1. Articles in category: Other Non-Medical

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    1. Impact of Fe2+ and Shear Stress on the Development and Mesoscopic Structure of Biofilms—A Bacillus subtilis Case Study

      Impact of Fe2+ and Shear Stress on the Development and Mesoscopic Structure of Biofilms—A Bacillus subtilis Case Study

      Bivalent cations are known to affect the structural and mechanical properties of biofilms. In order to reveal the impact of Fe 2+ ions within the cultivation medium on biofilm development, structure and stability, Bacillus subtilis biofilms were cultivated in mini-fluidic flow cells. Two different Fe 2+ inflow concentrations (0.25 and 2.5 mg/L, respectively) and wall shear stress levels (0.05 and 0.27 Pa, respectively) were tested. Mesoscopic biofilm structure was determined daily in situ and non-invasively by means of optical coherence tomography. A set of ten structural parameters was used to quantify biofilm structure, its development ...

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    2. Latent Fingerprint Imaging by Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Latent Fingerprint Imaging by Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact and non-invasive optical method for evaluating semitransparent and scattering objects. Its unique features, such as non-destructive 3D measurements of tested objects with a fast scanning rate, make this technique interesting for latent fingerprint reading, which is the subject of this paper. So far, OCT has not found widespread use for reading fingerprints directly from surfaces due to its insufficient axial resolution. This problem has been overcome by applying spectroscopic analysis to the OCT measurements, which is based on retrieving the spatially resolved spectral characteristics of the recorded backscattered light directly from the OCT ...

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    3. On-field optical imaging data for the pre-identification and estimation of leaf deformities

      On-field optical imaging data for the pre-identification and estimation of leaf deformities

      Visually nonidentifiable pathological symptoms at an early stage are a major limitation in agricultural plantations. Thickness reduction in palisade parenchyma (PP) and spongy parenchyma (SP) layers is one of the most common symptoms that occur at the early stage of leaf diseases, particularly in apple and persimmon. To visualize variations in PP and SP thickness, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based imaging and analyzed the acquired datasets to determine the threshold parameters for pre-identifying and estimating persimmon and apple leaf abnormalities using an intensity-based depth profiling algorithm. The algorithm identified morphological differences between healthy, apparently-healthy, and infected leaves by ...

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    4. Robust Identification and Segmentation of the Outer Skin Layers in Volumetric Fingerprint Data

      Robust Identification and Segmentation of the Outer Skin Layers in Volumetric Fingerprint Data

      Despite the long history of fingerprint biometrics and its use to authenticate individuals, there are still some unsolved challenges with fingerprint acquisition and presentation attack detection (PAD). Currently available commercial fingerprint capture devices struggle with non-ideal skin conditions, including soft skin in infants. They are also susceptible to presentation attacks, which limits their applicability in unsupervised scenarios such as border control. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be a promising solution to these problems. In this work, we propose a digital signal processing chain for segmenting two complementary fingerprints from the same OCT fingertip scan: One fingerprint is captured as usual ...

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    5. Optical signal intensity incorporated rice seed cultivar classification using optical coherence tomography

      Optical signal intensity incorporated rice seed cultivar classification using optical coherence tomography

      Here, the optical signal intensity of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) was incorporated to assess the images of different rice seeds for precise cultivar classification. Such classification is essential from various agricultural viewpoints but remains challenging because rice seeds have a similar visual appearance. Thus, studies on rice seed cultivar classification play a key role in achieving a successful rice yield. To investigate the feasibility of the proposed approach, two-dimensional OCT images were acquired from two types of rice seed cultivars (Chucheong and Hopyeong), which were then subjected to an optical signal intensity assessment. Based on the depth-dependent optical scan ...

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    6. Synthetic periphyton as a model system to understand species dynamics in complex microbial freshwater communities

      Synthetic periphyton as a model system to understand species dynamics in complex microbial freshwater communities

      Phototrophic biofilms, also known as periphyton, are microbial freshwater communities that drive crucial ecological processes in streams and lakes. Gaining a deep mechanistic understanding of the biological processes occurring in natural periphyton remains challenging due to the high complexity and variability of such communities. To address this challenge, we rationally developed a workflow to construct a synthetic community by co-culturing 26 phototrophic species (i.e., diatoms, green algae, and cyanobacteria) that were inoculated in a successional sequence to create a periphytic biofilm on glass slides. We show that this community is diverse, stable, and highly reproducible in terms of microbial ...

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    7. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Demonstrate Dark and Light Adaptation in a Live Moth

      The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography to Demonstrate Dark and Light Adaptation in a Live Moth

      To work effectively, the eyes of nocturnal insects have a problem they must overcome. During the night, the light levels are low, so their eyes need to be very sensitive; but they also need a way of adapting to environmental light conditions, and protecting those sensitive organs, if a bright light is encountered. Human eyes have a pupil that changes size to regulate light input to the eye. Moths (Lepidoptera) use a light absorbing pigment that moves position to limit the light within the eye. This pigment migration is difficult to record because it is a dynamic process and will ...

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    8. Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as complementary tool in fungal diagnostics

      Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography as complementary tool in fungal diagnostics

      Histopathology and microscopic examination of infected tissue are the gold standards to prove the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI). Yet, they suffer from essential limitations that hamper rapid diagnosis and require the future development of new imaging tools dedicated to fungal diagnostics. To this end, the present work introduces the first use of dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography (D-FF-OCT) for the visualization of microscopic filamentous fungi. Data collected from the observation of three different fungal species (Nannizzia gypsea, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus arrhizus) confirm the ability of D-FF-OCT to visualize not only the main structures of all selected fungal ...

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    9. Effects of microplastics on lentil (Lens culinaris) seed germination and seedling growth

      Effects of microplastics on lentil (Lens culinaris) seed germination and seedling growth

      Widespread use of plastics and mishandling has resulted in severe environmental issues affecting seed germination and seedling growth. This study investigates the effect of polyethylene microplastics (740–4990 nm PEMPs) on lentil ( Lens culinaris ) seed germination and seedling growth using Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT), a technique that we successfully demonstrated earlier in visualizing the internal activity of plants. Lentil seeds were exposed to PEMPs bioassay for seven days with 10, 50, and 100 mg L −1 concentrations. The average speckle contrast was calculated after 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h of exposure, and statistically significant differences ...

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    10. Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Non-destructive morphological observation of anatomical growth process in Haemaphysalis Longicornis tick specimens using optical coherence tomography

      Background: Ticks are known as the representatives of hematophagous arachnids. They cause various tick-borne diseases, such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Lyme disease. To understand the mechanism of virus infection caused by ticks, morphology for the anatomical characteristics of crucial organs has been widely studied in acarological fields. The conventional methods used for tick observation have inevitable limitations. Dissection is the standard method to obtain the morphological information, and complex microscopy methods were utilized alternatively. Objective: The study goal is to obtain the morphological information of ticks in different growth stages non-invasively. Methods: Optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    11. Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) in the Speedy Assessment of the Responses of the Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

      Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) in the Speedy Assessment of the Responses of the Seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

      The extraction of mineral resources from mines plays a vital role in global socio-economic development. However, acid mine drainage (AMD) has been one of the major pollutants, and a vast area of the agricultural fields has been polluted. Therefore, techniques for monitoring the response of plants to AMD that arise during mineral extraction are necessary. In addition, such a technique becomes especially valuable to understand how the plants could play a role in the phytoremediation of AMD. We propose the use of biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT) to investigate the response of Kaiware daikon seeds under the exposure to simulated ...

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    12. Perimeter Medical Imaging AI Announces First Commercial Installation of Perimeter S-Series OCT in North Texas and Ongoing Market Development Activities Across the U.S.

      Perimeter Medical Imaging AI Announces First Commercial Installation of Perimeter S-Series OCT in North Texas and Ongoing Market Development Activities Across the U.S.

      Perimeter Medical Imaging AI, Inc., a medical technology company driven to transform cancer surgery with ultra-high-resolution, real-time, advanced imaging tools to address high unmet medical needs, today announced the first commercial installation of its flagship Perimeter S-Series OCT system at a North Texas hospital. Perimeter S-Series is a novel medical imaging system that uses Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to provide clinicians with cross-sectional, real-time margin visualization (1-2 mm below the surface) of an excised tissue specimen across a variety of tissue types. Jeremy Sobotta, Perimeter’s Chief Executive Officer stated, “We are extremely pleased to announce the first commercial installation ...

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    13. Getting to the Root of Plant-Soil Interactions: Optical Instrument to Give Clearest 3D Images Yet of Rhizosphere

      Getting to the Root of Plant-Soil Interactions: Optical Instrument to Give Clearest 3D Images Yet of Rhizosphere

      The visibility enhancements will be implemented in optical techniques with names like coherent Raman scattering and optical coherence tomography , which are commonly used for non-invasive imaging of thin biological material, like the retina of the eye — or the tiniest of plant roots.

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    14. Telephoto-lens-based Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensor for freeform metrology

      Telephoto-lens-based Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensor for freeform metrology

      We report an Optical Differentiation Wavefront Sensor based on a telephoto lens system and binary pixelated filters. It provides a five-fold reduction in the system length compared to a 4 f system with identical effective focal length. Measurements of phase plates with this system are compared to measurements performed with a commercial low-coherence interferometer. The telephoto-lens-based system can measure wavefronts with accuracy better than λ/ 10 Root Mean Squared (RMS) at λ =633 nm. Experimental investigation shows that the system has a high tolerance to components alignment errors.

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      Mentions: Thorlabs Lumetrics
    15. Interferometric microscope with a confocal focusing for inner surface defect detection of ICF capsule

      Interferometric microscope with a confocal focusing for inner surface defect detection of ICF capsule

      Inner surface defects of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule are a key factor leading to ignition failure; however, there are still no effective and non-destructive detection methods available. To solve this problem, we propose the first interferometric microscope with confocal focusing (CFIM). CFIM first uses confocal technology to achieve accurate axial positioning of both capsule and the camera, thereby ensuring that the inner surface of the capsule is precisely and clearly imaged at the camera. Then, phase-shifting interferometry based on a short-coherence source and a spherical reference is applied to obtain inner defects result from null inner surface interferograms. In ...

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    16. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Microscopic Phenotypic Characteristic Data Obtained Using Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Infection in the Field

      Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Microscopic Phenotypic Characteristic Data Obtained Using Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Infection in the Field

      Rapid climate change has increased the incidence of various pests and diseases, and these threaten global food security. In particular, BLB (bacterial leaf blight) is caused by Xoo ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ) and its main characteristic is that the rice suddenly dries and withers. Recently, omics have been effectively used in agriculture. In particular, it is a key technology that can accurately diagnose diseases in the field. Until now, QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping has been analyzed using only subjective phenotypic data by experts. However, in this study, diseases were accurately diagnosed using OCT (optical coherence tomography), and QTL mapping ...

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    17. Microstructural changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under varying low pH levels: a swept-source optical coherence tomography approach

      Microstructural changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under varying low pH levels: a swept-source optical coherence tomography approach

      Soil acidification has shown detrimental effects on rice plants that lead to decreased rice production. In the present study, we aim to study the microstructural changes in rice leaves under acidic stress through swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). To achieve this, rice seeds were germinated, subsequently these germinated seedlings were further grown under varying pH conditions for 14 d. Growth in root and shoot of plants and chlorophyll content of leaf samples were studied at varying pH levels. Similarly, acidic stress treated rice leaves were also subjected to SS-OCT image analysis revealing several features present in the layers of leaves ...

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    18. Biometric Identification with 3D Fingerprints Acquired Through Optical Coherence Tomography

      Biometric Identification with 3D Fingerprints Acquired Through Optical Coherence Tomography

      —A method to obtain epidermal and dermal 3D fingerprints from high-resolution images acquired using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is proposed. This method addresses limitations of current 3D reconstruction techniques such as depth and resolution variations, sensitivity to low illumination and poor contrast. The availability of these fingerprints made possible the creation of new identification techniques that benefit from the rich information available in 3D. We propose a 3D fingerprint matching process based on KH maps, which are 2D representations of curvature types extracted by computing the Gaussian and mean curvatures from a region of interest around minutiae.The matching strategy ...

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    19. Depth-independent internal fingerprint based on optical coherence tomography

      Depth-independent internal fingerprint based on optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for imaging three-dimensional fingerprint to overcome the effects of different skin states and fake fingerprint. However, the OCT-based fingerprint features depend on the depth of fingertip skin which is still challenging for biometric recognition and encryption. In this work, we presented a new approach of maximum intensity projection (MIP) image of the epidermal-dermal junction (DEJ) to extract the internal fingerprint that is independent of the depth of fingertip skin. To begin with, the surface and DEJ were segmented based on the deep learning algorithm. Then the internal fingerprint was extracted by the MIP image ...

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    20. Use of optical coherence tomography and light microscopy for characterisation of mechanical properties and cellular level responses of ‘Centurion’ blueberries during weight loss

      Use of optical coherence tomography and light microscopy for characterisation of mechanical properties and cellular level responses of ‘Centurion’ blueberries during weight loss

      Postharvest blueberry softening hinders consumer acceptance and correlates with high moisture loss during storage. Such textural variations have been attributed to factors such as turgor, cell wall modifications and other microstructural changes in the outer cell layers of the fruit. This paper investigates the impact of moisture loss on blueberry quality, as well as the structure and/or function relationships associated with fruit mechanical properties during postharvest using an integrated physical and novel microstructural approach. Four different weight loss conditions [62%, 76%, 93% and 98% relative humidity (RH)] at 5.7 °C were evaluated over a three-week postharvest storage period ...

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    21. Study on cocoonase, sericin, and degumming of silk cocoon: computational and experimental

      Study on cocoonase, sericin, and degumming of silk cocoon: computational and experimental

      Cocoonase is a proteolytic enzyme that helps in dissolving the silk cocoon shell and exit of silk moth. Chemicals like anhydrous Na2CO3, Marseille soap, soda, ethylene diamine and tartaric acid-based degumming of silk cocoon shell have been in practice. During this process, solubility of sericin protein increased resulting in the release of sericin from the fibroin protein of the silk. However, this process diminishes natural color and softness of the silk. Cocoonase enzyme digests the sericin protein of silk at the anterior portion of the cocoon without disturbing the silk fibroin. However, no thorough characterization of cocoonase ...

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      Mentions: UCSF
    22. Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Background Diapause plays a vital role in the survival and population reproduction of the migratory locust in temperate regions. Although some studies have suggested that photoperiod and temperature are two important environmental factors involved in the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts, the independent or synergetic roles of these two factors are still unclear. Results We designed crossover experiments to investigate the effects of photoperiod, temperature and treatment time on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts by optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can track the entire embryonic developmental process via noninvasive 3D real‐time imaging ...

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    23. A new method for measuring pen pressure in forensic handwriting analysis – a proof of concept study

      A new method for measuring pen pressure in forensic handwriting analysis – a proof of concept study

      This work describes a new method for the analysis of handwritten documents through a system composed of a pre-selector optical analyser equipped with light sources of different wavelengths coupled with bandpass filters combined with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument. The optical analyser identifies regions with different pen pressures on the paper using specific wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR) and bandpass filters. Then the selected regions are analysed with a coherence tomography analyser to measure the depth of grooves and capture three-dimensional images. With this methodology, it is possible to identify similarities, or differences, between the pieces of ...

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    24. Towards real time assessment of intramuscular fat content in meat using optical fiber-based optical coherence tomography

      Towards real time assessment of intramuscular fat content in meat using optical fiber-based optical coherence tomography

      We consider the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to predict the quality of meat. We find that intramuscular fat (IMF) absorbs infrared light about nine times stronger than muscle, which enables us to estimate fat content in intact meat samples. The method is made very efficient by extracting relevant information from the three-dimensional high-resolution images generated by OCT using principal component analysis (PCA). The principal components are then used as regressors into a support vector regression (SVR) prediction model. The SVR model is found to predict IMF content stably and accurately, with an R 2 value of 0 ...

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