1. Articles in category: Other Non-Medical

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    1. In-situ biofouling assessment in spacer filled channels using optical coherence tomography (OCT): 3D biofilm thickness mapping

      In-situ biofouling assessment in spacer filled channels using optical coherence tomography (OCT): 3D biofilm thickness mapping

      Membrane systems for water purification can be seriously hampered by biofouling. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate biofilms in membrane systems has recently increased due to the ability to do the characterization in-situ and non-destructively. The OCT biofilm thickness map is presented for the first time as a tool to assess biofilm spatial distribution on a surface. The map allows the visualization and evaluation of the biofilm formation and growth in membrane filtration systems through the use of a false color scale. The biofilm development was monitored with OCT to evaluate the suitability of the proposed approach ...

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    2. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

      Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

      Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring ...

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    3. Noncontact three-dimensional quantitative profiling of fast aspheric lenses by optical coherence tomography

      Noncontact three-dimensional quantitative profiling of fast aspheric lenses by optical coherence tomography

      The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noncontact three-dimensional aspheric lens profiling and retrieval of aspheric surface parameters is demonstrated. Two commercially available aspheric lenses with different focal length-to-diameter ratio have been imaged using OCT, and the measured optical path length distribution has been least square fitted with the aspheric lens surface retrieving the radius of curvature, aspheric constant, and conic constants. The refractive index of these lenses has also been measured referencing with a standard Zerodur glass flat. The fitted aspheric surface coefficients of the lenses are in close agreement with the manufacturer’s values, thus, envisaging the ...

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      Mentions: K. Divakar Rao
    4. Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging

      Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging

      Spacer design plays an important role in improving the performance of membrane processes for water/wastewater treatment. This work focused on a fundamental issue of spacer design, i.e., investigating the effects of spacer orientations on the fouling behavior during a membrane process. A series of fouling experiments with different spacer orientation were carried out to in situ characterize the formation of a cake layer in a spacer unit cell via 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The cake layers formed at different times were digitalized for quantitatively analyzing the variation in the cake morphology as a function of time ...

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    5. Contrast Enhanced Subsurface Fingerprint Detection using High-speed Optical Coherence Tomography

      Contrast Enhanced Subsurface Fingerprint Detection using High-speed Optical Coherence Tomography

      Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) has been demonstrated to be a viable tool in forensic science for fingerprint detection, yet it still suffers from certain practical issues, e.g., the limited scanning speed and low image contrast. In this letter, we report a high-speed SD-OCT together with an image contrast enhancement mechanism for reliable subsurface fingerprint detection. The constructed SDOCT system achieves a scanning rate up to 60K A-lines/s, and thus, both 3D volumetric images, reaching up to 20mm × 20mm × 1.2mm, and en face internal fingerprint furrow pattern images could be obtained. Based upon the analyses of the ...

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    6. In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography

      In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive three-dimensional imaging technique with micrometer resolution allowing microstructural characterization of tissues in vivo and in real time. We present the first application of OCT for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals spanning a variety of morphologies and tissue thickness. OCT visualized different coral tissue layers (e.g. endoderm vs ectoderm), special structures such as mesenterial filaments and skeletal cavities, as well as mucus release from living corals. We also developed a new approach for non-invasive imaging and quantification of chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like host ...

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    7. Performance analysis of a Hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

      Performance analysis of a Hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

      The Hybrid fingerprint is a local-quality-specific blend of the surface and internal fingerprints, extracted from optical coherence tomography scans. Owing to its origin, and the manner in which it is obtained, the Hybrid fingerprint is a high-quality and secure fingerprint acquisition solution. This research entails a detailed description of the Hybrid fingerprint, the techniques involved to produce it, and a performance analysis of it. A dataset of 282 fingertip scans was established. Two recognised minutiae extraction and fingerprint matching algorithms were applied to assess the performance of the Hybrid fingerprint. The best equal error rate measured was 1.25%. NIST ...

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      Mentions: Ann Singh
    8. Fast Industrial Inspection of Optical Thin Film Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Fast Industrial Inspection of Optical Thin Film Using Optical Coherence Tomography

      An application of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was demonstrated for a fast industrial inspection of an optical thin film panel. An optical thin film sample similar to a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel was examined. Two identical SD-OCT systems were utilized for parallel scanning of a complete sample in half time. Dual OCT inspection heads were utilized for transverse (fast) scanning, while a stable linear motorized translational stage was used for lateral (slow) scanning. The cross-sectional and volumetric images of an optical thin film sample were acquired to detect the defects in glass and other layers that are ...

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    9. New fingerprinting technology will aid law enforcement

      New fingerprinting technology will aid law enforcement

      The CSIR has unveiled a new-generation fingerprint sensing technology to aid in law enforcement and forensic areas. The device, funded by the Department of Science and Technology, is the first prototype, and the next step will be to reduce its size to a hand-held gadget and prepare it for commercialisation. The system is capable of exploring the internal features of an object. Laser scientist Ann Sigh said optical coherence tomography used light to capture in 3D the finest of details from biological tissue and could be likened to ultrasound but using light. She said it was important to note that ...

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    10. Paws, print, detect, arrest

      Paws, print, detect, arrest

      South African researchers revealed a prototype fingerprint-sensing device at the CSIR in Pretoria yesterday.  The new technology, the first of its kind in Africa, will be linked to police and Home Affairs fingerprint databases. Through the use of lasers it processes fingerprints taken from crime scenes and from people in under three seconds. Researchers are now hard at work to make the device portable. It is currently the size of a big shoebox and can be fitted to a police vehicle. Co-designer Ameeth Sharman said that in the initial design the technology had been geared towards the collection of "live ...

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    11. In-situ assessment of biofilm formation in submerged membrane system using optical coherence tomography and computational fluid dynamics

      In-situ assessment of biofilm formation in submerged membrane system using optical coherence tomography and computational fluid dynamics

      This paper introduces a novel approach to study the biofouling development on gravity driven submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR). The on-line monitoring of biofilm formation on a flat sheet membrane was conducted non-destructively using optical coherence tomography (OCT), allowing the in-situ investigation of the biofilm structure for 43 d. The OCT enabled to obtain a time-lapse of biofilm development on the membrane under the continuous operation. Acquired real-time information on the biofilm structure related to the change in the flux profile confirming the successful monitoring of the dynamic evolution of the biofouling layer. Four different phases were observed linking the permeate ...

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    12. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

      A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

      This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The ...

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    13. Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography

      Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography

      Defects produced during selective laser sintering (SLS) are difficult to non-destructively detect after build completion without the use of X-ray-based methods. Overcoming this issue by assessing integrity on a layer-by-layer basis has become an area of significant interest for users of SLS apparatus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in this study to detect surface texture and sub-surface powder, which is un-melted/insufficiently sintered, is known to be a common cause of poor part integrity and would prevent the use of SLS where applications dictate assurance of defect-free parts. To demonstrate the capability of the instrument and associated data-processing algorithms ...

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    14. MIT’s 10-Material 3D Printer Heading to Production?

      MIT’s 10-Material 3D Printer Heading to Production?

      In 2015, MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) reported news that the lab had developed a unique multimaterial 3D printer capable of combining 10 different materials and integrating complex components, such as sensors and circuits, during the printing process. Perhaps most exciting was the fact that the system required only $7,000 in parts to build. Now, a bit of news has come across the wire indicating that MIT CSAIL’s MultiFab 3D printer may be going into production. he MultiFab 3D printer fabricates objects by jetting up to 10 different photopolymers through piezoelectric inkjet printheads, which ...

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    15. Apparatus and method for capturing a vital vascular fingerprint

      Apparatus and method for capturing a vital vascular fingerprint

      A method using optical coherence tomography to capture the microvascular network of the superficial layer of the finger skin for the purpose of fingerprint authentication and liveness detection. At the dermal papilla region, the vascular pattern follows the same pattern of the fingerprint and this vascular pattern forms a live vascular fingerprint. This live vascular fingerprint provides for ultrahigh security and a unique way for fingerprint-based personal verification. Because the system is based on blood flow, which only exists in a living person, the technique is robust against spoof attaching. After performing non-contact in-vivo imaging of a human fingertip, a ...

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    16. Visual abilities in two raptors with different ecology

      Visual abilities in two raptors with different ecology

      Differences in visual capabilities are known to reflect differences in foraging behaviour even among closely related species. Among birds, the foraging of diurnal raptors is assumed to be guided mainly by vision but their foraging tactics include both scavenging upon immobile prey and the aerial pursuit of highly mobile prey. We studied how visual capabilities differ between two diurnal raptor species of similar size; Harris's Hawks Parabuteo unicinctus , which take mobile prey, and Black Kites Milvus migrans , which are primarily carrion eaters. We measured visual acuity, foveal characteristics and visual fields in both species. Visual acuity was determined using ...

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    17. Characterization of Automotive Paint by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Characterization of Automotive Paint by Optical Coherence Tomography

      Automotive paint is a common trace evidence that plays a significant role in many vehicle-related criminal cases. However, the conventional methods of obtaining tomographic images tend to damage the samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method to obtain high-resolution, and cross-sectional images of the automotive paints in a non-destructive, and high-speed manner. In this study, OCT was applied to image and analyze the automotive paint, using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as reference. Eight automotive paint samples of different brands were examined. The images of multi-layer structures provided by OCT system with 5 μm depth resolution were consistent with ...

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    18. Improved non-invasive Optical Coherence Tomography detection of different engineered nanoparticles in food-mimicking matrices

      Improved non-invasive Optical Coherence Tomography detection of different engineered nanoparticles in food-mimicking matrices

      Food industry and regulators require fast and reliable analytical methods for quality control. This especially counts for the detection of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in food products. Respective EU regulation is in force, but the development of appropriate methods is still underway. This paper updates the scope of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for ENM/food matrix analysis. A range of nanomaterials and composites – Au@SiO 2 , Ag, Ag@SiO 2 and SiO 2 – in a simplified food matrix was investigated. The earlier finding of linear dependencies between concentration in the dispersion and light responses could be reproduced. Being able to analyse ...

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    19. Analyzing the Evolution of Membrane Fouling via a Novel Method Based on 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      Analyzing the Evolution of Membrane Fouling via a Novel Method Based on 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

      The development of novel tools for studying the fouling behavior during membrane processes is critical. This work explored optical coherence tomography (OCT) to quantitatively interpret the formation of a cake layer during a membrane process; the quantitative analysis was based on a novel image processing method that was able to precisely resolve the 3D structure of the cake layer on a micron scale. Fouling experiments were carried out with foulants having different physicochemical characteristics (silica nanoparticles and bentonite particles). The cake layers formed at a series of times were digitalized using the OCT-based characterization. The specific deposit (cake volume/membrane ...

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    20. Microrheology of complex fluids

      Microrheology of complex fluids

      The field of microrheology is concerned with how materials store and dissipate mechanical energy as a function of length scale. Recent developments in the theory and instrumentation of the microrheology of complex fluids are reviewed. Equal emphasis is given to the physical phenomena probed, advances in instrumentation, and specific experimental systems in which this field has already had an impact. The inversion of the compliance data, measurement of sample heterogeneity, high frequency viscoelasticity, effects of shear flow, single molecule experiments, surface viscoelasticity and time evolution studies are considered. The techniques highlighted include particle tracking microrheology, diffusing wave spectroscopy, laser tracking ...

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    21. Optical teardown of a Kindle Paperwhite display by OCT.

      Optical teardown of a Kindle Paperwhite display by OCT.

      An optical teardown, or reverse engineering, of an Amazon Kindle Paperwhite electrophoretic display was performed by Optical Coherence Tomography at 1060 nm. The display incorporates an optical diffuser, lightguide and scattering layers for white light illumination, capacitive touch sensing, and an electrophoretic display. All these layers can be imaged by OCT as well as the thin film transistor array on the back side for driving the pixels. Phase sensitive OCT is used to measure motion of the pigment particles as the display changes between black and white.

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    22. Automated spoof-detection for fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

      Automated spoof-detection for fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

      Fingerprint recognition systems are prevalent in high-security applications. As a result, the act of spoofing these systems with artificial fingerprints is of increasing concern. This research presents an automatic means for spoof-detection using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technology is able to capture a 3D representation of the internal structure of the skin and is thus not limited to a 2D surface scan. The additional information afforded by this representation means that accurate spoof-detection can be achieved. Two features were extracted to detect the presence of (1) an additional thin layer on the surface of the skin and (2) a ...

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    23. Optical coherence elastography for human finger-pad skin deformation studies

      Optical coherence elastography for human finger-pad skin deformation studies

      An optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with an A-scan rate of 20 kHz was developed for measuring the biomechanical properties of human finger-pad skin. Such an OCT system operates at a center wavelength of 890 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 150 nm resulting in a very good axial resolution of 2.6 μm. The measured sensitivity and sensitivity roll-off of the system were ~93 dB and ~6 dB mm -1 , respectively. Elastographic B-scan images of the human finger-pad skin were constructed by using 1000 A-scans. Deformations of the human finger-pad before and after sliding, while pressed against a transparent ...

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    24. Response of simulated drinking water biofilm mechanical and structural properties to long-term disinfectant exposure

      Response of simulated drinking water biofilm mechanical and structural properties to long-term disinfectant exposure

      Mechanical and structural properties of biofilms influence the accumulation and release of pathogens in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Thus, understanding how long-term residual disinfectants exposure affects biofilm mechanical and structural properties is a necessary aspect for pathogen risk assessment and control. In this study, elastic modulus and structure of groundwater biofilms was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) during three months of exposure to monochloramine or free chlorine. After the first month of disinfectant exposure, the mean stiffness of monochloramine or free chlorine treated biofilms was 4 to 9 times higher than those before ...

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    1-24 of 192 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 »
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