1. Articles in category: Neurology

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    1. University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography

      University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography

      University or Rochester Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $51,752 for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography. The principal investigator is Gary Ge. Below is a summary of the proposed study. The rapidly advancing field of “elastography” has had some major successes in answering basic science questions and improving clinical diagnostics and therapies. For example, increased liver stiffness is strongly correlated with advanced liver disease such as fibrosis, increased aortic stiffness has been linked with cardiovascular disease, and multiple cancers can be assessed with viscoelastic heterogeneity. Other studies have used ...

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    2. Imaging of the optic nerve: technological advances and future prospects

      Imaging of the optic nerve: technological advances and future prospects

      Over the past decade, ocular imaging strategies have greatly advanced the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with optic neuropathies. Developments in optic nerve imaging have specifically improved the care of patients with papilloedema and idiopathic intracranial hypertension, inflammatory optic neuropathies, and compressive optic neuropathies. For example, optic nerve imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is now widely used as an outcome measure in clinical trials of neurological disorders (eg, demyelinating diseases), and OCT findings could be informative of disease progression in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders (eg, Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease). In the past 5 years, multimodality ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis

      Stroke was the second leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in China in 2017. ICAS accounted for 10% to 15% of ischemic stroke in Western countries, and as much as 46.6%in Asia in 2009. For patients with ICAS, the risk of stroke is highly related to the histopathology of atheromatous plaques. Therefore, characterizing the morphology and composition of plaques in ICAS may help to predict the risk of stroke occurrence and allow the adoption of preventive or therapeutic management to prevent such life-threatening events. OCT, with a resolution of 10μm, may provide ...

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    4. University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Optical Imaging on the Effect of Maternal Polysubstance Exposure on Fetal Brain Microvessel Function

      University of Houston Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Optical Imaging on the Effect of Maternal Polysubstance Exposure on Fetal Brain Microvessel Function

      University of Houston Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $609,697 for Multimodal Optical Imaging on the Effect of Maternal Polysubstance Exposure on Fetal Brain Microvessel Function. The principal investigator is Kirill Larin. Below is a summary of the proposed study. The etiology of congenital brain growth anomalies is complex, but prenatal alcohol/ethanol and nicotine exposure (PEE/PNE) are common causal factors in the US and worldwide. Research has mainly focused on the growth deficits in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny following PEE/PNE. However, we recently used high- resolution imaging to document that PEE results in ...

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    5. Use of retinal optical coherence tomography to differentiate suspected neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

      Use of retinal optical coherence tomography to differentiate suspected neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

      Background: Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) can differentiate definite NMOSD (dNMOSD) from multiple sclerosis (MS), but has not been evaluated in patients with a high clinical suspicion of NMOSD and not fulfilling the current consensus diagnostic criteria, referred in this paper as "potential" NMOSD (pNMOSD). Aim: To compare the retinal OCT measurements between patients with pNMOSD, dNMOSD, MS, and reference healthy controls (HC). Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, clinical and demographic characteristics, as well as OCT measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), inner nuclear layer (INL), macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), outer nuclear layer (ONL ...

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    6. Differentiation of different stages of brain tumor infiltration using optical coherence tomography: Comparison of two systems and histology

      Differentiation of different stages of brain tumor infiltration using optical coherence tomography: Comparison of two systems and histology

      The discrimination of tumor-infiltrated tissue from non-tumorous brain tissue during neurosurgical tumor excision is a major challenge in neurosurgery. It is critical to achieve full tumor removal since it directly correlates with the survival rate of the patient. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) might be an additional imaging method in the field of neurosurgery that enables the classification of different levels of tumor infiltration and non-tumorous tissue. This work investigated two OCT systems with different imaging wavelengths (930 nm/1310 nm) and different resolutions (axial (air): 4.9 μm/16 μm, lateral: 5.2 μm/22 μm) in their ability to ...

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    7. Retinal vessel multifractals predict pial collateral status in patients with acute ischemic stroke

      Retinal vessel multifractals predict pial collateral status in patients with acute ischemic stroke

      Objectives Pial collateral blood flow is a major determinant of the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke. This study was undertaken to determine whether retinal vessel metrics can predict the pial collateral status and stroke outcomes in patients. Methods Thirty-five patients with acute stroke secondary to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion underwent grading of their pial collateral status from computed tomography angiography and retinal vessel analysis from retinal fundus images. Results The NIHSS (14.7 ± 5.5 vs 10.1 ± 5.8, p = 0.026) and mRS (2.9 ± 1.6 vs 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.048) scores were ...

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    8. Machine learning based on Optical Coherence Tomography images as a diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease

      Machine learning based on Optical Coherence Tomography images as a diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease

      Aims: We mainly evaluate retinal alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, investigate the associations between retinal changes with AD biomarkers, and explore an optimal machine learning (ML) model for AD diagnosis based on retinal thickness. Methods: A total of 159 AD patients and 299 healthy controls were enrolled. The retinal parameters of each participant were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Additionally, cognitive impairment severity, brain atrophy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were measured in AD patients. Results: AD patients demonstrated a significant decrease in the average, superior, and inferior quadrant peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, macular retinal nerve ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography angiography biomarkers of microvascular alterations in RVCL-S

      Optical coherence tomography angiography biomarkers of microvascular alterations in RVCL-S

      Background: The brain and retina share many neuronal and vasculature characteristics. We investigated the retinal microvasculature in patients with a monogenic vasculopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). OCT-A is a novel precise non-invasive imaging method that may provide biomarkers suitable for diagnosis and follow-up of small vessel diseases. Methods: In this exploratory cross-sectional study, eleven RVCL-S patients and eleven age-matched healthy control participants were included. The size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the vascular density of the superficial capillary networks in the retina were measured by OCT-A. Results: The symptomatic and presymptomatic patients showed significantly lower vascular ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Angio-OCT Imaging Techniques in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with or without Optic Neuritis

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Angio-OCT Imaging Techniques in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with or without Optic Neuritis

      The visual system is typically affected in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The most common ocular manifestation during the clinical course of the disease is optic neuritis (ON). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well-established tool for biomedical imaging that enables detection of retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer thickness reduction – biomarkers of axonal damage and neuronal loss in MS. And OCT angiography (angio-OCT) is another imaging method for assessing retinal and choroidal vessels with no need of contrast dye injection. In our prospective study, we investigate parafoveal and peripapillary microvascular retinal networks in 18 MS patients (35 eyes) through ...

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      Mentions: Visionix
    11. Retinal imaging in Alzheimer’s disease

      Retinal imaging in Alzheimer’s disease

      Identifying biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will accelerate the understanding of its pathophysiology, facilitate screening and risk stratification, and aid in developing new therapies. Developments in non-invasive retinal imaging technologies, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography and digital retinal photography, have provided a means to study neuronal and vascular structures in the retina in people with AD. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements from these retinal imaging technologies (eg, thinning of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, inner retinal layer, and choroidal layer, reduced capillary density, abnormal vasodilatory response) have been shown to be associated with cognitive function impairment and ...

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    12. The use of optical coherence tomography in neurology: a review

      The use of optical coherence tomography in neurology: a review

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, cost-efficient technique that provides high-resolution in vivo imaging of retinal tissue. The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) are surrogate markers of neuroaxonal integrity in not only the eye, but also the central nervous system. Retinal atrophy may occur in tandem with central nervous system pathologies as a result of injury to ganglion cells, direct degeneration of the pregeniculate pathway, or retrograde transsynaptic degeneration secondary to postgeniculate lesions. In this review, we outline the basic principles of OCT and discuss its application to managing patients with demyelinating ...

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    13. Zebrafish brain and skull imaging based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Zebrafish brain and skull imaging based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

      Zebrafish brain imaging is very important for the study of brain disease and regeneration. We scanned the adult zebrafish brain before and after skull removal and monitored the recovery process of a head wound by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) in this paper. We analyzed the structure and polarization characteristics of the brain and skull in PS-OCT images, and found their internal microstructure can be clearly identified with the polarization information. Further, we estimated the pigment distribution of the skull area and found that the density of pigment in skull is a critical factor of affecting zebrafish brain in vivo ...

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    14. Associations between thinner retinal neuronal layers and suboptimal brain structural integrity: Are the eyes a window to the brain?

      Associations between thinner retinal neuronal layers and suboptimal brain structural integrity: Are the eyes a window to the brain?

      We investigated the extent to which measures of retinal neuronal thickness capture variability in the structural integrity of the brain in a large population-based cohort followed from birth to midlife. Using data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n=1037; analytic n=828, aged 45 years), we specifically tested for associations between optical coherence tomography-measured retinal neuronal layers and MRI-measured structural brain integrity. We found that Study members who had thinner retinal neuronal layers had thinner average cortex, smaller total cortical surface area, smaller subcortical grey matter volumes, larger volume of white matter hyperintensities as well as older ...

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    15. Feasibility of a portable optical coherence tomography system in children with craniosynostosis

      Feasibility of a portable optical coherence tomography system in children with craniosynostosis

      Craniosynostosis is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and can be associated with intracranial hypertension (IH), which can damage the brain and vision if left unaddressed [ 1 ]. The gold standard method for measuring intracranial pressure (ICP) is invasive ICP monitoring, requiring hospital admission, general anaesthesia and risks such as bleeding and infection [ 2 ]. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique providing ultra-high resolution cross-sectional images of the optic nerve within seconds. OCT has demonstrated promise as a non-invasive surrogate marker for IH, but standard table-mounted OCT devices are difficult to use in infants and young children ...

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      Mentions: Leica
    16. Optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

      Objective: The number of studies conducted on the evaluation of retinal microvascularity in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) is very few. Therefore, in the present study it was aimed to provide a significant diagnostic support and to better understand the relationship between BD and vascular changes by making vascular measurements with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA). Method: The statistical analysis was performed by comparing OCTA measurements of 48 eyes of 48 euthymic patients followed up with a diagnosis of BD and in remission for at least 6 months, and 45 eyes of 45 age-matched healthy volunteers in the control group ...

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography in Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy, Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparative Study

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy, Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparative Study

      Purpose: To examine the optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the retina in patients with chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) and compare them with those of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with and without optic neuritis (ON), and healthy controls (HC). Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used spectral domain OCT to evaluate the retinal structure of 14 participants with CRION, 22 with NMOSD, 40 with RRMS with unilateral ON, and 20 HC. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), total macular volume (TMV), and papillomacular bundle (PMB) were measured, and intra-retinal segmentation was ...

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    18. Retinal Layer Thinning After Optic Neuritis is Associated With Future Relapse Remission in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

      Retinal Layer Thinning After Optic Neuritis is Associated With Future Relapse Remission in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

      Introduction: Remission of relapses is an important contributor to both short- and long-term prognosis in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). In MS-associated acute optic neuritis (MS-ON), retinal layer thinning measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a reliable biomarker of both functional recovery and the degree of neuroaxonal damage. However, prediction of non-ON relapse remission is challenging. We aimed to investigate whether retinal thinning after ON is associated with relapse remission after subsequent non-ON relapses. Methods: For this longitudinal observational study from the Vienna MS database (VMSD), we included MS patients with 1) an episode of acute ON, 2) available spectral-domain ...

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    19. Retinal Layer Thinning May Predict Relapse Remission in MS

      Retinal Layer Thinning May Predict Relapse Remission in MS

      Retinal layer thinning after optic neuritis (ON) may be useful as a marker of future relapse remission in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online Aug. 2 in Neurology. Gabriel Bsteh, P.D., M.D., Ph.D., from the Medical University of Vienna, and colleagues used data from the Vienna MS database to investigate whether retinal thinning after ON is associated with relapse remission after subsequent non-ON relapses. The analysis included 167 MS patients with an episode of acute ON and available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans within 12 months before ON onset (OCT baseline ), within ...

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    20. The use of OCT to detect signs of intracranial hypertension in patients with sagittal suture synostosis: Reference values and correlations

      The use of OCT to detect signs of intracranial hypertension in patients with sagittal suture synostosis: Reference values and correlations

      Purpose: To obtain pediatric normative reference values and determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) corresponds better with clinical signs of intracranial hypertension (ICH) compared to the traditional screening method fundoscopy in a large cohort of one type of single suture craniosynostosis. Methods: Control subjects without optic nerve diseases and isolated sagittal synostosis patients aged 3-10 years who underwent fundoscopy and OCT were included in this prospective cohort study. Normative reference values were obtained through bootstrap analysis. Main outcome was the association between peripapillary total retinal thickness (TRT) and total retinal volume (TRV) and appearance on fundoscopy. Signs and symptoms suggestive ...

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    21. Association of Serum Neurofilament Light Chain With Inner Retinal Layer Thinning in Multiple Sclerosis

      Association of Serum Neurofilament Light Chain With Inner Retinal Layer Thinning in Multiple Sclerosis

      Background and Objectives Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) and optical coherence tomography (OCT)–derived retinal measures (including peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer [pRNFL] and macular ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer [GCIPL] thickness) have been proposed as biomarkers of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, studies evaluating the associations between sNfL and OCT-derived retinal measures in MS are limited. Methods In this retrospective analysis of a longitudinal, observational, single-center cohort study, sNfL levels were measured in people with MS and healthy controls (HCs) using single molecule array. Participants with MS were followed with serial OCT for a median follow-up of ...

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    22. Stage-independent biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease from the living retina: an animal study

      Stage-independent biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease from the living retina: an animal study

      The early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders is still an open issue despite the many efforts to address this problem. In particular, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains undiagnosed for over a decade before the first symptoms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is now common and widely available and has been used to image the retina of AD patients and healthy controls to search for biomarkers of neurodegeneration. However, early diagnosis tools would need to rely on images of patients in early AD stages, which are not available due to late diagnosis. To shed light on how to overcome this obstacle, we resort ...

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    23. Machine learning classification of multiple sclerosis in children using optical coherence tomography

      Machine learning classification of multiple sclerosis in children using optical coherence tomography

      Background: In children, multiple sclerosis (MS) is the ultimate diagnosis in only 1/5 to 1/3 of cases after a first episode of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As the visual pathway is frequently affected in MS and other CNS demyelinating disorders (DDs), structural retinal imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to differentiate MS. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the utility of machine learning (ML) based on OCT features to identify distinct structural retinal features in children with DDs. Methods: This study included 512 eyes from 187 ( n eyes = 374) children with demyelinating diseases ...

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    24. Optical coherence tomography reveals retinal thinning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

      Optical coherence tomography reveals retinal thinning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

      Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are presumed to be associated with retinal thinning. However, evidence is lacking as to whether these retinal alterations reflect a disease-specific process or are rather a consequence of comorbid diseases or concomitant microvascular impairment. Methods: The study included 126 eyes of 65 patients with SSDs and 143 eyes of 72 healthy controls. We examined macula and optic disc measures by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Additive mixed models were used to assess the impact of SSDs on retinal thickness and perfusion and to explore the association of retinal and clinical disease-related parameters ...

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