1. Articles in category: Oncology

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    1. Optical coherence tomography for surgical margin evaluation of excised canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors

      Optical coherence tomography for surgical margin evaluation of excised canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors

      Currently, intraoperative tumor margin imaging is not routinely utilized in veterinary medicine. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for real-time assessment of tissue morphology of 1-2 mm depth. The aims of this study were 1) to compare the histologic and OCT features of excised canine skin and subcutaneous specimens, and 2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for surgical margin evaluation. The authors hypothesized that OCT imaging would correlate well with histopathology and that OCT would be sensitive for detection of incomplete margins. Eighty dogs were prospectively enrolled. Tumors were excised and the surgical margins were imaged using a spectral ...

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    2. Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Longitudinal in-vivo quantification of tumour microvasculature heterogeneity via optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in a pre-clinical model of radiation therapy

      Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging cancer treatment due to its logistical and potential therapeutic benefits as compared to conventional radiotherapy. However, its mechanism of action is yet to be fully understood, likely involving the ablation of tumour microvasculature by higher doses per fraction used in SBRT. In this study, we hypothesized that longitudinal imaging and quantification of the vascular architecture may elucidate the relationship between the microvasculature and tumour response kinetics. Pancreatic human tumour xenografts were thus irradiated with single doses of 10 10 , 20 20 and 30 30 Gy to simulate the first fraction of a SBRT ...

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    3. Classifying breast cancer in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images using convolutional neural networks

      Classifying breast cancer in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images using convolutional neural networks

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being investigated in breast cancer diagnostics as a real-time histology evaluation tool. We present a customized deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for classification of breast tissues in OCT B-scans. Images of human breast samples from mastectomies and breast reductions were acquired using a custom ultrahigh-resolution OCT system with 2.72 µm axial resolution and 5.52 µm lateral resolution. The network achieved 96.7% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 99.7% specificity on a dataset of 23 patients. The usage of deep learning will be important for the practical integration of OCT into clinical practice.

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    4. Multi-class classification of breast tissue using optical coherence tomography and attenuation imaging combined via deep learning

      Multi-class classification of breast tissue using optical coherence tomography and attenuation imaging combined via deep learning

      We demonstrate a convolutional neural network (CNN) for multi-class breast tissue classification as adipose tissue, benign dense tissue, or malignant tissue, using multi-channel optical coherence tomography (OCT) and attenuation images, and a novel Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC)-based loss function that correlates more strongly with performance metrics than the commonly used cross-entropy loss. We hypothesized that using multi-channel images would increase tumor detection performance compared to using OCT alone. 5,804 images from 29 patients were used to fine-tune a pre-trained ResNet-18 network. Adding attenuation images to OCT images yields statistically significant improvements in several performance metrics, including benign dense ...

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    5. 5 Feasibility of WF-OCT as an Adjunct to Intraoperative Specimen X-ray for Breast Conservation Surgical Specimens

      5 Feasibility of WF-OCT as an Adjunct to Intraoperative Specimen X-ray for Breast Conservation Surgical Specimens

      Background/Significance Margin status after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer. Adjunct, intraoperative analysis of excised tumor margins reduces the risk of reexcision surgery by allowing the surgeon to take additional tissue if an involved margin is detected. While intraoperative specimen radiography (SXR) is commonly used as such an adjunct, wide-field optical coherence tomography (WF-OCT) imaging has also demonstrated performance for this purpose. WF-OCT uses near-infrared interferometry to produce high-resolution images of tissue microarchitecture at a depth up to 2 mm and may detect residual malignant tissue not apparent on SXR. Materials and Methods This ...

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    6. Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Examination of Subungual Hematomas and Subungual Melanocytic Lesions by Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Dermoscopy

      Introduction: Examination of subungual pigmented lesions is sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Objectives: The study was aimed to investigate characteristic patterns in optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subungual hematomas and determine distinctive features that can differentiate them from subungual melanocytic lesions. Methods: VivoSight® (Michelson Diagnostics, Maidstone, UK) was used to examine 71 subungual hematomas and 11 subungual melanocytic lesions in 69 patients (18 female and 51 male patients). Results: On OCT, bleeding was related to sharply defined black sickle-shaped ( p < 0.001) or globular regions (not significant [ns]) with a hyperreflective margin (0.002), a grey center (0.013 ...

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    7. Ex-vivo Examination of Excisions of Skin Tumors by Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) With Integrated Dermoscopy and Comparison With Histology (DERMOCTAV)

      Ex-vivo Examination of Excisions of Skin Tumors by Confocal Optical Coherence Tomography (LC-OCT) With Integrated Dermoscopy and Comparison With Histology (DERMOCTAV)

      There are mainly 3 types of skin cancer: melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of skin cancers is now based on anatomo-pathological evidence. However, given the progress made, imaging is a technique that now has a full role in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This is particularly the case of confocal optical coherence tomography (LC-OCT), which is a recent imaging technique that has proven itself in ophthalmology with the obtaining of precise images of the retina. LC-OCT can be applied in dermatology according to the following principle: the low intensity laser beam delivered by the LC-OCT ...

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      Mentions: Damae Medical
    8. Noninvasive oral cancer screening based on local residual adaptation network using optical coherence tomography

      Noninvasive oral cancer screening based on local residual adaptation network using optical coherence tomography

      Oral cancer is known as one of the relatively common malignancy types worldwide. Despite the easy access of the oral cavity to examination, the invasive biopsy is still essential for final diagnosis, which requires laborious operation and complicated trained specialists. With the development of deep learning, the artificial intelligence (AI) technique is applied for oral cancer examinations and alleviates the workload of manual screening on biopsy. However, existing computer-aided oral cancer diagnostic methods focus on oral cavity environment photos and histology images, which require complicated operations for doctors and are invasive and painful for patients. As a noninvasive, real-time imaging ...

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    9. Is Real-Time Microscopy on the Horizon? A Brief Review of the Potential Future Directions in Clinical Breast Tumor Microscopy Implementation

      Is Real-Time Microscopy on the Horizon? A Brief Review of the Potential Future Directions in Clinical Breast Tumor Microscopy Implementation

      We will briefly review the current paradigm and some recent developments in the area of clinical breast microscopy, highlighting several promising commercially available, and research-based platforms. Confocal microscopy (reflectance, fluorescence, and spectrally encoded), optical coherence tomography (wide field and full field), stereomicroscopy, open-top light sheet microscopy, microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation, nonlinear microscopy, Raman scattering microscopy, photoacoustic microscopy, and needle microendoscopy will be discussed. Non-microscopic methods for breast pathology assessment are beyond the scope of this review. These microscopic technologies have to varying degrees the potential for transforming breast cancer care, but in order for any of these to be ...

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    10. Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Prediction of Neoplastic Progression in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Nanoscale Nuclear Architecture Mapping: A Pilot Study

      Background and Aims Nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM), an optical coherence tomography-derived approach, is capable of detecting with nanoscale sensitivity, structural alterations in the chromatin of epithelial cell nuclei at risk for malignant transformation. Since these alterations predate the development of dysplasia, we aimed to utilize nanoNAM to identify patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) who progress to high grade dysplasia (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methods This is a nested case control study of 46 BE patients of which 21 progressed to HGD/EAC over 3.7 (± 2.37) years (cases/progressors) and 25 patients who did not progress ...

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    11. Researchers pilot 'itty bitty' device for earlier ovarian cancer detection

      Researchers pilot 'itty bitty' device for earlier ovarian cancer detection

      Due to a lack of effective screening and diagnostic tools, more than three-fourths of ovarian cancer cases are not found until the cancer is in an advanced stage. As a result, fewer than half of all women with ovarian cancer survive more than five years after diagnosis. Jennifer Barton , director of the University of Arizona BIO5 Institute and Thomas R. Brown Distinguished Chair in Biomedical Engineering , has spent years developing a device small enough to image the fallopian tubes – narrow ducts connecting the uterus to the ovaries – and search for signs of early-stage cancer. Dr. John Heusinkveld has now used ...

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    12. Perimeter Medical Imaging AI Announces Initiation of First Clinical Trial Site at West Cancer Center & Research Institute in Tennessee

      Perimeter Medical Imaging AI Announces Initiation of First Clinical Trial Site at West Cancer Center & Research Institute in Tennessee

      Perimeter Medical Imaging AI, Inc., a medical technology company driven to transform cancer surgery with ultra-high-resolution, real-time, advanced imaging tools to address high unmet medical needs, announced the initiation of a multi-center, randomized, two-arm pivotal clinical trial to evaluate its Perimeter B-Series OCT with ImgAssist AI for use during breast conservation surgery. The first patient procedures were performed by Richard E. Fine, MD and Michael Berry, MD, leading breast surgeons based out of the Margaret West Comprehensive Breast Center in Germantown, Tennessee. Dr. Richard E. Fine, Director of Education & Research, Margaret West Comprehensive Breast Center, West Cancer Center & Research Institute ...

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    13. The “Virtual Biopsy” of Cancerous Lesions in 3D: Non-Invasive Differentiation between Melanoma and Other Lesions Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography

      The “Virtual Biopsy” of Cancerous Lesions in 3D: Non-Invasive Differentiation between Melanoma and Other Lesions Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography

      Early detection of skin cancer is of critical importance to provide five year survival rates that approach 99%. By 2050, one out of five Americans by age 70 will develop some form of skin cancer. This will result in a projected rate of 50 million skin biopsies per year given the current rate of escalation. In addition, the ability to differentiate between pigmented lesions and melanomas has proven a diagnostic challenge. While dermoscopy and visual analysis are useful in identifying many skin lesions, additional non-invasive techniques are needed to assist in the analysis of difficult to diagnose skin tumors. To ...

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      Mentions: OptoVibronex
    14. Potential Utility of Adjunct Imaging with Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross and Microscopic Evaluation of Breast Specimens in Real-Time in the Operating Suite

      Potential Utility of Adjunct Imaging with Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography for Gross and Microscopic Evaluation of Breast Specimens in Real-Time in the Operating Suite

      One challenge in the surgical management of breast cancer is maximizing the preservation of healthy tissue while achieving acceptable negative margins. Tools capable of assessing disease-margin involvement intraoperatively and in real-time could provide clinically useful guidance regarding the adequacy of margin resection before the surgery is over. Here we report the intraoperative use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 3 patients with DCIS. In all 3 cases, additional lesions identified by OCT during surgery were also noted in histopathology reports 3 to 5 days post-surgery, suggesting that intraoperative use of OCT is a valuable tool for margin determination in real-time.

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    15. Characterization of the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography: Do Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Stroma Reflect Structural Changes in the Extracellular Matrix of Cancerous Lesions?

      Characterization of the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography: Do Changes in the Biomechanical Properties of Skin Stroma Reflect Structural Changes in the Extracellular Matrix of Cancerous Lesions?

      Early detection of skin cancer is of critical importance since the five-year survival rate for early detected skin malignancies is 99% but drops to 27% for cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes and other organs. Over 2.5 million benign skin biopsies (55% of the total) are performed each year in the US at an alarming cost of USD ~2.5 B. Therefore there is an unmet need for novel non-invasive diagnostic approaches to better differentiate between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions, especially in cases when there is a legitimate doubt that a biopsy may be required. The purpose ...

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    16. Spotting colon cancer early with the 'Google Earth of colonoscopies'

      Spotting colon cancer early with the 'Google Earth of colonoscopies'

      A new optical imaging system in the works could revolutionize the diagnosis of colon cancer. Currently, colonoscopies only manage to detect 39 % of bowel cancer cases in the early stages. Now, the EU-funded PROSCOPE project's novel screening platform has the potential to save up to half of the 160 000 lives lost in Europe every year because of this disease. Today's colonoscopy procedures are based on white light video or optical narrow-band imaging.

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    17. High-Risk, High-Reward grants awarded to three Stanford researchers

      High-Risk, High-Reward grants awarded to three Stanford researchers

      Winetraub’s research focuses on utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography and machine learning to image cancer non-invasively at a single-cell resolution. Currently, detecting most solid cancers and confirming the boundaries – or margins – of the tumor often entails analyzing chemically stained sections of tissue that are obtained via biopsy. Winetraub and members of the de la Zerda group at Stanford have recently developed a virtual version of this process. The NIH award will support further work on this project. “This imaging modality provides real-time diagnosis of tumor margins and invasiveness by scanning a large tissue area for residual cancer cells. Such information ...

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    18. Applicability of a Cellular Resolution Full-field OCT Image System for Pigmented and Non-pigmented Skin Tumors

      Applicability of a Cellular Resolution Full-field OCT Image System for Pigmented and Non-pigmented Skin Tumors

      The incidence of skin cancer has been continuously increasing over the past decades und the number of non melanoma skin cancer is well as melanoma is still going to increase. Invasive biopsy and histological examination represents the gold standard in diagnosis of benign and malignant skin tumors. However, novel technologies such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been introduced in dermatology. Multiple studies have shown the applicability of both technologies for diagnosis of skin tumors as well as other skin diseases and to increase the specificity of diagnosis resulting in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies ...

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    19. Researchers use deep learning to enhance cancer diagnostic tools

      Researchers use deep learning to enhance cancer diagnostic tools

      Yi “Edwin” Sun, a Ph.D. candidate in electrical and computer engineering at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and member of the Beckman Institute’s Biophotonics Imaging Laboratory headed by Stephen Boppart, explored how deep learning methods can make polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography, or PS-OCT, more cost-effective and better equipped to diagnose cancer in biological tissues. The paper, titled “ Synthetic polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography by deep learning ,” was published in npj Digital Medicine. OCT systems are common clinically and are used to generate high-resolution cross-sectional images of regions in the human body. Sun and his team developed a groundbreaking method ...

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    20. PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      PROSCOPE project aims for early-stage bowel cancer detection

      Multimodal platform should allow cellular-level colon imaging in real-time. Improving diagnosis: PROSCOPE A project funded by the EU's Horizon 2020 program is on course to develop a new imaging system for the diagnosis of bowel cancer. PROSCOPE , officially titled "Point-of-care instrument for diagnosis and image-guided intervention of colorectal cancer," was launched in 2020 and backed by €6 million of EU funding. The project has now carried out an 18-month formal review, confirming that its research program is on target to help reduce the 160,000 deaths and €9 billion in healthcare costs associated with the disease. "Currently, only 14 ...

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    21. New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      New imaging system to detect bowel cancer at the earliest stages using photonics

      Early intervention could prevent many of the 160,000 deaths from colon cancer in Europe each year. Colonoscopies, the gold standard for spotting bowel cancer early, can still miss up to 20% of precancerous cells. But now, thanks to a pan-European health consortium, a new concept that uses photonics to help doctors spot bowel cancer could soon prevent up to half of these deaths and save €9 billion in reduced healthcare costs. No tools exist that can look inside the colon at the cellular level in real-time to give an immediate diagnosis. But now, this European research team based across ...

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    22. Identification of oral precancerous and cancerous tissue by swept source optical coherence tomography

      Identification of oral precancerous and cancerous tissue by swept source optical coherence tomography

      Background and objectives: Distinguishing cancer from precancerous lesions is critical and challenging in oral medicine. As a noninvasive method, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the advantages of real-time, in vivo, and large-depth imaging. Texture information hidden in OCT images can provide an important auxiliary effect for improving diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this study is to explore a reliable and accurate OCT-based method for the screening and diagnosis of human oral diseases, especially oral cancer. Materials and methods: Fresh ex vivo oral tissues including normal mucosa, leukoplakia with epithelial hyperplasia (LEH), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were imaged intraoperatively ...

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    23. Validation of a Point-of-Care Optical Coherence Tomography Device with Machine Learning Algorithm for Detection of Oral Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions

      Validation of a Point-of-Care Optical Coherence Tomography Device with Machine Learning Algorithm for Detection of Oral Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions

      Non-invasive strategies that can identify oral malignant and dysplastic oral potentially-malignant lesions (OPML) are necessary in cancer screening and long-term surveillance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be a rapid, real time and non-invasive imaging method for frequent patient surveillance. Here, we report the validation of a portable, robust OCT device in 232 patients (lesions: 347) in different clinical settings. The device deployed with algorithm-based automated diagnosis, showed efficacy in delineation of oral benign and normal ( n = 151), OPML ( n = 121), and malignant lesions ( n = 75) in community and tertiary care settings. This study showed that OCT images analyzed by automated ...

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