1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. University of Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Advanced Brain OCT Elastography

      University of Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Advanced Brain OCT Elastography

      University of Rochester Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $421,880 for Advanced Brain OCT Elastography. The principal investigator is Kevin Parker. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Changes in the local and global mechanical properties of brain tissue associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases has not been extensively studied and quantified. Pathology and autopsy case studies have provided some qualitative insight, and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) studies have demonstrated some general patterns. However, current techniques require technical refinement and much remains to be elucidated about the relationship between the evolution of brain biomechanics and these complex processes ...

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    2. Optical microangiography reveals temporal and depth-resolved hemodynamic change in mouse barrel cortex during whisker stimulation

      Optical microangiography reveals temporal and depth-resolved hemodynamic change in mouse barrel cortex during whisker stimulation

      Significance: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation at neurovascular coupling (NVC) plays an important role in normal brain functioning to support oxygen delivery to activating neurons. Therefore, studying the mechanisms of CBF adjustment is crucial for the improved understanding of brain activity. Aim: We investigated the temporal profile of hemodynamic signal change in mouse cortex caused by neural activation and its variation over cortical depth. Approach: Following the cranial window surgery, intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) was used to spatially locate the activated region in mouse cortex during whisker stimulation. Optical microangiography (OMAG), the functional extension of optical coherence tomography, was ...

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    3. Application of optical frequency domain imaging to recanalized unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by flow-diverting stent-assisted coiling

      Application of optical frequency domain imaging to recanalized unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by flow-diverting stent-assisted coiling

      Here we report the application of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) device, for intravascular visualization in the treatment of a recanalized unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm that was treated initially by stent-assisted coil embolization. OFDI revealed malapposition of the stent and lack of neointimal growth at the aneurysm neck, which was treated by deployment of a Pipeline Embolization Device to overlap the stent. An angiogram performed one year after the procedure revealed perfect healing of the aneurysm and OFDI clearly demonstrated good stent apposition and total endothelialization over the aneurysm neck.

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    4. High-speed optical coherence tomography angiography for the measurement of stimulus-induced retrograde vasodilation of cerebral pial arteries in awake mice

      High-speed optical coherence tomography angiography for the measurement of stimulus-induced retrograde vasodilation of cerebral pial arteries in awake mice

      Significance: Having a clear understanding of functional hyperemia is crucial for functional brain imaging and neurological disease research. Vasodilation induced by sensory stimulus propagates from the arterioles to the upstream pial arteries in a retrograde fashion. As retrograde vasodilation occurs briefly in the early stage of functional hyperemia, an imaging technique with a high temporal resolution is required for its measurement. Aim: We aimed to present an imaging method to measure stimulus-induced retrograde vasodilation in awake animals. Approach: An imaging method based on optical coherence tomography angiography, which enables a high-speed and label-free vessel diameter measurement, was developed and applied ...

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography Neuro-Toolbox for the Diagnosis and Management of Papilledema, Optic Disc Edema, and Pseudopapilledema

      Optical Coherence Tomography Neuro-Toolbox for the Diagnosis and Management of Papilledema, Optic Disc Edema, and Pseudopapilledema

      Background: Distinguishing optic disc edema from pseudopapilledema is a common, sometimes challenging clinical problem. Advances in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic nerve head (ONH) has proven to be a cost effective, noninvasive, outpatient procedure that may help. At its core are tools that quantify the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL). The SD-OCT also provides a set of tools that may be qualitatively interpreted in the same way that we read an MRI. They include the transverse axial, en face, and circular tomogram. Our goal is to describe ...

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      Mentions: Randy H. Kardon
    6. Optical Coherence Tomography Detects Retinal Changes in Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Detects Retinal Changes in Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

      Background Investigating mutation carriers with Dutch‐type hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (D‐CAA), offers the possibility to identify markers in pre‐ and symptomatic stages of CAA. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown potential to detect retinal changes in several neurodegenerative diseases. We performed an exploratory study on the thickness of retinal layers as possible (early) biomarker in D‐CAA mutation carriers. Methods D‐CAA mutation carriers (n=8 presymptomatic, n=13 symptomatic, median age 50 years) and (n=9, median age 53 years) controls were scanned using Spectral Domain OCT (SD‐OCT). Symptomatic mutation carriers were defined as having a ...

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    7. Patterns of Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Assessed by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Patterns of Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Assessed by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Objective: To evaluate the ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements by long-wavelength swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) to assess retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods: A retrospective study of 20 patients with unilateral NAION was performed. SS-OCT scanning of the macular and peripapillary areas was performed to measure the total and six-sector thicknesses of macular RNFL (mRNFL) and mGCIPL, as well as peripapillary RNFL (pRNFL) thicknesses in global and 12 clock-hour sectors. Further comparison of these thicknesses between NAION involved eyes ...

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    8. University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Cerebral and Retinal Microvasculature in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

      University of Southern California Receives NIH Grant for Imaging Cerebral and Retinal Microvasculature in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

      University of Southern California Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $299,643 for Imaging Cerebral and Retinal Microvasculature in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease. The principal investigator is Danny Wang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, the contribution of vascular factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is becoming increasingly recognized. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is most commonly caused by cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). To date, cerebral small vessels including arterioles, capillaries and venules are inaccessible to existing imaging technologies. Characteristic parenchymal lesions on MRI ...

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    9. Depth-resolved approach for the attenuation coefficient calculation from the Optical Coherence Tomography data and its application for the brain imaging

      Depth-resolved approach for the attenuation coefficient calculation from the Optical Coherence Tomography data and its application for the brain imaging

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for intraoperative tissue morphology determination. Several studies suggest that the attenuation coefficient, derived from the OCT images can differentiate between normal and tumorous tissues, as well as between gray and white brain matter. The methods used for attenuation coefficient derivation in these studies follow the assumption that the optical properties of the specimen are uniform within the OCT imaging depth range. Although this approximation is appropriate for the brain tissue, it is still quite restrictive. In the present study depth-resolved method for attenuation coefficient calculation was adopted for the real-world situation of ...

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    10. Ex-vivo Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue investigation: a multiscale approach using 1060-nm swept source optical coherence tomography for a direct correlation to histology

      Ex-vivo Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue investigation: a multiscale approach using 1060-nm swept source optical coherence tomography for a direct correlation to histology

      Significance: Amyloid-beta (A-β) plaques are pathological protein deposits formed in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients upon disease progression. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex underlying mechanisms involved in their formation using label-free, tissue preserving, and volumetric techniques. Aim: The aim is to achieve a one-to-one correlation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) data to histological micrographs of brain tissue using 1060-nm swept source OCT. Approach: A-β plaques were investigated in ex-vivo AD brain tissue using OCT with the capability of switching between two magnifications. For the exact correlation to histology, a 3D-printed tool was designed to ...

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    11. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Cerebellar Circuitry

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Cerebellar Circuitry

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $248,993 for Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Cerebellar Circuitry. The principal investigator is Hui Wang. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The goal in seeking a K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award is to establish myself as an independent principal investigator to study the structural-functional relationship of the brain circuitry in normal and brain disorders. The proposed project, driven by the need for understanding the human brain with high-resolution high-throughput tools and my extensive experience in biomedical optics for neuroimaging, aims to establish a versatile tool to ...

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    12. Endovascular optical coherence tomography imaging in cerebrovascular disease

      Endovascular optical coherence tomography imaging in cerebrovascular disease

      Endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the highest resolution imaging modality currently available with spatial resolution of 10 µm. Although originally developed for interventional cardiology, the ability to visualize the luminal environment and anatomy, along with the stent-vessel interaction could be of great utility for various cerebrovascular diseases, and the adoption of endovascular OCT imaging in the evolving field of interventional neuroradiology seems instinctive. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding applications of endovascular OCT in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, the authors report their institutional experience with ...

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    13. Retinal structural changes in mood disorders: The optical coherence tomography to better understand physiopathology?

      Retinal structural changes in mood disorders: The optical coherence tomography to better understand physiopathology?

      Background Mood disorders are particularly common, disabling conditions. Diagnosis can be difficult as it may involve different pathophysiological assumptions. This could explain why such disorders are resistant to treatment. The retina is part of the central nervous system and shares a common embryonic origin with the brain. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique for analysing the different layers of the retina. We reviewed studies that examined the retina with OCT in mood disorders. Methods We conducted Pubmed search and additional manual research based on the bibliography in each of selected articles. We found and analysed 11 articles relevant ...

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    14. Review Highlights Role of OCT-A in Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Review Highlights Role of OCT-A in Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Although optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is an effective tool for understanding a number of retinal pathologies like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, the technology has recently been used to evaluate abnormalities presenting in several neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis , Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson disease . According to a review published in Eye and Brain, the use of OCT-A, a noninvasive imaging technique for analyzing the retinal and choroidal microvasculature in vivo, can play a pivotal role in the detection and monitoring of these disorders. “OCT-A captures multiple sequential B-scans performed repeatedly over a specific retinal area at high ...

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      Mentions: FDA
    15. University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Assessment of Meningeal Inflammation and its Clinical Impact in Multiple Sclerosis by 7 Tesla MRI

      University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for In Vivo Assessment of Meningeal Inflammation and its Clinical Impact in Multiple Sclerosis by 7 Tesla MRI

      University of Maryland Receives a 2020 NIH Grant for $609,639 for In Vivo Assessment of Meningeal Inflammation and its Clinical Impact in Multiple Sclerosis by 7 Tesla MRI. The principal investigator is Daniel Harrison. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Although MRI is the major diagnostic and prognostic tool used in the care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), many aspects of MS pathology are still not well visualized. Recent histopathologic studies in MS have shed light on a previously unrecognized phenomenon without a proven MRI correlate- meningeal inflammation. Pathologic data suggests that meningeal inflammation in MS ...

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    16. Cerebral tissue pO2 response to treadmill exercise in awake mice

      Cerebral tissue pO2 response to treadmill exercise in awake mice

      We exploited two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography to examine the cerebral blood flow and tissue pO 2 response to forced treadmill exercise in awake mice. To our knowledge, this is the first study performing both direct measure of brain tissue pO 2 during acute forced exercise and underlying microvascular response at capillary and non-capillary levels. We observed that cerebral perfusion and oxygenation are enhanced during running at 5 m/min compared to rest. At faster running speeds (10 and 15 m/min), decreasing trends in arteriolar and capillary flow speed were observed, which could be due to cerebral ...

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    17. Visual function tests including the role of optical coherence tomography in neurofibromatosis

      Visual function tests including the role of optical coherence tomography in neurofibromatosis

      Optic pathway glioma (OPG) is a common and significant complication of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1) that might lead to vision loss. The main reason to treat OPG is to preserve vision. Tumor location along the visual pathway largely dictates the presenting signs and symptoms. Clinical ophthalmic evaluation is focused on optic nerve functions including evaluation of pupils’ reaction to light, visual acuity, color vision, and visual field, as well as optic nerve appearance. An important relatively new ancillary test is optic coherence tomography (OCT) that measures the volume of retinal nerve fiber layer around the optic nerve and the ganglion cell ...

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    18. A neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography system enables in situ cerebrovascular volumetric microscopy

      A neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography system enables in situ cerebrovascular volumetric microscopy

      Intravascular imaging has emerged as a valuable tool for the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disease; however, no solution is available for safe and reliable use in the tortuous vascular anatomy of the brain. Endovascular treatment of stroke is delivered under image guidance with insufficient resolution to adequately assess underlying arterial pathology and therapeutic devices. High-resolution imaging, enabling surgeons to visualize cerebral arteries' microstructure and micron-level features of neurovascular devices, would have a profound impact in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we present a neurovascular high-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) system, including an imaging console ...

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    19. Validation of inter-eye difference thresholds in optical coherence tomography for identification of optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis

      Validation of inter-eye difference thresholds in optical coherence tomography for identification of optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis

      Objective To examine and validate thresholds for inter-eye differences in peripapillary retinal nerve fibre (pRNFL) and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic neuritis in MS. Methods In this two-centre, cross-sectional study, optical coherence tomography was performed in 340 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and MS. Cut-off values of inter-eye difference for identification of eyes with a history of unilateral ON were evaluated by receiver-operating characteristics analysis. Results For pRNFL ≥5 µm, sensitivity was 69% and specificity 68%, while for GCIPL ≥4 µm sensitivity was 67% and specificity 78%. The areas under the curve (AUC ...

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    20. Optical Coherent Tomography Predicts Long-Term Visual Outcome of Pituitary Adenoma Surgery: New Perspectives From a 5-Year Follow-up Study

      Optical Coherent Tomography Predicts Long-Term Visual Outcome of Pituitary Adenoma Surgery: New Perspectives From a 5-Year Follow-up Study

      BACKGROUND Compressive optic neuropathy is the most common indication for transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a useful visual assessment tool for predicting postoperative visual field recovery. OBJECTIVE To analyze visual parameters and their association based on long-term follow-up. METHODS Only pituitary adenoma patients with abnormal visual field defects were selected. A total of 188 eyes from 113 patients assessed by visual field index (VFI) and 262 eyes from 155 patients assessed by mean deviation (MD) were enrolled in this study. Postoperative VFI, MD, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were evaluated and followed up ...

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    21. Optical coherence tomography for detection of asymptomatic optic nerve lesions in clinically isolated syndrome

      Optical coherence tomography for detection of asymptomatic optic nerve lesions in clinically isolated syndrome

      Objective To evaluate the ability of intereye retinal thickness difference (IETD) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect asymptomatic optic nerve involvement in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients who recently presented a CIS (≤4.5 months). All patients underwent OCT and brain/optic nerve MRI. Optic nerve involvement was defined clinically (episode of optic neuritis [ON] or not) and radiologically (optic nerve hypersignal on 3D double inversion recovery [3D-DIR]). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of previously published IETD thresholds and report the observed optimal thresholds for identifying symptomatic optic nerve involvement ...

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    22. Optical coherence tomography: A useful tool for identifying subclinical optic neuropathy in diagnosing multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography: A useful tool for identifying subclinical optic neuropathy in diagnosing multiple sclerosis

      Care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has evolved in the last decade to shorten the time to confirm the diagnosis of clinically definite MS and to start disease-modifying drugs as soon as possible to decrease permanent disability and the risk of progressive disease. Such trends have been achieved by improving our understanding of the role of paraclinical tests such as the presence of oligoclonal bands on CSF examination, visual evoked potentials, or MRI imaging of the brain or spinal cord. Recently, the evidence that retinal damage detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a sensitive test for identifying MS-related ...

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    23. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Documenting Optic Nerve Involvement in an Aggressive T-Cell Lymphoma

      Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Documenting Optic Nerve Involvement in an Aggressive T-Cell Lymphoma

      Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive neoplasms. The involvement of ocular structures in haematological neoplasms is rare and usually associated with central nervous system involvement, which may occur as a result of orbital invasion and optic nerve infiltration. In this case report, we describe ocular findings using the novel swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in a case of aggressive T-cell lymphoma. SS-OCT has faster scanning speed, deeper tissue penetration due to its longer wavelength laser of 1050 nm and wider scanning areas. In the present case, SS-OCT was helpful in documenting increased retinal nerve fibre ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in Huntington’s disease

      Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in Huntington’s disease

      Objectives To evaluate the retinal and choriocapillaris vascular networks in macular region and the central choroidal thickness (CCT) in patients affected by Huntington disease (HD), using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain OCT (EDI SD-OCT). Methods We assessed the vessel density (VD) in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and choriocapillaris (CC) using OCTA, while CCT was measured by EDI SD-OCT. Results Sixteen HD patients (32 eyes) and thirteen healthy controls (26 eyes) were enrolled in this prospective study. No significant difference in retinal and choriocapillaris VD was found between HD patients and controls ...

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