1. Articles in category: Textbooks

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    1. Noninvasive Ocular Angiography by Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Noninvasive Ocular Angiography by Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma are all associated with impaired circulation. Noninvasive assessment of ocular circulation would be very powerful for understanding and diagnosing these eye diseases. Using high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), we developed a new OCT angiography algorithm called split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) for imaging ocular microcirculation. Here, the system and theory of this novel OCT angiography technique are reviewed; its capabilities for imaging retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve head blood flow are demonstrated; and its limitation is discussed.

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    2. Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles (Book Chapter)

      Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles (Book Chapter)

      This chapter focuses on the most recently reported nanoparticle agents that have been demonstrated in vivo . It describes the general methods of chemical conjugations, silanisation, and electrostatic adsorption. The chapter examines the recent use of nanoparticles that incorporate a fluorescent dye and a magnetic nanoparticle together. The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities and in vivo characterisation has been executed in two ways: attaching an organic NIR dye to a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION); and combining SPIONs with a materials-based NIR fluorescent species such as a quantum dot or multilayered gold/silica nanoparticles. Upconversion luminescence ...

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    3. Imaging of cardiovascular development in Mammalian embryos using optical coherence tomography (Book Chapter)

      Imaging of cardiovascular development in Mammalian embryos using optical coherence tomography (Book Chapter)

      The cardiovascular system is the first functional organ system to develop within the mammalian embryo. During the early stages of cardiovascular development, the heart and blood vessels undergo rapid growth and remodeling required for embryo viability, proper morphogenesis, and the function of all organ systems. Live imaging of these dynamic events in early mouse embryos is critical to understanding when and how these morphological changes occur during normal development and how mutations and pharmacological agents affect cardiovascular structure and function in vivo. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for rapid, three-dimensional structural and functional imaging of mouse embryos ...

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    4. Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      Retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a clinical and research tool in multiple sclerosis (MS) and optic neuritis (ON). This chapter summarizes a short OCT protocol as included in international consensus guidelines. The protocol was written for hands-on style such that both clinicians and OCT technicians can make use of it. The protocol is suitable for imaging of the optic nerve head and macular regions as a baseline for follow-up investigations, individual layer segmentation, and diagnostic assessment.

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Diagnosis in Cardiovascular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Diagnosis in Cardiovascular Disease (Book Chapter)

      In recent years, biomedical imaging technology has made rapid advances that enable the visualization, quantification, and monitoring of morphology and function. There are several tomography modalities which are currently used in clinics, such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), etc. These modalities have been developed for in vivo structural and functional imaging in humans, but frequently require large, expensive and complex systems. The penetration depth of these tomographic techniques is long, but the spatial resolution is typically on the order of several millimeters or hundred of micrometers.

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography for Prostate Cancer and Beyond (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Prostate Cancer and Beyond (Book Chapter)

      Since it was first used to evaluate human genitourinary tissue in 1997, OCT has emerged as a promising modality to provide real-time, high-resolution imaging of urologic organs. In the bladder, it has demonstrated a high sensitivity in identifying regions of the bladder suspicious for CIS and between invasive and noninvasive malignancy; it has been studied as an “optical biopsy” both during the initial cystoscopic diagnosis and intraoperatively in bladder-preserving surgery. Several small, ex vivo studies have shown promising results in the ability of OCT to demonstrate histopathologic alterations to renal morphology such as in renal ischemia and malignancy. It may ...

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    7. Optical Coherence Tomography in Bladder Cancer (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Bladder Cancer (Book Chapter)

      The current diagnostic standard for grading and staging of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is based on the histopathology obtained during transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT) or biopsies. Although considered reference standard, this technique has some limitations: First, no real-time intraoperative histological information is obtained on stage and grade. Real-time intraoperative histological information could be helpful when NMIBC is treated by electric coagulation or laser ablation. The urologist has to rely on his/her judgement of stage and grade since no tissue is harvested for histological confirmation. In addition, in many centres, patients with a history of low-grade, non-invasive ...

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    8. Innovations in Microscopic Imaging of Atherosclerosis and Valvular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Innovations in Microscopic Imaging of Atherosclerosis and Valvular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is still an unsolved medical problem, because the pathogenesis of CAVD is poorly understood and early calcification is hard to identify. The lack of high-resolution imaging tools to study early stage disease further hampers the search for therapeutic targets. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), which is a new form of OCT, is the highest-resolution cross-sectional OCT technology available today with 1 μm resolution. We used μOCT to visualize detailed cellular and subcellular structure associated with early calcific changes in diseased human and murine aortic valves. The results suggest that μOCT imaging has the potential to provide ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography: OCT (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography: OCT (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows to measure geometric features inside translucent objects such as organic materials or organic tissues. The principle is based on interferometry. Time-domain and Fourier-domain methods are applied to make visible differences in the refractive index profile of the measuring object. We present the set-up of OCT sensors and show examples of applications such as 3D-imaging of an eye, B-scans of blood vessels or thickness measurements of multi-layer polymer films.

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides real-time, cross-sectional skin images to a depth of up to 2 mm. OCT is a convenient and fast imaging technology that can be used bedside. In dermatology, the pretherapeutic delineation of both actinic keratoses (AK) and keratinocyte carcinomas has been a natural focus for applied OCT research, and more recently OCT research has turned on non-invasive monitoring of treatments. Previous studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological images. Cryotherapy is a fast and easy treatment modality frequently used for the treatment of AK lesions in everyday dermatology practise. Cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen ...

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    11. Clinical Guide to Angio-OCT (Non Invasive, Dyeless OCT Angiography) (Textbook)

      Clinical Guide to Angio-OCT (Non Invasive, Dyeless OCT Angiography)  (Textbook)

      The book discusses the clinical possibilities of Angio-OCT. Most imaging in the book (77 figures in Chapters 5, 7.1 and 10) has been performed with XR-Avanti Optovue SD-OCT device using SSADA algorithm. A few figures in chapters 3, 7.2 and 8 have been performed with a swept source OCT prototype using SSADA algorithm. Another technique is described in chapter 11, using ultrahigh speed, SS-OCT and its applications to optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Key Features Angio-OCT (Dyeless OCT Angiography) is a new TECHNOLOGY that gives already useful results, that can be applied to day-to-day clinical ophthalmology. Several different OCT ...

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    12. Principles and Applications of Fourier Optics (Textbook)

      Principles and Applications of Fourier Optics (Textbook)

      `All of optics is Fourier optics!' While this statement may not be literally true, when there is one basic mathematical tool to explain light propagation and image formation, with both coherent and incoherent light, as well as thousands of practical everyday applications of the fundamentals, Fourier optics is worth studying. This book contains summaries of the principles of Fourier optics that have been developed over the past hundred years and of many applications over the past fifty years, especially since the invention of the laser. This book is intended as a series of guideposts to improve our world through the ...

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    13. Ophthalmological Imaging and Applications (Textbook)

      Ophthalmological Imaging and Applications (Textbook)

      Edited by and featuring contributions from world-class researchers, Ophthalmological Imaging and Applications offers a unified work of the latest human eye imaging and modeling techniques that have been proposed and applied to the diagnosis of ophthalmologic problems, including inflammation, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. With a focus on theory, basic principles, and results derived from research, the book: Explores various morphological, textural, higher-order spectral, and wavelet transformation techniques used to extract salient features from images of the human eye Examines 2D and 3D finite element and boundary element models of the human eye developed to simulate thermal steady-state conditions Addresses ...

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (Textbook)

      Because of its many advantages optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the way in which retinal diseases are screened and managed and how treatments are monitored. In this volume the latest developments and findings are presented by experts in their respective fields. After a short introduction covering the available equipment and the basic techniques, the imaging features of various pathological findings in retinal diseases are presented. The topics cover the outer layers including new modalities for choroid imaging, out-layer diseases such as the various types of macular degeneration, retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and vascular occlusion, and retina and ...

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    15. Handbook of Retinal OCT: Optical Coherence Tomography, 1st Edition (Textbook)

      Handbook of Retinal OCT: Optical Coherence Tomography, 1st Edition (Textbook)

      With Handbook of Retinal OCT , you can master the latest imaging methods used to evaluate retinal disease, uveitis, and optic nerve disorders. Ideal at any stage of your career, this easy-to-use, clinically oriented handbook provides a quick, templated, and portable guide for the interpretation of Optical Coherence Tomography scans. Key Features: Locate answers quickly with templated chapters-each focused on one specific diagnosis or group of diagnoses with a particular OCT appearance; Adopt the latest techniques for evaluating age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and much more; See how the full spectrum of diseases presents through approximately 370 illustrations ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Clinical Trials for Ophthalmology and Neurology (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in Clinical Trials for Ophthalmology and Neurology (Book Chapter)

      In the past, clinical trials in neuro-ophthalmology have focused upon functional endpoints including Snellen visual acuity and visual field testing, both of which may have significant test/retest variability because of their dependence upon subject alertness and cognitive function. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) into the practice of clinical ophthalmology has now extended into clinical trials in both ophthalmology and neurology. Recent advances in the resolution and reproducibility of spectral-domain OCT have now produced algorithms that measure the structural integrity of the optic nerve and retina. OCT is in vivo histopathology and the qualitative and quantitative metrics of ...

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    17. Ophthalmology, 4th Edition (Textbook)

      Ophthalmology, 4th Edition (Textbook)

      Get the quick answers you need on every aspect of clinical ophthalmology and apply them in your day-to-day practice . The latest edition of Ophthalmology by Drs. Yanoff and Duker presents practical, expert, concise guidance on nearly every ophthalmic condition and procedure, equipping you to efficiently overcome whatever clinical challenges you may face.

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    18. Vascular Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications and Emerging Techniques (Textbook)

      Vascular Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications and Emerging Techniques (Textbook)

      The first book-length reference to thoroughly describe diagnostic and therapeutic advances in the development of vascular radiology over the last decade The last ten years has seen vascular imaging of the central nervous system (CNS) evolve from fairly crude, invasive procedures to more advanced imaging methods that are safer, faster, and more precise—with computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods playing a special role in these advances. Vascular Imaging of the Central Nervous System is the first full-length reference text that shows radiologists—especially neuroradiologists—how to optimize the use of the many techniques available in order ...

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    19. Non Invasive Diagnostic Techniques in Clinical Dermatology (Textbook)

      Non Invasive Diagnostic Techniques in Clinical Dermatology (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging method. Using infrared broadband light sources, images of superficial skin layers can be obtained in vivo and real time. In dermatology, OCT can be used for investigation of skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases, for quantification of skin changes, and for evaluation of treatment effects

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    20. Diagnostic Endoscopy (Textbook)

      Diagnostic Endoscopy (Textbook)

      Combining a professional development course on diagnostic endoscopy from SPIE (the international society advancing light-based research) and the authors’ graduate course on biomedical optics, this work is written for researchers in medical optics and biomedical engineering as well as graduate medical optics students. It uses extensive examples/case studies to familiarize readers with the basics of endoscopic optics, the pros and cons of white light endoscopy and fluorescence endoscopy for diagnostic applications, and various microscopic endoscopy imaging modalities. It covers basic optics, details of design and biomedical uses, as well as microscopic endoscopy, and endoscopic spectroscopy.

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    21. Diagnostic Techniques: Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Diagnostic Techniques: Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging technique that provides cross-sectional imaging of the internal microstructures of biological tissues. Among several implementations of OCT, spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) provides high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and high-speed imaging. Such implementations enable visualization of the microstructures of the human eye by noninvasive and noncontact measurement. High sensitivity of OCT detection enables imaging of structures with very low optical scattering, such as the retina. The high axial and lateral resolution enables the precise morphological investigation of various pathological conditions. Recently, hardware and software upgrades have improved the ability to better evaluate intraocular tumors.

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    22. Multi-Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging and Diagnosis (Textbook)

      Multi-Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging and Diagnosis (Textbook)

      Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, resulting mostly from the sudden ruptures of atherosclerosis carotid plaques. However, until now, the exact plaque development/rupture mechanism has not been fully understood, and also the plaque rupture risk stratification. From biomechanical viewpoint, plaque initiation and development could be attributed to the disturbed flow in those arteries, and the sudden rupture of plaque can be resulted from plaque structure stability failure due to the mechanical stress in/outside plaque structure. Understanding this phenomenonwhy and how plaque develops and ruptures requires a multidisciplinary approach such as radiology, biomedical ...

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    23. New Trends in Ophthalmology Medical and Surgical Management (Textbook)

      New Trends in Ophthalmology Medical and Surgical Management (Textbook)

      ew Trends in Ophthalmology presents ophthalmologists with the most recent technological developments in this rapidly advancing field. Each chapter explains current diagnosis and medical and surgical management of different ocular disorders and diseases, including cataract surgery, glaucoma treatment and lens implant surgery. Presented in an easy to follow format, this comprehensive manual is enhanced by nearly 400 clinical photographs, diagrams and tables.

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