1. Articles in category: Other Non-Medical

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    1. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Microscopic Phenotypic Characteristic Data Obtained Using Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Infection in the Field

      Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Microscopic Phenotypic Characteristic Data Obtained Using Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Infection in the Field

      Rapid climate change has increased the incidence of various pests and diseases, and these threaten global food security. In particular, BLB (bacterial leaf blight) is caused by Xoo ( Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ) and its main characteristic is that the rice suddenly dries and withers. Recently, omics have been effectively used in agriculture. In particular, it is a key technology that can accurately diagnose diseases in the field. Until now, QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping has been analyzed using only subjective phenotypic data by experts. However, in this study, diseases were accurately diagnosed using OCT (optical coherence tomography), and QTL mapping ...

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    2. Microstructural changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under varying low pH levels: a swept-source optical coherence tomography approach

      Microstructural changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under varying low pH levels: a swept-source optical coherence tomography approach

      Soil acidification has shown detrimental effects on rice plants that lead to decreased rice production. In the present study, we aim to study the microstructural changes in rice leaves under acidic stress through swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). To achieve this, rice seeds were germinated, subsequently these germinated seedlings were further grown under varying pH conditions for 14 d. Growth in root and shoot of plants and chlorophyll content of leaf samples were studied at varying pH levels. Similarly, acidic stress treated rice leaves were also subjected to SS-OCT image analysis revealing several features present in the layers of leaves ...

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    3. Biometric Identification with 3D Fingerprints Acquired Through Optical Coherence Tomography

      Biometric Identification with 3D Fingerprints Acquired Through Optical Coherence Tomography

      —A method to obtain epidermal and dermal 3D fingerprints from high-resolution images acquired using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is proposed. This method addresses limitations of current 3D reconstruction techniques such as depth and resolution variations, sensitivity to low illumination and poor contrast. The availability of these fingerprints made possible the creation of new identification techniques that benefit from the rich information available in 3D. We propose a 3D fingerprint matching process based on KH maps, which are 2D representations of curvature types extracted by computing the Gaussian and mean curvatures from a region of interest around minutiae.The matching strategy ...

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    4. Depth-independent internal fingerprint based on optical coherence tomography

      Depth-independent internal fingerprint based on optical coherence tomography

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for imaging three-dimensional fingerprint to overcome the effects of different skin states and fake fingerprint. However, the OCT-based fingerprint features depend on the depth of fingertip skin which is still challenging for biometric recognition and encryption. In this work, we presented a new approach of maximum intensity projection (MIP) image of the epidermal-dermal junction (DEJ) to extract the internal fingerprint that is independent of the depth of fingertip skin. To begin with, the surface and DEJ were segmented based on the deep learning algorithm. Then the internal fingerprint was extracted by the MIP image ...

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    5. Use of optical coherence tomography and light microscopy for characterisation of mechanical properties and cellular level responses of ‘Centurion’ blueberries during weight loss

      Use of optical coherence tomography and light microscopy for characterisation of mechanical properties and cellular level responses of ‘Centurion’ blueberries during weight loss

      Postharvest blueberry softening hinders consumer acceptance and correlates with high moisture loss during storage. Such textural variations have been attributed to factors such as turgor, cell wall modifications and other microstructural changes in the outer cell layers of the fruit. This paper investigates the impact of moisture loss on blueberry quality, as well as the structure and/or function relationships associated with fruit mechanical properties during postharvest using an integrated physical and novel microstructural approach. Four different weight loss conditions [62%, 76%, 93% and 98% relative humidity (RH)] at 5.7 °C were evaluated over a three-week postharvest storage period ...

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    6. Study on cocoonase, sericin, and degumming of silk cocoon: computational and experimental

      Study on cocoonase, sericin, and degumming of silk cocoon: computational and experimental

      Cocoonase is a proteolytic enzyme that helps in dissolving the silk cocoon shell and exit of silk moth. Chemicals like anhydrous Na2CO3, Marseille soap, soda, ethylene diamine and tartaric acid-based degumming of silk cocoon shell have been in practice. During this process, solubility of sericin protein increased resulting in the release of sericin from the fibroin protein of the silk. However, this process diminishes natural color and softness of the silk. Cocoonase enzyme digests the sericin protein of silk at the anterior portion of the cocoon without disturbing the silk fibroin. However, no thorough characterization of cocoonase ...

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      Mentions: UCSF
    7. Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Interactive effect of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in the migratory locust

      Background Diapause plays a vital role in the survival and population reproduction of the migratory locust in temperate regions. Although some studies have suggested that photoperiod and temperature are two important environmental factors involved in the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts, the independent or synergetic roles of these two factors are still unclear. Results We designed crossover experiments to investigate the effects of photoperiod, temperature and treatment time on the induction and termination of embryonic diapause in locusts by optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can track the entire embryonic developmental process via noninvasive 3D real‐time imaging ...

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    8. A new method for measuring pen pressure in forensic handwriting analysis – a proof of concept study

      A new method for measuring pen pressure in forensic handwriting analysis – a proof of concept study

      This work describes a new method for the analysis of handwritten documents through a system composed of a pre-selector optical analyser equipped with light sources of different wavelengths coupled with bandpass filters combined with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument. The optical analyser identifies regions with different pen pressures on the paper using specific wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR) and bandpass filters. Then the selected regions are analysed with a coherence tomography analyser to measure the depth of grooves and capture three-dimensional images. With this methodology, it is possible to identify similarities, or differences, between the pieces of ...

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    9. Towards real time assessment of intramuscular fat content in meat using optical fiber-based optical coherence tomography

      Towards real time assessment of intramuscular fat content in meat using optical fiber-based optical coherence tomography

      We consider the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to predict the quality of meat. We find that intramuscular fat (IMF) absorbs infrared light about nine times stronger than muscle, which enables us to estimate fat content in intact meat samples. The method is made very efficient by extracting relevant information from the three-dimensional high-resolution images generated by OCT using principal component analysis (PCA). The principal components are then used as regressors into a support vector regression (SVR) prediction model. The SVR model is found to predict IMF content stably and accurately, with an R 2 value of 0 ...

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    10. Identification of Organs Inside Hard Tick Body Using Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Identification of Organs Inside Hard Tick Body Using Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Ixodidae tick, also known as a hard tick, is one of the major vectors of various tick-borne diseases. Studying its anatomy is the fundamental approach for diverse acarological studies and the key to understanding tick morphology. However, the conventional methods of observing internal organs rely primarily on dissection, which damages specimens irrecoverably. In this study, we developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to non-invasively investigate the morphological characteristics of the hard tick. Herein, OCT imaging was conducted by the developed spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) system with two different objective lenses. The developed system provides an axial resolution (in the air ...

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    11. Integrated System for Combined Optical Coherence Tomography-Raman Spectroscopy of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis

      Integrated System for Combined Optical Coherence Tomography-Raman Spectroscopy of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be complementary biological tissue optical analysis methods. To study the internal structure and tissue compositions of biological samples, an OCT-RS system was built to carry out OCT section imaging and RS analysis in common. Neocaridina denticulate sinensis were collected regularly for morphological observation by OCT imaging and biochemical investigation based on the Raman spectra. The internal structure of the N. denticulate sinensis was imaged by OCT, and the morphology of the tissues and the position in the body were distinguished according to the gray scale changes. The imaging depth along the ...

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    12. Surface and Internal Fingerprint Reconstruction from Optical Coherence Tomography through Convolutional Neural Network

      Surface and Internal Fingerprint Reconstruction from Optical Coherence Tomography through Convolutional Neural Network

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-destructive and high-resolution fingerprint acquisition technology, is robust against poor skin conditions and resistant to spoof attacks. It measures fingertip information on and beneath skin as 3D volume data, containing the surface fingerprint, internal fingerprint and sweat glands. Various methods have been proposed to extract internal fingerprints, which ignore the inter-slice dependence and often require manually selected parameters. In this paper, a modified U-Net that combines residual learning, bidirectional convolutional long short-term memory and hybrid dilated convolution (denoted as BCL-U Net) for OCT volume data segmentation and two fingerprint reconstruction approaches are proposed. To ...

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    13. Synchronous fingerprint acquisition system based on total internal reflection and optical coherence tomography

      Synchronous fingerprint acquisition system based on total internal reflection and optical coherence tomography

      he research of external fingerprint collected by total internal reflection (TIR) has been carried out for decades and research of internal fingerprint of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has just begun. The internal fingerprint can be hardly affected by the finger surface status, due to its strong anti-interference and anti-spoofing ability, which can serve as a powerful supplement to external fingerprint. However, matching fingerprints acquired by different ways can lead to a drop in fingerprint recognition accuracy owing to the differences in fingerprint quality, distortions and detection areas. Whether the internal fingerprint can be used to replace the external fingerprint for ...

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    14. Robust and high-security fingerprint recognition system using optical coherence tomography

      Robust and high-security fingerprint recognition system using optical coherence tomography

      Traditional fingerprint recognition systems are vulnerable to attacks, such as the use of artificial fingerprints, and poor performance will be achieved if the captured surface fingerprints are of low-quality. Developing high-security and robust fingerprint recognition systems is of increasing concern in modern society. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for fingerprint imaging opens up a new research domain for fingerprint recognition due to its ability to capture the depth information of skin layers. This paper proposes a fingerprint recognition system based on OCT. The research first establishes a database with normal, worn-out, artificial and degraded fingerprints imaged by our ...

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    15. 3D-printed corals could improve bioenergy and help coral reefs

      3D-printed corals could improve bioenergy and help coral reefs

      Researchers from Cambridge University and University of California San Diego have 3D printed coral-inspired structures that are capable of growing dense populations of microscopic algae. Their results, reported in the journal Nature Communications , open the door to new bio-inspired materials and their applications for coral conservation. In the ocean, corals and algae have an intricate symbiotic relationship. The coral provides a host for the algae, while the algae produce sugars to the coral through photosynthesis. This relationship is responsible for one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth, the coral reef. "Corals are highly efficient at collecting and ...

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    16. An open-source robotic platform that enables automated monitoring of replicate biofilm cultivations using optical coherence tomography

      An open-source robotic platform that enables automated monitoring of replicate biofilm cultivations using optical coherence tomography

      The paper introduces a fully automated cultivation and monitoring tool to study biofilm development in replicate experiments operated in parallel. To gain a fundamental understanding of the relation between cultivation conditions and biofilm characteristics (e.g., structural, mechanical) a monitoring setup allowing for the standardization of methods is required. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality ideal for biofilms since it allows for the monitoring of structure in real time. By integrating an OCT device into the open-source robotic platform EvoBot, a fully automated monitoring platform for investigating biofilm development in several flow cells at once was realized. Different ...

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    17. Optical coherence tomography imaging of plant root growth in soil

      Optical coherence tomography imaging of plant root growth in soil

      Complex interactions between roots and soil provide the nutrients and physical support required for robust plant growth. Yet, visualizing the root–soil interface is challenged by soil’s opaque scattering characteristics. Herein, we describe methods for using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to provide non-destructive 3D and cross-sectional root imaging not available with traditional bright-field microscopy. OCT is regularly used for bioimaging, especially in ophthalmology, where it can detect retinal abnormalities. Prior use of OCT in plant biology has focused on surface defects of above-ground tissues, predominantly in food crops. Our results show OCT is also viable for detailed, in situ ...

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    18. A Flexible Touch-based Fingerprint Acquisition Device and A Benchmark Database using Optical Coherence Tomography

      A Flexible Touch-based Fingerprint Acquisition Device and A Benchmark Database using Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high resolution imaging technology probing the internal structure of multilayered tissues. Since it provides subsurface fingerprint information which is identical to the surface texture but unaffected by any surface defects, OCT-based fingerprints open up a new domain for establishing robust and high security automatic fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). However, the development of OCT-based fingerprint recognition is hindered by the lack of public OCT-based fingerprint database for algorithm analysis and testing. This paper, for the first time, established an OCT-based fingerprint database with thousands of fingers using our custom-built acquisition device.(The website of this ...

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    19. Integrated terahertz radar based on leaky-wave coherence tomography

      Integrated terahertz radar based on leaky-wave coherence tomography

      Terahertz wave radar offers a higher resolution and smaller aperture compared with microwave radar. However, despite the emergence of terahertz sources and detectors suitable for radar front ends, the integration of a phased-array radar system remains challenging due to the lack of phase shifters and circulators, the basic components for beam steering and input–output isolation. Here we show that leaky-wave coherence tomography, which can integrate a terahertz radar system using a pair of reverse-connected leaky-wave antennas, can be used to implement beam steering and homodyne detection in one package. Our approach can detect direction and range without using phase ...

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    20. Compact and Mobile Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Sensor for Subsurface Fingerprint Imaging

      Compact and Mobile Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Sensor for Subsurface Fingerprint Imaging

      Conventional fingerprint sensors that are deployed in real-life applications lack the ability to peer inside a finger beyond the external surface. Subsurface information can provide complimentary biometric characteristics associated with the finger. The subsurface fingerprints can also be employed when the quality of the external/surface fingerprints is affected. One of the most promising technologies for imaging below the surface of an external fingerprint is full-field optical coherent tomography (FF-OCT). However, the FF-OCT can be expensive and cumbersome, despite its proven ability for biometric use. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a compact, mobile and cost-effective ...

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      Mentions: ESPCI ParisTech
    21. Acquisition and Extraction of Surface and Internal Fingerprints from Optical Coherence Tomography through 3D Fully Convolutional Network

      Acquisition and Extraction of Surface and Internal Fingerprints from Optical Coherence Tomography through 3D Fully Convolutional Network

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-destructive, high-resolution, and non-invasive imaging technique that has recently been applied to biometric field for three dimensional (3D) fingertip data acquisition. Fingertip volume data contains the epidermis and part of the dermis layers representing the surface fingerprint and internal fingerprint, respectively. As a 3D and under skin feature, internal fingerprint provides much higher anti-counterfeiting capability compared with traditional 2D fingerprints. Furthermore, it is not affected by fingertip conditions such as wet, worn out (old) and small scars/injuries. However, the extraction of surface and internal fingerprints is challenging due to the speckle noise and ...

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    22. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography system in the terahertz region

      Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography system in the terahertz region

      In this study, a frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system in the terahertz frequency range was developed. To generate tunable continuous-wave terahertz radiation, the outputs of two near-infrared external cavity diode lasers were mixed in an antenna-coupled photo-mixer. Using the FD-OCT system, tomographic profiling of the front and back surfaces of a high-resistivity silicon plate was realized.

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      Mentions: Osaka University
    23. Identification of Fungus-infected Tomato Seeds Based on Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      Identification of Fungus-infected Tomato Seeds Based on Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

      The morphological changes of anthracnose (fungus) -infected tomato seeds have been studied to identify the infection and characterize its effect. Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) has been utilized as a nondestructive but efficient modality for visualizing the effects of fungal infection. The cross-sectional images extracted from a stack of en face FF-OCT images showed significant changes with infection in the seed structure. First of all, the seed coat disappeared with the infection. The thickness of the seed coat of a healthy seed was measured as 28.2 µm, with a standard deviation of 1.2 µm. However, for infected seeds ...

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