1. Articles in category: Oncology

    1-24 of 566 1 2 3 4 ... 22 23 24 »
    1. Simultaneous measurements of lymphatic vessel contraction, flow and valve dynamics in multiple lymphangions using optical coherence tomography

      Simultaneous measurements of lymphatic vessel contraction, flow and valve dynamics in multiple lymphangions using optical coherence tomography

      Lymphatic dysfunction is involved in many diseases including lymphedema, hypertension, autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infections, cancer and cancer metastasis. Expanding our knowledge of lymphatic system function can lead to a better understanding of these disease processes and improve treatment options. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods were used to reveal intraluminal valve dynamics in 3D, and measure lymph flow and vessel contraction simultaneously in three neighboring lymphangions of the afferent collecting lymphatic vessels to the popliteal lymph node in mice. Flow measurements were based on Doppler OCT techniques in combination with exogenous lymph labelling by Intralipid. Through these ...

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    2. Cholangioport for optical coherence tomography imaging and photodynamic therapy of the cholangiocarcinoma

      Cholangioport for optical coherence tomography imaging and photodynamic therapy of the cholangiocarcinoma

      Introduction: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is technology which can be used as criteria efficiency of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for cholangiocarcinoma. The prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinomas is very poor and the first symptom is mechanical jaundice. The percutaneous transhepatic drainage is used in the first stage of treatment. It seemed to be an attractive idea to deliver light directly through the drainage. For doing that it was necessary to determine the possibility of tumor radiation by the semiconductor laser through the catheter wall. Methods: The aim of the first stage of research was to estimate the optimum transmission spectra and ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography of Macular Features after Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Small Choroidal Melanoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography of Macular Features after Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Small Choroidal Melanoma

      Purpose To describe the macular features of patients treated with proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma (CM), using the optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective case-control study. Methods This study included patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy (PBR) for a small CM. Only patients that had received 100% of the dose 60 GyEBR to the macular area were included in the analysis. All the patients have undergone a full ophthalmological examination including: visual acuity, OCT B-scan and OCTA. Qualitative and quantitative vascular features of the retinal plexus and the choriocapillaris were analyzed on OCTA and compared to healthy subjects matched ...

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    4. Breast cancer imaging invention to improve surgery accuracy gets funding for clinical trials

      Breast cancer imaging invention to improve surgery accuracy gets funding for clinical trials

      An Australian invention aimed at improving the accuracy of breast cancer surgery is a step closer to being launched on the global market after securing funding for medical trials. About a quarter of breast cancer patients currently require two rounds of surgery because surgeons, working mostly by touch, are unable to detect microscopic tumours during the first operation. A hand-held imaging probe developed by biomedical engineers at the University of Western Australia will be able to identify those tumours in real-time during the first surgery. "Surgeons are relying on pretty primitive tools at the moment," lead researcher Brendan Kennedy said ...

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    5. Piccolo project develops endoscope for colon cancer diagnosis

      Piccolo project develops endoscope for colon cancer diagnosis

      New instrument from Horizon 2020 project will use OCT and MPT for high-resolution imaging. Piccolo project: the European consortium A project funded under the EU Horizon 2020 program aims to develop a novel endoscope for the identification and diagnosis of colorectal cancer, the latest step in the use of optical technologies to tackle one of the world's predominant cancers. Running for three years until December 2019, and involving nine European industrial and research partners led by Spain's Tecnalia Research & Innovation research center, the Piccolo project envisages an advanced endoscope instrument able to deliver high-resolution structural and functional imaging ...

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    6. Microscale imaging of breast tumor margins using optical coherence elastography

      Microscale imaging of breast tumor margins using optical coherence elastography

      A variant of optical coherence elastography offers a promising method of distinguishing between tumor and breast tissue in lumpectomy specimens in an intraoperative time frame. 1 May 2017, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201702.006873 Breast-conserving surgery is the most common surgical procedure used in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. 1 The aim of this surgery is to remove all malignant tissue such that the surgical margin is free of cancer, while preserving the breast and ensuring a good cosmetic outcome. Currently, accurate microscopic margin assessment is only available postoperatively, via histopathological examination, days after the surgery. Of ...

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    7. Perth Researchers Developed the World's Smallest Microscope

      Perth Researchers Developed the World's Smallest Microscope

      One in four women who have a lump removed from their breast needs more surgery to remove remaining cancer cells. That’s a pretty scary statistic for patients. And it’s one Professor David Sampson believes could be better. “One of the main reasons [breast cancer patients need extra surgery] is because all of the tumour is not being identified. Because it can’t all be seen. Because you don’t have the resolution to see it.” David explains. “So in many instances, resolution – being able to see very small things – is a key part of improving those guidance procedures ...

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    8. I can’t always play it safe with my patients. That’s why I cautiously innovate

      I can’t always play it safe with my patients. That’s why I cautiously innovate

      A s a profession, doctors are determined and cautious. We are determined to do our best and provide the best care for our patients. But we can be quite cautious about trying out new treatments or technologies to help provide that “best care.” Some hesitation makes sense. Countless treatments that sounded promising at the time fell by the wayside because they didn’t measure up — or caused harm. One example: Fifty years ago, dermatologists often used radiation to treat acne. It seemed to work, but researchers later learned that it increased the risk for thyroid, skin, and other cancers. Yet ...

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      Mentions: Orit Markowitz
    9. €4m project to speed diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      €4m project to speed diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      The Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging at Helmholtz Zentrum München , Germany, is heading a research project entitled ”Hybrid optical and optoacoustic endoscope for esophageal tracking” or ESOTRAC . This four-year, €4 million, pan-European project will bring together engineers and physicians to develop a novel hybrid endoscopic instrument for early diagnosis and staging of esophageal cancer. The finished device is expected to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and, importantly, facilitate early-disease detection leading to earlier start of therapy, which will improve therapeutic efficacy over late-disease treatment and, ultimately, cost-savings for health care systems. ESOTRAC was awarded the €4 million ...

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    10. Feature Of The Week 03/12/2017: Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT

      Feature Of The Week 03/12/2017: Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT

      Breast cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality in women. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables three dimensional visualization of biological tissue with micrometer level resolution at high speed, and can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment guidance of breast cancer. In this study, we imaged human breast tissue using two spectral domain OCT systems at different wavelengths: a home-built ultra-high resolution (UHR) OCT system at 840nm (measured as 2.72 µm axial and 5.52 µm lateral) and a commercial OCT system at 1300nm with standard resolution (measured as 6.5 µm axial and 15 ...

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    11. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT

      Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT

      Background and Objective Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers, and recognized as the third leading cause of mortality in women. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables three dimensional visualization of biological tissue with micrometer level resolution at high speed, and can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment guidance of breast cancer. In particular, ultra-high resolution (UHR) OCT provides images with better histological correlation. This paper compared UHR OCT performance with standard OCT in breast cancer imaging qualitatively and quantitatively. Automatic tissue classification algorithms were used to automatically detect invasive ductal carcinoma in ex vivo human ...

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    12. From actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma: pathophysiology revisited

      From actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma: pathophysiology revisited

      The precursor of most cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinomas (iSCCs) is intraepithelial UV-induced damage, known as field cancerization, which can eventually transform into actinic keratosis (AK). Although AK is the most common precursor of iSCC, many AKs will either persist in the same stage or regress, while only a few will progress into iSCC. Nevertheless, because the progression of individual AKs cannot be predicted, it has been proposed that all AKs, regardless of the grade, should be carefully monitored and appropriately treated in clinical practice. Modern imaging techniques such as dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and high-definition optical coherence tomography ...

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    13. Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

      Can we improve transurethral resection of the bladder tumour for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer?

      Purpose of review: The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past year. Recent findings: Several approaches have been explored: bipolar resection is well tolerated and efficient; however, surgical outcomes are not clearly superior to monopolar resection; en-bloc resection seems feasible and well tolerated, and has the potential to improve the quality of tissue for histopathology; enhancement techniques such as photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging ...

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    14. Intraoperative assessment of laryngeal pathologies with optical coherence tomography integrated into a surgical microscope

      Intraoperative assessment of laryngeal pathologies with optical coherence tomography integrated into a surgical microscope

      Objective Endoscopic examination followed by tissue biopsy is the gold standard in the evaluation of lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between healthy mucosa, dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique which acquires high-resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in vivo . Integrated into a surgical microscope, it allows the intraoperative evaluation of lesions simultaneously with microscopic visualization. Study Design In a prospective case series, we evaluated the use of OCT integrated into a surgical microscope during microlaryngoscopy to help differentiating various laryngeal pathologies. Methods 33 patients with laryngeal pathologies ...

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    15. Evaluation of choroidal tumors with optical coherence tomography: enhanced depth imaging and OCT-angiography features

      Evaluation of choroidal tumors with optical coherence tomography: enhanced depth imaging and OCT-angiography features

      Aim To describe the vascular features of choroidal tumors using enhanced depth imaging (EDI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-angiography. Methods In this prospective study, we evaluated 116 Caucasian patients with choroidal tumors (60 eyes with choroidal nevi, 40 with choroidal melanoma, 6 with choroidal hemangioma, 2 with optic disc melanocytoma, 6 with choroidal osteoma, and 2 with retinal metastases). Patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including bulbar echography, EDI-OCT, OCT-angiography, and multicolor imaging. Sixteen patients also underwent fluorescein and indocyanine angiography. Results The left eye was more involved than the right eye. The mean tumor thickness was 1.23 ...

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    16. Visualizing dynamics of angiogenic sprouting from a three-dimensional microvasculature model using stage-top optical coherence tomography

      Visualizing dynamics of angiogenic sprouting from a three-dimensional microvasculature model using stage-top optical coherence tomography

      Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro microvasculature in a polydimethylsiloxane-based microdevice was developed as a physiologically relevant model of angiogenesis. The angiogenic process is monitored using stage-top optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT allows non-invasive monitoring of the 3D structures of the prepared host microvasculature and sprouted neovasculature without fluorescence staining. OCT monitoring takes only a few minutes to scan through the several-millimetre scale range, which provides the advantage of rapid observation of living samples. The obtained OCT cross-sectional images capture 3D features of the angiogenic sprouting process and provide information on the dynamics of luminal formation. The stage-top system used in this ...

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    17. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular features associated with dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pilot study (with video)

      Endoscopic optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular features associated with dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a pilot study (with video)

      Background and Aims Angiogenesis is associated with neoplastic progression of Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Volumetric optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) visualizes subsurface microvasculature without exogenous contrast agents. We investigated the association of OCTA microvascular features with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing BE surveillance or endoscopic eradication therapies for dysplasia were imaged using volumetric OCTA and corresponding histological diagnoses obtained, to yield 97 data sets (non-dysplastic BE (NDBE): N=74; LGD: N=10; HGD: N=13). After evaluating OCTA image quality, 54 datasets (NDBE: N=35; LGD: N=8; HGD: N=11) from 32 patients ...

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    18. Feasibility of laser marking in Barrett’s esophagus with volumetric laser endomicroscopy: first-in-man pilot study

      Feasibility of laser marking in Barrett’s esophagus with volumetric laser endomicroscopy: first-in-man pilot study

      Background and Aim Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) provides a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers and has potential to improve detection of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (BE). The novel VLE laser marking system enables direct in vivo marking of suspicious areas as identified on VLE. These laser marked areas can subsequently be targeted for biopsies. The aim was to evaluate the visibility and positional accuracy of laser marks (LMs) in different esophageal tissue types on white light endoscopy (WLE) and VLE. Methods Patients with BE with or without neoplasia underwent imaging with VLE. Protocol refinements were practiced in ...

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    19. New technologies for upper tract urothelial carcinoma management

      New technologies for upper tract urothelial carcinoma management

      Purpose of review: Image enhancement techniques and optical diagnostic tools have emerged in the quest to improve diagnostics and treatment in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC). The aim of the present report is to describe their mechanisms of action and to assess the current evidence on applicability and utility in UTUC. Recent findings: Image enhancement techniques including narrow band imaging, Image1 S, and photodynamic diagnosis aim at better visualization of malignant urothelium and especially flat tumours or carcinoma in situ which are often difficult to see with white light endoscopy. Conducted studies in the upper tract are scarce ...

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    20. Comparative study of presurgical skin infiltration depth measurements of melanocytic lesions with OCT and high frequency ultrasound

      Comparative study of presurgical skin infiltration depth measurements of melanocytic lesions with OCT and high frequency ultrasound

      A reliable, fast, and non-invasive determination of melanoma thickness in vivo is highly desirable for clinical dermatology as it may facilitate the identification of surgical melanoma margins, determine if a sentinel node biopsy should be performed or not, and reduce the number of surgical interventions for patients. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are evaluated for quantitative in vivo preoperative assessment of the skin infiltration depth of melanocytic tissue. Both methods allow non-invasive imaging of skin at similar axial resolution. Comparison with the Breslow lesion thickness obtained from histopathology revealed that OCT is slightly ...

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    21. UIUC Receives a NIH Grant for Intraoperative Polarization-Sensitive OCT for Assessing Breast Tumor Margins

      UIUC Receives a NIH Grant for Intraoperative Polarization-Sensitive OCT for Assessing Breast Tumor Margins

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $548,714 for Intraoperative Polarization-Sensitive OCT for Assessing Breast Tumor Margins. The principal investigator is Stephan Boppart. The program began in 2016 and ends in 2021. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Breast cancer is a global healthcare burden, not only for the patients diagnosed with this disease, but also their families and friends. The surgical treatment of breast cancer, while successful, has significant limitations that increase patient anxiety, increase costs, and can increase the risk for local recurrence and lifelong post-operative complications. A primary limitation stems ...

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