1. Articles in category: Textbooks

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    1. High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics (Textbook)

      High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional tissue imaging. It typically uses light in the near-infrared spectral range which has a penetration depth of several hundred microns in tissue. The backscattered light is measured with an interferometric set-up to reconstruct the depth profile of the sample at the selected location. A scanning OCT beam allows for acquisition of cross-sectional images of the tissue structure. Different technical methods are introduced and compared regarding their properties like sensitivity, imaging speed and penetration depth. Regardless of the technical realization, axial resolution and imaging range of an OCT system are determined ...

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    2. What’s New in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Glaucoma (Book Chapter)

      What’s New in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Glaucoma (Book Chapter)

      Glaucoma is one of the main clinical areas where OCT angiography is used. In contrast to medical retinal application, where qualitative image analysis and semiquantitative measurements are frequently satisfactory for clinical decision-making, in glaucoma the exact quantitative measurements provide the useful information. Therefore both general ophthalmologists who treat glaucoma patients and glaucoma subspecialists need to be familiar with the measurement details of OCT angiography, the types of complementary structural information necessary to clinical decision-making, and the current limitations of the technology. This chapter attempts to guide the reader through all aspects of glaucoma-related OCT angiography in a stepwise manner.

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    3. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Recently, surgical instruments and imaging technology in ophthalmology have shown a great improvement. However, advances in the field of the operating microscope technology still remained unchanged with the various limitations for the surgeons. Invention of optical coherence tomography (OCT) led to a revolution in the diagnosis and monitoring of numerous anterior and posterior segment pathologies. Recently, OCT has been introduced into the operating room with an impact on the surgeons. In this chapter, we review the evolution of OCT for intraoperative use with its feasibility, surgical impacts, and limitations.

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    4. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Image Analysis (Textbook)

      Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Image Analysis (Textbook)

      This book introduces the latest optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computerized automatic image analysis techniques, and their applications in the diagnosis and treatment of retinal diseases. Discussing the basic principles and the clinical applications of OCT imaging, OCT image preprocessing, as well as the automatic detection and quantitative analysis of retinal anatomy and pathology, it includes a wealth of clinical OCT images, and state-of-the-art research that applies novel image processing, pattern recognition and machine learning methods to real clinical data. It is a valuable resource for researchers in both medical image processing and ophthalmic imaging.

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    5. Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      The retina consists of multiple layers of different types of cells; the inner layer is known as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and it consists of unmyelinated optic nerve axons coming from the retinal ganglion cells. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to detect subtle changes in the thickness of the retina by means of infrared light reflection, representing retinal and optic nerve damage in neuro-ophthalmology pathologies. In recent years, different research has suggested that retinal OCT is a sensitive and useful tool to measure axonal damage after optic neuropathy and to understand the process of neurodegeneration in multiple ...

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    6. Advances in Colposcopy (Book Chapter)

      Advances in Colposcopy (Book Chapter)

      Various new technologies have been introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, objectively guide to the site of biopsy, and measure the dysplastic nature of the epithelium. These include fluorescence spectroscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and/or their combinations. Other technologies like optical coherence tomography and polarimetric imaging have also been used to define the lesions better. Not only the adjunct use of technology but portable user-friendly devices have been developed which have increased the provision of colposcopy in remote areas.

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    7. Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye-Brain Connection 1st Edition (Textbook)

      Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye-Brain Connection 1st Edition (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) plays a vital role in pediatric retina diagnosis , often revealing unrecognized retinal disorders and connections to brain injury, disease, and delayed neurodevelopment. Handbook of Pediatric Retinal OCT and the Eye-Brain Connection provides authoritative, up-to-date guidance in this promising area , showing how to optimize imaging in young children and infants, how to accurately interpret these images, and how to identify links between these images and brain and developmental disorders.

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    8. Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Selected Posterior Uveitides (Book Chapter)

      Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Selected Posterior Uveitides (Book Chapter)

      The pathogenesis of uveitis entails changes in the structural morphology of the macula, choroid, and choroidal perfusion. Documentation of these pathologic alterations is pivotal in making a proper diagnosis and in follow-up of outcomes of therapy. The newly-introduced swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) were harbingers of a whole new era of noninvasive in vivo layer-to-layer dissection of macular and choroidal structural changes in uveitis and of disease-related vascular profile patterns. This new information unraveled new aspects of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in different uveitides and added to our understanding of the disease process. Monitoring ...

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    9. Despeckling Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography Images: A Review (Book Chapter)

      Despeckling Algorithms for Optical Coherence Tomography Images: A Review (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique widely used in ophthalmology. The presence of speckle affects the quality of OCT images. Despeckling is necessary to improve its visual quality, and it is an integral part of software packages used for the computerized analysis of OCT. Even though a few methods for despeckling OCT are available in the literature, a cross-comparison of their performance is not known to be available. In this chapter, the techniques available in the literature for despeckling the OCT images have been identified. The results of the despeckling algorithms are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively ...

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    10. Full Range Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography with Ultra Small Fiber Probes for Biomedical Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Full Range Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography with Ultra Small Fiber Probes for Biomedical Imaging (Book Chapter)

      Biomedical imaging is becoming an indispensable branch within bioengineering. This research field has recently expanded due to the requirement of high-level medical diagnostics and rapid development of interdisciplinary modern technologies. This book is designed to present the most recent advances in instrumentation, methods, and image processing as well as clinical applications in important areas of biomedical imaging. It provides broad coverage of the field of biomedical imaging, with particular attention to an engineering viewpoint. The goal of the book is to provide a wide-ranging forum in the biomedical imaging field that integrates interdisciplinary research and development of interest to scientists ...

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography for Fingerprint Presentation Attack Detection (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Fingerprint Presentation Attack Detection (Book Chapter)

      New research in fingerprint biometrics uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology to acquire fingerprints from where they originate below the surface of the skin. The penetrative nature of this technology means that rich information is available regarding the structure of the skin. This access, in turn, enables new techniques in detecting spoofing attacks, and therefore also introduces mitigation steps against current presentation attack methods. These techniques include the ability to detect fake fingers; fake layers applied above the skin; differentiate between fakes and surface skin conditions; and liveness detection based on, among others, the analysis of eccrine glands and capillary ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      his book details the application of advanced characterisation techniques and diagnostic tools to heritage science, including the evaluation of heritage assets’ condition, their preservation and restoration. It examines the use of electrochemical techniques in conservation science, with a particular focus on how to solve problems in taking on-site measurements. Specifically, it introduces readers to a new gel polymer (GPE) electrochemical cell developed by the authors for the characterisation of metallic heritage objects. Other techniques used to characterise and monitor reinforced concrete objects in more modern buildings are also covered, including non-destructive electrochemical techniques that allow steel corrosion to be assessed ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Examination of Artworks (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography is a fast, non-invasive technique of structural analysis utilising near-infrared radiation. Examples of using OCT, for obtaining cross-sectional images of objects of craftsmanship and an easel painting have been shown. Issues regarding the technique of execution and destruction phenomena were resolved non-invasively. In some cases, the secondary alterations can be identified and localised within the object’s structure which helps in authentication of the artwork.

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    14. Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enhanced our understanding and management of retinal diseases, ever since the time-domain OCT was introduced in the early 2000s. The introduction of spectral-domain OCT in the mid-2000s and the later introduction of swept-source OCT provided faster scanning strategies and high-resolution images of the retina and choroid.

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    15. Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Inner Macular Layers in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Inner Macular Layers in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Purpose: The aim of our research is to assess and compare the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness diagnostic capability with those of three macular parameters—macular RNFL (mRNFL) thickness, GCL+ (ganglion cell layer with inner plexiform layer thickness), and GCL++ (mRNFL and GCL+) in primary open-angle glaucoma patients with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Material and methods: The 414 participants (483 eyes) aged 45–84 years in this prospective study were recruited from Eye Clinic at the University Hospital “Alexandrovska” (Sofia, Bulgaria). They were divided into 6 groups: controls, ocular hypertension, preperimetric glaucoma (PPG), and three groups of ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Atlas: A Case Study Approach (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Atlas: A Case Study Approach (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) is a novel, non-invasive, dyeless imaging modality that has emerged as an indispensable tool in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology. OCTA provides three-dimensional volumetric images of the retinal and choroidal vasculature by using a motion-contrast decorrelation algorithm. This cutting-edge imaging technology has widespread clinical utility as a non-invasive alternative for visualizing microvasculature in detail, but there are no textbooks dedicated to its use and the interpretation of scans. To fill this need, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Atlas: A Case Study Approach , by Dr. Julie A. Rodman, is a richly illustrated, practical guide to OCTA ...

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    17. OCT Applications in Ophthalmology (Textbook)

      OCT Applications in Ophthalmology (Textbook)

      I am very proud and excited to introduce to you this book, which provides many interesting indications on how to better understand and handle the world of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Reading the chapters, you will be aware that this device is extremely important not just in the clinical practice of retinal diseases, but is also very useful as a surgical tool. Moreover, application of OCT has crossed the borders of the retina and is currently being applied to corneal diseases and glaucoma. I am confident you will find enough useful information to improve your practice using OCT and to ...

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: A Practical Guide (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: A Practical Guide (Textbook)

      This book focuses on the practical aspects of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in glaucoma diagnostics offering important theoretical information along with many original cases. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that acquires high-resolution images of the ocular structures. It enables clinicians to detect glaucoma in the early stages and efficiently monitor the disease. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma features updated information on technical applications of OCT in glaucoma, reviews recently published literature and provides clinical cases based on Cirrus and Spectralis OCT platforms. In addition, newer techniques like event and trend analyses for progression, macular ganglion cell analysis, and OCT ...

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      Mentions: UCLA
    19. Optical Coherence Tomography for NDE (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for NDE (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, interferometric imaging modality using near-infrared light to acquire cross sections and three-dimensional images of the subsurface microstructure of samples. Because of the rapid enhancement of OCT with respect to acquisition speed and axial resolution over the past years, OCT is becoming more and more attractive for applications in nondestructive testing and evaluation. In this chapter, a brief introduction to the technique and the instrumentation is first given, followed by an overview of application of OCT in NDE reported so far.

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    20. Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      OCT is an interferometry based three-dimensional imaging modality that can be used on scattering media, including several types of body tissues. It provides physicians with in-situ image data in micrometer resolution within seconds. OCT’s working principle is similar to ultrasound but uses light instead of sound waves and is also free of potentially harmful ionizing radiation while being non-invasive. OCT in ophthalmology (the branch of medicine concerned with the eyes) has been pioneered by David Huang, Eric Swanson, and James G. Fujimoto and has since become a standard modality and is widely used by clinicians on a daily basis ...

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    21. Role of Intravascular Imaging in Primary PCI (Book Chapter)

      Role of Intravascular Imaging in Primary PCI (Book Chapter)

      Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is always targeted on the angiographically identified culprit lesion. However, the actual culprit lesion may not compromise the lumen and can be located proximally or distally to the angiographic target lesion. As a result, the risk of incomplete lesion coverage can be high when the PPCI is guided solely by angiography. Furthermore, stent implantation must be optimized, as incomplete apposition and/or edge dissection may result in in-stent restenosis or acute thrombotic events. Thus, invasive coronary imaging using intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography can be useful to guide the PPCI procedure by locating the ...

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    22. Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit—The Clinical Essentials (Textbook)

      Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit—The Clinical Essentials (Textbook)

      Master the Clinical Essentials of ocular and orbital anatomy for clinical practice! The eye is an organ of great complexity. Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit: The Clinical Essentials achieves the impressive task of presenting ophthalmology residents, optometry residents, and optometry students with the clinical essentials of ocular anatomy as a foundation for patient care. It emphasizes the aspects of eye and orbit anatomy that are most relevant to clinicians in training, providing the practical, real-world foundation necessary for practice. Focus on the clinically relevant information you really need to know about all ocular structures and tissues. View anatomy from ...

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    23. Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Pigmented Lesions: Biopsy Methods and Emerging Non-invasive Imaging Techniques (Book Chapter)

      Melanoma incidence has been increasing in the US population, with early detection and treatment leading to decreased morbidity and mortality. The first steps in diagnosis are clinical examination and skin biopsy. Various methods of skin biopsy exist and the appropriate choice can be challenging. In this chapter, we review various biopsy techniques including excisional, scoop (saucerization), incisional or punch, shave, biopsy of special sites, and emerging noninvasive imaging techniques for pigmented lesions including reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, digital multispectral dermoscopy, and tape stripping mRNA.

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    24. Multimodality Imaging to Detect Vulnerable Plaque in Coronary Arteries and Its Clinical Application (Book Chapter)

      Multimodality Imaging to Detect Vulnerable Plaque in Coronary Arteries and Its Clinical Application (Book Chapter)

      Postmortem studies have described the association between the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) and the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Both noninvasive and invasive techniques have been refined and used as a research tool to visualize the plaque at a high risk of disruption. There has been a considerable effort to develop the imaging modalities that offer detailed visualization of coronary pathology and accurately predict the adverse cardiac outcomes. This chapter provides an overview of the current and experimental coronary imaging methods to detect vulnerable plaque and discuss the potential implication of multimodality imaging in clinical practice.

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