1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 426 1 2 3 4 ... 16 17 18 »
    1. Ophthalmological assessment of OCT and electrophysiological changes in migraine patients

      Ophthalmological assessment of OCT and electrophysiological changes in migraine patients

      Background: A cross-sectional study to investigate the morphological and functional changes of the visual pathway, taking place in patients with migraine. Methods: Fifteen patients (14 female, 1 male) diagnosed with migraine with aura (MA group) and 23 patients (21 female, 2 male) diagnosed with migraine without aura (MO group) were compared to 20 healthy volunteers (18 Female, 2 male). All the participants underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan, electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) recording. Results: Assessing ERG recordings, no significant differences in mean N1-P1 amplitudes were measured among the groups. The mean VEP N80-P100 amplitudes ...

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    2. Review of optical coherence tomography based angiography in neuroscience

      Review of optical coherence tomography based angiography in neuroscience

      The brain is a complex ecosystem, consisting of multiple layers and tissue compartments. To facilitate the understanding of its function and its response to neurological insults, a fast in vivo imaging tool with a micron-level resolution, which can provide a field of view at a few millimeters, is desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution ( ∼ 10    μ m ∼10  μm ) and without a need for contrast agents. Recent development of OCT-based angiography has started to shed some new light on cerebral hemodynamics in neuroscience. We give an overview of the recent ...

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    3. Macular Ganglion Cell Layer and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness in Patients with Unilateral Posterior Cerebral Artery Ischaemic Lesion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      Macular Ganglion Cell Layer and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness in Patients with Unilateral Posterior Cerebral Artery Ischaemic Lesion: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

      The purpose of this study is to evaluate the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with unilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ischaemic lesions using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A prospective, case-control study of patients with unilateral PCA lesion was conducted in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Macular and peripapillary SD-OCT scans were performed in both eyes of each patient. Twelve patients with PCA lesions (stroke group) and 12 healthy normal controls were included in this study. Peripapillary RNFL comparison between both eyes of the same subject in ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Detection of Remote Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography for the Detection of Remote Optic Neuritis in Multiple Sclerosis

      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence of remote optic neuritis is often used to support a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide qualitative and quantitative data on the retina, where the effects of optic neuritis can be seen. Our aim was to determine whether there is a quantitative difference in retinal structures in eyes with optic neuritis compared with those without, and which measures were best able to discriminate eyes with a history of optic neuritis from nonoptic neuritis eyes in MS patients. METHODS We performed a prospective cohort study of 30 MS-optic neuritis patients, 22 MS-nonoptic ...

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      Mentions: Peter K. Kaiser
    5. Photodynamic therapy in VEGF inhibition non-responders—pharmacogenetic study in age-related macular degeneration assessed with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Photodynamic therapy in VEGF inhibition non-responders—pharmacogenetic study in age-related macular degeneration assessed with swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Background Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) remains a major challenge in ophthalmology. It is essential to determine which of VEGF inhibition non-responders can benefit from photodynamic therapy (PDT). As AMD is strongly related to gene polymorphisms, genetic factors can modify efficacy of treatment. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) gives exceptional insight into the retina and choroid. SS-OCT usefulness needs to be evaluated in nAMD patients. Methods Prospective 6-month study included consecutive 110 patients (110 eyes) with predominantly classic neovascular AMD treated with photodynamic therapy. Only non-responders to anti-VEGF were included in the study. Greatest linear dimension (GLD) of ...

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    6. Laboratory tests of headache disorders – dawn of a new era?

      Laboratory tests of headache disorders – dawn of a new era?

      Context The classification of headache disorders has improved over the years, but further work is needed to develop and improve headache diagnosis within headache subtypes. The present review is a call for action to implement laboratory tests in the classification and management of primary and some secondary headaches. Background In this narrative review we present and discuss published tests that might be useful in phenotyping and/or diagnosis of long-lasting headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, trigeminal neuralgia and persisting secondary headaches. Aim The palpometer test, quantitative sensory testing, nociceptive blink reflex and autonomic tests may ...

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    7. Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of monocular visual loss related to retinal ischemia

      Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of monocular visual loss related to retinal ischemia

      We report four patients with monocular visual loss for whom optical coherence tomography (OCT) was helpful in distinguishing the sequelae of retinal artery occlusion from those of primary optic neuropathy. Determinations of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as well as macular retinal layer thicknesses and architecture were used. The major findings in our patients show that changes in the inner retinal layers (including ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer) with disruption of normal macular architecture supports a diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion. Our results support the use of OCT imaging for patients with monocular visual loss of ...

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      Mentions: Laura J. Balcer
    8. Neurodegeneration in ocular and central nervous systems: optical coherence tomography study in normal-tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

      Neurodegeneration in ocular and central nervous systems: optical coherence tomography study in normal-tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

      Background/aim: To evaluate, in vivo, the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and those with Alzheimer disease (AD) in comparison with healthy subjects. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 18 patients with NTG, 20 with AD, and 20 control subjects. An ophthalmologic examination and OCT scans of both eyes were performed in all patients. Results: There was a significant reduction in peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular GCC thickness and a significant increase in the global loss volume (GLV) rate in both the ...

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    9. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development

      University of Houston Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $424,849 for Optical Coherence Tomography to Study Effect of Poly-Drug Exposure of Fetal Brain Development. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2020. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The overall objective of this study is to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based high- resolution mouse embryonic brain imaging and analysis approach, and to use this method in correlation with molecular analysis to understand the interplay between ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (NIC) effects on embryonic brain development. Maternal exposures to ...

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    10. Optical coherence tomography parameters in patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

      Optical coherence tomography parameters in patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

      Purpose Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is commonly associated with photoparoxysmal response (PPR) with a reported prevalence of 25-42%. In this study, we aim to explore the relationship between the PPR and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) parameters in order to determine whether optic nerve fiber layer or other structural differences have a pathophysiological role of photosensitivity in patients with JME. Methods We studied 53 consecutive patients with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) at our outpatient department. The interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) findings for each patient were analysed for the presence of photoparoxysmal features. The peripapillary Retina Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL) thickness, ganglion cell ...

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    11. Optical coherence tomography and electrophysiology of retinal and visual pathways in Wilson’s disease

      Optical coherence tomography and electrophysiology of retinal and visual pathways in Wilson’s disease

      We evaluated correlations between positive findings of changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and selected morphological and electrophysiological parameters of the retinal and visual systems in Wilson’s disease. Fifty-eight Wilson’s disease symptomatic patients were divided according to whether they displayed brain changes on MRI (positive, n = 39; negative, n = 19). All participants and healthy control group ( n = 30), underwent retinal optical coherence tomography to assess the thickness of macula and the total retinal nerve fiber layer. Visual evoked potentials were measured and electroretinography was performed. Macular and retinal nerve fibers were thinner in participants with changes on ...

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    12. Visualizing Cortical Tissue Optical Changes During Seizure Activity with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Visualizing Cortical Tissue Optical Changes During Seizure Activity with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a label-free, high resolution, minimally invasive imaging tool, which can produce millimeter depth-resolved cross-sectional images. We identified changes in the backscattered intensity of infrared light, which occurred during the development of induced seizures in vivo in mice. In a large region of interest, we observed significant decreases in the OCT intensity from cerebral cortex tissue preceding and during generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We then leveraged the full spatiotemporal resolution of OCT by studying the temporal evolution of localized changes in backscattered intensity in three dimensions and analyzed the seizure propagation in time-resolved ...

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    13. Use of Ocular Coherence Tomography in Children with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension- A Single Center Experience

      Use of Ocular Coherence Tomography in Children with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension- A Single Center Experience

      Background Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension is a disorder characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without an identifiable etiology. Detection of papilledema may be challenging and leads to diagnostic uncertainty in evaluating a child for possible Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Ocular coherence tomography has the potential to add accuracy to the diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Objective The goal of the present study was to determine if there was a relationship between severity of papilledema (as determined by direct ophthalmoscopy and confirmed by fundus photography) and measures of ocular coherence tomography in a pediatric population with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Methods Thirteen pediatric patients were ...

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    14. Brown University Receives NIH Grant for Microscopic Imaging of Neuro-Capillary Coupling In Brain Cortex.

      Brown University Receives NIH Grant for Microscopic Imaging of Neuro-Capillary Coupling In Brain Cortex.

      Brown University Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for Microscopic Imaging of Neuro-Capillary Coupling In Brain Cortex. The prinipal investigator is Jonghwan Lee. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables um-resolution and high-speed imaging of tissue structure, facilitating a number of basic and clinical studies in ophthalmology, cancer biology, and neuroscience. Through the proposed K99/R00 program, the candidate will develop novel OCT-based technologies for um-resolution imaging of tissue dynamics, especially in the brain cortex of a living animal. In detail, the candidate will develop three technologies for imaging various vascular and cellular dynamics occurring ...

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    15. Retinal involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study with optical coherence tomography and diffusion tensor imaging

      Retinal involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study with optical coherence tomography and diffusion tensor imaging

      Although motor neuron degeneration is the predominant feature in ALS, recent data point to a more widespread pathology also comprising non-motor symptoms. Retinal thinning has been reported in a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Yet, studies of retinal involvement in ALS are sparse and results are heterogeneous. We studied retinal alterations in ALS using a systematic approach combining Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and clinical phenotyping. We hypothesized that selective changes of specific retinal layers may be a reflection of overall neurodegeneration as measured by DTI. Spectral domain OCT images were analyzed to calculate the average thickness of ...

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    16. Diagnostic Optical Imaging Technology and Its Principles (Book Chapter)

      Diagnostic Optical Imaging Technology and Its Principles (Book Chapter)

      Analysis of tissue structures is important for investigating pathological changes and diagnosing neural diseases. Recent advances in ophthalmology regarding the diagnosis of neurosensory retinal diseases have introduced optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a near-infrared imaging modality to provide noninvasive and real-time imaging and sensing with ultrahigh resolution for imaging subsurface cross sections of the human retina. This chapter gives a brief overview and the basic principles of this emerging optical imaging modality.

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      Mentions: Korea University
    17. Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of subcortical mouse brain regions with 1.7  μm optical coherence tomography

      Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of subcortical mouse brain regions with 1.7  μm optical coherence tomography

      A spectral/Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) intravital microscope using a supercontinuum light source at 1.7 μm was developed to study subcortical structures noninvasively in the living mouse brain. The benefits of 1.7 μm for deep tissue brain imaging are demonstrated by quantitatively comparing OCT signal attenuation characteristics of cortical tissue across visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Imaging of hippocampal tissue architecture and white matter microvasculature are demonstrated in vivo through thinned-skull, glass coverslip-reinforced cranial windows in mice. Applications of this novel platform include monitoring disease progression and pathophysiology in rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease and subcortical ...

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    18. Leading Edge Collaboration in Eye-Related Research Earns Investigators at NYU Langone Medical Center, Johns Hopkins, and the UT Southwestern Medical Center the 2015 Barancik Prize for Innovation in MS Research

      Leading Edge Collaboration in Eye-Related Research Earns Investigators at NYU Langone Medical Center, Johns Hopkins, and the UT Southwestern Medical Center the 2015 Barancik Prize for Innovation in MS Research

      The collaborative team of Drs. Laura Balcer , Peter Calabresi and Elliot Frohman have been selected as the winners of the 2015 Barancik Prize for Innovation in MS Research. This team of physician-scientists have worked together for almost 10 years to produce novel, ground-breaking and impactful research about the anatomy and biology of the retina and other structures of the eye in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In their more than 50 publications, the team has literally "written the book" when it comes to applying optical coherence tomography (OCT), a common and easy-to-use eye scanning technique, to study MS. Thanks in ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Reliable Monitor of MS Disease Progression

      Optical Coherence Tomography Reliable Monitor of MS Disease Progression

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be useful in monitoring multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression, and may be suitable as an investigative outcome in trials, research indicates. The study, published in Annals of Neurology, aimed to determine whether brain atrophy — as seen with OCT — was a valid indicator of neuronal tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Shiv Saidha, MD, of Johns Hopkins University, and colleagues analyzed individual rates of change in retinal and brain structure measures using 3T MRI and cirrus high-definition OCT in 107 patients with MS.

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography for the Neurologist

      Optical Coherence Tomography for the Neurologist

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new technology that is now routinely and very widely used by ophthalmologists for structural documentation of the optic nerve and retina. In neuro-ophthalmology and neurology, the value of OCT is ever expanding; its role in an increasing number of conditions is being reported in parallel with the advances of the technology. Currently, as a clinical tool, OCT is particularly useful for the structural measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, optic nerve head volumetric analysis, and macular anatomy. Optic neuropathies of varied etiology (particularly from multiple sclerosis) may be the most common ...

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      Mentions: Laura J. Balcer
    21. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: A four-year study

      Objective The aim of this work was to determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Cirrus high-definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46 months). Three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and ...

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    22. Wide-field optical coherence microscopy of the mouse brain slice

      Wide-field optical coherence microscopy of the mouse brain slice

      The imaging capability of optical coherence microscopy (OCM) has great potential to be used in neuroscience research because it is able to visualize anatomic features of brain tissue without labeling or external contrast agents. However, the field of view of OCM is still narrow, which dilutes the strength of OCM and limits its application. In this study, we present fully automated wide-field OCM for mosaic imaging of sliced mouse brains. A total of 308 segmented OCM images were acquired, stitched, and reconstructed as an en-face brain image after intensive imaging processing. The overall imaging area was 11.2 × 7.0 ...

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    23. Optical Coherence Tomography Can Detect Intracranial Hypertension in Young Children with Craniosynostosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Can Detect Intracranial Hypertension in Young Children with Craniosynostosis

      Detecting intracranial hypertension (ICH) in children with craniosynostosis may enable timely intervention to prevent nerocognitive impalement, but is invasive and often equivocal with convention methods.  Optical Coherence Tomography (OCDT) can noninvasively quantify retinal thickness using high-resolution ultrasound.

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    1-24 of 426 1 2 3 4 ... 16 17 18 »
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