1. Articles in category: Oncology

    1-24 of 581 1 2 3 4 ... 23 24 25 »
    1. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

      Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

      Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a ...

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    2. Trimodal system for in vivo skin cancer screening with combined OCT-Raman and co-localized optoacoustic measurements

      Trimodal system for in vivo skin cancer screening with combined OCT-Raman and co-localized optoacoustic measurements

      A new multimodal system for rapid, noninvasive in vivo skin cancer screening is presented, combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optoacoustic (OA) modalities to provide precise tumor depth determination with a Raman spectroscopic modality capable of detecting the lesion type and, thus, providing diagnostic capability. Both optoacoustic and Raman setups use wide field skin illumination to ensure the compliance with Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) requirements. The Raman signal is collected via the OCT scanning lens to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured signal while keeping radiation levels below MPE limits. OCT is used to optically determine the tumor ...

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    3. Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroidal melanoma and nevus

      Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroidal melanoma and nevus

      Synopsis: In optical coherence tomography angiography, the choroidal vascular flow rate in choroidal melanoma is significantly lower than that in choroidal nevus. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the choriocapillaris and retinal features imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with choroidal nevus from small malignant choroidal melanoma. Methods: In this retrospective, noninvasive, observational study, 11 patients diagnosed with small choroidal mass (five with choroidal nevus and six with malignant melanoma) who underwent dilated fundus examination, ocular ultrasonography and OCTA images were compared. Results: In choroidal nevus of all patients, OCTA demonstrated a hyporeflective mass ...

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    4. Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

      Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

      Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. .

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    5. Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery for Glioblastoma in Adults

      Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery for Glioblastoma in Adults

      Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival. Visual delimitation of the tumor’s margins with common surgical techniques is a challenge faced by many surgeons. In an attempt ...

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    6. Optical coherence tomography in oral cancer: A transpiring domain

      Optical coherence tomography in oral cancer: A transpiring domain

      Identification of oral cancer at an early curable stage not only aids in controlling the mortality and morbidity rate but also improves the quality of life of the patient. Indeed, regular monitoring of such life-threatening disease has held an imperative role in cancer diagnostics. Various light-based diagnostics are currently available to the clinician for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one such emerging light-based diagnostic modality that provides noninvasive, real-time images at a depth of 1.5–2 mm and can also be compared to corresponding histopathological sections, hence this procedure can also be referred as ...

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    7. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

      The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence ...

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    8. Use of OCT Angiography in Choroidal Melanocytic Tumors

      Use of OCT Angiography in Choroidal Melanocytic Tumors

      Objective. To describe OCTA findings in choroidal melanocytic tumors, especially the microcirculation patterns, and to try to correlate with the histopathological studies. Methods. Cross-sectional, comparative, observational study. 70 cases, including 55 choroidal nevi and 15 choroidal melanomas. Three different observers evaluated specific variables in the choriocapillaris layer on AOCT images and searched for images which described histopathologic vascular patterns, and also, a general description of the images was made. Complementary multi-imaging studies included EDI SD-OCT, color and autofluorescence fundus imaging, Doppler ultrasound, and indocyanine/fluorescein angiography. Main Results. Good quality studies were acquired in 80% of the cases, with kappa ...

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    9. Physical Sciences, Incorporated Receives NIH Grant for Multimodal Microscope for Interaoperative Assessment of Breast Surgical Margins

      Physical Sciences, Incorporated Receives NIH Grant  for Multimodal Microscope for Interaoperative Assessment of Breast Surgical Margins

      Physical Sciences, Incorporated Receives a 2017 NIH Grant for $525,207 for Multimodal Microscope for Interaoperative Assessment of Breast Surgical Margins. The principal investigator is Nicusor Iftima. The program began in 2014 and end sin 2019. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) and Caliber ID, Rochester, NY proposes to develop a novel technology for real-time assessment of surgical margins on breast cancer lumpectomy specimens and provide immediate feedback to the surgeon. A multimodal microscope will be used in conjunction with a high sensitivity cancer targeting agent ...

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    10. Pixel classification method in optical coherence tomography for tumor segmentation and its complementary usage with OCT microangiography

      Pixel classification method in optical coherence tomography for tumor segmentation and its complementary usage with OCT microangiography

      A novel machine-learning method to distinguish between tumor and normal tissue in optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed. Pre-clinical murine ear model implanted with mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 was used. Structural-image-based feature sets were defined for each pixel and machine learning classifiers were trained using “ground truth” OCT images manually segmented by comparison with histology. The accuracy of the OCT tumour segmentation method was then quantified by comparing with fluorescence imaging of tumors expressing genetically encoded fluorescent protein KillerRed that clearly delineates tumor borders. Since the resultant 3D tumor/normal structural maps are inherently co-registered with OCT derived maps ...

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    11. “Bringing on the light” in a complex clinical scenario - Optical coherence tomography-guided discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy in cancer patients with coronary artery disease (PROTECT-OCT registry)

      “Bringing on the light” in a complex clinical scenario - Optical coherence tomography-guided discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy in cancer patients with coronary artery disease (PROTECT-OCT registry)

      Background Cancer patients with recently placed drug-eluting stents (DESs) often require premature dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discontinuation for cancer-related procedures. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can identify risk factors for stent thrombosis such as stent malapposition, incomplete strut coverage and in-stent restenosis and may help guide discontinuation of DAPT. Methods We conducted a single-center prospective study in cancer patients with recently placed (1–12 months) DES who required premature DAPT discontinuation. Patients were evaluated with diagnostic coronary angiogram and OCT. Individuals with appropriate stent strut coverage, expansion, apposition, and absence of in-stent restenosis or intraluminal masses were considered low risk and ...

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      Mentions: Emerson Perin
    12. Dynamic optical coherence tomography of skin blood vessels – proposed terminology and practical guidelines

      Dynamic optical coherence tomography of skin blood vessels – proposed terminology and practical guidelines

      Background Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) has recently been introduced in dermatology. In contrast to ‚Standard’ OCT imaging, which exclusively relies on the morphological analysis of the tissue, D-OCT allows the in-vivo visualisation of blood flow. Preliminary D-OCT data showed differences in the vascularisation of nevus to melanoma transition, suggesting that this technology may help to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Objective Several factors may influence the quality of D-OCT imaging. Therefore, standard operating procedures as well as a common terminology are required for better validation and comparison of the images. Methods Here we present practical guidelines for optimal ...

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    13. In vivo measurements of blood vessels’ distribution in non-melanoma skin cancer by dynamic optical coherence tomography — a new quantitative measure?

      In vivo measurements of blood vessels’ distribution in non-melanoma skin cancer by dynamic optical coherence tomography — a new quantitative measure?

      Background Skin biopsies only provide point-in-time data making longitudinal studies difficult. Using Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) in vivo , non-invasive imaging of the microvasculature becomes possible. The current OCT literature is almost exclusively based on qualitative information but quantitative data may offer additional advantages, for example, by reducing observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo superficial distribution of blood vessels, defined as the surface-to-first-vessel distance, in actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin. Methods D-OCT images of 52 histologically verified lesions and corresponding normal skin were included. The dataset consisted ...

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    14. Simultaneous measurements of lymphatic vessel contraction, flow and valve dynamics in multiple lymphangions using optical coherence tomography

      Simultaneous measurements of lymphatic vessel contraction, flow and valve dynamics in multiple lymphangions using optical coherence tomography

      Lymphatic dysfunction is involved in many diseases including lymphedema, hypertension, autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infections, cancer and cancer metastasis. Expanding our knowledge of lymphatic system function can lead to a better understanding of these disease processes and improve treatment options. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods were used to reveal intraluminal valve dynamics in 3D, and measure lymph flow and vessel contraction simultaneously in three neighboring lymphangions of the afferent collecting lymphatic vessels to the popliteal lymph node in mice. Flow measurements were based on Doppler OCT techniques in combination with exogenous lymph labelling by Intralipid. Through these ...

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    15. Cholangioport for optical coherence tomography imaging and photodynamic therapy of the cholangiocarcinoma

      Cholangioport for optical coherence tomography imaging and photodynamic therapy of the cholangiocarcinoma

      Introduction: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is technology which can be used as criteria efficiency of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for cholangiocarcinoma. The prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinomas is very poor and the first symptom is mechanical jaundice. The percutaneous transhepatic drainage is used in the first stage of treatment. It seemed to be an attractive idea to deliver light directly through the drainage. For doing that it was necessary to determine the possibility of tumor radiation by the semiconductor laser through the catheter wall. Methods: The aim of the first stage of research was to estimate the optimum transmission spectra and ...

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    16. Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography of Macular Features after Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Small Choroidal Melanoma

      Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography of Macular Features after Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Small Choroidal Melanoma

      Purpose To describe the macular features of patients treated with proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma (CM), using the optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). Design Retrospective case-control study. Methods This study included patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy (PBR) for a small CM. Only patients that had received 100% of the dose 60 GyEBR to the macular area were included in the analysis. All the patients have undergone a full ophthalmological examination including: visual acuity, OCT B-scan and OCTA. Qualitative and quantitative vascular features of the retinal plexus and the choriocapillaris were analyzed on OCTA and compared to healthy subjects matched ...

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    17. Breast cancer imaging invention to improve surgery accuracy gets funding for clinical trials

      Breast cancer imaging invention to improve surgery accuracy gets funding for clinical trials

      An Australian invention aimed at improving the accuracy of breast cancer surgery is a step closer to being launched on the global market after securing funding for medical trials. About a quarter of breast cancer patients currently require two rounds of surgery because surgeons, working mostly by touch, are unable to detect microscopic tumours during the first operation. A hand-held imaging probe developed by biomedical engineers at the University of Western Australia will be able to identify those tumours in real-time during the first surgery. "Surgeons are relying on pretty primitive tools at the moment," lead researcher Brendan Kennedy said ...

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    18. Piccolo project develops endoscope for colon cancer diagnosis

      Piccolo project develops endoscope for colon cancer diagnosis

      New instrument from Horizon 2020 project will use OCT and MPT for high-resolution imaging. Piccolo project: the European consortium A project funded under the EU Horizon 2020 program aims to develop a novel endoscope for the identification and diagnosis of colorectal cancer, the latest step in the use of optical technologies to tackle one of the world's predominant cancers. Running for three years until December 2019, and involving nine European industrial and research partners led by Spain's Tecnalia Research & Innovation research center, the Piccolo project envisages an advanced endoscope instrument able to deliver high-resolution structural and functional imaging ...

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    19. Microscale imaging of breast tumor margins using optical coherence elastography

      Microscale imaging of breast tumor margins using optical coherence elastography

      A variant of optical coherence elastography offers a promising method of distinguishing between tumor and breast tissue in lumpectomy specimens in an intraoperative time frame. 1 May 2017, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1201702.006873 Breast-conserving surgery is the most common surgical procedure used in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. 1 The aim of this surgery is to remove all malignant tissue such that the surgical margin is free of cancer, while preserving the breast and ensuring a good cosmetic outcome. Currently, accurate microscopic margin assessment is only available postoperatively, via histopathological examination, days after the surgery. Of ...

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    20. Perth Researchers Developed the World's Smallest Microscope

      Perth Researchers Developed the World's Smallest Microscope

      One in four women who have a lump removed from their breast needs more surgery to remove remaining cancer cells. That’s a pretty scary statistic for patients. And it’s one Professor David Sampson believes could be better. “One of the main reasons [breast cancer patients need extra surgery] is because all of the tumour is not being identified. Because it can’t all be seen. Because you don’t have the resolution to see it.” David explains. “So in many instances, resolution – being able to see very small things – is a key part of improving those guidance procedures ...

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    21. I can’t always play it safe with my patients. That’s why I cautiously innovate

      I can’t always play it safe with my patients. That’s why I cautiously innovate

      A s a profession, doctors are determined and cautious. We are determined to do our best and provide the best care for our patients. But we can be quite cautious about trying out new treatments or technologies to help provide that “best care.” Some hesitation makes sense. Countless treatments that sounded promising at the time fell by the wayside because they didn’t measure up — or caused harm. One example: Fifty years ago, dermatologists often used radiation to treat acne. It seemed to work, but researchers later learned that it increased the risk for thyroid, skin, and other cancers. Yet ...

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      Mentions: Orit Markowitz
    22. €4m project to speed diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      €4m project to speed diagnosis of esophageal cancer

      The Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging at Helmholtz Zentrum München , Germany, is heading a research project entitled ”Hybrid optical and optoacoustic endoscope for esophageal tracking” or ESOTRAC . This four-year, €4 million, pan-European project will bring together engineers and physicians to develop a novel hybrid endoscopic instrument for early diagnosis and staging of esophageal cancer. The finished device is expected to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and, importantly, facilitate early-disease detection leading to earlier start of therapy, which will improve therapeutic efficacy over late-disease treatment and, ultimately, cost-savings for health care systems. ESOTRAC was awarded the €4 million ...

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