1. Articles in category: Oncology

    1-24 of 525 1 2 3 4 ... 20 21 22 »
    1. Drs. Campbell, Hariri, and Lehman Receive 2016 LUNGevity Career Development Awards

      Drs. Campbell, Hariri, and Lehman Receive 2016 LUNGevity Career Development Awards

      Lida Hariri , MD, Massachusetts General Hospital, who will use a novel high-resolution imaging technique called Optical Coherence Tomography to perform virtual optical biopsies to determine its value in complementing tissue biopsies in the determination of early-stage lung cancer

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    2. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

      Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex ...

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    3. OCT Technology Improves Diagnosis of Skin Cancer

      OCT Technology Improves Diagnosis of Skin Cancer

      As part of an ongoing series of occasional article on cancer prevention, Dr. Markowitz from The Mount Sinai Hospital discusses skin cancer and the use Optical Coherence Tomography in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. MedicalResearch.com: How common is the problem of non-melanoma skin cancer? Are they difficult to detect and treat? Dr. Markowitz: Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. Non melanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, are the most common malignancies of the skin, constituting around 80 percent of all skin cancers. The annual cost of treating skin ...

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      Mentions: Orit Markowitz
    4. A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      A new algorithm for the discrimination of actinic keratosis from normal skin and squamous cell carcinoma based on in vivo analysis of optical properties by high-definition optical coherence tomography

      Background High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of actinic keratosis (AK) may aid in its diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. A diagnostic algorithm permitting discrimination of AK from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin has been proposed. However, diagnostic accuracy strongly depends on the experience of physicians. In two recent studies, it was demonstrated that HD-OCT permits to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in intrinsic ageing skin, in melanocytic lesions and in basal cell carcinoma. This approach seems to permit a semiautomated classification of lesions easier to handle by non-experts. Objectives The aim of this paper ...

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    5. High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

      Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution, approaching traditional histological sections. In the context of prostate cancer diagnosis involving multiple biopsies, FFOCT could be used to validate the cores just after they are obtained in order to guide the number of biopsies to be performed. The aim of the study was to define and test a training protocol for efficient FFOCT prostate biopsy assessment. Three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to ...

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    6. Kif14 overexpression accelerates murine retinoblastoma development

      Kif14 overexpression accelerates murine retinoblastoma development

      The mitotic kinesin KIF14 has an essential role in the recruitment of proteins required for the final stages of cytokinesis. Genomic gain and/or overexpression of KIF14 has been documented in retinoblastoma and a number of other cancers, such as breast, lung and ovarian carcinomas, strongly suggesting its role as an oncogene. Despite evidence of oncogenic properties in vitro and in xenografts, Kif14's role in tumor progression has not previously been studied in a transgenic cancer model. Using a novel Kif14 overexpressing, simian virus 40 large T-antigen retinoblastoma (TAg-RB) double transgenic mouse model, we aimed to determine Kif14 's ...

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    7. UIUC Receives NIH Grant for Intraoperative Label-Free Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Tumor Margins.

      UIUC Receives  NIH Grant for Intraoperative Label-Free Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Tumor Margins.

      University of Illionois at Urbana-Champaign Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $490,333 for Intraoperative Label-Free Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Tumor Margins. The principal investiagator is Stephen Boppart. The program began in 2012 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Margin status during the surgical treatment of solid tumors is the most critical factor in determining local recurrence rates. For breast cancer, breast conserving surgeries or lumpectomies are routinely performed. Currently, the surgeon is unable to visualize the microscopic structure at the margin, and conventionally relies on post-operative histological assessment of surgical margins to ...

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    8. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma: density and signal attenuation

      Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most OCT studies on the subject of BCC have had a qualitative focus, i.e. on morphological analysis of the OCT images. The aim of this study was to explore the use of quantitative OCT measurements, density, and attenuation coefficient in BCC lesions as a way to improve the OCT evaluation of BCC. Methods The study was based ...

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    9. Longitudinal, label-free, quantitative tracking of cell death and viability in a 3D tumor model with OCT

      Longitudinal, label-free, quantitative tracking of cell death and viability in a 3D tumor model with OCT

      Three-dimensional in vitro tumor models are highly useful tools for studying tumor growth and treatment response of malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Existing viability and treatment assessment assays, however, face shortcomings when applied to these large, complex, and heterogeneous culture systems. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, label-free, optical imaging technique that can visualize live cells and tissues over time with subcellular resolution and millimeters of optical penetration depth. Here, we show that OCT is capable of carrying out high-content, longitudinal assays of 3D culture treatment response. We demonstrate the usage and capability of OCT for the dynamic monitoring ...

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    10. UA engineers zero in on early detection of ovarian cancer

      UA engineers zero in on early detection of ovarian cancer

      University of Arizona researcher Jennifer Barton is leading a two-year, $1 million project funded by the National Cancer Institute to identify imaging biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the most deadly gynecological cancer in the United States. This work may enable the first effective screening system for ovarian cancer. "Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening techniques, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat," said Barton, professor of biomedical engineering, electrical and computer engineering, optical sciences, and agricultural and biosystems engineering, and interim director of the UA BIO5 Institute.

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    11. EU Funded Careioca Projet Lead to New High-Speed Ex-Vivo and Endoscopic Optical Imaging Systems for Real-Time Cancer Diagnosis Showing High Potential

      EU Funded Careioca Projet Lead to New High-Speed Ex-Vivo and Endoscopic Optical Imaging Systems for Real-Time Cancer Diagnosis Showing High Potential

      Cancer diagnosis relies on the long and complex histology process. During surgery, there is currently no real- time guidance at the histology level, leading to up to 40% of reoperations . Along the cancer care workflow , in particular for tumor biopsy and excision, current existing preoperative and intraoperative imaging techniques fail to perform a reliable in situ diagnosis. Moreover, the complete pathological diagnosis, often based on histology slides preparation, is usually only available after a few days. For these reasons a significant number of patients need to undergo secondary biopsy or surgery. The CAReIOCA project combined the latest advances in CMOS ...

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    12. An implant to catch metastatic cancer cells before they grow into tumors

      An implant to catch metastatic cancer cells before they grow into tumors

      There could be a way around this, though: a special imaging method under development at Northwestern University called Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT). ISOCT detects molecular-level differences in the way cells in the body scatter light. And when we scan our implant with ISOCT, the light scatter pattern looks different when it's full of normal cells than when cancer cells are present. In fact, the difference is apparent when even as few as 15 out of the hundreds of thousands of cells in the implant are cancer cells. There's a catch – ISOCT cannot penetrate deep into tissue ...

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    13. Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Octology: Histology using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives NIH Grant for Octology: Histology using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Massachusetts General Hospital Receives a 2016 NIH Grant for $253,600 for Octology: Histology using Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is Burce Fischl. The program began in 2015 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. While histology remains the gold standard for assessing human neuroanatomy, the procedures for sectioning and hand mounting tissue for microscopic imaging are not substantially different than they were 100 years ago. These steps introduce irremediable distortions into the tissue sections making it difficult or impossible to align sections with suffiient accuracy to create 3D histological volumes at the micron ...

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    14. Ultrathin lensed fiber-optic probe for optical coherence tomography

      Ultrathin lensed fiber-optic probe for optical coherence tomography

      We investigated and validated a novel method to develop ultrathin lensed fiber-optic (LFO) probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. We made the LFO probe by attaching a segment of no core fiber (NCF) to the distal end of a single mode fiber (SMF) and generating a curved surface at the tip of the NCF using the electric arc of a fusion splicer. The novel fabrication approach enabled us to control the length of the NCF and the radius of the fiber lens independently. By strategically choosing these two parameters, the LFO probe could achieve a broad range of working ...

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    15. OCT variant looks good for vascular imaging

      OCT variant looks good for vascular imaging

      Researchers in New York have shown that a variation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to tell melanomas apart from other skin lesions, by imaging the patterns of blood vessels that surround them. The small, early-stage study suggests that speckle-variance (sv) OCT could become a useful clinical tool for quickly identifying the most dangerous form of skin cancer, although a larger clinical trial of the technique will be needed to prove its utility first. Writing in the open access journal Dermatology Online , Orit Markowitz and colleagues looked at two pairs of malignant and benign lesions that are typically difficult ...

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    16. Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Accuracy of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of superficial basal cell carcinoma – a prospective, consecutive, cohort study of 168 cases

      Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), consisting overwhelmingly of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most prevalent malignancy in Western populations with large populations of Caucasians. BCC forms the majority of NMSC and its incidence continues to rise in many countries; Australia has the highest incidence rate worldwide at >1000/100,000 person-years.(1-3) Although BCC is usually not life-threatening, it represents a major public health burden. In Australia, the number of treatment episodes for NMSC is more than five times that of all other cancers combined, making them the most expensive cancers to treat.(4)

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    17. SpectraScience Announces Licensing of Key Technology From Duke University

      SpectraScience Announces Licensing of Key Technology From Duke University

      SpectraScience, Inc. (OTCQB: SCIE ), a medical device company utilizing light technologies to detect and diagnose cancers, announced today that they have concluded a licensing agreement with Duke University. The technology covered is around systems and methods for the use of Angle-Resolved Low Coherence Interferometry in the diagnosis of certain cancers. "We are excited to be working with an institution as prestigious as Duke University to advance medical diagnostics," said Michael Oliver, President and Chief Executive Officer of SpectraScience, Inc. "The intellectual property we have licensed from Duke is the underlying technology for the Oncoscope products we acquired earlier this year ...

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    18. Orbital Metastasis From Breast Cancer without Significant Changes in CT Scan and MRI

      Orbital Metastasis From Breast Cancer without Significant Changes in CT Scan and MRI

      Dear Editor , Orbital metastasis infrequently occurs in breast cancer ( 1 ); however breast cancer is the most common cause of orbital metastasis ( 2 - 5 ), followed by lung, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and skin (melanoma) cancers ( 6 , 7 ). Definite diagnosis of an orbital lesion includes an orbital biopsy (either FNA or open biopsy). However, in patients with known metastatic cancer, CT scan or MRI of the orbits can frequently show the presence of a mass, which often involves the orbital fat or extraocular muscles ( 4 , 5 ). On the other hand, these techniques may not completely reflect the metastases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is ...

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    19. Optical coherence tomography in oral cancer: A transpiring domain

      Optical coherence tomography in oral cancer: A transpiring domain

      Identification of oral cancer at an early curable stage not only aids in controlling the mortality and morbidity rate but also improves the quality of life of the patient. Indeed, regular monitoring of such life-threatening disease has held an imperative role in cancer diagnostics. Various light-based diagnostics are currently available to the clinician for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one such emerging light-based diagnostic modality that provides noninvasive, real-time images at a depth of 1.5–2 mm and can also be compared to corresponding histopathological sections, hence this procedure can also be referred as ...

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    20. Automated analysis of multimodal fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography data for the diagnosis of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

      Automated analysis of multimodal fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography data for the diagnosis of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

      It is known that the progression of oral cancer is accompanied by changes in both tissue biochemistry and morphology. A multimodal imaging approach combining functional and structural imaging modalities could therefore provide a more comprehensive prognosis of oral cancer. This idea forms the central theme of the current study, wherein this premise is examined in the context of a multimodal imaging system that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Towards this end, in the first part of the present study, the diagnostic advantage obtained by using both fluorescence intensity and lifetime information is assessed. In the ...

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    21. Angiographic and Intracoronary Manifestations of Coronary Fibromuscular Dysplasia

      Angiographic and Intracoronary Manifestations of Coronary Fibromuscular Dysplasia

      Background— We previously described a strong association between fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Angiographic manifestations of coronary FMD aside from dissection were considered rare. However, we observed several coronary FMD angiographic abnormalities with corresponding optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Methods and Results— Baseline demographics and imaging of patients with suspected coronary FMD at Vancouver General Hospital were reviewed. Presence of multifocal (string-of-beads) extracoronary FMD was confirmed by 2 specialists. In these patients, coronary angiographic findings (excluding dissected segments) were reviewed and classified by 2 experienced angiographers for irregular stenosis, that is, stenosis with irregular borders in a focal ...

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      Mentions: Hiram G. Bezerra
    22. Mount Sinai Health System Experts Share Skin Cancer Tips and Patient Stories for Skin Cancer Awareness Month and ...

      Mount Sinai Health System Experts Share Skin Cancer Tips and Patient Stories for Skin Cancer Awareness Month and ...

      New Skin Cancer Treatment Without Surgical Biopsy Available at Mount Sinai: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality that can visualize skin structure, and has been proven useful in evaluating the degree of sun damage in skin and identifying pre-cancerous lesions. Through the use of non-ablative lasers, Mount Sinai’s Dr. Markowitz, is one of the only experts in the U.S. using the device. She has been able to successfully treat — without cutting — both early and even more advanced non-melanoma skin cancers using OCT technology. According to Dr. Markowitz, non-melanoma skin cancers are not as deadly as ...

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    23. Volumetric analysis of pathologies

      Volumetric analysis of pathologies

      Systems and methods are provided for volumetric analysis of pathologies. A segmentation component is configured to determine, for each of a series of images of a region of interest containing a pathological feature, a set of segmentation boundaries within the image representing a cross-section of the pathological feature. A mesh generation component is configured to link the sets of segmentation boundaries from adjacent images in the series of images to generate a polygonal mesh representing a volumetric reconstruction of the pathological feature. A volumetric measurement component is configured to calculate volumetric parameters from the volumetric reconstruction representing the pathological feature ...

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    24. Method for identifying malignancies in barrett's esophagus using white light endoscopy

      Method for identifying malignancies in barrett's esophagus using white light endoscopy

      A method is described for computing a statistically significant difference between dysplasia and Barrett's esophagus (both with and without inflammatory component) using a discriminate function with diffuse reflectance measurements performed at a minimum of four different wavelengths of 485, 513, 598, and 629 nm. The discriminate function found depends both on local blood fraction volume T.sub.HB and oxygenation SO.sub.2. A pull-back approach of spectral data acquisition is disclosed which takes into account tissue motility in esophagus and measurement geometry peculiarities. The pull-back approach provides a significant improvement of measurement reproducibility and reduction of data deviation ...

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