1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 908 1 2 3 4 ... 36 37 38 »
    1. Optical Coherence Tomography in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Purpose: The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina to detect inner retinal degeneration is being investigated as a potential biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and an overwhelming body of evidence indicates that discovery of disease-modifying treatments for AD should be aimed at the pre-dementia clinical stage of AD, i.e., MCI. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on retinal OCT in MCI. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the English literature in three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Latindex) for studies that measured retinal thickness using OCT in ...

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    2. Validation of red blood cell flux and velocity estimations based on optical coherence tomography intensity fluctuations

      Validation of red blood cell flux and velocity estimations based on optical coherence tomography intensity fluctuations

      We present a validation of red blood cell flux and speed measurements based on the passage of erythrocytes through the OCT’s focal volume. We compare the performance of the so-called RBC-passage OCT technique to co-localized and simultaneously acquired two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEF) measurements. Using concurrent multi-modal imaging, we show that fluctuations in the OCT signal display highly similar features to TPEF time traces. Furthermore, we demonstrate an overall difference in RBC flux and speed of 2.5 ± 3.27 RBC/s and 0.12 ± 0.67 mm/s (mean ± S.D.), compared to TPEF. The analysis also revealed ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography confirms shunt malfunction and recurrence of raised intracranial pressure in optic atrophy

      Optical coherence tomography confirms shunt malfunction and recurrence of raised intracranial pressure in optic atrophy

      Background Investigating potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt malfunction can be a challenge. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a non-invasive imaging technique, is used to monitor changes at the optic nerve head in papilloedema. Conventional teaching suggests that in the presence of optic atrophy the optic nerve head may not re-swell in response to a relapse in raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Methods A retrospective case series of three patients who had prior CSF diversion surgery for idiopathic intracranial cranial hypertension (IIH) is presented demonstrating the benefit of non-invasive OCT imaging confirming raised ICP. Results Recurrence of raised ICP, due to malfunctioning CSF ...

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    4. Differential Diagnosis of Ischemic Vertigo by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Differential Diagnosis of Ischemic Vertigo by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective : This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with early stage central vertigo with or without vertebrobasilar stenosis detected by Doppler ultrasound. Materials and Methods : A total of 50 patients with ischemic vertigo and 50 healthy individuals were included in the study. The distinction between central and peripheral vertigo was determined by physical and neurological examinations and the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. For all patients, the mean RNFL thickness was determined using OCT performed by 2 independent ophthalmologists. Results : There were no significant differences between the ...

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    5. Alterations in the Retinal Vascular Network and Structure in MOG Antibody-Associated Disease: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Alterations in the Retinal Vascular Network and Structure in MOG Antibody-Associated Disease: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study

      Background: To determine retinal vessel density in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). Methods: Twenty-five patients with MOGAD and 20 healthy participants were enrolled. Patients with MOGAD were divided into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab)-positive eyes with a history of optic neuritis (ON; MOG-Ab-ON+ group) or without a history of ON (MOG-Ab-ON- group). Visual function, retinal vessel densities, and thickness were measured. Results: The retinal nerve fiber layer, parafoveal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers, and vessel densities in the peripapillary and parafoveal areas were significantly decreased in the MOG-Ab-ON+ eyes compared with healthy eyes and MOG-Ab-ON- ...

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      Mentions: Fudan University
    6. Variability Within Optic Nerve Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements Distinguishes Papilledema From Pseudopapilledema

      Variability Within Optic Nerve Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements Distinguishes Papilledema From Pseudopapilledema

      Background: To report a linear risk score obtained using clock-hour optical coherence tomography (OCT) data from papilledema and pseudopapilledema nerves that differentiates between the 2 diagnoses with high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: Patients presenting to a single neuro-ophthalmologist with papilledema or pseudopapilledema were included for a retrospective review. The absolute consecutive difference in OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between adjacent clock hours and the mean magnitude of thickness for clock hours 1–12 were compared between the 2 groups using mixed-effect models adjusting for age and clock hour with a random intercept for subjects and eyes (nested within ...

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    7. Multiple optical fusion-image based method and apparatus for diagnosing brain tumor in real-time

      Multiple optical fusion-image based method and apparatus for diagnosing brain tumor in real-time

      A method and an apparatus for diagnosing a brain tumor in real-time are disclosed. A method for detecting a brain tumor in real-time can comprise the steps of: generating, by a probe, a plurality of input signals and transferring the same to a target detection region which is estimated to be the location of a brain tumor; receiving, by the probe, a plurality of reflection signals on the basis of a plurality of input signals; and detecting, by the probe, a plurality of the received reflection signals, wherein a plurality of the input signals comprise a terahertz signal, an optical ...

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    8. Cohort profile: a collaborative multicentre study of retinal optical coherence tomography in 539 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Cohort profile: a collaborative multicentre study of retinal optical coherence tomography in 539 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) captures retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Previous studies investigating OCT in NMOSD have been limited by the rareness and heterogeneity of the disease. The goal of this study was to establish an image repository platform, which will facilitate neuroimaging studies in NMOSD. Here we summarise the profile of the Collaborative OCT in NMOSD repository as the initial effort in establishing this platform. This repository should prove invaluable for studies using OCT to investigate NMOSD. Participants The current cohort includes data from 539 patients with NMOSD and 114 healthy controls. These were collected ...

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    9. Retinal Thickness and Microvascular Pattern in Early Parkinson's Disease

      Retinal Thickness and Microvascular Pattern in Early Parkinson's Disease

      A thinning of intraretinal layers has been previously described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Few studies evaluated the possible correlation between retinal thickness and retinal microvascularization. Thus, here we assessed the thickness of retinal layers and microvascular pattern in early PD patients and HCs, using, respectively, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and SD-OCT-angiography (SD-OCT-A), and more interestingly, we evaluated a possible correlation between retinal thickness and microvascular pattern. Patients fulfilling criteria for clinically established/clinically probable PD and HCs were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were any ocular, retinal, and systemic disease impairing the visual system ...

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    10. Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Technology Reveals a Significant Association Between Optic Nerve Drusen Anterior Displacement and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning Over Time

      Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Technology Reveals a Significant Association Between Optic Nerve Drusen Anterior Displacement and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thinning Over Time

      Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are a dynamic phenomenon, and their appearance, size, and relative location may change. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and quantify the longitudinal changes of buried ODD with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) over time. Methods: ODD were analyzed with Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) and EDI technology. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was also measured. The size and depth of ODD were compared between the baseline and study visit (at least 2 years of follow-up), and the changes were correlated with mean RNFL thickness. The ...

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    11. Comparison of Peripapillary Vessel Density of Acute Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Other Optic Neuropathies With Disc Swelling Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A Pilot Study

      Comparison of Peripapillary Vessel Density of Acute Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Other Optic Neuropathies With Disc Swelling Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A Pilot Study

      Background: The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the peripapillary vessel density (PPVD), measured with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), between acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and other causes of disc swelling ("others"). Methods: In this prospective comparative case series, patients with unilateral disc swelling due to acute NAION (n = 7) and "others" (n = 7) underwent OCT-A scanning of the optic nerve head with a swept-source OCT (Triton DRI-OCT), in addition to functional assessment. OCT-A images were analyzed using an automated customized MATLAB program. Comparison was made between total and 6 sectoral PPVD (radial peripapillary capillary ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Characteristics and Predictors of Visual Outcomes in Patients with Acute and Chronic Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Characteristics and Predictors of Visual Outcomes in Patients with Acute and Chronic Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Background/Aims: To investigate the correlation between optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) characteristics and visual outcomes in patients with acute and chronic nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and OCTA images of 26 eyes of 26 patients who had been diagnosed with unilateral NAION. OCTA images were acquired from 17 eyes at the acute stage and from 21 eyes at the chronic stage of NAION. We analyzed the peripapillary vessel density (VD) and macular VD in various layers of the retina and choroid for all images. Possible correlations between the OCTA parameters and visual ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements as Potential Imaging Biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements as Potential Imaging Biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      Background and purpose Retinal pathological changes may precede or accompany the deterioration of brain tissue in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this meta‐analysis was to assess the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements as potential imaging biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for observational studies (published prior to May 30th, 2020) comparing the OCT measurements between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls (HC). Our main endpoints were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness, macular ...

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    14. Improving the characterization of ex vivo human brain optical properties using high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography by spatially constraining the confocal parameters

      Improving the characterization of ex vivo human brain optical properties using high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography by spatially constraining the confocal parameters

      Significance: The optical properties of biological samples provide information about the structural characteristics of the tissue and any changes arising from pathological conditions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be capable of extracting tissue's optical properties using a model that combines the exponential decay due to tissue scattering and the axial point spread function that arises from the confocal nature of the detection system, particularly for higher numerical aperture (NA) measurements. A weakness in estimating the optical properties is the inter-parameter cross-talk between tissue scattering and the confocal parameters defined by the Rayleigh range and the focus depth ...

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    15. Magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography correlations in multiple sclerosis beyond anatomical landmarks

      Magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography correlations in multiple sclerosis beyond anatomical landmarks

      Objective: To investigate multiple sclerosis (MS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sectional correlations with central nervous system (CNS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and methods: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner (INL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) of 54 relapsing remitting (RRMS) and 38 progressive (PMS, 9 primary and 29 secondary) patients were measured. With less than 3 months brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), spinal cord (SC), total gray matter (GM) and white matter volumes were calculated. Demographical and clinical data was compared according to the history of optic neuritis (HON). Relationships between ...

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    16. Optical imaging techniques could offer non-invasive method to measure swelling within the brain, new study finds

      Optical imaging techniques could offer non-invasive method to measure swelling within the brain, new study finds

      Intracranial pressure (ICP) – or pressure within the skull often caused by a recent brain injury – is a potentially fatal condition that can damages brain tissue. Currently, the most common way to measure the level of pressure is using a lumbar puncture to remove and analyse a sample of spinal fluid, however this can result in complications and can cause patient distress. However, this latest study looking at potential non-invasive alternatives may have found the answer in the form of a technique ordinarily used by ophthalmologists. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) works by using light waves to take cross-section pictures of the ...

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    17. Longitudinal retinal layer changes in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

      Longitudinal retinal layer changes in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

      Purpose Several studies found reduced retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), even in preclinical stages, labelling this technique of interest as biomarker. In this study, we examine retinal thickness changes in preclinical AD, as defined by cognitively normal individuals with amyloid‐beta (Aβ) on positron emission tomography (PET). Methods For this monocentre study, 145 cognitively healthy monozygotic twins aged ≥ 60 were included from the Netherlands Twin Register taking part in the EMIF‐AD PreclinAD study. At baseline, participants underwent [ 18 F] flutemetamol PET that was visually rated for cortical Aβ. Binding potential was calculated ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography outcomes from SPRINT-MS, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of ibudilast in progressive multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography outcomes from SPRINT-MS, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of ibudilast in progressive multiple sclerosis

      Background: The SPRINT-MS trial demonstrated benefit of ibudilast on brain atrophy over 96 weeks in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in all trial participants. Objective: Report the OCT results of the SPRINT-MS trial. Methods: OCT was obtained at baseline and every 6 months using spectral domain OCT and analyzed by an OCT reading center. Change in each OCT outcome measure by treatment group was estimated using linear mixed models. Results: Change in pRNFL thickness was +0.0424 uM/year (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.3091 to 0.3939) for ibudilast versus −0.2630 uM (95 ...

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    19. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Ischemic Stroke, and Dementia: A Systematic Review

      The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Ischemic Stroke, and Dementia: A Systematic Review

      Objective: To investigate the application of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), ischemic stroke and dementia. Methods: We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE (from inception) and EMBASE (from 1980) to end 2019 for human studies that measured retinal parameters in cerebral SVD, ischemic stroke, and dementia using OCTA. Results: Fourteen articles ( n = 989) provided relevant data. Ten studies included patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment ( n = 679), two investigated pre-symptomatic AD participants ( n = 154), and two investigated monogenic SVD patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy ( n ...

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    20. Cross-polarization Optical Coherence Tomography Probes for Intraoperative Application in Neurosurgery

      Cross-polarization Optical Coherence Tomography Probes for Intraoperative Application in Neurosurgery

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most promising, innovative and rapidly emerging intraoperative imaging modalities for neurosurgical guidance in brain tissue imaging, "optical biopsy", brain cerebral vascular detection, nerve fibers and white matter tracts detection. In this article, we provide a short survey of cross-polarization OCT and different types of OCT probes that can be used in routine neurosurgical practice. Through different types of probes there are multiple applications where OCT can play a highly complementary role in offering the real-time microscopic assessment and imaging of normal and pathological brain tissues. The biopsy-needle based probe for CP OCT ...

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    21. Combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography increases diagnostic efficacy of Parkinson’s disease

      Combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography increases diagnostic efficacy of Parkinson’s disease

      Background To assess the diagnostic efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods OCT was used to obtain macular parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. The macular superficial retinal vessel and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were quantified with OCTA. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated the diagnostic efficacy of the parameters. Results Thirty-five eyes from 35 PD patients and 35 eyes from 35 age-matched healthy subjects who served as controls were evaluated. The mean RNFL thickness overall and the thicknesses of the other three quadrants ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography microscopy in experimental traumatic brain injury

      Optical coherence tomography microscopy in experimental traumatic brain injury

      Worldwide elderly traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients tend to become an increasing burden to the society. Thus, a faster and less expensive way of evaluating TBI victims is needed. In the present study we investigated if optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be used as such a method. By using an animal model, we established if OCT can detect cortical changes in the acute phase of a penetrating TBI, in young (5-7 months) and old (20-22 months) rats. Due to the long-term evolution of TBI's, we wanted to investigate to what extent OCT could detect changes within the cortex in ...

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    23. High-resolution image-guided WEB aneurysm embolization by high-frequency optical coherence tomography

      High-resolution image-guided WEB aneurysm embolization by high-frequency optical coherence tomography

      Background High-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) is an intra-vascular imaging technique capable of assessing device-vessel interactions at spatial resolution approaching 10 µm. We tested the hypothesis that adequately deployed Woven EndoBridge (WEB) devices as visualized by HF-OCT lead to higher aneurysm occlusion rates. Methods In a leporine model, elastase-induced aneurysms (n=24) were treated with the WEB device. HF-OCT and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed following WEB deployment and repeated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Protrusion (0-present, 1-absent) and malapposition (0-malapposed, 1-neck apposition >50%) were binary coded. A device was considered ‘adequately deployed’ by HF-OCT and DSA if ...

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    24. Central choroidal thickness in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography findings

      Central choroidal thickness in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography findings

      AIM : To measure the central choroidal thickness (ChT) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. METHODS : Totally 41 anxiety patients (8-16y) and 35 healthy controls (age-matched) were evaluated. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed. Inclusion criteria were best corrected visual acuity ≥20/20, normal intraocular pressure (IOP; 10-21 mm Hg), and no systemic or ocular diseases according to history. The diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was determined using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children Present-Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) was used to measure the central ChT. RESULTS : The mean age was 12.18 ...

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    1-24 of 908 1 2 3 4 ... 36 37 38 »
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