1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 397 1 2 3 4 ... 15 16 17 »
    1. MGH Receives NIH Grant for Developing Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentatio

      MGH Receives NIH Grant for Developing Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentatio

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2015 NIH Grant for $587,704 for developing Algorithms for MR and OCT-Based Architectonic and Laminar Segmentation. The principal investigator is Bruce Fischl. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. The human brain is made up of an array of functionally and structurally defined regions. Localizing these regions is critical for early diagnosis of an array of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as for neuroscientific research aimed at understanding the brain's functional and structural properties and clinical intervention in drug-resistant ...

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    2. Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

      Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is likely to start as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) several years before the its full-blown clinical manifestation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to detect a loss in peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and a reduction in macular thickness and volume of people affected by MCI or AD. Here, we performed an aggregate meta-analysis combining results from different studies. Methods and Findings Data sources were case-control studies published between January 2001 and August 2014 (identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases) that examined the RNFL thickness by means ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    3. Optical coherence tomography as a tool to evaluate retinal changes in Parkinson’s disease

      Optical coherence tomography as a tool to evaluate retinal changes in Parkinson’s disease

      Background Though Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a disease of the basal ganglia, recent evidence suggests that PD affects the retina. Objective The study was designed to evaluate the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and thickness and volume of the macula in PD and hence explore the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in studying retinal changes in PD. Methods A prospective, hospital based evaluation of 30 patients with PD and 30 healthy controls was carried out. Various parameters such as RNFL, central macular thickness (CMT), central and total macular volumes (TMV) and retinal thickness were analyzed ...

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    4. Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Objective: To investigate whether patients with moyamoya angiopathy without obvious retinal pathologies such as retinal infarctions or the congenital morning glory anomaly may have subtle subclinical retinal changes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to analyze the retinal morphology of 25 patients with idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the retinal vasculature with blue laser autofluorescence, lipofuscin deposits with MultiColor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and the optic nerve head (ONH) volume with a custom postprocessing algorithm. In addition to the total retinal thickness, semiautomated segmentation was used for ...

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      Mentions: Friedemann Paul
    5. Experimental investigation of intravascular OCT for imaging of intracranial aneurysms

      Experimental investigation of intravascular OCT for imaging of intracranial aneurysms

      Purpose Rupture risk assessment of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is an important factor for indication of therapy. Until today, there is no suitable objective prediction method. Conventional imaging modalities cannot assess the IA’s vessel wall. We investigated the ability of intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a new tool for the characterization and evaluation of IAs. Materials and methods An experimental setup for acquisition of geometrical aneurysm parameters was developed. Object of basic investigation was a silicone phantom with six IAs from patient data. For structural information, three circle of Willis were dissected and imaged postmortem. All image data ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography findings in Huntington’s disease: a potential biomarker of disease progression - Online First

      Optical coherence tomography findings in Huntington’s disease: a potential biomarker of disease progression - Online First

      Previous reports of ocular abnormalities in Huntington’s disease (HD) have detailed eye movement disorders. The objective of this case–control study was to investigate optic nerve and macular morphology in HD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 26 HD patients and 29 controls underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including spectral domain OCT scans of the macula and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). Genetic testing results, disease duration, HD disease burden scores and Unified HD Rating Scale motor scores were acquired for HD patients. Temporal RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in the HD group (62.3 vs ...

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    7. OCT helps identify cancerous brain tissue

      OCT helps identify cancerous brain tissue

      A brain cancer diagnosis can represent a death sentence, with remaining life measured in months to a year or so. Neurosurgery can increase the predicted survival time by up to 200%, depending upon the amount of tumour that can be resected. Distinguishing cancerous tissue from healthy brain tissue can be difficult, however, especially when it has infiltrated white matter. Current imaging detection technologies are suboptimal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers the potential to identify cancerous brain tissue during surgery in an efficient and cost-effective manner. OCT can provide high-resolution volumetric imaging to a millimetre depth and deliver continuous, quantitative feedback ...

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    8. Grading of Regional Apposition after Flow-Diverter Treatment (GRAFT): a comparative evaluation of VasoCT and intravascular OCT

      Grading of Regional Apposition after Flow-Diverter Treatment (GRAFT): a comparative evaluation of VasoCT and intravascular OCT

      Background Poor vessel wall apposition of flow diverter (FD) stents poses risks for stroke-related complications when treating intracranial aneurysms, necessitating long-term surveillance imaging. To facilitate quantitative evaluation of deployed devices, a novel algorithm is presented that generates intuitive two-dimensional representations of wall apposition from either high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone-beam CT (VasoCT) or intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Methods VasoCT and OCT images were obtained after FD implant (n=8 aneurysms) in an experimental sidewall aneurysm model in canines. Surface models of the vessel wall and FD device were extracted, and the distance between them was presented on a two-dimensional flattened ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography for cross-sectional imaging of neural activity

      Optical coherence tomography for cross-sectional imaging of neural activity

      Abstract. We report a functional optical coherence tomography cross-sectional scanner to detect neural activity using unmyelinated nerves dissected from squid. The nerves, unstained or stained with a voltage-sensitive dye, were imaged in a nerve chamber. Transient phase changes from backscattered light were detected during action potential propagation. The results show that the scanner can provide high spatiotemporal resolution cross-sectional images of neural activity ( 15     μ s / A - line ; 0.25     ms / B - scan ; ∼ 8.5 × 5.5     μ m 2 in x z ). The advantage of this method compared to monitoring a single depth profile z is a dramatic increase in the ...

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    10. Retinal pathology in Susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Retinal pathology in Susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      Objective: The aim of this non-interventional study was to characterize retinal layer pathology in Susac syndrome (SuS), a disease with presumably autoimmune-mediated microvessel occlusions in the retina, brain, and inner ear, in comparison to the most important differential diagnosis multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Seventeen patients with SuS and 17 age- and sex-matched patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC) were prospectively investigated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) including intraretinal layer segmentation in a multicenter study. Patients with SuS additionally received retinal fluorescein angiography (FA) and automated perimetry. Results: Patchy thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography/Brain Surgery: OCT-based approach facilitates brain cancer surgery

      Optical Coherence Tomography/Brain Surgery: OCT-based approach facilitates brain cancer surgery

      "As a neurosurgeon, I'm in agony when I'm taking out a tumor. If I take out too little, the cancer could come back; too much, and the patient can be permanently disabled," says Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, MD, professor of neurosurgery, neuroscience, and oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "We think optical coherence tomography has strong potential for helping surgeons know exactly where to cut," he adds. Carmen Kut, an MD/PhD student working in the biomedical engineering lab of Xingde Li, Ph.D., thought OCT might provide a solution to the problem of separating brain cancers ...

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    12. Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography

      Objective: To investigate whether patients with moyamoya angiopathy without obvious retinal pathologies such as retinal infarctions or the congenital morning glory anomaly may have subtle subclinical retinal changes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to analyze the retinal morphology of 25 patients with idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the retinal vasculature with blue laser autofluorescence, lipofuscin deposits with MultiColor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and the optic nerve head (ONH) volume with a custom postprocessing algorithm. In addition to the total retinal thickness, semiautomated segmentation was used for ...

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      Mentions: Friedemann Paul
    13. New ophthalmologic imaging techniques for detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative changes in diabetes: a systematic review

      New ophthalmologic imaging techniques for detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative changes in diabetes: a systematic review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina and around the optic nerve head and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) are non-invasive and repeatable techniques that can quantify ocular neurodegenerative changes in individuals with diabetes. We systematically reviewed studies of ocular neurodegenerative changes in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and noted changes in the retina, the optic nerve head, and the cornea. Of the 30 studies that met our inclusion criteria, 14 used OCT and 16 used CCM to assess ocular neurodegenerative changes. Even in the absence of diabetic retinopathy, several layers in the retina and the mean retinal ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Optical coherence tomography reflects brain atrophy in MS: A four year study

      Objective : To determine whether atrophy of specific retinal layers and brain substructures are associated over time, in order to further validate the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an indicator of neuronal tissue damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods : Cirrus high definition OCT (including automated macular segmentation) was performed in 107 MS patients biannually (median follow-up: 46-months). Three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging brain scans (including brain-substructure volumetrics) were performed annually. Individual-specific rates of change in retinal and brain measures (estimated with linear regression) were correlated, adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and optic neuritis (ON) history. Results : Rates ...

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    15. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

      Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

      Non-contact imaging methods to distinguish between healthy tissue and brain tumor tissue during surgery would be highly desirable but are not yet available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology with a resolution around 1-15 μm and a penetration depth of 1-2 mm that may satisfy the demands. To analyze its potential, we measured ex vivo human brain tumor tissue samples from 10 patients with a Spectral Domain OCT system (Thorlabs Callisto: center wavelength of 930 nm) and compared the results with standard histology. In detail, three different measurements were made for each sample. First the sample was ...

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    16. Use of optical coherence tomography to predict visual outcome in parachiasmal meningioma

      Use of optical coherence tomography to predict visual outcome in parachiasmal meningioma

      OBJECT The authors investigated the value of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in predicting visual outcome after surgery for parachiasmal meningioma. METHODS Forty-nine eyes of 25 patients who underwent craniotomy and resection of a parachiasmal meningioma were analyzed retrospectively. Visual parameters including visual field (VF) (recorded as the mean deviation [MD]), visual acuity (VA), and RNFL thickness (via optical coherence tomography) were measured before and 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Postoperative visual outcome was compared among the patients with a thin or normal RNFL. A separate analysis of data pertaining to 22 eyes of 13 ...

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    17. University of California Riverside Receives NIH Grant to Study Optical Detection of the Pre-Seizure State.

      University of California Riverside Receives NIH Grant to Study Optical Detection of the Pre-Seizure State.

      University of California Riverside received a 2015 NIH Grant for $441,942 to Study Optical Detection of the Pre-Seizure State. The principal investigator is Kevin Binder. The program began in 2013 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Reliable means of detecting changes which occur during the "pre-seizure state" could serve as a method of seizure prediction, a benchmark in epilepsy research (NIH Curing Epilepsy Conferences, 2000 and 2007). Our preliminary data indicate pre-seizure constriction in brain extracellular space (ECS) accompanied by reduction in near-infrared (NIR) optical scattering prior to detection of seizure by electroencephalography ...

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      Mentions: UC Riverside
    18. Reducing stroke damage may be next application for OCT technology now widely used in eye and vision healthcare

      Reducing stroke damage may be next application for OCT technology now widely used in eye and vision healthcare

      An optical technology already widely used in ophthalmology and other medical fields holds potential to reveal how blood flows in the brain during stroke, providing information that could someday guide new treatments and reduce stroke-induced damage to the brain. A new article published in the journal Neurophotonics describes work at the University of Washington (UW) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to render high-resolution images and information about blood-flow dynamics over a broad region of the brain before, during, and after stroke-like states. Neurophotonics is published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics. "OCT is a well-established medical imaging ...

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    19. Vasodynamics of pial and penetrating arterioles in relation to arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis after focal stroke

      Vasodynamics of pial and penetrating arterioles in relation to arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis after focal stroke

      Changes in blood perfusion in highly interconnected pial arterioles provide important insights about the vascular response to ischemia within brain. The functional role of arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis (AAA) in regulating blood perfusion through penetrating arterioles is yet to be discovered. We apply a label-free optical microangiography (OMAG) technique to evaluate the changes in vessel lumen diameter and red blood cell velocity among a large number of pial and penetrating arterioles within AAA abundant region overlaying the penumbra in the parietal cortex after a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In comparison with two-photon microscopy, the OMAG technique makes it possible to image ...

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    20. Microstructural Characterization of the Pia-Arachnoid Complex Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Microstructural Characterization of the Pia-Arachnoid Complex Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world, and is often identified by the presence of subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages that develop from ruptured cortical vessels during brain-skull displacement. The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC), also known as the leptomeninges, is the major mechanical connection between the brain and skull, and influences cortical vessel deformation and rupture following brain trauma. This complex consists of cerebrospinal fluid, arachnoid trabeculae, and subarachnoid vasculature sandwiched between the arachnoid and pia mater membranes. Remarkably, studies of the tissues in the PAC are largely qualitative and do ...

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    21. New Imaging Technique Could Make Brain Tumor Removal Safer, More Effective, Study Suggests

      New Imaging Technique Could Make Brain Tumor Removal Safer, More Effective, Study Suggests

      Brain surgery is famously difficult for good reason: When removing a tumor, for example, neurosurgeons walk a tightrope as they try to take out as much of the cancer as possible while keeping crucial brain tissue intact — and visually distinguishing the two is often impossible. Now Johns Hopkins researchers report they have developed an imaging technology that could provide surgeons with a color-coded map of a patient’s brain showing which areas are and are not cancer.

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    22. Detection of human brain cancer infiltration ex vivo and in vivo using quantitative optical coherence tomography

      Detection of human brain cancer infiltration ex vivo and in vivo using quantitative optical coherence tomography

      More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from noncancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (for example, speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from noncancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grade II to IV brain cancer and 5 patients with noncancer brain pathologies. On the basis of volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues ...

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    23. From Imaging the Brain to Imaging the Retina: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Schizophrenia

      From Imaging the Brain to Imaging the Retina: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Schizophrenia

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging method, which provides an in vivo image of the retina. It allows for quantitative measurements of retinal and macular thickness, including single-layer analysis. Because the retinal nerve fibre layer comprises the first axons of the visual pathway and is unmyelinated, it can be considered a unique anatomical model, which may provide insight into the pathophysiological processes of diseases with a neurodegenerative character. In fact, past OCT studies have emphasized the role of the visual pathway as an ideal structure for exploring neurodegeneration and have demonstrated the potential of the method as an ...

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