1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 557 1 2 3 4 ... 22 23 24 »
    1. Optical coherence tomography angiography retinal vascular network assessment in multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography angiography retinal vascular network assessment in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a new method to assess the density of the vascular networks. Vascular abnormalities are considered involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Objective: To assess the presence of vascular abnormalities in MS and to evaluate their correlation to disease features. Methods: A total of 50 MS patients with and without history of optic neuritis (ON) and 46 healthy subjects were included. All underwent spectral domain (SD)-OCT and OCT angiography. Clinical history, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) and disease duration were collected. Results: Angio-OCT showed a vessel density reduction ...

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    2. Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in pituitary tumor

      A 32-year-old man with a pituitary tumor had bitemporal hemianopia (figure 1). Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) was reduced, which corresponded to visual field defects. OCT angiography showed a dropout of capillaries and correlated well with RNFL loss in the OCT (figure 2). Compressive optic neuropathy may be associated with loss of the retinal ganglion cell layer and impaired peripapillary retinal perfusion. OCT angiography may be helpful to detect various optic neuropathies and in analyzing the vascular status of the optic nerve head and RNFL.1

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    3. The contribution of optical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      The contribution of optical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

      Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) comprises a group of central nervous system disorders of inflammatory autoimmune origin that mainly affect the optic nerves and the spinal cord and can cause severe visual and general disability. The clinical signs are similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS), with the result that it is often difficult to differentiate between the two, thus leading to misdiagnosis. As the treatment and prognosis of NMOSD and MS are different, it is important to make an accurate and early diagnosis of NMOSD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that enables a quantitative study of ...

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    4. Optical coherence tomography and T cell gene expression analysis in patients with benign multiple sclerosis

      Optical coherence tomography and T cell gene expression analysis in patients with benign multiple sclerosis

      Benign multiple sclerosis is a retrospective diagnosis based primarily on a lack of motor symptom progression. Recent findings that suggest patients with benign multiple sclerosis experience non-motor symptoms highlight the need for a more prospective means to diagnose benign multiple sclerosis early in order to help direct patient care. In this study, we present optical coherence tomography and T cell neurotrophin gene analysis findings in a small number of patients with benign multiple sclerosis. Our results demonstrated that retinal nerve fiber layer was mildly thinned, and T cells had a distinct gene expression profile that included upregulation of interleukin 10 ...

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    5. Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) for optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis - Coric - 2017 - European Journal of Neurology - Wiley Online Library

      Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) for optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis - Coric - 2017 - European Journal of Neurology - Wiley Online Library

      Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) associated optic neuritis (MSON) causes atrophy of the inner retinal layers, which can be quantified by optical coherence tomography (OCT). It has been suggested that the Inter-Eye Percentage Difference (IEPD) of atrophy may be of diagnostic value in MSON. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study in MS patients and healthy controls (HC). Spectral-domain OCT of both eyes was performed, followed by automated retinal layer segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL). Receiver Operator Characteristics Curves were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Optical coherence tomography identifies outer retina thinning in frontotemporal degeneration

      Objective: Whereas Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with inner retina thinning visualized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we sought to determine if the retina has a distinguishing biomarker for frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined retinal structure in 38 consecutively enrolled patients with FTD and 44 controls using a standard SD-OCT protocol. Retinal layers were segmented with the Iowa Reference Algorithm. Subgroups of highly predictive molecular pathology (tauopathy, TAR DNA–binding protein 43, unknown) were determined by clinical criteria, genetic markers, and a CSF biomarker (total tau: β-amyloid) to exclude presumed AD. We excluded eyes ...

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    7. Feature Of The Week 09/03/2017: Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      Feature Of The Week 09/03/2017: Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      A visible light spectral domain optical coherence microscopy system was developed. A high axial resolution of 0.88 μm in tissue was achieved using a broad visible light spectrum (425 – 685 nm). Healthy human brain tissue was imaged to quantify the difference between white (WM) and grey matter (GM) in intensity and attenuation. The high axial resolution enables the investigation of amyloid-beta plaques of various sizes in human brain tissue and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). By performing a spectroscopic analysis of the OCM data, differences in the characteristics for WM, GM, and neuritic amyloid-beta plaques were found ...

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    8. OCT based evaluation of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      OCT based evaluation of retinal changes in multiple sclerosis

      Background: Optical coherence tomography is a non-invasive imaging technique routinely used in ophthalmology to visualize and quantify the layers of the retina. It also provides information on optic nerve head topography, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and macular volume which correlate with axonal loss. These measurements are of interest in optic neuropathies and in multiple sclerosis. The OCT parameters are now used as endpoints in neurologic clinical trials. Methods: A prospective study involving 30 patients of multiple sclerosis and equal number of age and sex matched controls were subjected to evaluation of retinal changes (peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer ...

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    9. Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Researchers seek to catch Alzheimer's early by peeking into the eyes

      Mark Wolff wanted to know. To him, the thought of suffering through Alzheimer's disease the way his father did—without knowing, and without his family knowing, what he was up against until late in its progression— is worse than learning, even while he's still perfectly healthy, that a possible precursor of the disease has gained a toehold Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-08-alzheimer-early-peeking-eyes.html#jCp

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    10. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $474,273 for Multimodal Mapping of the Neurocircuitry of the Human Prefontal Cortex. The principal investigator is Anastasia Yendiki. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The objective of the proposed research is to map the organization of human white matter (WM) with cutting-edge ex vivo imaging technologies. This work will produce microscopic-level information on several long-range WM projections, as well as a more targeted mapping of circuits that serve the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These circuits are of particular interest in ...

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    11. The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology

      Purpose of review In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. Recent findings Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss ...

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    12. Advances in glaucoma management blur the barriers between subspecialties

      Advances in glaucoma management blur the barriers between subspecialties

      Glaucoma management has undergone significant advancements in recent years. New minimally invasive surgical options have become available, filling in the gap between medical management and major surgeries such as trabeculectomy and tubes. On the diagnostic side, OCT technology has allowed a better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma and more accurate monitoring of the effects of treatment, and has broadened the view to new imaging markers for progression. Glaucoma has opened up as a subspecialty to share areas of interest with other subspecialties and even other branches of medicine. “The life of a glaucoma specialist has become a lot busier ...

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    13. Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      Spectroscopic imaging with spectral domain visible light optical coherence microscopy in Alzheimer’s disease brain samples

      A visible light spectral domain optical coherence microscopy system was developed. A high axial resolution of 0.88 µm in tissue was achieved using a broad visible light spectrum (425 − 685 nm). Healthy human brain tissue was imaged to quantify the difference between white (WM) and grey matter (GM) in intensity and attenuation. The high axial resolution enables the investigation of amyloid-beta plaques of various sizes in human brain tissue and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). By performing a spectroscopic analysis of the OCM data, differences in the characteristics for WM, GM, and neuritic amyloid-beta plaques were found ...

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    14. Advanced Imaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis: Lessons from Interventional Cardiology

      Advanced Imaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis: Lessons from Interventional Cardiology

      ntracranial atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Patients with a high degree of stenosis have a significant rate of stroke despite medical therapy. Two randomized trials of stenting have failed to show benefit. Improving peri-procedural complication rates and patient selection may improve stenting outcomes. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are intravascular imaging techniques employed to improve patient selection and stent placement in interventional cardiology. FFR has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes when used in patient selection for intervention. Studies of FFR in intracranial atherosclerosis show that the measure may predict ...

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    15. Cornell University Receives NIH Grant for Development of Hybrid Adaptive Optics for Multimodal Microscopy Deep in The Mouse Brain

      Cornell University Receives NIH Grant for Development of Hybrid Adaptive Optics for Multimodal Microscopy Deep in The Mouse Brain

      Cornell University Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $244,625 for Development of Hybrid Adaptive Optics for Multimodal Microscopy Deep in The Mouse Brain. The principal investigator is Steven Adie. The program began in 2017 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Optical imaging holds tremendous promise in our endeavor to understand brain functions. The major challenges for optical brain imaging are depth and speed. Due to strong tissue scattering, the penetration depth and imaging speed of optical microscopy in the mouse brain is very limited. These constraints in depth and speed make large scale ...

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    16. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives  NIH Grant for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $603,912 for Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation. The principal investigator is Bruce Fischl. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The human brain is made up of an array of functionally and structurally defined regions. Localizing these regions is critical for early diagnosis of an array of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as for neuroscientific research aimed at understanding the brain's functional and structural properties and clinical intervention in drug-resistant depression ...

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    17. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Neuronal and Axonal Measures on Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

      Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Neuronal and Axonal Measures on Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

      Background: With increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, it is important to evaluate whether the SD-OCT measurements are repeatable and reproducible in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with AD or MCI with no change in global clinical dementia rating (CDR) score at 1-year follow-up were eligible to be included. (GC-IPL) Macular ganglion-cell inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiver layer (RNFL ...

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    18. Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight–associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts ...

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    19. Whole mouse brain imaging using optical coherence tomography: reconstruction, normalization, segmentation, and comparison with diffusion MRI

      Whole mouse brain imaging using optical coherence tomography: reconstruction, normalization, segmentation, and comparison with diffusion MRI

      An automated massive histology setup combined with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope was used to image a total of n = 5 n=5 whole mouse brains. Each acquisition generated a dataset of thousands of OCT volumetric tiles at a sampling resolution of 4.9 × 4.9 × 6.5    μ m 4.9×4.9×6.5  μm . This paper describes techniques for reconstruction and segmentation of the sliced brains. In addition to the measured OCT optical reflectivity, a single scattering photon model was used to compute the attenuation coefficients within each tissue slice. Average mouse brain templates were generated for ...

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    20. New predictive value of optical coherence tomography analysis in the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      New predictive value of optical coherence tomography analysis in the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      Objective Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) was first reported in 1897 as “Pseudo tumor Cerebri” when lumbar puncture was initiated in medicine. However, it is still a challenging diagnosis for many neurologists and ophthalmologists. Likewise, the sequela of IIH can be debilitating overall health and quality of life in most patients. This report presents the evolving diagnostic modalities that are different from mainstream IIH reports on gender, obesity and headaches ratios. We believe, using standard optical coherence tomography (OCT) can allow for a much earlier and more accurate diagnosis of IIH, with marked reduction in visual loss morbidity.Methods Retrospective, observational ...

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    21. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Background/Aims To identify the retinal vascular pathologies in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD) through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. Methods Our study included 26 patients in the patient group, and age-matched and sex-matched 26 subjects in the control group. A detailed ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed for all subjects included in the study. The retinal, choroidal vascular structures and choroidal thickness (CT) of all subjects were analysed in a detailed way with a commercial spectral domain OCTA. Moreover, all participants underwent detailed neurological examination including Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test to evaluate cognitive function ...

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    22. Potential of new generation double-layer micromesh stent for carotid artery stenting in patients with unstable plaque ∼ A preliminary result using OFDI analysis ∼

      Potential of new generation double-layer micromesh stent for carotid artery stenting in patients with unstable plaque ∼ A preliminary result using OFDI analysis ∼

      Background One of the disadvantages of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is high incidence of distal embolism (DE) during or after the procedure. It has been reported that unstable plaque cases are at high risk of DE and plaque protrusion (PP) after stent placement which will become a cause of post procedural ischemic complications. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the rate and size of PP between CASPER stent which is a new generation double-layer micromesh stent and conventional stents detected by optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and to evaluate the efficacy of CAS with CASPER stent for ...

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    23. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO MEASURE EFFECTS OF AUTOLOGOUS MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PATIENTS (Thesis)

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO MEASURE EFFECTS OF AUTOLOGOUS MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PATIENTS (Thesis)

      Anterior visual pathway disease affects >50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitors MS-related retinal degeneration. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thinning in MS correlates with clinical and visual disability, and brain atrophy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are immunomodulatory in MS animal models, targeting inflammatory CNS injury. A recent Cleveland Clinic phase 1 trial demonstrated feasibility/tolerability of autologous MSC transplant in MS patients. My study analyzed GCL and RNFL relationships with clinical, visual, and MRI measures, before and after MSC transplant. MSC transplant affected no differences from baseline to 6 months ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
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