1. Articles in category: Neurology

    1-24 of 781 1 2 3 4 ... 31 32 33 »
    1. Cerebral edema detection in vivo after middle cerebral artery occlusion using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Cerebral edema detection in vivo after middle cerebral artery occlusion using swept-source optical coherence tomography

      Cerebral edema is a severe complication of ischemic cerebrovascular disease, which can lead to microcirculation compression resulting in additional ischemic damage. Real-time and continuous in vivo imaging techniques for edema detection are of great significance to basic research on cerebral edema. We attempted to monitor the cerebral edema status in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) over time, using a wide field-of-view swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. Optical attenuation coefficients (OACs) were calculated by an optimized depth-resolved estimation method, and en face OAC maps covering the whole cortex were obtained. Then, the tissue affected by edema was segmented ...

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    2. Simultaneous detection of cerebral blood perfusion and cerebral edema using swept‐source optical coherence tomography

      Simultaneous detection of cerebral blood perfusion and cerebral edema using swept‐source optical coherence tomography

      The progression of ischemic cerebral edema (CE) is closely related to the level of cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) and affects each other. Simultaneous detection of CBP and CE is helpful in understanding the mechanisms of ischemic cerebral edema development. In this article, a wide field of view (FOV) SS‐OCT system was used to detect CE status and CBP levels simultaneously in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Images reflecting these two physiological states can be reconstructed with only one C‐scan. We quantify these two physiological states into 4 parameters, which contain two vascular parameters (vascular displacement distance and ...

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    3. Visual impairment in children with a brain tumor: a prospective nationwide multicenter study using standard visual testing and optical coherence tomography (CCISS study)

      Visual impairment in children with a brain tumor: a prospective nationwide multicenter study using standard visual testing and optical coherence tomography (CCISS study)

      Background Children with a brain tumor have a high risk of impaired vision. Up to now, visual acuity measurement, visual field testing and orthoptic testing are the most informative diagnostic investigations for the assessment of visual function. Evaluating vision in children can be challenging given the challenges in cooperation, concentration and age-dependent shifts in visual tests. Since visual loss due to a brain tumor can be progressive and irreversible, we must aim to detect visual impairment as early as possible. Several studies have shown that optical coherence tomography facilitates discovery of nerve fiber damage caused by optic nerve glioma. Consequently ...

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    4. Evaluation of Visual Evoked Potential and Optical Coherence Tomography Results in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease Patients

      Evaluation of Visual Evoked Potential and Optical Coherence Tomography Results in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease Patients

      Objectives: This study evaluates Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Patients; analyzes the relation between the disease’s severity and such values, and investigates the presence of interocular asymmetry in patients with one-sided dominance. Methods: 40 eyes of 20 PD patients at various stages were evaluated. The disease’s severity was measured via UPDRS (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale) and Hoehn&Yahr (H&Y) scales. Results: There were 21 (52%) eyes with a pathological P100 latency. P100 latency prolonged as the H&Y staging went up; however, it was not ...

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    5. Monitoring retinal changes with optical coherence tomography predicts neuronal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

      Monitoring retinal changes with optical coherence tomography predicts neuronal loss in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

      Background Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a clinical and research tool in multiple sclerosis, where it has shown significant retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell (RGC) layer thinning, while postmortem studies have reported RGC loss. Although retinal pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been described, comparative OCT studies among EAE models are scarce. Furthermore, the best practices for the implementation of OCT in the EAE lab, especially with afoveate animals like rodents, remain undefined. We aimed to describe the dynamics of retinal injury in different mouse EAE models and outline the optimal experimental conditions, scan protocols, and ...

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      Mentions: Ari J. Green
    6. Evaluation of retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness with optical coherence tomography in migraine patients

      Evaluation of retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness with optical coherence tomography in migraine patients

      Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess thicknesses of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) in patients with episodic migraine and to compare data between from patients with migraine and healthy individuals. Material and Methods: The study included 44 eyes (right) of 44 patients with migraine who presented to neurology outpatient clinic and 54 eyes (right) of healthy individuals. In patients with migraine (with identified subtypes), demographic and clinical characteristics, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) results were recorded. After detailed ophthalmological examination, RNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured with optical ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography in a cohort of genetically defined Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: A brief research report

      Optical Coherence Tomography in a cohort of genetically defined Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: A brief research report

      Introduction: In-vivo objective documentation of pathological changes in neurodegenerative disease is a major aim to possibly improve our ability to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. Temporal thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness shown by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has been reported in association to the complex forms in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We performed an assessment of the RNFL thickness in a group of HSP patients, including a longitudinal follow-up in a subgroup. Our aim was to measure and compare the changes and correlate them to clinical progression. Materials & Methods: Twenty-three HSP patients ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography and neurodegeneration in epilepsy

      Optical coherence tomography and neurodegeneration in epilepsy

      Purpose: To compare optical coherence tomography measurements; central macular thickness, ganglion cell complex, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with epilepsy versus healthy controls. Methods: We evaluated 28 eyes of 28 patients with epilepsy and 34 eyes of 34 healthy subjects. Central macular thickness, ganglion cell complex, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were performed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results: Superior and superotemporal quadrant ganglion cell complex, average, and superior quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were significantly lower in epilepsy group compared to healthy control subjects. Central macular thickness was significantly lower in polytherapy ...

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    9. Optical coherence tomography in people with epilepsy: symmetry and clinical correlations (Thesis)

      Optical coherence tomography in people with epilepsy: symmetry and clinical correlations (Thesis)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides detailed images by assessing the scattering properties of a tissue (1)⁠. OCT is precise and easily repeatable. It is quick to obtain and does not cause any significant discomfort to patients. For these reasons, it is a useful clinical tool to diagnose and monitor many conditions. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness measured by OCT was recently confirmed as a biomarker of white matter (WM) integrity in various neurological conditions (2)⁠. In epilepsy, retinal thinning is found in people exposed to vigabatrin (3)⁠ but also in people not exposed to this antiepileptic drug (AED ...

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    10. Application of functional optical coherence tomography angiography in neurovascular research (Thesis)

      Application of functional optical coherence tomography angiography in neurovascular research (Thesis)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a revolutionary non-invasive imaging technique that can perform high-resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging of the internal microstructure in biological tissues by measuring backscattered or backreflected light. Its functional extension, OCT angiography (OCTA), analyzes the intrinsic scattering property of the heterogenous tissue bed to extract dynamic blood flow signals to the capillary level without a need of contrast agents. Aside from the commonly known application of OCTA in clinical ophthalmology for imaging the retinal blood flow in human subjects, the technique has recently emerged as a useful tool in pre-clinical neuroscience for imaging cerebral microcirculation and dynamics ...

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    11. Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of Optic Nerve Head Drusen in Children

      Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of Optic Nerve Head Drusen in Children

      Background: To assess the utility of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), compared with other conventional imaging modalities, for detecting and characterizing optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) in children. Methods: We report a retrospective cross-sectional case series of consecutive pediatric patients (age ≤16 years) with ONHD confirmed using B-scan ultrasonography. All eyes were evaluated using spectral-domain OCT of the optic nerve head in conventional (non-EDI) and EDI modes, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and standard automated perimetry. Detection rates and the capacity to characterize ONHD were compared between EDI-OCT, non–EDI-OCT, and FAF. Results: Twenty-eight eyes of 15 patients (mean age ...

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    12. The Association of Optical Coherence Tomography Results With Neuroimaging Signs and Some Clinical Parameters in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      The Association of Optical Coherence Tomography Results With Neuroimaging Signs and Some Clinical Parameters in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

      Background: Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enhanced our understanding of visual disturbances in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Its importance in the evaluation process of IIH has been established; however, there are many unknown aspects regarding the relationship of OCT measurements with several clinical features of IIH. Herein, we aimed to investigate the associations of OCT measurements with neuroimaging findings and some clinical parameters in our cohort with IIH. Methods: Patients over 18 years of age presenting to the neurology and neuro-ophthalmology outpatient clinics, between 2017 and 2019, who were diagnosed with IIH were included in the study. Cranial magnetic ...

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    13. Normative data and minimally detectable change for inner retinal layer thicknesses using a semi-automated OCT image segmentation pipeline

      Normative data and minimally detectable change for inner retinal layer thicknesses using a semi-automated OCT image segmentation pipeline

      Neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases regularly cause optic nerve and retinal damage. Evaluating retinal changes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diseases like multiple sclerosis has thus become increasingly relevant. However, intraretinal segmentation, a necessary step for interpreting retinal changes in the context of these diseases, is not standardized and often requires manual correction. Here we present a semi-automatic intraretinal layer segmentation pipeline and establish normative values for retinal layer thicknesses at the macula, including dependencies on age, sex, and refractive error. Spectral domain OCT macular 3D volume scans were obtained from healthy participants using a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis OCT. A ...

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    14. Imaging in Neuro-ophthalmology

      Imaging in Neuro-ophthalmology

      PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article discusses an approach to imaging in patients with neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, with emphasis on the clinical-anatomic localization of lesions affecting afferent and efferent visual function. RECENT FINDINGS:Advances in MRI, CT, ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography have changed how neuro-ophthalmic disorders are diagnosed and followed in the modern clinical era. SUMMARY:The advantages, disadvantages, and indications for various imaging techniques for neuro-ophthalmologic disorders are discussed, with a view to optimizing how these tools can be used to enhance patient care.

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    15. Correlation between cognitive impairment and retinal neural loss assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with mild cognitive impairment

      Correlation between cognitive impairment and retinal neural loss assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with mild cognitive impairment

      Introduction We compared peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurements in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). We also assessed the relationship between SS-OCT measurements and the severity of cognitive impairment. Methods Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness were measured in 23 patients and 24 control subjects using SS-OCT. Cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Pfeffer Questionnaire. Results Most inner retinal layer thickness parameters were significantly smaller in patients with MCI, especially macular ganglion cell complex thickness measurements ...

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    16. A Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Study for Investigating Structural and Functional Imaging of Brain Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Study for Investigating Structural and Functional Imaging of Brain Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can obtain high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) structural images of biological tissues, and spectroscopic OCT, which is one of the functional extensions of OCT, can also quantify chromophores of tissues. Due to its unique features, OCT has been increasingly used for brain imaging. To support the development of the simulation and analysis tools on which OCT-based brain imaging depends, a model of mesh-based Monte Carlo for OCT (MMC-OCT) is presented in this work to study OCT signals reflecting the structural and functional activities of brain tissue. In addition, an approach to improve the quantitative accuracy of chromophores in ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography–guided flow diversion for aneurysmal treatment

      Optical coherence tomography–guided flow diversion for aneurysmal treatment

      A 28-year-old man presenting with right third nerve palsy was diagnosed with a giant unruptured aneurysm supplied by the right posterior communicating and cerebral arteries (figure 1, A and B). The aneurysm was treated with flow-diverting stent-assisted coiling. Two months later, he presented with new-onset left-sided weakness, and MRI showed increased edema in the thalamus (figure 1C) and increased aneurysm size and no filling. There was no evidence of stent malapposition with high-resolution cone-beam (VASO) CT (figure 2). Angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging demonstrated no stent endothelialization over a patent portion of the aneurysm neck (figure 3). 1 ...

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    18. Longitudinal deep-brain imaging in mouse using visible-light optical coherence tomography through chronic microprism cranial window

      Longitudinal deep-brain imaging in mouse using visible-light optical coherence tomography through chronic microprism cranial window

      We longitudinally imaged both the superficial and deep cortical microvascular networks in brains of healthy mice and in a mouse model of stroke in vivo using visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT). We surgically implanted a microprism in mouse brains sealed by a chronic cranial window. The microprism enabled vis-OCT to image the entire depth of the mouse cortex. Following microprism implantation, we imaged the mice for 28 days and found that that it took around 15 days for both the superficial and deep cortical microvessels to recover from the implantation surgery. After the brains recovered, we introduced ischemic strokes by ...

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    19. Spatial analysis of thickness changes in ten retinal layers of Alzheimer’s disease patients based on optical coherence tomography

      Spatial analysis of thickness changes in ten retinal layers of Alzheimer’s disease patients based on optical coherence tomography

      The retina is an attractive source of biomarkers since it shares many features with the brain. Thickness differences in 10 retinal layers between 19 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and a control group of 24 volunteers were investigated. Retinal layers were automatically segmented and their thickness at each scanned point was measured, corrected for tilt and spatially normalized. When the mean thickness of entire layers was compared between patients and controls, only the outer segment layer of patients showed statistically significant thinning. However, when the layers were compared point-by point, patients showed statistically significant thinning in irregular regions ...

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    20. Researchers have identified areas of the retina that change in mild Alzheimer's disease

      Researchers have identified areas of the retina that change in mild Alzheimer's disease

      Researchers at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) have identified changes in retinal layer thickness, inflammation or thinning in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, confirming that the retina is one of the most important biomarkers for early diagnosis of the disease. For the first time, researchers have determined the shape and size of the areas that present significant thinning in each retinal layer, which tend to occur in the same locations.

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    21. Optical coherence tomography and multiple sclerosis: Update on clinical application and role in clinical trials

      Optical coherence tomography and multiple sclerosis: Update on clinical application and role in clinical trials

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a fast, non-invasive, inexpensive, high-resolution imaging technique in multiple sclerosis (MS). Retinal layer quantification by OCT facilitates a ‘window’ into not only local retinal pathology but also global neurodegenerative processes, recognised to be the principal substrates of disability accumulation in MS. While OCT measures in MS have been demonstrated to reflect visual function, inflammatory activity outside of the visual pathways, disability measures including the prediction of disability progression, whole brain atrophy, and the differential neuroprotective effects of disease-modifying therapies, debate continues regarding the clinical utility of OCT in everyday practice. This review presents ...

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    22. Retinal Nerve Fiber and Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Analysis by Optical Coherence Tomography in Asymptomatic Empty Sella Patient

      Retinal Nerve Fiber and Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer Analysis by Optical Coherence Tomography in Asymptomatic Empty Sella Patient

      Purpose: To investigate the clinical importance of the thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCL+) by spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in asymptomatic empty sella (ES) patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, nonrandomized prospective study, 44 ES patients and 74 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were evaluated. All the patients and controls competed an automated 30-2 visual field (VF) test. The mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), RNFL, and GCL + thickness values obtained with SD-OCT were compared statistically between the two groups. Results : No marked VF defects were found ...

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    23. Functional-Optical Coherence Tomography: A non-invasive approach to assess the sympathetic nervous system and intrinsic vascular regulation

      Functional-Optical Coherence Tomography: A non-invasive approach to assess the sympathetic nervous system and intrinsic vascular regulation

      Sympathetic nervous system dysregulation and vascular impairment in neuronal tissue beds are hallmarks of prominent cardiorespiratory diseases. However, an accurate and convenient method of assessing SNA and local vascular regulation is lacking, hindering routine clinical and research assessments. To address this, we investigated whether spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), that allows investigation of retina and choroid vascular responsiveness, reflects sympathetic activity in order to develop a quick, easy and non-invasive sympathetic index. Here, we compare choroid and retina vascular perfusion density (VPD) acquired with OCT and heart rate variability (HRV) to microneurography. We recruited 6 healthy males (26±3y ...

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    1-24 of 781 1 2 3 4 ... 31 32 33 »
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