1. Articles in category: Textbooks

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    1. Smart Sensors for Health and Environment Monitoring (Book)

      Smart Sensors for Health and Environment Monitoring (Book)

      This book covers two most important applications of smart sensors, namely bio-health sensing and environmental monitoring. The approach taken is holistic and covers the complete scope of the subject matter from the principles of the sensing mechanism, through device physics, circuit and system implementation techniques, and energy issues to wireless connectivity solutions. It is written at a level suitable mainly for post-graduate level researchers interested in practical applications. The chapters are independent but complementary to each other, and the book works within the wider perspective of essential smart sensors for the Internet of Things (IoT). This is the second of ...

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    2. The Role of Multiple Imaging Modalities to Disclose the Mechanism of ACS Angioscopy in Comparison to Other Imaging Modalities Including OCT, IVUS and CTA (Book Chapter)

      The Role of Multiple Imaging Modalities to Disclose the Mechanism of ACS Angioscopy in Comparison to Other Imaging Modalities Including OCT, IVUS and CTA (Book Chapter)

      This book presents a thorough review of coronary angioscopy, ranging from instructions on its use to the latest advances. Starting with the structure and fundamental principles of angioscopy, it shows readers how to apply the image to comprehensive care of coronary-artery patients. Plentiful color photos and illustrations will enable readers to investigate and classify plaques and thrombi and to evaluate coronary stent- and drug-based therapies. The authors are leading researchers on angioscopy. This book offers the perfect guide not only for new clinicians but also for cardiologists who have already adopted this technique for medical examination and treatment. Angioscopy is ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications Second Edition (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications Second Edition (Textbook)

      New medical imaging technologies can improve the diagnosis and clinical management of many diseases. Furthermore, advanced imaging also contributes to a better understanding of pathogenesis and therefore to the development of new pharmaceuticals and novel therapies. Thus, imaging plays a critical role in modern medical research and clinical practice. Noninvasive or minimally invasive imaging techniques have revolutionized diagnostic medicine during the last decades, e.g., X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), radioisotope imaging (position emission tomography (PET)), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These techniques permit three-dimensional visualization; however ...

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    4. Mathematical Methods of Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Mathematical Methods of Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      In this chapter a general mathematical model of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented on the basis of the electromagnetic theory. OCT produces high-resolution images of the inner structure of biological tissues. Images are obtained by measuring the time delay and the intensity of the backscattered light from the sample considering also the coherence properties of light. The scattering problem is considered for a weakly scattering medium located far enough from the detector. The inverse problem is to reconstruct the susceptibility of the medium given the measurements for different positions of the mirror. Different approaches are addressed depending on the ...

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    5. Interventional Cardiology Imaging (Textbook)

      Interventional Cardiology Imaging (Textbook)

      Ever since the establishment of invasive coronary angiography, the limitations of the technique have not gone unnoticed. As a result, multiple invasive imaging modalities have been developed in an attempt to characterize the true severity of coronary artery disease as well as guide the percutaneous coronary interventions. Invasive imaging modalities have included ultrasound, optical, and chemographic technologies. Moreover, physiological assessment of the degree of the coronary blood fl ow has also been performed through fractional and coronary fl ow assessments. This book provides an overview of the current available invasive coronary imaging modalities in an attempt to present a concise ...

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    6. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Diseases (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Neurologic Diseases (Textbook)

      Optical coherence tomography [OCT] provides tissue morphology imagery at much higher resolution than other imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound, and the machines are comparatively cheaper. It is an easy technique to perform; is non-ionizing, and therefore safe. These benefits are driving a rapid transformation of OCT, from its principal application as a research tool, into an extension of the 'neurological examination' in routine office practice. Originally used in assessing the severity of tissue damage and prognosis of multiple sclerosis and various neuro-ophthalmic conditions, OCT is increasingly used in other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, ALS, and ...

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    7. Clinical OCT Angiography Atlas (Textbook)

      Clinical OCT Angiography Atlas (Textbook)

      Guide to the understanding and interpretation of Angio-OCT · Provides complete overview of technique and interpretation, including terminology · Describes use of OCT for diagnosis of ocular diseases and disorders in different parts of the eye, and future developments · Highly illustrated with more than 250 clinical images · Internationally recognised editor and author team comprising leading clinicians and researchers in ophthalmology and OCT imaging

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    8. Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry: Technology, Design Principles and Clinical Application (Textbook)

      Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry: Technology, Design Principles and Clinical Application (Textbook)

      Medical technology is a fast growing field. This new title gives a comprehensive review of modern optical technologies alongside their clinical deployment. It bridges the technology and clinical domains and will be suitable in both technical and clinical environments. It introduces and develops basic physical methods (in optics, photonics, and metrology) and their applications in the design of optical systems for use in medical technology with a special focus on ophthalmology. Medical applications described in detail demonstrate the advantage of utilizing optical-photonic methods. Exercises and solutions for each chapter help understand and apply basic principles and methods. An associated website ...

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    9. Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Laser-Cochleostomy (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Laser-Cochleostomy (Textbook)

      Despite the high precision of laser, it remains challenging to control the laser-bone ablation without injuring the underlying critical structures. Providing an axial resolution on micrometre scale, OCT is a promising candidate for imaging microstructures beneath the bone surface and monitoring the ablation process. In this work, a bridge connecting these two technologies is established. A closed-loop control of laser-bone ablation under the monitoring with OCT has been successfully realised.

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography (Textbook)

      This book presents the state-of-the-art information regarding optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique providing high-resolution cross-sectional images in several fields of engineering and medicine. OCT images are created by measuring the intensity of reflected or back scattered light which is scanned across the tissue and material. The aim of this book is to present elaborative information on OCT in a wide spectrum of fields including oncology, engineering, ophthalmology and atherosclerosis

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    11. Optical Coherence Tomography. ESASO Course Series Vol. 4 (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography. ESASO Course Series Vol. 4 (Textbook)

      The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) into routine clinical practice has massively increased the amount and diversity of information regarding the living retina, and radically changed the understanding and management of almost every retinal disease. Producing an up-to-date book on OCT amid a high technological turnover and rapidly evolving concepts is a challenging task. The authors have succeeded in their mission by selecting certain common and controversial topics rather than attempting to be all-inclusive. This softcover book with 134 pages is a compilation of 15 articles co-authored by 40 contributors forming an international panel of well-respected experts. Each chapter ...

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    12. Advanced Endoscopic Imaging in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Textbook)

      Advanced Endoscopic Imaging in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Textbook)

      Advanced endoscopic imaging incorporates several methods to enhance visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is an evolving field within advanced endoscopy and particularly important for the endoscopist performing ESD, as these modalities can aid all stages of ESD. Advanced imaging involves several different techniques, from chromoendoscopy (e.g. Lugol’s solution, methylene blue, indigo carmine), to optical enhancement methods (e.g. magnified endoscopy, narrow band imaging, confocal endomicroscopy) and electronic methods (e.g. spectrometry, optical coherence tomography). Frequently, a combination of techniques is utilized to maximize visualization of the lesion and surrounding mucosa. The endoscopist performing ESD needs to ...

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    13. Noninvasive Ocular Angiography by Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Noninvasive Ocular Angiography by Optical Coherence Tomography (Book Chapter)

      Diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma are all associated with impaired circulation. Noninvasive assessment of ocular circulation would be very powerful for understanding and diagnosing these eye diseases. Using high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), we developed a new OCT angiography algorithm called split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) for imaging ocular microcirculation. Here, the system and theory of this novel OCT angiography technique are reviewed; its capabilities for imaging retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve head blood flow are demonstrated; and its limitation is discussed.

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    14. Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles (Book Chapter)

      Chemical Strategies for the Development of Multimodal Imaging Probes Using Nanoparticles (Book Chapter)

      This chapter focuses on the most recently reported nanoparticle agents that have been demonstrated in vivo . It describes the general methods of chemical conjugations, silanisation, and electrostatic adsorption. The chapter examines the recent use of nanoparticles that incorporate a fluorescent dye and a magnetic nanoparticle together. The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities and in vivo characterisation has been executed in two ways: attaching an organic NIR dye to a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION); and combining SPIONs with a materials-based NIR fluorescent species such as a quantum dot or multilayered gold/silica nanoparticles. Upconversion luminescence ...

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    15. Imaging of cardiovascular development in Mammalian embryos using optical coherence tomography (Book Chapter)

      Imaging of cardiovascular development in Mammalian embryos using optical coherence tomography (Book Chapter)

      The cardiovascular system is the first functional organ system to develop within the mammalian embryo. During the early stages of cardiovascular development, the heart and blood vessels undergo rapid growth and remodeling required for embryo viability, proper morphogenesis, and the function of all organ systems. Live imaging of these dynamic events in early mouse embryos is critical to understanding when and how these morphological changes occur during normal development and how mutations and pharmacological agents affect cardiovascular structure and function in vivo. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for rapid, three-dimensional structural and functional imaging of mouse embryos ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography to Assess Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis (Book Chapter)

      Retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a clinical and research tool in multiple sclerosis (MS) and optic neuritis (ON). This chapter summarizes a short OCT protocol as included in international consensus guidelines. The protocol was written for hands-on style such that both clinicians and OCT technicians can make use of it. The protocol is suitable for imaging of the optic nerve head and macular regions as a baseline for follow-up investigations, individual layer segmentation, and diagnostic assessment.

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    17. Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Diagnosis in Cardiovascular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Quantitative Diagnosis in Cardiovascular Disease (Book Chapter)

      In recent years, biomedical imaging technology has made rapid advances that enable the visualization, quantification, and monitoring of morphology and function. There are several tomography modalities which are currently used in clinics, such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), etc. These modalities have been developed for in vivo structural and functional imaging in humans, but frequently require large, expensive and complex systems. The penetration depth of these tomographic techniques is long, but the spatial resolution is typically on the order of several millimeters or hundred of micrometers.

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    18. Optical Coherence Tomography for Prostate Cancer and Beyond (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography for Prostate Cancer and Beyond (Book Chapter)

      Since it was first used to evaluate human genitourinary tissue in 1997, OCT has emerged as a promising modality to provide real-time, high-resolution imaging of urologic organs. In the bladder, it has demonstrated a high sensitivity in identifying regions of the bladder suspicious for CIS and between invasive and noninvasive malignancy; it has been studied as an “optical biopsy” both during the initial cystoscopic diagnosis and intraoperatively in bladder-preserving surgery. Several small, ex vivo studies have shown promising results in the ability of OCT to demonstrate histopathologic alterations to renal morphology such as in renal ischemia and malignancy. It may ...

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography in Bladder Cancer (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Bladder Cancer (Book Chapter)

      The current diagnostic standard for grading and staging of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is based on the histopathology obtained during transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT) or biopsies. Although considered reference standard, this technique has some limitations: First, no real-time intraoperative histological information is obtained on stage and grade. Real-time intraoperative histological information could be helpful when NMIBC is treated by electric coagulation or laser ablation. The urologist has to rely on his/her judgement of stage and grade since no tissue is harvested for histological confirmation. In addition, in many centres, patients with a history of low-grade, non-invasive ...

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    20. Innovations in Microscopic Imaging of Atherosclerosis and Valvular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Innovations in Microscopic Imaging of Atherosclerosis and Valvular Disease (Book Chapter)

      Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is still an unsolved medical problem, because the pathogenesis of CAVD is poorly understood and early calcification is hard to identify. The lack of high-resolution imaging tools to study early stage disease further hampers the search for therapeutic targets. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), which is a new form of OCT, is the highest-resolution cross-sectional OCT technology available today with 1 μm resolution. We used μOCT to visualize detailed cellular and subcellular structure associated with early calcific changes in diseased human and murine aortic valves. The results suggest that μOCT imaging has the potential to provide ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography: OCT (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography: OCT (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows to measure geometric features inside translucent objects such as organic materials or organic tissues. The principle is based on interferometry. Time-domain and Fourier-domain methods are applied to make visible differences in the refractive index profile of the measuring object. We present the set-up of OCT sensors and show examples of applications such as 3D-imaging of an eye, B-scans of blood vessels or thickness measurements of multi-layer polymer films.

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    22. Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Cryosurgery (Book Chapter)

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides real-time, cross-sectional skin images to a depth of up to 2 mm. OCT is a convenient and fast imaging technology that can be used bedside. In dermatology, the pretherapeutic delineation of both actinic keratoses (AK) and keratinocyte carcinomas has been a natural focus for applied OCT research, and more recently OCT research has turned on non-invasive monitoring of treatments. Previous studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological images. Cryotherapy is a fast and easy treatment modality frequently used for the treatment of AK lesions in everyday dermatology practise. Cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen ...

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    23. Clinical Guide to Angio-OCT (Non Invasive, Dyeless OCT Angiography) (Textbook)

      Clinical Guide to Angio-OCT (Non Invasive, Dyeless OCT Angiography)  (Textbook)

      The book discusses the clinical possibilities of Angio-OCT. Most imaging in the book (77 figures in Chapters 5, 7.1 and 10) has been performed with XR-Avanti Optovue SD-OCT device using SSADA algorithm. A few figures in chapters 3, 7.2 and 8 have been performed with a swept source OCT prototype using SSADA algorithm. Another technique is described in chapter 11, using ultrahigh speed, SS-OCT and its applications to optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Key Features Angio-OCT (Dyeless OCT Angiography) is a new TECHNOLOGY that gives already useful results, that can be applied to day-to-day clinical ophthalmology. Several different OCT ...

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    24. Principles and Applications of Fourier Optics (Textbook)

      Principles and Applications of Fourier Optics (Textbook)

      `All of optics is Fourier optics!' While this statement may not be literally true, when there is one basic mathematical tool to explain light propagation and image formation, with both coherent and incoherent light, as well as thousands of practical everyday applications of the fundamentals, Fourier optics is worth studying. This book contains summaries of the principles of Fourier optics that have been developed over the past hundred years and of many applications over the past fifty years, especially since the invention of the laser. This book is intended as a series of guideposts to improve our world through the ...

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