24) underwent evaluation of visual acuity (VA), color vision (using the Farnsworth and L’Anthony desaturated (D) 15 color tests), and contrast sensitivity vision (CSV; using the Pelli-Robson chart and CSV-1000E test) to measure visual dysfunction. Structural measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness were obtained using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results CSV at three of the four spatial frequencies was significantly worse in AD ...

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    18. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the evolution of cognitive performance in an elderly population

      Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the evolution of cognitive performance in an elderly population

      Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer thickness (RNFL) is reduced in Alzheimer's patients. However, whether it is associated with early evolution of cognitive function is unknown. Within 427 participants from the 3C-Alienor longitudinal population-based cohort we explored the relationship between peripapillary RNFL thicknesses and the evolution of cognitive performance. RNFL was assessed at baseline by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography; cognitive performances were assessed at baseline and at 2years, with the Mini Mental State Examination, the Isaacs' set test and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). Multivariate linear mixed models were performed. The RNFL was not associated with initial cognitive ...

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    19. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography to look for Kayser-Fleischer rings

      Anterior segment optical coherence tomography to look for Kayser-Fleischer rings

      Ophthalmologists usually use slit lamp biomicroscopy to look for Kayser-Fleischer rings in Wilson’s disease; anterior segment optical coherence tomography is a new alternative to identify the characteristic hyper-reflective layer in the deep corneal periphery at the level of Descemet’s membrane. This method allows non-ophthalmologists to look for and to quantify Kayser-Fleischer rings.

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    20. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning With Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects are a defining feature of optic neuropathies and have been implicated in a few neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, 1 Alzheimer disease, 2 and Parkinson disease. 3 Ashina et al 4 conducted a prospective study observing 1406 children recruited from the Cophenhagen Child Cohort over 10 years. They showed that children of mothers with a history of smoking during pregnancy had a mean reduction in average circumpapillary RNFL thickness of 5.7 μm, adjusting for axial length, birth weight, and other covariates, compared with children without such history. Smoking during pregnancy has a detrimental ...

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    21. Mapping in-vivo optic nerve head strains caused by intraocular and intracranial pressures

      Mapping in-vivo optic nerve head strains caused by intraocular and intracranial pressures

      Although it is well documented that abnormal levels of either intraocular (IOP) or intracranial pressure (ICP) can lead to potentially blinding conditions, such as glaucoma and papilledema, little is known about how the pressures actually affect the eye. Even less is known about potential interplay between their effects, namely how the level of one pressure might alter the effects of the other. Our goal was to measure in-vivo the pressure-induced stretch and compression of the lamina cribrosa due to acute changes of IOP and ICP. The lamina cribrosa is a structure within the optic nerve head, in the back of ...

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    22. White matter segmentation by estimating tissue optical attenuation from volumetric OCT massive histology of whole rodent brains

      White matter segmentation by estimating tissue optical attenuation from volumetric OCT massive histology of whole rodent brains

      A whole rodent brain was imaged using an automated massive histology setup and an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) microscope. Thousands of OCT volumetric tiles were acquired, each covering a size of about 2.5x2.5x0.8 mm3 with a sampling resolution of 4.9x4.9x6.5 microns. This paper shows the techniques for reconstruction, attenuation compensation and segmentation of the sliced brains. The tile positions within the mosaic were evaluated using a displacement model of the motorized stage and pairwise coregistration. Volume blending was then performed by solving the 3D Laplace equation, and consecutive slices were assembled using the cross-correlation ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Noninvasive Detection of Elevated Intracranial Pressure A New Role for the Ophthalmologist?

      Optical Coherence Tomography for the Noninvasive Detection of Elevated Intracranial Pressure A New Role for the Ophthalmologist?

      Lumbar puncture is the usual confirmatory procedure for the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. However, the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure does not always reflect the intracranial pressure (ICP), especially in children. 1 Therefore, direct ICP monitoring is the gold standard for ascertainment of ICP. However, this procedure is more invasive, requiring general anesthesia and hospital admission to monitor ICP over a period of days. It also carries low risk for central nervous system infection or injury. Consequently, newer techniques are being devised to noninvasively monitor ICP. 2

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