1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      Space Flight–Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome

      New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight–associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts ...

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    2. Whole mouse brain imaging using optical coherence tomography: reconstruction, normalization, segmentation, and comparison with diffusion MRI

      Whole mouse brain imaging using optical coherence tomography: reconstruction, normalization, segmentation, and comparison with diffusion MRI

      An automated massive histology setup combined with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope was used to image a total of n = 5 n=5 whole mouse brains. Each acquisition generated a dataset of thousands of OCT volumetric tiles at a sampling resolution of 4.9 × 4.9 × 6.5    μ m 4.9×4.9×6.5  μm . This paper describes techniques for reconstruction and segmentation of the sliced brains. In addition to the measured OCT optical reflectivity, a single scattering photon model was used to compute the attenuation coefficients within each tissue slice. Average mouse brain templates were generated for ...

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    3. New predictive value of optical coherence tomography analysis in the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      New predictive value of optical coherence tomography analysis in the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

      Objective Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) was first reported in 1897 as “Pseudo tumor Cerebri” when lumbar puncture was initiated in medicine. However, it is still a challenging diagnosis for many neurologists and ophthalmologists. Likewise, the sequela of IIH can be debilitating overall health and quality of life in most patients. This report presents the evolving diagnostic modalities that are different from mainstream IIH reports on gender, obesity and headaches ratios. We believe, using standard optical coherence tomography (OCT) can allow for a much earlier and more accurate diagnosis of IIH, with marked reduction in visual loss morbidity.Methods Retrospective, observational ...

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    4. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Evaluation of optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in Alzheimer’s type dementia

      Background/Aims To identify the retinal vascular pathologies in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD) through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. Methods Our study included 26 patients in the patient group, and age-matched and sex-matched 26 subjects in the control group. A detailed ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed for all subjects included in the study. The retinal, choroidal vascular structures and choroidal thickness (CT) of all subjects were analysed in a detailed way with a commercial spectral domain OCTA. Moreover, all participants underwent detailed neurological examination including Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test to evaluate cognitive function ...

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    5. Potential of new generation double-layer micromesh stent for carotid artery stenting in patients with unstable plaque ∼ A preliminary result using OFDI analysis ∼

      Potential of new generation double-layer micromesh stent for carotid artery stenting in patients with unstable plaque ∼ A preliminary result using OFDI analysis ∼

      Background One of the disadvantages of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is high incidence of distal embolism (DE) during or after the procedure. It has been reported that unstable plaque cases are at high risk of DE and plaque protrusion (PP) after stent placement which will become a cause of post procedural ischemic complications. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the rate and size of PP between CASPER stent which is a new generation double-layer micromesh stent and conventional stents detected by optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and to evaluate the efficacy of CAS with CASPER stent for ...

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    6. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO MEASURE EFFECTS OF AUTOLOGOUS MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PATIENTS (Thesis)

      OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO MEASURE EFFECTS OF AUTOLOGOUS MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PATIENTS (Thesis)

      Anterior visual pathway disease affects >50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitors MS-related retinal degeneration. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thinning in MS correlates with clinical and visual disability, and brain atrophy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are immunomodulatory in MS animal models, targeting inflammatory CNS injury. A recent Cleveland Clinic phase 1 trial demonstrated feasibility/tolerability of autologous MSC transplant in MS patients. My study analyzed GCL and RNFL relationships with clinical, visual, and MRI measures, before and after MSC transplant. MSC transplant affected no differences from baseline to 6 months ...

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      Mentions: Cleveland Clinic
    7. Persistent Asymmetric Optic Disc Swelling After Long-Duration Space Flight: Implications for Pathogenesis

      Persistent Asymmetric Optic Disc Swelling After Long-Duration Space Flight: Implications for Pathogenesis

      Background: Several ophthalmic findings including optic disc swelling, globe flattening and choroidal folds have been observed in astronauts following long-duration space flight. The authors now report asymmetric choroidal expansion, disc swelling and optic disc morphologic changes in a 45-year-old astronaut which occurred during long-duration space flight and persisted following his space mission. Methods: Case study of ocular findings in an astronaut documented during and after a long-duration space flight of approximately 6 months. Before, during and after his spaceflight, he underwent complete eye examination, including fundus photography, ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography. Results: We documented asymmetric choroidal expansion inflight that ...

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    8. Focal Capillary Dropout Associated With Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography

      Focal Capillary Dropout Associated With Optic Disc Drusen Using Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography

      Optic disc drusen may be a cause of visual field defects and visual loss. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We report a patient who developed decreased vision in the right eye and was found to have a heavy burden of superficial optic disc drusen. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed focal retinal nerve fiber layer thinning that corresponded with the distribution of drusen. OCT angiography, with superficial laminar segmentation, showed focal capillary attenuation overlying the most prominent drusen. These findings demonstrate alterations in the superficial retinal capillary network associated with optic disc drusen.

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    9. Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      Juvenile Macular Degenerations

      In this paper we review three common juvenile macular degenerations: Stargardt disease, X-linked retinoschisis, and Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. These are inherited disorders that typically present during childhood, when vision is still developing. They are sufficiently common that they should be included in the differential diagnosis of visual loss in pediatric patients. Diagnosis is secured by a combination of clinical findings, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, and genetic testing. Early diagnosis promotes optimal management. While there is currently no definitive cure for these conditions, therapeutic modalities under investigation include pharmacologic treatment, gene therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

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    10. Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Chicago Style Research Article Open Access Peer-reviewed Dimensionality Reduction of Optical Coherence Tomography Images for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Sandeep C S , Sukesh Kumar A , K Mahadevan , Manoj P American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering . 2017 , 5(2), 58-63. DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-5-2-4 Published online: April 27, 2017 Alzheimer’s disease OCT early diagnosis wavelons Full Text Authors Metrics Citations Related Content Licencing Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative process, which ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography as a marker of neurodegeneration in patients with Wilson’s disease

      Optical coherence tomography as a marker of neurodegeneration in patients with Wilson’s disease

      Wilson’s disease (WD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder that leads to pathological copper accumulation in different organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed as a marker of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Thinning of the total retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thickness (Mth) examined by OCT was detected in patients with WD, especially those with brain magnetic resonance imaging changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OCT parameters and the progression of neurological signs measured by the Unified Wilson’s Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) in patients with WD. Consecutive patients with ...

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    12. The Retina In Multiple System Atrophy: Review and Meta-Analysis

      The Retina In Multiple System Atrophy: Review and Meta-Analysis

      Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, adult-onset, rapidly progressive fatal synucleinopathy that primarily affects oligodendroglial cells in the brain. Patients with MSA only rarely have visual complaints but recent studies of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed atrophy of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to a lesser extent the macular ganglion cell layer complex. Methods: We performed a literature review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before January 2017, identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases, which reported OCT-related outcomes in patients with MSA and controls. A random-effects model was ...

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    13. Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography As a New Diagnostic Marker for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus | Neurology

      Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography As a New Diagnostic Marker for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus | Neurology

      Purpose: Characterized by a progressive onset of gait disturbances, dementia, and urinary incontinence, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered a rare, but under-diagnosed disease. Non-invasive diagnostic markers are still insufficient to enable the diagnosis of iNPH with certainty and yet early treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting can reverse symptoms and stop disease progression. Vascular circulation abnormalities in iNPH may be reflected by changes in subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPChT). This study uses spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-based measures of retinal and choroidal thickness to test this hypothesis and to assess ophthalmological non-invasive markers for iNPH. Methods: Twelve ...

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    14. Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

      Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

      Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection. In this paper, we report a novel frequency-domain (FD) algorithm to enable robust and fast characterization of optical ...

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    15. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

      Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

      Background Research in bipolar disorder suggests the presence of structural brain abnormalities. It is not clear whether these findings are trait markers or operate with the onset and progress with disease severity and duration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that detects degenerative changes in the retina reflecting brain degeneration. This study aimed at detecting these changes and relating them to disease severity and clinical characteristics. Methods A case-control study conducted in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine hospital, Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Forty inpatients with bipolar disorder -according to the 4 th edition of the Diagnostic and ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuroretinitis: Epipapillary Infiltrates and Retinal Folds

      Neuroretinitis is a form of papillitis associated with the delayed onset of an exudative macular star among other inflammatory ocular findings. We describe 4 patients with neuroretinitis who displayed several distinctive and novel findings on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) that include "epipapillary infiltrates" and an atypical pattern of inner retinal folds. The recognition of these findings on OCT may help in the early diagnosis of neuroretinitis.

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    17. Spiking cortical model based non-local means method for despeckling multiframe optical coherence tomography data

      Spiking cortical model based non-local means method for despeckling multiframe optical coherence tomography data

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are severely degraded by speckle noise. Existing methods for despeckling multiframe OCT data cannot deliver sufficient speckle suppression while preserving image details well. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM) based non-local means (NLM) method has been proposed in this letter. In the proposed method, the considered frame and two neighboring frames are input into three SCMs to generate the temporal series of pulse outputs. The normalized moment of inertia (NMI) of the considered patches in the pulse outputs is extracted to represent the rotational and scaling invariant features of the corresponding patches ...

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    18. Scientists look FTD in the eye

      Scientists look FTD in the eye

      A routine eye test may help clinicians identify early signs of at least one form of FTD according to a new study published on April 12 in Science Translational Medicine. The study, led by Li Gan and Ari Green at the University of California in San Francisco, found that people heterozygous for progranulin (GRN) mutations without cognitive symptoms exhibited twice the number of lipid-rich deposits, known as lipofuscin, in the retina than age and gender-matched controls. What’s more, these deposits could be detected post-mortem in more than 60% of cortical neurons in the frontal cortex – a key region affected ...

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      Mentions: UCSF
    19. A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      A Comparative Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 3 and 10

      SCA3 presents with a CAG expansion at 14q24.3-q32 while SCA10 shows an ATTCT expansion at 22q13-qter. SCA10 seems to be less aggressive than SCA3. For an in vivo, noninvasive approach of the correlation between central nervous system and clinical evolution, we can use optic coherence tomography (OCT) to measure retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness. To describe OCT findings in SCA10, correlate it with expansion size and disease severity and compare with those of SCA3. We analyzed ten individuals with SCA3 and nine with SCA10 recruited from the neurology service of Hospital de Clínicas ...

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    20. Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Monitoring the Course of MS With Optical Coherence Tomography

      Retinae of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as part of the central nervous system (CNS), display inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. There is increasing evidence suggesting that retinal changes, and in particular neurodegeneration, mirror global CNS alterations in MS. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is an inexpensive, rapid, non-invasive, and reproducible imaging technique that generates high-resolution images of tissues such as the retina. An advantage of SD-OCT over magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the assessment of neurodegeneration may be its sensitivity to capture changes at the individual patient level. Several studies demonstrate that changes within the inner retina (primarily as ...

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    21. UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      UCDavis Receives NIH Grant for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy

      University of California at Davis Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $78,500 for Improving Penetration Depth and Spatial Resolution for In Vivo Deep Imaging of Mouse Brain Using 2200nm Optical Coherence Microscopy. The principal investigator is Shau Chong. The program began in 20-17 and ends in 2-019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subcortical pathology is a common feature in aging, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia but has been challenging to study with micron resolution in vivo. Optical methods such as two-photon microscopy image the superficial cortex at the micron-scale, but the resolution of these conventional ...

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    22. Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Optical Coherence Angiographic Demonstration of Retinal Changes From Chronic Optic Neuropathies

      Glaucoma causes a decrease in peripapillary perfused capillary density on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. However, other chronic optic neuropathies have not been explored with OCT angiography to see if these changes were specific to glaucoma. The authors evaluated OCT angiography in 10 patients who suffered various kinds of chronic optic neuropathies, including optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy, and found that all optic neuropathies showed a decrease in peripapillary vessel density on OCT angiography, regardless of the aetiology of the optic neuropathy. The peripapillary vessel loss on OCT angiography correlated well with the areas of retinal nerve fibre layer ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

      Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has demonstrated good utility in qualitative analysis of retinal and choroidal vasculature and therefore may be relevant in the diagnostic and treatment efforts surrounding nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 10 eyes of 9 patients with a previous or new diagnosis of NAION that received imaging with OCTA between November 2015 and February 2016. Two independent readers qualitatively analyzed the retinal peripapillary capillaries (RPC) and peripapillary choriocapillaris (PCC) for flow impairment. Findings were compared with automated visual field and structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies. Results: Flow impairment seen ...

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    24. Optical Coherence Tomography and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Pressure

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Pressure

      Glaucoma is defined as an optic neuropathy, primarily induced by an intraocular pressure (IOP) that is higher than the optic nerve can tolerate. But what determines the pressure the optic nerve can tolerate? Seemingly, the answer is that the pressure a given optic nerve can tolerate is related to the eye’s biomechanics, local optic nerve anatomy, optic nerve perfusion, and finally the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pressure. The CSF pressure serves as the back pressure on the optic disc, and a growing body of evidence shows that eyes with a lower CSF pressure are more susceptible to glaucoma. One ...

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