1. Articles in category: Oncology

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    1. Weakly Supervised Melanoma Identification in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Weakly Supervised Melanoma Identification in Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: Several noninvasive imaging techniques and computer-aided diagnosis systems have been developed to aid in the in-depth assessment of melanomas. However, the detection of thin melanomas (<1 mm) is difficult using current noninvasive imaging techniques, and the algorithms developed in previous studies are not capable of providing melanoma distribution. Experimental Design: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to obtain depth-resolved volumetric data from spontaneous melanoma mice (20390 images for the induced group and 11616 images for the control group) in vivo. A weakly supervised deep-learning melanoma identification algorithm was developed that is capable of learning without the exact melanoma location ...

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    2. Quantitative Micro-Elastography Enables In Vivo Detection of Residual Cancer in the Surgical Cavity during Breast-Conserving Surgery

      Quantitative Micro-Elastography Enables In Vivo Detection of Residual Cancer in the Surgical Cavity during Breast-Conserving Surgery

      Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Following BCS, approximately 20% to 30% of patients require reexcision because postoperative histopathology identifies cancer in the surgical margins of the excised specimen. Quantitative micro-elastography (QME) is an imaging technique that maps microscale tissue stiffness and has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy (96%) in detecting cancer in specimens excised during surgery. However, current QME methods, in common with most proposed intraoperative solutions, cannot image cancer directly in the patient, making their translation to clinical use challenging. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether a handheld ...

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    3. Efficacy of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosing of oral cancerous lesion: systematic review and meta-analysis

      Efficacy of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosing of oral cancerous lesion: systematic review and meta-analysis

      Non-invasive diagnostic tools that facilitate visualization of potentially malignant oral lesions and cancers have been introduced. Oral lesions detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared to reference results based on histological findings. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), along with summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC), area under SROC, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values, were the outcomes. The DOR of OCT was 86.9190 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.7435, 194.9985), and the area under SROC was 0.951. OCT showed good sensitivity (0.9138; 95% CI: 0.8758, 0.9409) and specificity (0.9110; 95% CI: 0 ...

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    4. Diseased thyroid tissue classification in OCT images using deep learning: towards surgical decision support

      Diseased thyroid tissue classification in OCT images using deep learning: towards surgical decision support

      Intraoperative guidance tools for thyroid surgery based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) could aid distinguish between normal and diseased tissue. However, OCT images are difficult to interpret, thus, real-time automatic analysis could support the clinical decision making. In this study, several deep learning models were investigated for thyroid disease classification on 2D and 3D OCT data obtained from ex vivo specimens of 22 patients undergoing surgery and diagnosed with several thyroid pathologies. Additionally, two open-access datasets were used to evaluate the custom models. On the thyroid dataset, the best performance was achieved by the 3D vision transformer model with a ...

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    5. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross Examination and Sampling of Fixed Breast Specimens: A Pilot Study

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross Examination and Sampling of Fixed Breast Specimens: A Pilot Study

      Abstract Thorough gross examination of breast cancer specimens is critical in order to sample relevant portions for subsequent microscopic examination. This task would benefit from an imaging tool which permits targeted and accurate block selection. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-destructive imaging technique that visualizes tissue architecture and has the potential to be an adjunct at the gross bench. Our objectives were: (1) to familiarize pathologists with the appearance of breast tissue entities on OCT; and (2) to evaluate the yield and quality of OCT images of unprocessed, formalin-fixed breast specimens for the purpose of learning and establishment of ...

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    6. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Outgrowth Dynamics in Ovarian Cancer

      Extracellular Matrix Modulates Outgrowth Dynamics in Ovarian Cancer

      Ovarian carcinoma (OC) forms outgrowths that extend from the outer surface of an afflicted organ into the peritoneum. OC outgrowth formation is poorly understood due to the limited availability of cell culture models examining the behavior of cells that form outgrowths. Prompted by immunochemical evaluation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in human tissues, laminin and collagen-rich ECM-reconstituted cell culture models amenable to studies of cell clusters that can form outgrowths are developed. It is demonstrated that ECM promotes outgrowth formation in fallopian tube non-ciliated epithelial cells (FNE) expressing mutant p53 and various OC cell lines. Outgrowths are initiated by cells ...

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    7. The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pituitary Adenomas

      The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Pituitary Adenomas

      Objective : This study aims to explore the value of retinal vessel density (VD) in diagnosing optic nerve injuries in patients with pituitary adenomas using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : In this cross-sectional retrospective study, 100 patients with pituitary adenomas and 71 participants for normal controls, who visited the Beijing Tiantan Hospital from January 2019 to May 2021, were enrolled. The OCTA was used to measure retinal thickness and VD, and the correlation of these parameters with visual field (VF) factors was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the value of the above parameters in diagnosing VF ...

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    8. Research progress on the application of optical coherence tomography in the field of oncology

      Research progress on the application of optical coherence tomography in the field of oncology

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique which has become the "gold standard" for diagnosis in the field of ophthalmology. However, in contrast to the eye, nontransparent tissues exhibit a high degree of optical scattering and absorption, resulting in a limited OCT imaging depth. And the progress made in the past decade in OCT technology have made it possible to image nontransparent tissues with high spatial resolution at large (up to 2mm) imaging depth. On the one hand, OCT can be used in a rapid, noninvasive way to detect diseased tissues, organs, blood vessels or glands. On the ...

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    9. Michelson Diagnostics OCT points to reduced invasive biopsies

      Michelson Diagnostics OCT points to reduced invasive biopsies

      A clinical study published in The Lancet Oncology has evaluated the potential value of OCT technology in the treatment and care of basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The trial compared OCT-guided diagnosis of skin lesions with the standard punch biopsies in which small tissue samples are removed using a circular surgical instrument. The VivoSight OCT platform from Michelson Diagnostics was employed in the study, which involved 598 enrolled participants in the Netherlands. VivoSight is a multi-beam OCT platform employing light beams focused at different depths, designed to provide clinicians with continuous images of the epidermis and superficial dermis of the skin ...

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    10. Pairing imaging, AI may improve colon cancer screening, diagnosis

      Pairing imaging, AI may improve colon cancer screening, diagnosis

      A research team from the lab of Quing Zhu, the Edwin H. Murty Professor of Engineering at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, has combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and machine learning to develop a colorectal cancer imaging tool that may one day improve the traditional endoscopy currently used by doctors. The results were published in the June issue of the Journal of Biophotonics, with an image featured on the inside cover.

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    11. 66% of diagnostic biopsies for common skin cancer can be avoided using Michelson Diagnostics' VivoSight OCT laser scanner

      66% of diagnostic biopsies for common skin cancer can be avoided using Michelson Diagnostics' VivoSight OCT laser scanner

      A major study published in leading cancer journal, The Lancet Oncology 1 have ground-breaking findings on Michelson Diagnostics, the UK based medical device company that use multi-beam Optical Coherence Tomography ('OCT') technology, which can transform patient's treatment and care of basal cell carcinomas (BCC). It was concluded that OCT-guided diagnosis, when compared to a standard punch biopsy could reduce the number of consultations and invasive procedures by a massive 66%. Professor Klara Mosterd performing an OCT scan on a patient’s lesion. Stitched skin biopsy wound Approximately 75% of skin cancers diagnosed in the UK are basal cell carcinomas ...

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    12. Intraoperative In Vivo Imaging Modalities in Head and Neck Cancer Surgical Margin Delineation: A Systematic Review

      Intraoperative In Vivo Imaging Modalities in Head and Neck Cancer Surgical Margin Delineation: A Systematic Review

      Surgical margin status is one of the strongest prognosticators in predicting patient outcomes in head and neck cancer, yet head and neck surgeons continue to face challenges in the accurate detection of these margins with the current standard of care. Novel intraoperative imaging modalities have demonstrated great promise for potentially increasing the accuracy and efficiency in surgical margin delineation. In this current study, we collated and analyzed various intraoperative imaging modalities utilized in head and neck cancer to evaluate their use in discriminating malignant from healthy tissues. The authors conducted a systematic database search through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science ...

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      Mentions: UC Davis
    13. Optical coherence tomography versus punch biopsy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial

      Optical coherence tomography versus punch biopsy for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial

      Background Punch biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis and subtyping of basal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess whether use of optical coherence tomography (OCT), a non-invasive imaging tool, might avoid the need for biopsy. Methods In a multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial, patients (aged ≥18 years) with an indication for biopsy of a suspected basal cell carcinoma outside the H-zone (high-risk zone) of the face were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either OCT or punch biopsy (regular care) via a web-based randomisation system. Patients were enrolled from three participating centres in the Netherlands: Maastricht ...

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    14. Optical coherence tomography for surgical margin evaluation of excised canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors

      Optical coherence tomography for surgical margin evaluation of excised canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors

      Currently, intraoperative tumor margin imaging is not routinely utilized in veterinary medicine. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for real-time assessment of tissue morphology of 1-2 mm depth. The aims of this study were 1) to compare the histologic and OCT features of excised canine skin and subcutaneous specimens, and 2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for surgical margin evaluation. The authors hypothesized that OCT imaging would correlate well with histopathology and that OCT would be sensitive for detection of incomplete margins. Eighty dogs were prospectively enrolled. Tumors were excised and the surgical margins were imaged using a spectral ...

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    15. Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging cancer treatment due to its logistical and potential therapeutic benefits as compared to conventional radiotherapy. However, its mechanism of action is yet to be fully understood, likely involving the ablation of tumour microvasculature by higher doses per fraction used in SBRT. In this study, we hypothesized that longitudinal imaging and quantification of the vascular architecture may elucidate the relationship between the microvasculature and tumour response kinetics. Pancreatic human tumour xenografts were thus irradiated with single doses of 10 10 , 20 20 and 30 30 Gy to simulate the first fraction of a SBRT ...

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    16. Classifying breast cancer in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images using convolutional neural networks

      Classifying breast cancer in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images using convolutional neural networks

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being investigated in breast cancer diagnostics as a real-time histology evaluation tool. We present a customized deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for classification of breast tissues in OCT B-scans. Images of human breast samples from mastectomies and breast reductions were acquired using a custom ultrahigh-resolution OCT system with 2.72 µm axial resolution and 5.52 µm lateral resolution. The network achieved 96.7% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 99.7% specificity on a dataset of 23 patients. The usage of deep learning will be important for the practical integration of OCT into clinical practice.

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    17. Multi-class classification of breast tissue using optical coherence tomography and attenuation imaging combined via deep learning

      Multi-class classification of breast tissue using optical coherence tomography and attenuation imaging combined via deep learning

      We demonstrate a convolutional neural network (CNN) for multi-class breast tissue classification as adipose tissue, benign dense tissue, or malignant tissue, using multi-channel optical coherence tomography (OCT) and attenuation images, and a novel Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC)-based loss function that correlates more strongly with performance metrics than the commonly used cross-entropy loss. We hypothesized that using multi-channel images would increase tumor detection performance compared to using OCT alone. 5,804 images from 29 patients were used to fine-tune a pre-trained ResNet-18 network. Adding attenuation images to OCT images yields statistically significant improvements in several performance metrics, including benign dense ...

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    18. 5 Feasibility of WF-OCT as an Adjunct to Intraoperative Specimen X-ray for Breast Conservation Surgical Specimens

      5 Feasibility of WF-OCT as an Adjunct to Intraoperative Specimen X-ray for Breast Conservation Surgical Specimens

      Background/Significance Margin status after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer. Adjunct, intraoperative analysis of excised tumor margins reduces the risk of reexcision surgery by allowing the surgeon to take additional tissue if an involved margin is detected. While intraoperative specimen radiography (SXR) is commonly used as such an adjunct, wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) imaging has also demonstrated performance for this purpose. WF-OCT uses near-infrared interferometry to produce high-resolution images of tissue microarchitecture at a depth up to 2 mm and may detect residual malignant tissue not apparent on SXR. Materials and Methods This ...

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    19. Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Introduction: Examination of subungual pigmented lesions is sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Objectives: The study was aimed to investigate characteristic patterns in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subungual hematomas and determine distinctive features that can differentiate them from subungual melanocytic lesions. Methods: VivoSight® (Michelson Diagnostics, Maidstone, UK) was used to examine 71 subungual hematomas and 11 subungual melanocytic lesions in 69 patients (18 female and 51 male patients). Results: On OCT, bleeding was related to sharply defined black sickle-shaped ( p < 0.001) or globular regions (not significant [ns]) with a hyperreflective margin (0.002), a grey center (0.013 ...

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    20. Ex-vivo Examination of Excisions of Skin Tumors by Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) With Integrated Dermoscopy and Comparison With Histology (DERMOCTAV)

      Ex-vivo Examination of Excisions of Skin Tumors by Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) With Integrated Dermoscopy and Comparison With Histology (DERMOCTAV)

      There are mainly 3 types of skin cancer: melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of skin cancers is now based on anatomo-pathological evidence. However, given the progress made, imaging is a technique that now has a full role in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This is particularly the case of confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT), which is a recent imaging technique that has proven itself in ophthalmology with the obtaining of precise images of the retina. LC-OCT can be applied in dermatology according to the following principle: the low intensity laser beam delivered by the LC-OCT ...

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      Mentions: Damae Medical
    21. Noninvasive oral cancer screening based on local residual adaptation network using optical coherence tomography

      Noninvasive oral cancer screening based on local residual adaptation network using optical coherence tomography

      Oral cancer is known as one of the relatively common malignancy types worldwide. Despite the easy access of the oral cavity to examination, the invasive biopsy is still essential for final diagnosis, which requires laborious operation and complicated trained specialists. With the development of deep learning, the artificial intelligence (AI) technique is applied for oral cancer examinations and alleviates the workload of manual screening on biopsy. However, existing computer-aided oral cancer diagnostic methods focus on oral cavity environment photos and histology images, which require complicated operations for doctors and are invasive and painful for patients. As a noninvasive, real-time imaging ...

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    22. Is Real-Time Microscopy on the Horizon? A Brief Review of the Potential Future Directions in Clinical Breast Tumor Microscopy Implementation

      Is Real-Time Microscopy on the Horizon? A Brief Review of the Potential Future Directions in Clinical Breast Tumor Microscopy Implementation

      We will briefly review the current paradigm and some recent developments in the area of clinical breast microscopy, highlighting several promising commercially available, and research-based platforms. Confocal microscopy (reflectance, fluorescence, and spectrally encoded), optical coherence tomography (wide field and full field), stereomicroscopy, open-top light sheet microscopy, microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation, nonlinear microscopy, Raman scattering microscopy, photoacoustic microscopy, and needle microendoscopy will be discussed. Non-microscopic methods for breast pathology assessment are beyond the scope of this review. These microscopic technologies have to varying degrees the potential for transforming breast cancer care, but in order for any of these to be ...

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    23. Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Background and Aims Nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM), an optical coherence tomography-derived approach, is capable of detecting with nanoscale sensitivity, structural alterations in the chromatin of epithelial cell nuclei at risk for malignant transformation. Since these alterations predate the development of dysplasia, we aimed to utilize nanoNAM to identify patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) who progress to high grade dysplasia (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methods This is a nested case control study of 46 BE patients of which 21 progressed to HGD/EAC over 3.7 (± 2.37) years (cases/progressors) and 25 patients who did not progress ...

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    24. Researchers pilot 'itty bitty' device for earlier ovarian cancer detection

      Researchers pilot 'itty bitty' device for earlier ovarian cancer detection

      Due to a lack of effective screening and diagnostic tools, more than three-fourths of ovarian cancer cases are not found until the cancer is in an advanced stage. As a result, fewer than half of all women with ovarian cancer survive more than five years after diagnosis. Jennifer Barton , director of the University of Arizona BIO5 Institute and Thomas R. Brown Distinguished Chair in Biomedical Engineering , has spent years developing a device small enough to image the fallopian tubes – narrow ducts connecting the uterus to the ovaries – and search for signs of early-stage cancer. Dr. John Heusinkveld has now used ...

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